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Sample records for del metronidazol demostrada

  1. ¿La prueba del frío podría predecir la aparición de eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes sin enfermedad coronaria demostrada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lerman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La disfunción endotelial es la primera alteración conocida que interviene en el desarrollo de la cardiopatía isquémica. La falta de metodologías adecuadamente desarrolladas que permitan reconocer en la etapa preclínica de la enfermedad a los pacientes en riesgo de padecer un evento cardiovascular alertan sobre la necesidad de adoptar métodos adicionales de diagnóstico para su identificación precoz. La función endotelial en las arterias coronarias fue evaluada con perfusión miocárdica SPECT y la prueba del frío.ObjetivosDeterminar la prevalencia de la prueba del frío en 511 pacientes sin cardiopatía isquémica demostrada, como también de los factores de riesgo coronario asociados en aquellos con resultado positivo y analizar la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en un seguimiento de cincuenta meses.Material y métodosEn un servicio de medicina nuclear se realizó en 511 pacientes un estudio tomográfico de perfusión miocárdica (SPECT, cuyo resultado ante el ejercicio reveló una captación uniforme del radiotrazador. Ningún paciente tenía antecedentes de revascularización miocárdica ni de infarto previo. Entre los dos y los cinco días posteriores al ingreso en el protocolo se efectuó la prueba del frío. Se considera que ésta es positiva cuando se observa hipocaptación del radioisótopo en algún segmento que no existía en el estudio del esfuerzo y negativo cuando no hay cambios en la captación entre ambos estudios.El seguimiento promedio fue de 24 ± 13 meses, el cual pudo completarse en el 95% de los participantes. Se analizaron los eventos mortalidad cardíaca, infarto de miocardio, accidente cerebrovascular y procedimientos de revascularización.ResultadosLa edad media fue de 58,7 años con una prevalencia del sexo masculino del 52,6%. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo: diabetes 10,3%, dislipidemia 69,3%, hipertensión arterial 63,4%, obesidad 25,2% y tabaquismo 22,3%.En el 32,4% de los pacientes la prueba fue

  2. Metronidazole hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S; Choudhury, T; Shear, N H

    1994-03-01

    To report a case of a possible hypersensitivity reaction induced by metronidazole. An Asian woman with a history of recurrent vaginitis had previously developed localized erythema while on intravaginal metronidazole and nystatin. While receiving oral metronidazole for treatment of a current bacterial vaginosis, she developed chills, fever, generalized erythema, and a rash within 60 minutes of the first dose. Treatment with diphenhydramine was instituted. The following day while in the hospital, the patient's condition worsened; she experienced shortness of breath and increased edema of the extremities. Methylprednisolone was administered with diphenhydramine and her condition improved over the next 5 days. The patient's vaginitis was treated with gentian violet and she was discharged on a tapering dosage of prednisone. Metronidazole-induced cutaneous reactions and systemic hypersensitivity reactions are reviewed. Alternatives to metronidazole and other potential cross-reactive drugs are suggested for the treatment of recurrent vaginitis. Although the patient's initial reaction to metronidazole represented a rare event, written documentation and communication in the patient's native language may have prevented the subsequent severe hypersensitivity reaction.

  3. Metronidazole in Scabies

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    V M Mathew

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five patients with scabies were studied for the evaluation of metronidazole as an oral therapeutic agent. These patients were given 400 mg of metronidazole three times daily for 8 days. Good to excellent results were observed in 6 (27.27% patients, 8 (36.36% patients showed a fair response and no response was observed in 8 patients (36.36%. The significance of these results are discussed.

  4. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, E

    2010-01-01

    A 25-year-old caucasian lady presented to the Accident & Emergency department complaining of acute onset severe epigastric pain radiating through to the back with associated nausea and vomiting. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made. Symptoms commenced after the third dose of Metronidazole therapy prescribed for a recurrent periodontal abscess. The patient described a similar episode 10 months previously. On neither occasion were any other medications being taken, there was no history of alcohol abuse and no other gastro-intestinal aetiology could be identified on imaging. Symptoms resolved quickly upon discontinuation of the antibiotic agent. We conclude therefore that Metronidazole can reasonably be identified as the only potential causative agent.

  5. Metronidazole-Induced Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O'Halloran

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. This case provides the eighth report of Metronidazole induced pancreatitis. All of the cases were reported in females and ran a benign course.Early diagnosis, discontinuation of the drug and supportive care will lead to a successful recovery in the majority of cases.

  6. UV spectrophotometry of the Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Panasenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research was to study the UV spectrum of Metronidazole in different polarity solvents (water, 95 % ethanol, 0,1 M sodium hydroxide, 0,1 M hydrochloric acid and 5 M sulfuric acid solution, to establish the relationship between chemical structure of the analyzed compounds and the nature of their electronic spectrum. In addition, a detailed study of the ultraviolet spectra of Metronidazole in different solutions enables to select the optimal wavelength and a thinner design for Metronidazole in substance and dosage forms. Materials and methods. Spectrophotometer SPECORD 200-222U214 has been used for study of the UV spectra of Metronidazole, the quantitative methods were used. Measuring of the absorption of Metronidazole solutions has been carried out in quartz cuvettes with a layer thickness of 10 mm. Due to the fact that the test material shows selective absorption in the ultraviolet spectra, model compounds were studied at a concentration of 1 mg%. Study of electronic spectra was performed in the range of 200 to 400 nm, and the curve has been constructed in coordinates A = f (λ. It has been used water, 95% ethanol, 0,1 M NaOH, 0,1 M HCl and 5 M H2SO4 as solvents. The content of Metronidazole in substance and dosage forms calculated with the equations according to SPU. The results. Study of the UV spectra of Metronidazole and its model compounds showed that in short-wave part of spectrum due to absorption and excitation electrons of imidazole ring were transferred, and in long-wave – conjugation chromophore imidazole cycle and nitro group as electron acceptor occurred. Analysis of the UV spectra of Metronidazole enables to determine a maximum of the analytical quantification of the medicine. Conclusions. Metronidazole UV spectra in water, 95% ethanol, 0,1 M solution of NaOH, 0,1 M solution of HCl and 5 M solution of H2SO4 have been studied. Metronidazole UV spectra are characterized by two absorption bands in the

  7. [Tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Iglesias, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Tetracyclines form a group of natural and semisynthetic products that acts inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. They are bacteriostatic agents, exhibiting activity against a wide range of organisms, but they are at the present of limited use because of their acquired resistance. Doxycycline is currently the most frequently used tetracycline in human medicine and it is included in the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. Sulfonamides are synthetic, broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They were the first effective systemic antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is based on the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Due to their toxicity and high adquired resistance their use is currently very low. Metronidazole is the main compound of 5-nitroimidazole family. It is a very active bactericidal antibiotic against anaerobic and some microaerophilic bacteria and it is still very useful in the treatment of bacterian and parasitic infections.

  8. Optimization of Metronidazole Emulgel

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    Monica Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize the emulgel system for MTZ (Metronidazole, a poorly water soluble drug. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of Capmul 908 P, Acconon MC8-2, and propylene glycol. The emulgel was optimized using a three-factor, two-level factorial design, the independent variables selected were Capmul 908 P, and surfactant mixture (Acconon MC8-2 and gelling agent, and the dependent variables (responses were a cumulative amount of drug permeated across the dialysis membrane in 24 h ( and spreadability (. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The regression equations were generated for responses and . The statistical validity of the polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected. Validation of the optimization study with 3 confirmatory runs indicated a high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Emulgel system of MTZ was developed and optimized using 23 factorial design and could provide an effective treatment against topical infections.

  9. Metronidazole distribution following intraarterial administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikov, A.G.; Grigor'ev, A.N.; Zubov, O.G.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt to achieve a high local concentration of metronidazole in tissues at intraarterial administration in experiments with dogs is made. Intraarterial administration makes it possible to ''saturate'' with a radiosensitizer first of all tissues fed by an artery in question. Administration of the drug to a vessel feeding the tumor would, probably, result in a sharp increase in its concentration in the malignant neoplasm as compared with the rest organs and tissues, which should amplify the radiosensitizing effect

  10. Treatment of trichomoniasis with metronidazole rectal suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, S K

    1982-01-01

    Since a single dose of metronidazole in suppository form is very effective in the prevention of postoperative Gram-negative anaerobic infections, 84 patients with vaginal trichomoniasis were treated with metronidazole suppositories (two 1-g suppositories in a single dose). The cure rate in this series was 94%. PMID:7104657

  11. Treatment of trichomoniasis with metronidazole rectal suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Panja, S K

    1982-01-01

    Since a single dose of metronidazole in suppository form is very effective in the prevention of postoperative Gram-negative anaerobic infections, 84 patients with vaginal trichomoniasis were treated with metronidazole suppositories (two 1-g suppositories in a single dose). The cure rate in this series was 94%.

  12. Voltammetric Behaviour of Metronidazole at Mercury Electrodes

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    La-Scalea Mauro A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole is the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazoles and possesses toxicity to anaerobic micro-organisms DNA being the main target for their biological action. The mechanism of biological action of metronidazole is dependent upon the nitro group reduction process. The reduction of metronidazole is pH dependent in acid medium and four electrons are involved in the complete reduction to the hydroxylamine derivative. In aprotic medium the reduction of the metronidazole occurs in two steps, the first involving one electron to form the nitro radical and the second step involving three more electrons until the formation of the hydroxylamine derivative. In this paper the mechanism of reduction of metronidazole was studied by using the voltammetric techniques: d.c. polarography, differential pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry using the mercury drop as the working electrode.

  13. Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Bohbot

    2010-01-01

    , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [−0.082;0.0094]. Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice.

  14. Metronidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the reproductive system, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, heart, bone, joint, lung, blood, nervous system, and other areas ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  15. diffusion of metronidazole released through cellulose membrane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prof kokwaro

    was determined using dialyzing cellulose membrane in a dissolution tester. Glycerin, a permeation ... An attempt has been made in the present ... Materials. Metronidazole USP was donated by Cosmos. Pharmaceutical Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya.

  16. Isolate resistance of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresh, K; Suresh, K; Khairul Anus, A; Saminathan, S

    1999-04-01

    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.

  17. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  18. Degradation kinetics of metronidazole and its mutual prodrug with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Renu Chadha

    present paper utilizes this technique to monitor the hydrolytic degradation of metronidazole ... the antiprotozoal and anaerobic antibacterial effects of metronidazole with ... The catalytic rate constant for hydrogen ion (kH) and hydroxyl ion (kOH) ...

  19. Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease

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    M.A.M. Marchioretto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis, and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232. Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals. These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.

  20. The Rise and Fall of Metronidazole for Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Elias B

    2018-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is posing urgent health threats. Older studies have shown that metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Given its inexpensive cost and low propensity to select antimicrobial resistant organisms, metronidazole became rapidly the drug of choice despite its pharmacokinetic limitations in the treatment of CDI. However, newer studies demonstrated that metronidazole is inferior to vancomycin, prompting clinicians to change their long-standing position on using metronidazole for mild to moderate infections and on reserving vancomycin for severe infections. Moving forward, metronidazole will fall out of favor in the treatment of CDI.

  1. Physical and Release Properties of Metronidazole Suppositories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    80, sodium salicylate and methylcellulose as adjuvants. The setting time, solidification point and melting range of the suppositories were determined, along with their crushing strength, disintegration time and the time for 80% of metronidazole to be released from the suppositories (t80). Results: The ranking of setting time for ...

  2. Intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto; Garcia, Patricia J; Thomas, Katherine K; Catlin, Mary; Holmes, King K

    2004-12-01

    We compared metronidazole 0.75% gel (containing 37.5 mg metronidazole per dose) with ovules containing metronidazole 500 mg and nystatin 100,000 U, for intravaginal treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). In a single-blinded trial, symptomatic women with BV by both Amsel and Nugent criteria were randomly assigned to gel or ovules, once nightly for 5 nights, and asked to return 3 times after treatment. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Of 151 women with BV by both criteria at enrollment, 138 (91%) returned at least once. Product limit estimates for persistence or recurrence of BV at 14, 42, and 104 days were 20% (95% CI 10%-29%), 38% (95% CI 25%-48%), and 52% (95% CI 37%-63%) after gel treatment, and 4% (95% CI 0%-9%), 17% (95% CI 7%-26%), and 33% (95% CI 21%-46%) after ovule treatment ( P = .01). Among women without BV at first follow-up, subsequent intercourse without condoms independently predicted subsequent recurrence ( P Metronidazole/nystatin ovules were significantly more effective than metronidazole gel. Unprotected sex predicted recurrence after initial improvement.

  3. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hyeong Cheol; Jeong, Taek Geun; Cho, Young Bum; Yang, Bong Joon; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Haak Cheoul; Cho, Eun-Young

    2011-06-01

    Encephalopathy is a disorder characterized by altered brain function, which can be attributed to various causes. Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole administration occurs rarely and depends on the cumulative metronidazole dose, and most patients with this condition recover rapidly after discontinuation of therapy. Because metronidazole is metabolized in the liver and can be transported by the cerebrospinal fluid and cross the blood-brain barrier, it may induce encephalopathy even at a low cumulative dose in patients with hepatic dysfunction. We experienced a patient who showed ataxic gait and dysarthric speech after receiving metronidazole for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy that was not controlled by the administration of lactulose. The patient was diagnosed as metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, and stopping drug administration resulted in a complete recovery from encephalopathy. This case shows that caution should be exercised when administering metronidazole because even a low dose can induce encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  4. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  5. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in Human Plasma: Application to Bioequivalence Study. ... Methods: Metronidazole was extracted from human plasma through one step of ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i5.14.

  6. Mechanism and clinical significance of metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Kusters, JG; van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, JH

    2001-01-01

    Metronidazole was introduced in 1959 for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis, but was subsequently shown to be active against anaerobic and some micro-aerophilic bacteria as well. In anaerobic microorganisms with their low redox potential, metronidazole is reduced to its active metabolite by a

  7. Chemical radiosensitizers with special reference to metronidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Purohit, O.P.; Nair, C.R.; Dutta, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt at rationalisation of drug dose schedule for a radiosensitizer in a cancer clinic is attempted. A prospective analysis of tissue tolerance, response data and complications of the two groups of patients (treated by oral and high intermittent rectal routes) was made with matched control. The study group has definite use of metronidazole. It is further highlighted that there is an additional advantage of the rectal administration route of the drug as compared to that of the oral route. This is a preliminary communication. (author)

  8. Reversible metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity after 10 weeks of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhaleei, Wafa; AlMarzooqi, Ayesha; Gaber, Nouran

    2018-04-20

    Metronidazole is a commonly used antimicrobial worldwide. The most common side effects that have been reported are nausea, vomiting and hypersensitivity reactions. However, neurotoxicity has been reported with the use of metronidazole but rather rare. The most common neurological manifestation is peripheral neuropathy involvement in the form of sensory loss. It is worth mentioning that central neurotoxicity is a rare side effect of metronidazole use but reversible. The manifestations vary from a headache, altered mental status to focal neurological deficits. The diagnosis is mainly by neuroimaging in the setting of acute neurological change in the patient status. Here, we report a case of metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity in a 38-year-old male patient who was admitted with a brain abscess and was started on metronidazole for more than 10 weeks. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Managing trichomonal vaginitis refractory to conventional treatment with metronidazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed-Jushuf, I H; Murray, A E; McKeown, J

    1988-01-01

    Three patients with vulvovaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, which was refractory to conventional treatment with metronidazole are described. The T vaginalis strain isolated from one patient was resistant to metronidazole (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) more than 100 mg/l) under aerobic conditions, although under anaerobic conditions it was as susceptible as a normal reference strain. The effect of the concomitant use of other medication and the influence of other vaginal patho...

  10. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE ON BIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DOXORUBICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yagubov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the effect of the Metronizatol on the biological effect of Doxirubicin.Materials and methods. The studies were performed in the CBA/Lac males and C57Bl/6 females mice grafted with melanoma B16 and mucinous ovarian cancer CaO‑1. Metronidazole and Doxorubicin were used in the work. The antitumor effect was assessed by tumor volume and inhibition of tumor growth.Results. The data obtained indicate that Metronidazole used in oncologic practice for the treatment and prevention of infectious complications, and as a radiosensitizer, can enhance the antitumor effect of Doxorubicin, but this effect is accompanied by a significant increase of the cytostatic toxicity. These effects are leveled by increasing the interval between injections of Metronidazole and Doxorubicin up to 4 hours.Conclusion. The enhancement of the antitumor activity of Doxorubicin under the influence of Metronidazole depends on the interval between the administration of these drugs. When Metronidazole is used in cancer patients, the possibility of enhancing the toxic effect of cytostatics should be considered when they are simultaneously exposed. Patients receiving chemotherapy should be administered antitumor drugs no earlier than 4 hours after exposure to Metronidazole

  11. Metronidazole combined with nystatin (vagitories) in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis after initial treatment with oral metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P; Saranen, M; Kaaja, R

    1993-01-01

    In a double-blind trial comprising 66 patients we assessed the effect of metronidazole-nystatin vagitories on the prevention of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women using IUD as a contraceptive method after an initial oral single dose of 2.0 g metronidazole and 7 days of intravaginal metronidazole-nystatin or placebo treatment. The prophylactic treatment consisted of metronidazole-nystatin or placebo vagitories applied at bedtime for 3 days after menstruation over 6 consecutive menstrual periods. The patients were randomized in two study groups: a treatment group of 32 patients (group A) and a placebo group of 34 patients (group B). The overall objective cure rate after the initial treatment was 97% in group A and 91% in group B. After 6 months of follow-up, the overall cumulative objective cure rate in group A was 100%, and 76% in group B. The single-dose oral treatment was well tolerated and no notable side effects were recorded.

  12. Role of the rdxA and frxA genes in oxygen-dependent metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique); E.J. van der Wouden; D.A. Bax (Dorine); A.A. van Zwet (Anton); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); J.C. Thijs; E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); A. de Jong (Albertine)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 50 % of all Helicobacter pylori isolates are resistant to metronidazole, which reduces the efficacy of metronidazole-containing regimens, but does not make them completely ineffective. This discrepancy between in vitro metronidazole resistance and treatment

  13. Eficacia comparada del tratamiento presencial, semipresencial, y telefónico del tabaquismo en unidades especializadas

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Garcia, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    El tabaquisme és un dels deu factors principals de risc de mort. Segons estimacions de l’OMS, és responsable del 12% de les defuncions d'homes i el 6% de les morts de dones al món pel que en el segle XXI s'esperen uns mil milions de morts degudes a fumar si no es donen canvis significatius en la prevalença de consum. A Espanya aproximadament una de cada quatre persones majors de quinze anys fuma. Davant l'epidèmia de tabaquisme és necessari trobar un tractament de demostrada cost-eficàcia que...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  15. Metronidazole pharmacokinetics in patients with acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A A; Kong, C B; Gurr, F W; Sabto, J; Spicer, W J; McLean, A J

    1984-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of intravenous metronidazole were studied in six patients with acute renal failure. In two of the patients a single dose (500 mg) of metronidazole was administered, whereas in four patients the steady-state pharmacokinetics were studied after four days therapy of 500 mg twice daily. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy and acetic acid metabolites were measured by a specific and sensitive HPLC method. The volume of distribution was 0.65 +/- 0.13 l/kg (mean +/- S.D.), elimination half-life was 9.9 +/- 2.5 h and total plasma clearance was 55.5 +/- 17.7 ml/min. Renal clearance was almost non-existent (1.4 +/- 1.4 ml/min), whereas non-renal clearance was 54.0 +/- 18.2 ml/min. Steady-state plasma concentrations of metronidazole were 15.3 +/- 3.8 mg/l, the hydroxy metabolite were 17.4 +/- 2.0 mg/l and the acetic acid metabolite were 1.2 +/- 0.8 mg/l. In the patients studied, a dosing regimen of 500 mg twice daily resulted in therapeutically adequate blood levels of metronidazole.

  16. Delivery of metronidazole from purified Nigerian sheabutter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drug release capacity of SO was significantly improved by incorporation of a surfactant (cetrimide). MTZ in sheabutter ointment exhibited intermediate drug release values (0.73 mg min-½ , 9.30%), which were neither enhanced by hydration nor by the surfactant. Key Words: Metronidazole, Sheabutter, Ointment Bases, ...

  17. Absence of sensitization of reversions in yeast by metronidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, D.; Singh, D.R.; Mahajan, J.M.; Madhvanath, U.

    1977-01-01

    Metronidazole (Flagyl; 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol) is of potential clinical application as a radiosensitizer. Studies have been made of the effect of 1mM metronidazole on γ-induced heteroallelic recombination (reversion) under euoxic or hypoxic conditions in yeast strain BZ34, and compared with the effect on survival. The o.e.r. for reversions was 2.2, and very close to that for survival (2.3), indicating that oxygen equally sensitized gross cellular events such as killing, and genetic phenomena like reversions. The introduction of metronidazole during irradiation sensitized cells with killing as the end point only in hypoxic condition, whereas with reversion as the end point no sensitization due to the chemical was observed either in euoxic or hypoxic conditions. Since DNA damage is responsible for both cell-killing and mutations, the sensitizer might have been expected to have had an equal effect on both these end-points. The results show that only in a limited sense can metronidazole be considered to be an oxygen mimic. (U.K.)

  18. Degradation kinetics of metronidazole and its mutual prodrug with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Renu Chadha

    degradation of the drug and prodrug as a function of concentration, pH and temperature. In terms of enthalpy of ... Keywords: Calorimetry, stability studies, degradation kinetics, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole. ... action of ciprofloxacin to form a broad spectrum ...... Stability testing of pharmaceutical by isothermal heat conduction.

  19. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Georgina L; Drayton, Rachel; Forbes, Gavin D

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Trichomoniasis has been implicated in causing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and pre-term labour. Metronidazole is the recommended first-line treatment for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or re-infection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for T. vaginalis is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. We present the case of a patient with presumed resistant infection during pregnancy, and the additional treatment issues that this presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Negrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio terapéutico junto con el control de peso, en caso de sobrepeso u obesidad, constituyen el núcleo central del tratamiento. Los autocuidados individuales y por los familiares son fundamentales en el control del día a día del paciente. El uso de terapias físicas, ayudas técnicas (bastón, etc. y de fármacos tipo analgésicos simples, opioides y antiinflamatorios tiene evidencias demostradas en el control del dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente y una clara recomendación de uso en el tratamiento de la artrosis. La cirugía conservadora y la de reemplazo articular se indican en los casos en los que no se logran los objetivos terapéuticos en casos concretos.

  2. The influence of metronidazole on free thymidine content of blood serum of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konov, A.V.; Ryabchenko, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of a radiosensitizer, metronidazole, on the free thymidine content of blood serum of irradiated mice was studied in aerobic and hypoxic conditions. A heated metronidazole solution (1 mg/g) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation of animals with a dose of 3 Gy. Thymidine concentration in blood serum was determined by the radioimmunological technique. The influence of metronidazole on the level of thymidinemia was only noted in the animals exposed under hypoxic conditions

  3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome following use of metronidazole in a dental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Goutameswar; Shome, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    Metronidazole alone rarely causes Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). We present a case of an elderly male patient who, following metronidazole use, developed neurological symptoms followed by pain and blisters on both soles, erythema of face and neck, scrotal itching and erosion, and hemorrhagic encrustation around the lips and oral mucous membrane. Initial neurological symptoms followed by mucocutaneous manifestation of SJS following metronidazole use is probably a new presentation of this case.

  4. Intensification of the antitumoral effect of ionizing radiations in combined use of metronidazole and hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinskaya, N.P.; Voloshina, E.A.; Vygodskaya, A.L.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have shown that a more pronounced antitumor effect of radiation in the combined use of metronidazole and induced short-term hyperglycemia (STH) may result not only from the summation of the two effects: the sensitizing effect of metronidazole and decreased viability of irradiated cells caused by STH but also from the intensified cytotoxic effect of metronidazole on hypoxic tumor cells. It was also noted that when hypoxic cells subjected to the sensitizing effect of electron acceptor sensitizers are found in the normal (skin) and tumorous tissues, STH use following irradiation in the presence of metronidazole enchances selectively the tumor radiation effect

  5. Cloning of Bacteroides fragilis plasmid genes affecting metronidazole resistance and ultraviolet survival in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehnert, G.U.; Abratt, V.R.; Goodman, H.J.; Woods, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Since reduced metronidazole causes DNA damage, resistance to metronidazole was used as a selection method for the cloning of Bacteroides fragilis genes affecting DNA repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli. Genes from B. fragilis Bf-2 were cloned on a recombinant plasmid pMT100 which made E. coli AB1157 and uvrA, B, and C mutant strains more resistant to metronidazole, but more sensitive to far uv irradiation under aerobic conditions. The loci affecting metronidazole resistance and uv sensitivity were linked and located on a 5-kb DNA fragment which originated from the small 6-kb cryptic plasmid pBFC1 present in B. fragilis Bf-2 cells

  6. Release and diffusional modeling of metronidazole lipid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, Mine; Gökçe, Evren H; Ertan, Gökhan

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the first aim was to investigate the swelling and relaxation properties of lipid matrix on diffusional exponent (n). The second aim was to determine the desired release profile of metronidazole lipid matrix tablets. We prepared metronidazole lipid matrix granules using Carnauba wax, Beeswax, Stearic acid, Cutina HR, Precirol ATO 5, and Compritol ATO 888 by hot fusion method and pressed the tablets of these granules. In vitro release test was performed using a standard USP dissolution apparatus I (basket method) with a stirring rate of 100 rpm at 37 degrees C in 900 ml of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, adjusted to pH 1.2, as medium for the formulations' screening. Hardness, diameter-height ratio, friability, and swelling ratio were determined. Target release profile of metronidazole was also drawn. Stearic acid showed the highest and Carnauba wax showed the lowest release rates in all formulations used. Swelling ratios were calculated after the dissolution of tablets as 9.24%, 6.03%, 1.74%, and 1.07% for Cutina HR, Beeswax, Precirol ATO 5, and Compritol ATO 888, respectively. There was erosion in Stearic acid, but neither erosion nor swelling in Carnauba wax, was detected. According to the power law analysis, the diffusion mechanism was expressed as pure Fickian for Stearic acid and Carnauba wax and the coupling of Fickian and relaxation contributions for other Cutina HR, Beeswax, Compritol ATO 888, and Precirol ATO 5 tablets. It was found that Beeswax (kd=2.13) has a very close drug release rate with the target profile (kt=1.95). Our results suggested that swelling and relaxation properties of lipid matrices should be examined together for a correct evaluation on drug diffusion mechanism of insoluble matrices.

  7. [Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy during Brain Abscess Treatment:Two Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuka; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Uchida, Kazuki; Shimbo, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Itamoto, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Metronidazole is a widely used antibiotic against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. We report two cases of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy(MIE)during treatment of a brain abscess with metronidazole. The patients developed mental disturbance, and brain MRI showed reversible signals on DWI, FLAIR, and T2. Case 1: A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebellar abscess. We initiated treatment with oral metronidazole. After taking the medication, she developed mental disturbance, and her brain MRI showed a hyperintensity within the corpus callosum. We suspected metronidazole toxicity and discontinued metronidazole treatment. The symptoms resolved rapidly within a week, and the hyperintensity on the MRI disappeared. Case 2: A 22-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a brain abscess. We initiated treatment with oral metronidazole. On day 38, he developed mental disturbance, and his MRI showed hyperintensities within the bilateral dentate nuclei and corpus callosum. These symptoms were consistent with MIE. After cessation of metronidazole, his symptoms and abnormal MRI signals completely disappeared.

  8. Potentiation of the action of metronidazole on Helicobacter pylori by omeprazole and bismuth subcitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P; Colding, H; Kristiansen, J E

    2000-01-01

    test (Etest). With 0.5 MIC of either of the two drugs, the susceptibility of all H. pylori4 mg/l) reverted to being metronidazole sensitive. These results suggested that either bismuth salts or proton pump inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of some infections with metronidazole-resistant H...... to regimens that include proton pump inhibitors. In the present study, the synergistic effect of subinhibitory concentrations (0.25-0.5 MIC) of either bismuth subcitrate or omeprazole with metronidazole on the susceptibility of 42 H. pylori strains was investigated by agar dilution method and the Epsilometer......Treatment failures using triple therapy that include metronidazole, are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. Higher eradication rates in such patients have been described when treatment regimens include bismuth salts compared...

  9. Gamma radiolysis of Cu(II) complex of metronidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.C.; Bardhan, D.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of Cu(II)Metronidazole (Cu(II)M) at neutral pH were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays under different conditions of radiolysis. The radiolytic formation of HNO 2 and Cu(I) was followed. The radiolytic yields of chromophore loss of Cu(II)M were also determined under different conditions. The OH radicals attack the metal complex to give the OH adducts of the ligand at C 2 , C 4 , and C 5 either directly or through the formation of Cu(III) species. The C 5 -OH adduct, however, undergoes oxidative denitration and as a result the metal complex is decomposed. The OH adducts also undergo electron transfer to Cu(II) ion to give reduced complex. No denitration was observed due to the reaction of e eq - with the metal complex. On the other hand, the nitro group of the ligand in the complex undergoes successive 4-electron reduction to give hydroxylamino derivative. From the competition kinetics using t-butyl alcohol as the scavenger of OH in N 2 O saturated solution of the metal complex, the rate constant for the reaction of OH with complex was evaluated to be ca. 2.1x10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 which is of the same order as that observed in the case of free metronidazole. (author)

  10. Neuroprotección en la encefalopatia hipóxico isquémica perinatal: Tratamientos con eficacia clínica demostrada y perspectivas futuras Neuroprotection in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: Effective treatment and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Legido

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el resultado de estudios clínicos recientes que han demostrado el efecto neuroprotector de algunas terapias en la encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica (EHI perinatal y presentar las perspectivas futuras de otras investigaciones clínicas y experimentales. Terapias con eficacia clínica demostrada. Alopurinol: Bloquea la producción de radicales libres tras hipoxia-isquemia. En un estudio reciente, los niños con corazón izquierdo hipoplásico tratados con alopurinol, pero no aquéllos con otras cardiopatías, tuvieron un número significativamente menor de complicaciones que los controles, incluyendo muerte, convulsiones, coma o problemas cardíacos. Opiáceos: En otro estudio reciente, un grupo de recién nacidos con EHI tratados con morfina o fentanil tuvieron un grado menor de lesión cerebral en la RMN y un mejor pronóstico neurológico. Hipotermia: Tanto la hipotermia localizada (cerebral como la sistémica (todo el cuerpo tienen un efecto neuroprotector en recién nacidos seleccionados tras sufrir EHI. Perspectivas Futuras. Fármacos antiepilépticos. Estos tienen mecanismos de acción múltiple que pueden bloquear la cascada bioquímica de lesión neuronal en EHI. Otras modalidades terapéuticas. Entre ellas hay que destacar el estudio de la terapia neuroprotectora combinada, los factores de crecimiento, la terapia genética, el transplante de células madre y la vacunación neuroprotectora. En conclusión, un mejor conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares de la patogenia de la EHI y mejores estudios clínicos con terapias neuroprotectoras abrirá nuevas posibilidades terapéuticas aplicables en la práctica clínica. Todo ello mejorará sin lugar a duda el pronóstico de los recién nacidos con EHI.The aim of this paper is to review the results of recent clinical studies of some therapies that have demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE and to

  11. Rifaximin therapy for metronidazole-unresponsive Clostridium difficile infection: a prospective pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Basu, P; Dinani, Amreen; Rayapudi, Krishna; Pacana, Tommy; Shah, Niraj James; Hampole, Hemant; Krishnaswamy, N V; Mohan, Vinod

    2010-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a recent epidemic in the United States, particularly in the hospital setting. Oral metronidazole is standard therapy for C. difficile infection, but resistance to metronidazole is becoming a clinical challenge. We evaluated the efficacy of the nonsystemic oral antibiotic rifaximin for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant C. difficile infection. Twenty-five patients with C. difficile infection were enrolled in the study. All had mild-to-moderate C. difficile infection (5-10 bowel movements a day without sepsis) unresponsive to metronidazole (i.e. stools positive for toxins A and B after oral metronidazole 500 mg three times daily [t.i.d.] for 5 days). After discontinuation of metronidazole, rifaximin 400 mg t.i.d. for 14 days was prescribed. Patients were followed for 56 days and stool was tested for C. difficile using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the effect of treatment. A negative PCR test result was interpreted as a favorable response to rifaximin. Sixteen of 22 patients (73%) were eligible for study inclusion and completed rifaximin therapy experienced eradication of infection (stool negative for C. difficile) immediately after rifaximin therapy and 56 days post-treatment. Three patients (12%) discontinued therapy because of abdominal distention. Rifaximin was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, rifaximin may be considered for treatment of mild-to-moderate C. difficile infection that is resistant to metronidazole. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm these positive findings.

  12. Characterization of a stable, metronidazole-resistant Clostridium difficile clinical isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarah Lynch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile are gram-positive, spore forming anaerobic bacteria that are the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, usually associated with antibiotic usage. Metronidazole is currently the first-line treatment for mild to moderate C. difficile diarrhea however recurrence occurs at rates of 15-35%. There are few reports of C. difficile metronidazole resistance in the literature, and when observed, the phenotype has been transient and lost after storage or exposure of the bacteria to freeze/thaw cycles. Owing to the unstable nature of the resistance phenotype in the laboratory, clinical significance and understanding of the resistance mechanisms is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypic and phenotypic characterization was performed on a metronidazole resistant clinical isolate of C. difficile. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify potential genetic contributions to the phenotypic variation observed with molecular and bacteriological techniques. Phenotypic observations of the metronidazole resistant strain revealed aberrant growth in broth and elongated cell morphology relative to a metronidazole-susceptible, wild type NAP1 strain. Comparative genomic analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP level variation within genes affecting core metabolic pathways such as electron transport, iron utilization and energy production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first characterization of stable, metronidazole resistance in a C. difficile isolate. The study provides an in-depth genomic and phenotypic analysis of this strain and provides a foundation for future studies to elucidate mechanisms conferring metronidazole resistance in C. difficile that have not been previously described.

  13. Deformaciones neotectónicas en el relieve fluvial de la Llanura Sur de Pinar del Río, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Estévez Cruz, Elmidio; Ordaz Hernández, Alexis; Hernández Santana, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Las investigaciones neotectónicas se enfocan a la determinación de los movimientos tectónicos más recientes de la corteza terrestre y poseen un gran significado en el análisis geomorfológico de la estructura del relieve moderno. En las regiones relativamente llanas no siempre resulta fácil el reconocimiento de evidencias de las deformaciones neotectónicas en el relieve fluvial. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, quedó demostrada la eficiencia del empleo de los métodos geológicos, ...

  14. Association of Metronidazole with Cancer: A Potential Risk Factor or Inconsistent Deductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Muhammad; Iqbal, Waheed; Adnan, Fazal; Wazir, Shabnam; Khan, Imran; Khayam, Mohammad Umar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ahmad, Shafiq; Ahmad, Jawad; Khan, Ishaq N

    2018-03-29

    Metronidazole is a synthetic derivative of nitroimidazole that has been widely used for the treatment of several bacterial and protozoal parasitic infections including trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, liver abscess, acute ulcerative gingivitis, syphilis and tropical phagedena. In addition to its toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract and central/peripheral nervous system, metronidazole has been reported to cause mucosal imbalance by affecting the expression of mucin (Muc2 gene), which is responsible to form an insoluble mucous barrier that protects the gut lumen from microbial colonization. Since metronidazole is a nitro-group containing compound and used significantly for therapeutic purposes, scientists evaluated its carcinogenicity in different preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In addition to the preclinical in-vitro validation of DNA damage, metronidazole has been reported to induce cancer in the variety of animal models including lung cancer, malignant lymphomas, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pituitary tumors, testicular neoplasms and uterine cancer. Several retrospective cohort studies have reported metronidazole as a potential risk factor for lung cancer (n = 771), cervical cancer (n = 2500), breast cancer (n = 2), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), and neuroblastoma (n = 28). So far, all the reported data have confirmed metronidazole carcinogenicity in animals; however, it is still controversial in humans. Based on previous observations, the oxidative metabolites from metronidazole metabolism are shown to have more carcinogenic effects than the parent drug itself. Since ~40% of drug metabolism is reliant on cytochromes, the inter-patient' differences in metronidazole metabolism potentially indicate the individual susceptibility to developing cancer. Due to these potent carcinogenic behaviors, use of metronidazole for animals treatment and its uses in animal food products are barred in the USA and European countries; however, its clinical

  15. Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy in Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Pawar, Sunil V; Mohite, Ashok R; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Rathi, Pravin M; Contractor, Qais

    2016-10-01

    Acute encephalopathy in a patient with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a commonly encountered emergency situation occurring most frequently due to liver failure precipitated by varying etiologies. Acute reversible cerebellar ataxia with confusion secondary to prolonged metronidazole use has been reported rarely as a cause of encephalopathy in patients with ALD. We describe a decompensated ALD patient with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis associated with hepatolithiasis who presented to the emergency department with sudden-onset cerebellar ataxia with dysarthria and mental confusion after prolonged use of metronidazole. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was suggestive of bilateral dentate nuclei hyper intensities on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sections seen classically in metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIE). Decompensated liver cirrhosis resulted in decreased hepatic clearance and increased cerebrospinal fluid concentration of metronidazole leading to toxicity at a relatively low total cumulative dose of 22 g. Both the clinical symptoms and MRI brain changes were reversed at 7 days and 6 weeks, respectively, after discontinuation of metronidazole. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: A patient with ALD presenting with encephalopathy creates a diagnostic dilemma for the emergency physician regarding whether to continue metronidazole and treat for hepatic encephalopathy or to suspect for MIE and withhold the drug. Failure to timely discontinue metronidazole may worsen the associated hepatic encephalopathy in these patients. Liver cirrhosis patients have higher mean concentration of metronidazole and its metabolite in the blood, making it necessary to keep the cumulative dose of metronidazole to < 20 g in them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Investigation of in vitro metronidazole resistance in the clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Yaman Karadam, Senem; Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ertuğ, Sema

    2016-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated, urogenital anaerobic protozoon is reported as an important cause of vaginitis with a global distribution. Although metronidazole is the primary choice of drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, the presence of resistant isolates from many different countries highlights the need of novel drugs for the treatment. Many studies from Turkey mostly dealing with the in vitro effects of compounds and natural products against T.vaginalis have been reported, however, only one study has been encountered searching the metronidazole resistance in a single T.vaginalis isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro metronidazole resistance and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the isolates from symptomatic cases. T.vaginalis strains isolated from vaginal discharge samples of symptomatic women that were sent to Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Research and Training Hospital Parasitology Laboratory, between 2009-2014 period, were included in the study. The strains were isolated by the inoculation of samples into trypticase-yeast-maltose medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of 40 T.vaginalis isolates stored by cryopreservation were revived before the experiments. T.vaginalis trophozoites were incubated with different concentrations of metronidazole (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56 μg/ml) and the viability of cells were examined in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions under phase contrast microscope. Additionally, non-motile isolates were further inoculated into fresh media and viability was checked. The wells containing motile trophozoites after 48 hours of incubation with 15 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in anaerobic condition and 75 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in aerobic conditions were determined as resistant isolates. Of the 40 T.vaginalis isolates three (7.5%) were resistant to metronidazole. MLC mean values of metronidazole

  17. Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have fallen considerably in recent years. Antibiotic resistance is thought to be rising. OBJECTIVES: To examine the levels of resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) and clarithromycin (CLA) in H. pylori, isolates were taken in a reference centre in Ireland from 2007 to 2008 and were compared to a similar cohort from a study in 1997. METHOD: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by E-test. Frequencies of spontaneous metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance were measured on an agar plate containing the antibiotics at concentrations of 2x and 4x minimum inhibition concentration values. Clinical data were obtained from charts, laboratory and endoscopy reports. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-two patients were analyzed, 98 were females. Colonies amenable to culture were grown in 219 patients. Thirty-seven had prior attempts at eradication therapy (all with amoxicillin-CLA-proton pump inhibitor. A total of 31.5% of the patients had strains resistant to MTZ and 13.2% of the patients were noted to have strains resistant to CLA. About 8.6% of the patients had strains resistant to both the agents. CLA resistance was 9.3% in those who had no prior eradication therapy compared with 32.4% of those who had. CLA resistance increased from 3.9%, among treatment-naive patients in 1997, to 9.3% in our study. MTZ resistance was 29.1% in the treatment-naive population. In 1997, MTZ resistance in the treatment-naive cohort was 27.1%. MTZ resistance was more likely to occur in females (35.4 vs. 28.5%) than in males. CONCLUSION: This study shows that resistance to CLA among Irish patients infected with H. pylori has increased since 1997. The future of treatment may well lie in the widespread use of sensitivity testing before the treatment. This would promote an accurate treatment.

  18. A comparison of the efficacy of metronidazole vaginal gel and Myrtus (Myrtus communis extract combination and metronidazole vaginal gel alone in the treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoure Masoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the high incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and its resistance to chemical medications and considering the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects of Myrtus communis, the present study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of M. communis 2% (in metronidazole base with metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% alone on BV.Materials and Methods: This research was a random­ized controlled clinical trial conducted on 80 women of 18-40 years old with BV. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 women. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel's criteria and Gram staining. The first group received vaginal gel of metronidazole plus M. communis 2% and the second group received metronidazole vaginal gel alone for five consecutive nights. Therapeutic effects and Amsel’s criteria were assessed after one week. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using t-test and Chi square tests.Results: There was a significant difference in the therapeutic response between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the combination of metronidazole and M. communis had a higher efficiency (p

  19. Combined (radiation and surgery) treatment of laryngeal cancer patients using metronidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined treatment of 98 laryngeal cancer patients followed up for 1.5-3 years were analysed. Of them 68 received a preoperative radiotherapy course conbined with the metronidazole. The drug was given in the form of a sugar syrup suspension at a dose of 100-150 mg/kg 2.5-3 hours before irradiation, at 5 Gy twice a week reaching a summary focal dose of 20 Gy. Thirty patients received radiation therapy without metronidazole. Altogether 4 preoperative radiotherapy methods were used. An analysis of the results showed a significant improvement of the cure rates for laryngeal cancer patients using metronidazole. A better healing of postoperative wounds was noted. The author proved the appropriateness of preoperative irradiation by mean fractions up to a summary focal dose of 20 Gy combined with metronidazole and subsequent (on the last or next day of irradiation) radical operation

  20. Efficacy of tigecycline versus ceftriaxone plus metronidazole for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Warren, Brian; Leister-Tebbe, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This randomized, open-label, multi-center trial compared tigecycline (TGC), a broad-spectrum glycylcycline, with ceftriaxone-metronidazole (CTX/MET) for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI)....

  1. Effects of radiosensibilization by metronidazole on liver tissue in patients with gastric carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakova, A.M.; Stefani, N.V.; Zagrebin, V.M.; Senokosov, N.I.; Berdov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Metronidazole, used as radiosensitizer in preoperative radiotherapy of gastric carcinoma caused an increased glycogen accumulation in the left lobe of the liver with a radiation dose of 80-100 % of the isodose. The glycogen level was higher not only in comparison with the same liver area in patients without radiosensitizer but also with the right lobe of the own liver within in the area of stray radiation. The effect observed after radiation was considered as result of the sensitizing influence on liver tissue. The sensitizing effect of metronidazole depended on its concentration in the patient's serum. In the right lobe of the liver the glycogen level showed no alteration under metronidazole. Metronidazole reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase in liver tissue independently of its concentration in the serum and of the radiation dose on particular parts of the liver. (author)

  2. Modification of the radiosensitizing effect of metronidazole by 5-fluorouracil and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esel'baeva, G.O.; Ermekova, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the combined effect of 5-fluorouracil, metronidazole, caffeine and radiation on radiosensitivity of Pliss lymphosarcoma and protein synthesis rate during the first few hours following irradiation. A complete regression of the tumor was noted in 100% of animals after a 3-fold exposure. Effective postirradiation inhibition of protein synthesis was achieved by injection of metronidazole and caffeine together with 5-fluorouracil

  3. Anti-anaerobic activity of levofloxacin alone and combined with clindamycin and metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, K L; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-11-01

    Microdilution MICs of levofloxacin against twelve anaerobes ranged between 0.5-8.0 microg/ml and those of clindamycin and metronidazole between 0.008-2.0 and 0.25->16.0 microg/ml, respectively. Combination of levofloxacin with clindamycin and/or metronidazole in time-kill tests led to synergy at levofloxacin concentrations at or below the MIC in 7/12 strains.

  4. Sequential MR imaging (with diffusion-weighted imaging changes in metronidazole-induced encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole-induced neuro-toxicity, though rare, is known. A characteristic spatial distribution of lesions in cerebellar dentate nuclei and dorsal pons is known. However, temporal progression of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been described previously. We describe two such cases which presented initially with splenial hyperintesity and showed progression to characterstic lesions. Both cases improved with stoppage of metronidazole.

  5. Clinical relevance of metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Tiffany A; Jakeman, Bernadette; Gaynes, Robert P

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to review and evaluate the literature on metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy and determine the relevance in clinical practice. MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar were searched through February 2017 using the search terms metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy, or polyneuropathy, or paresthesia, or neurotoxicity. Relevant case reports, retrospective studies, surveys, and review articles were included. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional sources. Overall, metronidazole is generally well tolerated, but serious neurotoxicity, including peripheral neuropathy, has been reported. The overall incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with metronidazole is unknown. Our review found 36 case reports (40 unique patients) of metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy, with most cases (31/40) receiving a >42 g total (>4 weeks) of therapy. In addition, we reviewed 13 clinical studies and found varying rates of peripheral neuropathy from 0 to 50%. Within these clinical studies, we found a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving >42 g total (>4 weeks) of metronidazole compared with those patients receiving ≤42 g total (17.9% vs. 1.7%). Nearly all patients had complete resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, peripheral neuropathy is rare in patients who receive ≤42 g total of metronidazole. Patients who receive higher total doses may be at higher risk of peripheral neuropathy, but symptoms resolve after discontinuation of therapy in most patients. Antimicrobial stewardship programs may consider use of antibiotic combinations that include metronidazole over broad-spectrum alternatives when treating with ≤42 g total of the drug (≤4 weeks). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Are marketed topical metronidazole creams bioequivalent? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia Elodia; Hansen, S H; Shah, Surendra P.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence.......To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  7. Potential of bisbenzimidazole-analogs toward metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Bujans, Emmanuel; Morada, Mary; Karaalioglu, Canan; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Yarlett, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    A bisoxyphenylene-bisbenzimidazole series with increasing aliphatic chain length (CH 2 to C 10 H 20 ) containing a meta- (m) or para (p)-benzimidazole linkage to the phenylene ring was tested for ability to inhibit the growth of metronidazole-susceptible (C1) and metronidazole-refractory (085) Trichomonas vaginalis isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Compound 3m, 2,2'-[α,ω-propanediylbis(oxy-1,3-phenylene)]bis-1H-benzimidazole, displayed a 5.5-fold lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward T. vaginalis isolate 085 than metronidazole under aerobic growth conditions, (26 μm compared to 145 μm). A dose of 25 mg/kg per day for four days of compound 3m cured a subcutaneous mouse model infection using T. vaginalis isolates 286 (metronidazole susceptible) and 085 (metronidazole refractory). Compound 3m was weakly reduced by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but unlike metronidazole was not dependent upon added ferredoxin. It is concluded from structure-activity relationships that there was no obvious trend based on the length of the central aliphatic chain, or the steric position of the bisbenzimidazole enabling prediction of biological activity. The compounds generally fulfill Lipinski's rile of five, indicating their potential as drug leads. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The effect of iron on metronidazole activity against Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakil, Hala Salah; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Nassar, Doaa Ashraf

    2017-11-01

    Metronidazole is administered in an inactive form then activated to its cytotoxic form within the hydrogenosome of trichomonads. Two hydrogenosomal proteins, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and ferredoxin, play a critical role in the reductive activation of metronidazole. The expression of these proteins and other hydrogenosomal proteins are likewise positively regulated by iron. In the present study, the effect of iron on minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole on in vitro cultured Trichomonas vaginalis(T. vaginalis) isolates was investigated. Interestingly, Addition of Ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) to T. vaginalis culture led to decrease in the MLC of metronidazole. On using aerobic assay, MLC of metronidazole on untreated T. vaginalis of both isolates was 12.5 μg/ml that decreased to 0.38 μg/ml on FAS treated trichomonads. Also anaerobic assay revealed that MLC on untreated parasites was 3.12 μg/ml that decreased to 0.097 μg/ml and 0.19 μg/ml for isolate 1 and isolate 2 respectively after iron addition. It was concluded that, addition of iron to in vitro cultured T. vaginalis decreases metronidazole MLC that was detected by both aerobic and anaerobic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metronidazole stewardship initiative at Christchurch hospitals-achievable with immediate benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sharon J; Metcalf, Sarah Cl; Chin, Paul Kl; Doogue, Matthew P; Dalton, Simon C; Chambers, Stephen T

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) initiative to change hospital prescribing practice for metronidazole. In October 2015, the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) AMS committee changed advice for metronidazole to promote two times daily dosing for most indications, prioritisation of the oral route and avoidance of double anaerobic cover. Adoption of the initiative was facilitated via change in prescribing guidelines, education and ongoing pharmacy support. Usage and expenditure on metronidazole for adult inpatients were compared for the five years pre- and two years post-change. Other district health boards (DHBs) were surveyed to determine their dosing recommendation for metronidazole IV. Mean annual metronidazole IV use, as defined daily doses per 1,000 occupied bed days, decreased by 43% post-initiative. Use of non-IV (oral or rectal) formulations increased by 104%. Total savings associated with the initiative were approximately $33,400 in drug costs plus $78,200 per annum in IV giving sets and post-dose flushes. Twelve of 20 (60%) DHBs (including CDHB) endorse twice daily IV dosing. In addition to financial savings, reduction in IV doses has potential benefits, including avoidance of IV catheter-associated complications such as bloodstream infections. Approaches to metronidazole dosing vary across DHBs and could benefit from national coordination.

  10. Functionality of innovative and generic celluloses in metronidazole formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cristina Díaz Ramírez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of excipients available calls for evaluation of their functionality, in this case of the pharmaceutical performance of microcrystalline celluloses and sodium cross-linked carboxymethylcelluloses from different sources. This evaluation includes parameters such as powder flow, compactibility, ejection pressure and dissolution from fast-release tablets as well as from floating granules and controlled-release tablets. In a previous study, the excipient Carmacel® presented better disintegration properties compared to Croscarmellose®. However, the evaluation showed better compactibility performance for Croscarmellose®. These characteristics were observed using pure excipients. Nevertheless, these advantages have not been confirmed in tests employing immediate-release or modified-release formulations containing metronidazole. Regarding microcrystalline celluloses, the present comparative evaluation between pure Alfacel ® types 101 and 102 and pure Avicel® types 101 and 102 showed better compactibility performance for the latter. However, for metronidazole formulations, this advantage was not evident in the innovative excipient. Notwithstanding, this study revealed better compactibility performance of microcrystalline cellulose type 101. In terms of powder flow properties, Avicel® and Alfacel® showed similar performance. However, the results revealed better powder flow employing microcrystalline cellulose type 102 for both excipients. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the employment of innovative and generic excipients have both advantages and disadvantages. The observed differences however, tend to disappear as the excipients are diluted in a formulation, thereby equalizing their influence on product performance.A variedade de excipientes disponível no mercado requer adequada seleção desses no que se refere à sua funcionalidade, como no caso de celuloses microcristalinas (Avicel® 101 e 102 e Alfacel

  11. Lon protease affects the RdxA nitroreductase activity and metronidazole susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, I-Fan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    The lon gene of Helicobacter pylori strains is constitutively expressed during growth. However, virtually nothing is understood concerning the role of Lon in H. pylori. This study examined the function and physiological role of Lon in H. pylori (HpLon) using a trapping approach to identify putative Lon binding partners in the bacterium. Protease-deficient Lon was expressed and served as the bait in trapping approach to capture the interacting partners in H. pylori. The antibiotic susceptibility of wild-type and lon derivative mutants was determined by the E test trips and the disc diffusion assay. The effect of HpLon on RdxA activity was detected the change in NADPH oxidation and metronidazole reduction by spectrophotometer. Lon in Helicobacter pylori (HpLon) interacting partners are mostly associated with metronidazole activation. lon mutant presents more susceptible to metronidazole than that of the wild type, and this phenotype is recovered by complementation of the wild-type Lon. We found that the ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA(+) ) module of HpLon causes a decrease in both NADPH oxidase and Mtz reductase activity in RdxA, a major Mtz-activating enzyme in H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance of H. pylori causes the serious medical problem worldwide. In this study, HpLon is involved in metronidazole susceptibility among H. pylori strains. We provide the evidence that HpLon alters RdxA activity in vitro. The decrease in metronidazole activation caused by HpLon is possibly prior to accumulate mutation in rdxA gene before the metronidazole-resistant strains to be occurred. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The genetic diversity of metronidazole susceptibility in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in an Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Kholya, El-Said I; Abou El-Khair, Salwa M; Abdelmegeed, Eman S; Hamoudaa, Marwa M; Mohamed, Sara A; El-Tantawy, Nora Labeeb

    2017-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Resistance to metronidazole in treating trichomoniasis is a problematic health issue. We aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole for Trichomonas vaginalis isolates detected in Mansoura, Egypt and studied the genotypic profile of these isolates. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 320 symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic females, for whom clinical examination, vaginal discharge wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified Diamond's media were performed. Metronidazole susceptibility testing by an aerobic tube assay was performed. Both sensitive and resistant isolates were examined by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 49/420 (11.7%) using either culture or PCR, while wet mount and Giemsa stain detected the parasite in 8.1 and 7.6% of participants, respectively. After 48 h incubation, most isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of 1 μg/ml. Mild resistance was observed in two isolates with MLCs of 64 μg\\ml and mild to moderate resistance was observed in an additional two isolates with MLCs of 128 μg/ml. The four isolates that demonstrated low to moderate metronidazole resistance displayed a unique genotype band pattern by RFLP compared to the other 45 samples that were metronidazole sensitive. Our results highlight the presence of in vitro metronidazole tolerance in a few T. vaginalis isolates in Mansoura, Egypt that may lead to the development of drug resistance as well as the possibility of an identifying RFLP pattern in the isolates.

  13. Detection of metronidazole in honey and metronidazole tablets using carbon dots-based sensor via the inner filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianru; Pan, Xiaohua; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Wang, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, carbon dots (CDs) with a high quantum yield (22.3%) were easily prepared by hydrothermal pyrolysis of acid fuchsin 6B and hydrogen peroxide at 180°C for 10 h. The resultant CDs possess a narrow size distribution in the range of 2.6 to 3.2 nm and emit blue fluorescence. Interestingly, the absorption band of metronidazole (MTZ) centered at 318 nm can complementary overlap with the excitation band of the as-prepared CDs centered at 320 nm, resulting in an inner filter effect (IFE) in high efficiency. In fact, the fluorescence quenching of the CDs depends on the concentration of MTZ. Therefore, a simple method for the detection of MTZ can be established using the CDs-based sensor via the IFE. The linear range of the proposed method was 0-10 μg mL -1 with the limit of detection as low as 0.257 μg mL -1 . This CDs-based sensor had been applied for the detection of MTZ in honey and MTZ tablets with the recoveries in the range of 98.0% to 105.1% and 95.7% to 106.5%, respectively. Therefore, the as-prepared CDs have a potential to be developed as a MTZ sensor with high selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis for hysterectomy, a prospective cohort study: cefuroxime, metronidazole, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, T H I; Heikkinen, A-M; Jalkanen, J; Fraser, J; Mäkinen, J; Tomás, E; Seppälä, T; Sjöberg, J; Härkki, P

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate cefuroxime and metronidazole antibiotic prophylaxis. Observational nonrandomised 1-year prospective cohort study. Fifty-three hospitals in Finland. A total of 5279 women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications, with cefuroxime given to 4301 and metronidazole given to 2855. Excluding other antibiotics, cefuroxime alone was given to 2019, metronidazole alone was given to 518, and they were administered in combination to 2252 women. Data on 1115 abdominal hysterectomies (AHs), 1541 laparoscopic hysterectomies (LHs), and 2133 vaginal hysterectomies (VHs) were analysed using logistic regression adjusted for confounding factors. Postoperative infections. Cefuroxime had a risk-reductive effect for total infections (adjusted odds ratio, OR, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.22-0.39), but the independent effect of metronidazole and the interaction effect of cefuroxime and metronidazole were nonsignificant. In subgroup analyses of AHs, LHs, and VHs involving those receiving the two main antibiotics only, the effect of cefuroxime alone nonsignificantly differed from that of cefuroxime and metronidazole in combination for all types of infection. The absence of cefuroxime, assessed by comparing metronidazole alone with cefuroxime and metronidazole in combination, led to an increased risk for total infections in AHs (adjusted OR 3.63; 95% CI 1.99-6.65), in LHs (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.74-7.18), and in VHs (OR 4.05; 95% CI 2.30-7.13), and also increased risks for febrile events in all categories (AHs, OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.09-7.46; LHs, OR 13.19; 95% CI 3.66-47.49; VHs, OR 12.74; 95% CI 3.01-53.95), wound infections in AHs (OR 6.88; 95% CI 1.09-7.49), and pelvic infections in VHs (OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.76-10.31). In this study, cefuroxime appeared to be effective in prophylaxis against infections. Metronidazole appeared to be ineffective, with no additional risk-reductive effect when combined with cefuroxime. © 2013 RCOG.

  15. Chlorinated metronidazole as a promising alternative for treating trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, M O; Fonseca, T H S; Oliveira, S B V; Alacoque, M A; Franco, L L; Tagliati, C A; Cassali, G D; Campos-Mota, G P; Alves, R J; Capettini, L S A; Gomes, Maria Aparecida

    2018-05-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted infection affecting humans worldwide. The main treatment for trichomoniasis is metronidazole (MTZ). However, adverse effects and reports of resistance have stimulated the development of therapeutic alternatives. The ease of manipulation of the side chains of MTZ coupled with its safety makes this molecule attractive for the development of new drugs. In this context, we evaluated the activity of the chlorinated MTZ derivative, MTZ-Cl, on sensitive and resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. MTZ-Cl presented a remarkable activity against both sensitive and resistant strains. In vitro and in vivo toxicity assays indicated that the new molecule is safe for future clinical trials. Furthermore, we noticed different rates of free radical production between the sensitive and resistant strains. MTZ-Cl induced a higher release of nitric oxide (NO, ~ 9000 a.u.) by both sensitive and resistant strains. However, the sensitive strain produced a greater amount of H 2 O 2 (~ 1,800,000 a.u.) and superoxide radicals (~ 350,000 a.u.) in the presence of MTZ. In the resistant strain, production of these radicals was more prominent when MTZ-Cl was used. Collectively, these results suggest that NO is an important molecule in the trichomonacidal activity against resistant and sensitive strains, suggesting an alternative pathway for MTZ-Cl activation. We highlight the high trichomonacidal potential of MTZ-Cl, improving the effectiveness of treatment and reducing side effects. In addition, MTZ-Cl is derived from a well-established drug on the world market that presents low toxicity to human cells, suggesting its safety to proceed with future clinical trials.

  16. Experience of successful treatment of patients with metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis with zinc sulfate: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Mi Byun

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although the exact role of zinc sulfate in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis is not clear, our patients experienced a therapeutic effect with zinc sulfate douche treatment. We therefore recommend zinc sulfate douche as an option for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis.

  17. Nizatidine and omeprazole enhance the effect of metronidazole on Helicobacter pylori in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Jensen, Bente; Zhai, Lin

    2002-01-01

    to reverse antibiotic resistance do not necessarily have an antibiotic or chemotherapeutic effect in the sense of growth inhibition. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the effect of nizatidine and omeprazole on the oxidative respiratory chain, as it is known that metronidazole is able to inhibit...... the activity of fumarate reductase of H. pylori. This enzyme is a key enzyme in the alternative respiratory chain under anaerobic conditions. Nizatidine was, in these preliminary experiments, found to inhibit fumarate reductase in a dose-dependent way, like metronidazole, whereas omeprazole had almost...... no effect on fumarate reductase. No other significant effects on the enzymes of the respiratory chain were found. The synergistic effect of nizatidine on metronidazole resistant H. pylori strains could be explained by the effect on fumarate reductase, whereas the effect of omeprazole is different and could...

  18. Exploratory Investigation of Bacteroides fragilis Transcriptional Response during In vitro Exposure to Subinhibitory Concentration of Metronidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Michele C. R.; Resende, Juliana A.; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra B.; Saji, Guadalupe D. R. Q.; de Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.; da Silva, Vânia L.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Diniz, Cláudio G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis, member from commensal gut microbiota, is an important pathogen associated to endogenous infections and metronidazole remains a valuable antibiotic for the treatment of these infections, although bacterial resistance is widely reported. Considering the need of a better understanding on the global mechanisms by which B. fragilis survive upon metronidazole exposure, we performed a RNA-seq transcriptomic approach with validation of gene expression results by qPCR. Bacteria strains were selected after in vitro subcultures with subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of the drug. From a wild type B. fragilis ATCC 43859 four derivative strains were selected: first and fourth subcultures under metronidazole exposure and first and fourth subcultures after drug removal. According to global gene expression analysis, 2,146 protein coding genes were identified, of which a total of 1,618 (77%) were assigned to a Gene Ontology term (GO), indicating that most known cellular functions were taken. Among these 2,146 protein coding genes, 377 were shared among all strains, suggesting that they are critical for B. fragilis survival. In order to identify distinct expression patterns, we also performed a K-means clustering analysis set to 15 groups. This analysis allowed us to detect the major activated or repressed genes encoding for enzymes which act in several metabolic pathways involved in metronidazole response such as drug activation, defense mechanisms against superoxide ions, high expression level of multidrug efflux pumps, and DNA repair. The strains collected after metronidazole removal were functionally more similar to those cultured under drug pressure, reinforcing that drug-exposure lead to drastic persistent changes in the B. fragilis gene expression patterns. These results may help to elucidate B. fragilis response during metronidazole exposure, mainly at SIC, contributing with information about bacterial survival strategies under stress conditions in their

  19. Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, G; Preus, H R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metronidazole-containing gel for the treatment of periodontitis: an in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sato

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to monitor metronidazole concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF collected from periodontal pockets of dogs after treatment with an experimental 15% metronidazole gel. Five dogs had periodontitis induced by cotton ligatures placed subgingivally and maintained for a 30-day period. After the induction period, only pockets with 4 mm or deeper received the gel. Each pocket was filled up to the gingival margin by means of a syringe with a blunt-end needle. GCF was collected in paper strips and quantified in an electronic device before and after 15 minutes, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h of gel administration. The GCF samples were assayed for metronidazole content by means of a high performance liquid chromatography method. Concentrations of metronidazole in the GCF of the 5 dogs (mean ± SD, in µg/mL were 0 ± 0 before gel application and 47,185.75 ± 24,874.35 after 15 minutes, 26,457.34 ± 25,516.91 after 1 h, 24.18 ± 23.11 after 6 h, 3.78 ± 3.45 after 24 h and 3.34 ± 5.54 after 48 h. A single administration of the 15% metronidazole gel released the drug in the GCF of dogs in levels several-fold higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration for some periodontopathogens grown in subgingival biofilms for up to one hour, but metronidazole could be detected in the GCF at least 48 hours after the gel application.

  1. In Vitro Susceptibility of Iranian Isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MATINI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole derivative, is the main antitrich­omonal agent of choice for treatment of trichomoniasis. Since 1962, some cases of treatment failure with metronidazole have been reported and recently drug re­sistance is now on the rise in the world. This study was aimed to determine current susceptibility of Iranian isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole.Methods: This study was performed on 50 T. vaginalis isolates collected from west and central areas of Iran. After axenisation of the parasites, susceptibility testing was carried out by using serial twofold dilutions of metronidazole (400 to 0.1 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of the trichomonads were determined after 48 h incubation at 35.5 °C. Drug susceptibility assays of the all isolates were carried out two times in triplicate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results: Ninety-eight percent of the T. vaginalis isolates (49/50 were sensitive to metronidazole. Metronidazole resistance was defined as aerobic MIC ≥50 µg/ml, detected in one isolate. The means of aerobic MICs and MLCs and that of anaero­bic MICs of the parasites were 2.91, 1.95 and 0.28 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: This investigation showed in vitro low-level tolerance to metronida­zole in a few T. vaginalis isolates that may be leading to the development of drug resistance.

  2. The use of immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole in the treatment of purulent wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia S. Gorohova; Arsen Yu. Grigoryan; Alexander I. Bezhin; Tatyana A. Pankrusheva; Boris S. Sukovatykh; Ludmila V. Zhilyaeva; Ekaterina S. Mishina; Elena V. Kobzareva

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the wound-healing effect of the immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) or polyethylene oxide (PEO) in the treatment of an experimental purulent wound.Materials and methods. The following compositions were studied, %. Combination 1: benzalkonium chloride – 0.02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) – 4,0; Purified water – up to 100,0. Combination 2: ...

  3. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Flow injection determination of metronidazole through spectrophotometric measurement of the nitrite ion produced upon alkaline hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Simone S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for metronidazole determination, based on spectrometric monitoring of a diazonium salt produced in-line by alkaline hydrolysis released nitrite ions, was developed and successfully applied to pharmaceutical tablets (r = 0.9993, 2.0-20.0 mg L-1, DL = 0.7 mg L-1 with no interference from common ingredients accompanying the drug.

  5. Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Khademi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Results: H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this studyΈ we had one multidrug resistance (MDR isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion: Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.

  6. Synergic activity, for anaerobes, of trovafloxacin with clindamycin or metronidazole: chequerboard and time-kill methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, L M; Credito, K L; Khantipong, M; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-05-01

    Chequerboard titrations were used to test the activity of trovafloxacin, alone and in combination with clindamycin or metronidazole, against 156 Gram-positive or Gram-negative anaerobes, including 47 Bacteroides fragilis group, 36 Prevotella spp., 26 fusobacteria, 21 peptostreptococci and 26 clostridia. MIC50/MIC90 values (mg/L) of each drug alone against all 156 strains were: trovafloxacin, 0.5/1; clindamycin, 0.25/2; metronidazole, 1/2. Synergy (FIC indices 0. 5-2.0); no antagonism (FIC indices >4.0) was seen. In addition, synergy was tested by time-kill methodology for each of the above combinations against 12 Gram-positive or Gram-negative strains. Results indicated that synergy (defined as a >/= 2 log(10) decrease in cfu/mL at 48 h compared with the more active drug alone) was found between trovafloxacin at or below the MIC and both clindamycin and metronidazole at or below the MIC in one strain each of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium varium, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus and Clostridium bifermentans. Synergy between trovafloxacin (metronidazole alone was seen in one strain each of Bacteroides distasonis, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium mortiferum, P. asaccharolyticus and C. bifermentans. In many cases of synergy, including those at the trovafloxacin MIC, regrowth after 48 h, which was commonly seen with trovafloxacin alone, was inhibited, and 99.9% killing was observed with the combination after 48 h, but not with trovafloxacin alone.

  7. Comparison of local metronidazole and a local antiseptic in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakov Mikic, Aleksandra; Budakov, Dragan

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a mixed flora of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria and associated with risks of pathologic conditions. In the present study, therapy with a local antiseptic spray (octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol, OHP) for 7 or 14 days is compared against the standard local therapy of BV (metronidazole) in a Serbian patient population. As much as 450 women were treated in groups with either 7 days metronidazole vaginal tablets, 7 days OHP, or 14 days OHP. Control smears were taken after each treatment period. In total, 63.2% of the women were without indications of BV after therapy (metronidazole: 61.0%, OHP 7 days: 57.6%, and OHP 14 days: 71.0%). Significantly fewer women were affected from infections after treatment with 14 days OHP compared to OHP for 7 days. Octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol spray was as effective as the standard therapy with metronidazole. Patients stated that OHP was more comfortable, easier to apply, and side effects were lesser.

  8. Granulomatous cheilitis: sustained response to combination of intralesional steroids, metronidazole and minocycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.; Nadeem, A.; Manzoor, A.

    2007-01-01

    Various conservative methods for treatment of labial swelling in patients with granulomatous cheilitis have been attempted, often with only moderate success. We report a case of granulomatous cheilitis who showed excellent sustained response to combination of intralesional steroids, metronidazole and minocycline for initial one month followed by prolonged maintenance treatment with minocycline alone. (author)

  9. Separation of metronidazole, its major metabolites and their conjugates using dynamically modified silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, U. G.; Cornett, Claus; Tjornelund, J.

    1995-01-01

    -performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system for the simultaneous determination of metronidazole, its major metabolites and their glucuronic acid conjugates in biological fluids. The separation is performed using bare silica dynamically modified with N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide contained...

  10. Radiosynthesis and Biodistribution of 99mTc-Metronidazole as an Escherichia coli Infection Imaging Radiopharmaceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Anam; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Rasheed, Rashid; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad

    2018-05-01

    Bacterial infection poses life-threatening challenge to humanity and stimulates to the researchers for developing better diagnostic and therapeutic agents complying with existing theranostic techniques. Nuclear medicine technique helps to visualize hard-to-diagnose deep-seated bacterial infections using radionuclide-labeled tracer agents. Metronidazole is an antiprotozoal antibiotic that serves as a preeminent anaerobic chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to develop technetium-99m-labeled metronidazole radiotracer for the detection of deep-seated bacterial infections. Radiosynthesis of 99m Tc-metronidazole was carried by reacting reduced technetium-99m and metronidazole at neutral pH for 30 min. The stannous chloride dihydrate was used as the reducing agent. At optimum radiolabeling conditions, ~ 94% radiochemical was obtained. Quality control analysis was carried out with a chromatographic paper and instant thin-layer chromatographic analysis. The biodistribution study of radiochemical was performed using Escherichia coli bacterial infection-induced rat model. The scintigraphic study was performed using E. coli bacterial infection-induced rabbit model. The results showed promising accumulation at the site of infection and its rapid clearance from the body. The tracer showed target-to-non-target ratio 5.57 ± 0.04 at 1 h post-injection. The results showed that 99m Tc-MNZ has promising potential to accumulate at E. coli bacterial infection that can be used for E. coli infection imaging.

  11. Evaluation of HP0605 and HP0971 genes of efflux pumps in Helicobacter pylori resistance to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hasan Shirazi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in H.pylori and it is a major cause of treatment failure. Five families of multidrug efflux pumps are defined in bacteria and resistance-nodulation-division (RND pumps are found mainly in gram negative bacteria. TolC is one of RND pump components and play a critical role in drug resistance. It hasn’t been established that RND family has a role in drug resistance in H.pylori. In this study, we assessed the role of two efflux genes in resistant to metronidazole in H.pylori by evaluation of overexpression TolC genes by RT-PCR method. Methods: In five metronidazole resistant strains of H.pylori, total RNA was extracted. RNA treated with DNase and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA. Aliquots of the cDNA solution were assayed by RT- PCR for HP0605 and HP0971 genes. The levels of mRNA expression were evaluated by densitometry analysis. Results: All five strains displayed overexpression for HP0605 basis of increased concentration of metronidazole. Three strains showed transcripts for HP0971. One of these had transcripts for HP0971 only in Metronidazole concentration equaled to 16 µg/ml but two strains overexpressed adapt to increase concentration of metronidazole. Conclusion: According to current study, HP0605 and HP0971 genes overexpressed due to increase metronidazole. So, increasing of Metronidazole affects in H.pylori΄s efflux system in transcription level.

  12. Waste Material of Propolis as a Film Forming Agent Intended to Modify the Metronidazole Release: Preparation and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Lucas de Alcântara Sica; Rosseto, Hélen Cássia; Ravani, Laura; Cortesi, Rita; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent utilized for the treatment of protozoa and anaerobic bacteria infections. Many times, it is necessary to modify the metronidazole release, and the development of modified release systems may be suggested. In this study, we are able to investigate the use of the residue normally thrown out from the preparation of propolis extracts (BP) as strategy to modify the metronidazole release. We prepared films containing polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose) and metronidazole, by solvent casting method. Density, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture uptake capacity (MUC), thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and in vitro metronidazole release were investigated. Thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout. Mechanical properties were influenced by film composition. Films containing gelatin showed higher resistance to stress while those containing ethylcellulose presented greater flexibility. The greater the adjuvant concentrations lower the resistance to rupture and the elasticity, but higher MUC and WVP of formulations. FT-IR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. Films were capable to protect the metronidazole and changed its release profile. BP films are of great practical importance constituting a novel strategy to modify the metronidazole release.

  13. Reducing surgical site infections after hysterectomy: metronidazole plus cefazolin compared with cephalosporin alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sara R; Morgan, Daniel M; Bazzi, Ali A; Pearlman, Mark D; Abdelsattar, Zaid; Campbell, Darrell A; Uppal, Shitanshu

    2017-08-01

    Organisms that are isolated from vaginal cuff infections and pelvic abscesses after hysterectomy frequently include anaerobic vaginal flora. Metronidazole has outstanding coverage against nearly all anaerobic species, which is superior to both cefazolin and second-generation cephalosporins. Cefazolin plus metronidazole has been demonstrated to reduce infectious morbidity compared with either cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporins in other clean-contaminated procedures, which include both as colorectal surgery and cesarean delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of cefazolin plus metronidazole before hysterectomy was more effective in the prevention of surgical site infection than existing recommendations of cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporin. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative from July 2012 through February 2015. The primary outcome was surgical site infection. Patients who were >18 years old and who underwent abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, or robotic hysterectomy for benign or malignant indications were included if they received 1 of the following prophylactic antibiotic regimens: cefazolin, second-generation cephalosporin, or cefazolin plus metronidazole. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to evaluate the independent effect of an antibiotic regimen, and propensity score matching was used to validate the findings. The study included 18,255 hysterectomies. The overall rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=329). The unadjusted rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=267) for cefazolin, 2.1% (n=49) for second-generation cephalosporin, and 1.4% (n=13) for cefazolin plus metronidazole. After adjustment for differences in patient and operative factors among the antibiotic cohorts, compared with cefazolin plus metronidazole, we found the risk of surgical site infection was significantly higher for patients who received

  14. Electrospraying technique for the fabrication of metronidazole contained PLGA particles and their release profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zamani, Maedeh [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Felice, Betiana [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases, Departamento de Bioingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-11-01

    Advanced engineering of materials for the development of drug delivery devices provides scope for novel and versatile strategies for treatment of various diseases. ‘Electrospraying’ was used to prepare PLGA microparticles and further encapsulate the drug, metronidazole (Met) within the particles to function as a drug delivery system. Two different solvents were utilized for the preparation of drug loaded PLGA particles, whereby the polymeric solution in dichloromethane (DCM) produced particles of bigger sizes than using trifluoroethanol (TFE). Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical morphology of the particles, with sizes of 3946 ± 407 nm and 1774 ± 167 nm, respectively for PLGA-Met(DCM) and PLGA-Met(TFE). The FTIR spectroscopy proved the incorporation of metronidazole in the polymer, but without any specific drug–polymer interaction. The release of the drug from the particles was studied in phosphate buffered saline, where a sustained drug release was obtained for at least 41 days. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug extract using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed not hindering the proliferation of MSCs, and the cell phenotype was retained after incubation in the drug containing media. Electrospraying is suggested as a cost-effective and single step process for the preparation of polymeric microparticles for prolonged and controlled release of drug. - Highlights: • Electrospraying as a novel method for the fabrication of drug delivery device • Metronidazole encapsulated PLGA particles were fabricated by electrospraying. • Solvent DCM produced particles of double the size than using TFE. • Sustained release of metronidazole studied for a period of 41 days • Drug release pattern from particles followed Fickian diffusion. • PLGA-metronidazole particles can function as a substrate for periodontal regeneration.

  15. Study of the removal of metronidazole from aqueous solutions using Electro/ Fenton process and graphite and iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: The Electro-Fenton process can effectively remove metronidazole from aquatic solutions in environmentally convenient conditions. This process can be used as an efficient method for removing other persistent pollutants from the environment.

  16. Transformaciones del modelo Neogranadino de parroquialización. El caso de la Parroquia San Francisco Xavier de Piedecuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rubén Pérez Pinzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los fundamentos canónigos, las razones virreinales y los rituales eclesiásticos que justificaron las fundaciones parroquiales del siglo XVIII. Para ello se enfatiza en el modelo de urbanismo de las autoridades borbónicas que sustituyó la práctica de fundaciones de ciudades y villas de los siglos XVI y XVII a partir de capitulaciones. Modelo de necesidades demostradas, visitas a las instituciones virreinales y verificación de méritos que se puede comprobar desde el caso de la parroquia moderna de San Francisco Xavier del Pie de la Cuesta (Santander, Colombia, la cual pasó de ser un sitio irregular a la próspera Villa de San Carlos del siglo XIX.

  17. Effect of lactic acid suppositories compared with oral metronidazole and placebo in bacterial vaginosis: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; van Eijk, J T; Kostense, P J; Bezemer, P D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the effect of lactic acid locally, metronidazole orally and placebo in women with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--30 general practices in the Netherlands. PATIENTS--125 women consulting the general practitioner for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of subjective symptoms, recurrence of symptoms, clinically diagnosed cure, adverse events. RESULTS--Survival analysis showed a significantly faster disappearance of symptoms in the metronidazole category compared with both lactic acid and placebo (p = 0.0005 metronidazole v placebo, p = 0.0002 metronidazole v lactic acid p = 0.6521 lactic acid v placebo [The stratified Mantel Cox test]). The median duration until absence of symptoms was 21 days for metronidazole and 80 days for placebo. Disappearance of symptoms did not occur in 50% of the lactic acid group in 90 days. Recurrence rates of symptoms were similar over the treatment categories (p = 0.13 metronidazole v placebo and p = 0.12 lactic acid v placebo). After 2 weeks cure rates (cure defined as less than three of four clinical criteria present) were 83%, 49% and 47% for metronidazole, lactic acid and placebo category respectively. At that time cure rates (cure defined as none of three clinical criteria present) were 10%, 0% and 3%. After four weeks and three months these figures were: 55%, 20%, 20% and 64%, 28%, 28%. No differences in adverse events were found between the three interventions. CONCLUSIONS--Lactic acid suppositories are ineffective, metronidazole capsules are effective on signs and symptoms in bacterial vaginosis. A considerable proportion of the patients recover without active medication. PMID:8244360

  18. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans. In spite of its therapeutic efficacy for giardiasis, low patient compliance, especially in children, side effects, and the emergence of metronidazole-resistant strains may restrict its use. Albendazole has been used to treat Giardia duodenalis infections in recent years. However, efficacy studies in vivo and in vitro have produced diverse results as to its effectiveness. A moderately benign side effect profile, combined with established efficacy against many helminths, renders it promising for treatment of giardiasis in humans.We performed a search in the PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science, LILIACS, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for trials published before February 2010 as well as in references of relevant research and review articles. Eight randomized clinical trials (including 900 patients comparing the effectiveness of albendazole with that of metronidazole were included in meta-analysis. After extracting and validating the data, the pooled risk ratio (RR was calculated using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Albendazole was found to be equally as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in humans (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93, 1.01. In addition, safety analysis suggested that patients treated with albendazole had a lower risk of adverse effects compared with those who received metronidazole (RR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10, 1.34, but limitations of the sample size precluded a definite conclusion.The effectiveness of albendazole, when given as a single dose of 400 mg/day for 5 days, was comparable to that of metronidazole. Patients treated with albendazole tended to have fewer side effects compared with those who took metronidazole. Given the safety, effectiveness, and low costs of albendazole, this drug could be potentially used as an alternative and/or a replacement for the existing metronidazole therapy protocols in the

  19. Efficacy and safety of oral tinidazole and metronidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abbaspoor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for one week is currently the treatment of choice for bacterial vaginosis (BV. Complete treatment by this regimen takes time and occurs less often. This drug has significant side effects too. Using a drug in the shortest treatment course may increases the success of treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral tinidazole compare to metronidazole in treatment of BV.Methods: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind, comparative, clinical trial, 110 non-pregnant women aged between 15-45 years with confirmed diagnosis of BV by Amsels criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g tinidazole tablet once daily for 2 days (n=55 or 500 mg metronidazole table twice daily for 7 days (n=55.The cure and recurrence rate were evaluated in both groups after 2 and 4 weeks follow up visits. For statistical analysis t-test,   test, fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used.Results: The results showed that cure rate after 2 weeks in tinidazole tablet group was 84.6٪ and in metronidazole group was 85.4٪ (p=0.9, and after 4 weeks recurrence rate in tinidazole and metronidazole groups was 6.9٪and 12.1٪respectively (P=0.3.Conclusions: Tinidazole table 2 g once daily for 2 days is as effective as metronidazole tablet 500 mg twice a day for 7 days in treatment of BV.

  20. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  1. Metronidazole in the treatment of cervical cancer using Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Metronidazole was tested for its possible use in the Cf-252 brachytherapy of cervical cancer as a radiosensitizer and to deal with anaerobic pelvic infection. 15 patients were treated by only 14 were evaluable. All stages from stage IB-IVB were treated and complete local tumor regression was noted in all cases although it could take place very slowly. 5/14 (36%) are 1.5-3 year survivors but only among the patients with stage I-II disease. No unusual radio-enhancing action was observed but metronidazole appeared to be useful to treat the vaginal, cervix and uterine infections often associated with high stage disease and bulky, ulcerative or necrotic tumors

  2. Estado del Se, Cu y Zn y su relación con el perfil lipídico sérico en sujetos portugueses de Lisboa y el archipiélago de las Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Paula Alexandra; Vicente, Luís; Rodrigues, V. O.; Santos, V. C.; Napoleão, Patrícia; Pavão, Maria Leonor; Nève, Jean; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria

    2004-01-01

    El selenio (Se), el cobre (Cu) y el cinc (Zn) son oligoelementos esenciales para los mamíferos con funciones biológicas bien demostradas en los seres humanos (Neve y Palmieri, 2000; Viegas-Crespo y cols., 2000). Aparte de otras funciones metabólicas relevantes, desempeñan papeles importantes en la regulación del equilíbrio redox celular y ex-tracelular actuando junto con las defensas antioxidantes (Yu, 1994). Varios estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que las concentraciones de oligoeleme...

  3. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  4. Histological investigation of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T S; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Bezerra, C S; Silva, J L

    2006-01-01

    Alveolitis is considered a disturbance of the alveolar healing process that is characterized by blood clot disintegration, alveolar wall infection and extreme pain. Several substances have been investigated to improve healing and guarantee postoperative comfort to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate, microscopically, in rats, the healing process in non-infected tooth sockets, after application of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, using lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. Forty-five rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) had their right incisor extracted and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=15): Group I (control): the sockets were filled with blood clot; Group II: application of adrenaline solution at 1:1 000 with an absorbent paper point during 1 min plus filling of the socket with a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle, and mint as flavoring; Group III: filling of the socket with the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. After 6, 15 and 28 days postoperatively, 5 animals per group were euthanized with an injectable anesthetic overdose. Histological and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring yielded similar response as that of the normal repair group and may be used to prevent the onset of alveolitis in those cases in which any predisposing factor is present. The use of this dressing has shown a good postoperative patient's comfort and does not cause a significant delay in the alveolar healing process.

  5. Role of NADPH-insensitive nitroreductase gene to metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kargar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Current anti-H. pylori therapies are based on the use of two antibiotics with a proton pump inhibitor and/or a bismuth component. Metronidazole is a key component of such combination therapies in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the role of rdxA gene in resistant strains of H. pylori isolated from Shahrekord Hajar hospital to metronidazole. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional method, which was carried out on 263 patients who referred to endoscopy department of Hajar hospital, in 2007. Biopsy samples were cultured on selective Brucella agar containing 10% blood and incubated under microerophilic condition at 370C for 3 - 7 days. Suspected colonies were tested by Gram staining, urease, oxidase and catalase activities. Organisms were confirmed to be H. pylori on the basis of the presence of ureC(glmM gene by PCR .Specific primers were used for detection of rdxA gene mutation . Results: Eighty and four strains of H. pylori determined by PCR method. Of the isolated strains, 49 (58.33% were resistant, 7 (8.33% were semi-sensitive to metronidazole and 200bp deletion in rdxA gene was observed in 2 strains. Conclusion: Because of the high metronidazole resistance in patients under study it was necessary to replace it by other antibiotics in therapeutic regimens. On the basis of low frequency of resistance mutation in rdxA gene, sequence analysis for identification of other mechanisms is suggested.

  6. Metronidazole as a radiosensitizer: a preliminary report on estimation in serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.B.M.F.; Faber, D.B.; Haas, R.E.; Hoekstra, F.H.; Njo, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Some studies indicate the clinical benefit of hypoxic radiosensitizers in patients who are undergoing radiotherapy. Serum level of sensitizers are usualy advised; however they are very demanding on the patient. Saliva level of the sensitizers may be an alternative method. This study correlated serum level of metronidazole to the saliva level in 10 patients who were undergoing radiotherapy with the sensitizer. A change to the saliva level method appears to relieve the patients

  7. Comparison of Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Trichomons vaginalis to Metronidazole Using PCR Method

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    M Fallah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole is drug of choice recommended by WHO for treatment of trichomoniasis, however, some reports claims drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis isolates recently. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of metronidazole in resistant and sensitive strains, as well as genetic patterns of these stains by PCR method. Methods: From February 2006 to March 2007, in a cross sectional study, clinical and wet mount examination of vaginal smear along with culture were performed on 683 women attending to public and private outpatient clinics in Hamadan. Trichomoniasis marked based on major clinical symptoms. Diagnosis confirmed using wet mount microscopically and culture in Diamond medium. A serial concentration of metronidazole was provided and all isolated Trichomonas strains (resistant and sensitive tested by standard method. Finally, all sensitive and resistant strains examined by PCR technique. Results: Only 15/683, (2.2% of patients clinically diagnosed trichomonal vaginitis were positive for T. vaginalis by wet smear and culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC for clinically sensitive isolates was 25 µg/ml; however, this concentration for resistant isolates was 200 µg/ml after 24 h and 100 µg/ml after 50 h. The results of PCR examination of DNA from sensitive and resistant isolates had same pattern. The lanes appeared by two primers were 98 bp and 261 bp for both clinically sensitive and resistant strains. Conclusion: Resistance to metronidazole in T. vaginalis has not relation to genetic variations and might be related to some physiologic pathways of organism.

  8. Assessing the loading and release of metronidazole from bacterial cellulose film as a pharmaceutical dressing

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    Mohammad Ali Salehi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial cellulose membrane (BCM produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is an advantageous bacterial product and because of its unique properties could be used as an ideal dressing. The aim of this study was to consider the capability of this biomaterial in the release of Metronidazole. In the case of proving this capability, it provides the basis for the production of a dressing containing this type of antibiotic. Materials and Methods: In this study, BCM was initially synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The BCM was loaded by Metronidazole. Then the release process was considered in distilled water and buffer phosphate Saline. The ultra violet spectrophotometry was applied for measuring the concentration of the released drug. Results: The chemical structure of bacterial cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The release of Metronidazole in distilled water and phosphate buffered Saline was reached to 84.27% and 84.71%, respectively. Due to higher release in phosphate buffered Saline media, it seems that the trend of release in vitro provides efficient results. Conclusion: Results of this study provides the basis for future research on supplying an ideal dressing from this microbial product.

  9. Assessment of skin barrier function in rosacea patients with a novel 1% metronidazole gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2005-01-01

    The skin of patients with rosacea is extremely sensitive and hyper-reactive to dietary, environmental, and topical factors. Accordingly, the management of rosacea involves not only choosing appropriate medication and treatment for daily skin care, but also avoiding known trigger factors. Recently, 1% metronidazole, a mainstay of topical rosacea therapy, was reformulated in a gel vehicle that contains hydrosolubilizing agents (HSA) niacinamide, beta cyclodextrin, and a low concentration of propylene glycol. It is designed to solubilize greater concentrations of metronidazole than is possible in water alone while reducing the potential for irritation and barrier disruption. A 2-week study was undertaken by the author to evaluate the effect of the new 1% metronidazole gel on the skin barrier in 25 women with mild to moderate rosacea. Statistically significant improvement in disease severity, erythema, desquamation, and skin irritation was noted by the investigator by the end of week 1, which continued throughout the study. After 2 weeks, subjects noted improvements in skin condition and rosacea. Results of noninvasive assessments showed no disruption of the skin barrier. Furthermore, there was an increasing trend in skin hydration that approached statistical significance.

  10. [Giardia muris infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) and treatment with metronidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of metronidazole for treatment of Giardia muris infection in laboratory rats. The feces of rats was yellow watery diarrhea and brought to the surgery research center of University of Ondokuz Mayis in order to be a study. Stool samples were examined by native examination, evaluation of infection rates was done with an X40 lens, and results were recorded as positive from 1 to 4. Metronidazole was administered to infected animals orally for 5 days with a 20 mg/kg dose. As a result of fecal examination of 64 rats held in groups of four in cages, 15 of the cages (60 rats) were found to be infected with G. muris. While agents were not observed in collected stool samples following 5, 7, and 14 days of drug administration of 14 groups, trophozoite density in one cage was decreased (75%), and adverse effects were not seen in rats. Metronidazole was found to be an effective drug for the treatment of giardiasis.

  11. Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Noemi; Fodor, Benjamin; Muhammad, Ijaz; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the S-protected chitosan were evaluated regarding water uptake capacity, disintegration behaviour, residence time on vaginal mucosa, release of the encapsulated drug and antimicrobial activity. S-protected chitosan displayed 160±19 (CS-MNA-160) and 320±38 (CS-MNA-320)µmol of ligand per gram of polymer. At pH 4.2, CS-MNA-160 and CS-MNA-320 showed 5.2-fold and 6.2-fold increase in mucus viscosity in comparison to unmodified chitosan (One-way ANOVA, pchitosan remained stable against oxidation in presence of 0.5%v/v hydrogen peroxide. Metronidazole tablets consisting in S-protected chitosan showed prolonged residence time on vaginal mucosa and improved water uptake capacity and disintegration time in comparison to tablets consisting of unmodified chitosan. Moreover, CS-MNA-320 metronidazole tablets displayed prolonged drug release and antimicrobial activity. On the basis of the achieved results, entirely S-protected chitosan represents a promising excipient for the development of metronidazole vaginal tablets. S-protected thiomers are polymers modified with thiol groups protected by aromatic ligands and characterized by strong mucoadhesive properties and high stability against oxidation. Up to date, the entirely S-protection of thiol groups was achieved via the synthesis of the ligand 2-((2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)disulfanyl)nicotinic acid) which can be directly bound to the backbone of polymers bearing carboxylic moieties as pectin. However, this

  12. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

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    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  13. Fourteen-day high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as third-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Ignasi; González-Santiago, Jesús M; Molina-Infante, Javier; Barrio, Jesús; Herranz, Maria Teresa; Algaba, Alicia; Castro, Manuel; Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of currently recommended third-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori is suboptimal, even that of culture-guided treatments. Resistance to multiple antibiotics is the major factor related to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a 14-day therapy using high-dose of amoxicillin, metronidazole and esomeprazole. Multicenter open-label study as a register in routine clinical practice in patients with two previous failures of eradication therapy. A triple therapy with esomeprazole 40 mg b.d., amoxicillin 1 g t.d.s and metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s for 2 weeks was administered as a third-line therapy after a first treatment including clarithromycin and a second treatment including a quinolone. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by either histology or 13 C-UBT both before and after treatment. A total of 68 patients were included in this study. An interim analysis showed that only three out of eight patients who had received metronidazole in previous eradication regimens were cured (37%, 95% CI 8-75); as a result, after this interim analysis only metronidazole-naïve patients were included. The ITT eradication rate in metronidazole-naive patients was 64% (95% CI 51-76). Adverse events occurred in 58% of patients, all of them mild-to-moderate. Two patients (3%) did not complete >90% of the treatment because of side effects. No severe adverse events occurred. Cure rates of this 14-day schedule using high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as a third-line eradication regimen were suboptimal, especially in patients who had received metronidazole in previous failed eradication regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Dogan, Nihal; Reyhanioglu, Serap; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2011-03-01

    Although many Blastocystis infections remain asymptomatic, recent data suggest it also causes frequent symptoms. Therapy should be limited to patients with persistent symptoms and a complete workup for alternative etiologies. The goal of this study was to compare the natural evolution (no treatment) to the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) or metronidazole for the duration of diarrhea and the duration of colonization in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and positive stool examination for Blastocystis hominis. This randomized single-blinded clinical trial included children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea-vomiting, flatulence) more than 2 weeks and confirmed B. hominis by stool examination (B. hominis cysts in the stool with microscopic examination of the fresh stool). The primary end points were clinical evaluation and result of microscopic stool examination at day 15. Secondary end points were the same end points at day 30. Randomization was performed by alternating inclusion: group A, S. boulardii (250 mg twice a day, Reflor®) during 10 days; group B, metronidazole (30 mg/kg twice daily) for 10 days; group C, no treatment. At day 15 and 30 after inclusion, the patients were re-evaluated, and stool samples were examined microscopically. On day 15, children that were still symptomatic and/or were still B. hominis-infected in group C were treated with metronidazole for 10 days. There was no statistically significant difference between the three study groups for age, gender, and the presence of diarrhea and abdominal pain. On day 15, clinical cure was observed in 77.7% in group A (n, 18); in 66.6% in group B (n, 15); and 40% in group C (n:15) (p boulardii has potential beneficial effects in B. hominis infection (symptoms, presence of parasites). These findings challenge the actual guidelines.

  15. Preemptive warfarin dose reduction after initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Anna; Loesch, Erin B; Weiland, Anthony; Fioravanti, Nicole; Lucius, David

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of a preemptive warfarin dose reduction at the time of initiation of either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole, a retrospective chart review of patients who received an outpatient prescription for warfarin and either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and/or metronidazole from July 1, 2011 to July 1, 2015 was conducted. Clinical outcomes compared Veterans who had a warfarin dose reduction and those who did not within 120 h (5 days) of antibiotic initiation. The primary outcome compared the pre-and post-antibiotic International Normalized Ratio (INR) of patients in the intervention group (warfarin dose reduction) with those in the control group (no intervention). Secondary outcomes assessed incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events within 30 days of antibiotic completion. Fifty patients were assessed. Forty-nine patients had at least one follow-up appointment; 126 follow-up visits were evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference for the change in therapeutic INR at the first follow-up appointment (p = 0.029) for those patients in the control group. On average, the patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up visits (p = 0.019). There were no statistically significant differences for the overall rate of therapeutic INR values between groups, as well as no instances of a thromboembolic or major bleeding events during the follow-up period. Clinically significant differences were observed for patients who received a preemptive warfarin dose reduction upon initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole. Patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up appointments and were more likely maintain a therapeutic INR within the 30 days following the antibiotic course. Results of this study will be presented the at Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee in an effort to seek approval for policy development to initiate a local preemptive warfarin dose adjustment as a standard

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS METRONIDAZOLE VS. LACTOBACILLUS

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    Narmadha Selvaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and morbidity of bacterial vaginosis is high. But most of the patients are asymptomatic and recurrences are common even after effective treatment. Studies comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs indicated for Bacterial vaginosis are also very minimal. Aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiological pattern of bacterial vaginosis and to compare the efficacy of Metronidazole and Lactobacillus in the management of bacterial vaginosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 newly diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis patients were enrolled and randomly allotted into two study groups of Metronidazole for one week and Lactobacillus for two months respectively. The patients are followed up based on Amsel’s criteria and Nugent’s scoring system at the time of initiation of treatment, one week, one month, two months and six months after treatment. Ultrasonogram was done at the end of two months. Statistical Analysis- chi square test with yate’s correction and Fisher’s exact test (2 tailed to calculate the P value. Settings and Design- Prospective, open labeled, comparative clinical trial. RESULTS Lactobacillus group was better than Metronidazole based on Amsel’s criteria at six months follow up period and based on Nugent’s scoring system at two months and six months follow up period. CONCLUSION Epidemiological interpretation in our study shows Bacterial vaginosis is common in the 24-40 years of age; marital status, earlier age at marriage, number of deliveries is directly proportionate to bacterial vaginosis incidence. Irregular menstrual cycle, number of sexual partners, and mode of delivery has no association with the incidence of Bacterial vaginosis. Moderate to profuse genital discharge is the commonest symptom observed. Whiff test (80%, Clue cells (90% and alkaline vaginal pH > 5 has high degree of sensitivity.

  17. Influence of metronidazole on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice and on the DNA repair synthesis of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.; Schroeder, E.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to literature reports the effect of Metronidazole [1-(hydroxyethyl)-5-nitro-2-methyl-imidazole] on the survival rate of C 3 H inbred mice following whole-body doses ranging from 5 to 15 Gy was determined under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were used to study the influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced alterations of the DNA sedimentation behavior in the alkaline sucrose gradient under oxic conditions in vitro. The effect of Metronidazole on the semiconservative DNA synthesis was investigated under oxic and hypoxic conditions in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and L5178Y lymphoma cells. Furthermore, it was examined whether the radiation-induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis in L5178Y lymphoma cells and the radiation-induced repair synthesis in lymphocytes is influenced by Metronidazole. From the values of the LDsub(50/30) after whole-body irradiation a sensitilization factor of 1.3 was derived for Metronidazole under hypoxic conditions. Under atmospheric conditions an increase of the radiation effect by a factor of 1.1 was obtained. The protective factor of hypoxia was 1.6 and thus greater than the radiosensibilization caused by Metronidazole. The DNA synthesis was slightly inhibited by Metronidazole under both hypoxic and euoxic conditions. The studies revealed no significant influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced changes of the DNA sedimentation behavior and of the DNA repair synthesis as well as on the radiation induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis. (author)

  18. The Combination of Fosfomycin, Metronidazole, and Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor is Stable in vitro and Has Maintained Antibacterial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, Siv; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Gasbjerg, Lærke Smidt

    2017-01-01

    to the antibacterial effects of fosfomycin and metronidazole alone. CONCLUSION: The drug combination had neutral and stable pH, was iso-osmotic, and had stable concentrations during 24 h of storage. The antibacterial effect of fosfomycin and metronidazole were not altered when the drugs were mixed....

  19. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE, CO, CO2, AND METHANOGENS ON THE FERMENTATIVE METABOLISM OF THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP STRAIN L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; REES, E; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    The effects of metronidazole, CO, methanogens, and CO, on the fermentation of glucose by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 were investigated. Both metronidazole and CO caused a shift in the fermentation products from predominantly H-2, acetate, and formate to lactate as the major

  20. Efficacy of metronidazole versus placebo in pain control after hemorrhoidectomy: results of a controlled clinical trial

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    Sergio Solorio-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemorrhoidal disease occurs in 50% of people aged > 40 years and is the most common reason for anorectal surgery. Pain is the main complication. Multiple topical and systemic drugs have been investigated for pain control, but there is no ideal treatment. Metronidazole has been shown to decrease postoperative pain but is not used widely. Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral metronidazole versus placebo and to assess postoperative pain following hemorrhoidectomy. Material and methods: Controlled clinical trial in adult patients who underwent elective hemorrhoidectomy for grade III/IV hemorrhoids. Patients were assigned to receive metronidazole (500 mg q8 h orally; study group, SG or placebo (control group, CG for 7 days after surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale after surgery. Analgesic administration (time and use of analgesics and resumption of daily life activities were also assessed. Results: Forty-four patients were included, 22 in each group. Postoperative pain differed significantly between the SG and CG at 6 h (3.86 ± 0.56, 6.64 ± 1.49, 12 h (5.59 ± 1.33, 8.82 ± 0.79, 24 h (6.86 ± 1.49, 9.73 ± 0.45, day 4 (5.32 ± 2.10, 9.50 ± 0.59, day 7 (3.14 ± 1.03, 7.36 ± 1.39, and day 14 (2.14 ± 0.46, 5.45 ± 1.29. The first analgesia dose was required at 21.27 ± 5.47 h in the CG and 7.09 ± 2.36 h in the SG (p < 0.05, the time of analgesic use was 6.86 ± 1.61 days in the CG and 13.09 ± 2.48 days in the SG (p < 0.05, and resumption of daily activities occurred at 7.59 ± 1.56 days in the CG and 14.73 ± 3.76 days in the SG (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral administration of metronidazole is effective in pain management after hemorrhoidectomy.

  1. Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in mice with vancomycin alone is as effective as treatment with vancomycin and metronidazole in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Aarup, Mie; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI) depends on disease severity. A combination of vancomycin and metronidazole is often recommended in severe cases. The aim of this study was to examine, in a murine model....... difficile toxins. RESULTS: None of the mice in the vancomycin-treated group died during the treatment phase compared to a mortality of 17%, 33% and 55% in the combination, metronidazole and infected control group, respectively. Mice treated with vancomycin alone or in combination with metronidazole...... of CDI, if mice treated with a combination of vancomycin and metronidazole had a better clinical outcome than mice treated with vancomycin or metronidazole alone. DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice pretreated with an antimicrobial mixture were challenged with C. difficile VPI 10463 or phosphate-buffered saline...

  2. Radiosensitizing efficacy of iso-metronidazole after intravesical application in bladder cancer. A clinical phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kob, D.; Lilienthal, A.; Bauhardt, H.; Merkle, K.; Schroeder, E.; Schroeder, E.; Hentschel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The radiosensitizing efficacy of iso-Metronidazole, a 4-Nitroimidazole derivative, was evaluated in a prospective clinical phase II study. The results of combined radiotherapy of 25 patients with bladder cancer were compared with those of a control group of 25 patients treated with radiotherapy only. Tumor regression six months after radiotherapy was used as an endpoint. The surgical procedure was performed as double TUR. Evaluating the local tumor control after additional application of iso-Metronidazole a gain factor of 1.2 is obtained. (orig.) [de

  3. Clinical evaluation of an ointment with 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine in the treatment of alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L J; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Rodrigues, T S; Simonato, L E

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate the use of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, using a lanolin base and mint as flavoring, to treat alveolitis in humans. Twenty-five patients, with a diagnosis of alveolitis, were treated in the following way: locoregional anesthesia; surgical cleaning of the socket with alveolar curettes; saline solution irrigation with a 20 ml disposable syringe; and complete filling of the socket with the ointment. The analysis of the results showed that the painful symptoms were severe before and on the day of the treatment in 17 (68%) of the 25 patients treated. Post-treatment analysis presented 2 patients (18%) with severe painful symptoms after 24 h of the treatment and complete remission of painful symptoms after 48 h of the treatment with the ointment. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, with mint flavoring and lanolin as a base, can be used to treat alveolitis.

  4. Nonsurgical therapy of chronic periodontitis with adjunctive systemic azithromycin or amoxicillin/metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Holger F R; Buchmann, Andreas; Friedrich, Abel; Eick, Sigrun

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the effect of systemic adjunctive use of azithromycin with amoxicillin/metronidazole to scaling and root planing (SRP) in a clinical study. Data from 60 individuals with chronic periodontitis were evaluated after full-mouth SRP. Antibiotics were given from the first day of SRP, in the test group (n = 29), azithromycin for 3 days and, in the control group (n = 31), amoxicillin/metronidazole for7 days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Gingival crevicular fluid was analyzed for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-8 and interleukin (IL)-1beta levels. Subgingival plaque was taken for assessment of the major bacteria associated with periodontitis. In both groups, PD, AL, and BOP were significantly reduced (p chronic periodontitis; however, a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study is needed. Application of azithromycin as a single antibiotic for 3 days might be considered as an additional adjunctive antibiotic to SRP in selected patients.

  5. Microcalorimetric determination of the effects of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and their combination on in vitro biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Braissant, Olivier; Hauser-Gerspach, Irmgard; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of action of adjuvant antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate antibiotic susceptibility of an in vitro biofilm by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Titanium disks containing a 72-hour three-species biofilm (Streptococcus sanguinis DSM20068, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC10953, and Porphyromonas gingivalis DSM20709) were placed in a series of IMC ampoules with nutrient agar supplemented with increasing concentrations of amoxicillin, metronidazole, or their combination and incubated anaerobically for 10 days. Lag time and maximum growth rate were determined from continuous heat-flow recordings of metabolic activity. To validate the IMC biofilm results, adherent S. sanguinis and P. gingivalis were incubated anaerobically in medium supplemented with antibiotics at 37°C for 24 hours, and their vitality was determined by live/dead staining, conventional culturing, and IMC. In all biofilm samples incubated with antibiotics, a prolonged lag phase was observed compared with controls (P live/dead staining and conventional culturing. IMC gives new evidence about antibiotic effects on oral biofilms and is more informative than conventional culture and live/dead assays. The combination of antibiotics was found to be more efficient than metronidazole alone; however, only minor differences in growth inhibition were detected compared with amoxicillin alone.

  6. The Prevalence of Trichomoniasis and Metronidazole Susceptibility of the Isolates in Ghorveh City, Year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Matini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted diseases caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the infection and to consider the metronidazole susceptibility of the T. vaginalis isolates. Methods:This cross sectional study was conducted on 670females attending gynecology clinics of Qorveh city, Kurdistan province, during year 2015. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis was performed using Dorset culture medium and wet mount methods. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was done aerobically after establishment of the isolates in an axenic culture medium, diamond. Results: From 670vaginal samples, eight %1.2(and four %0.6(were positive for T. vaginalis by wet mount and culture methods, respectively. Fifty percent of the infected individuals were aged from 35to 44years old and were illiterate P < 0.05(. Clinical signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis were vaginal discharge, itching, burning sensation, dyspareunia, abdominal pain and greenish discharge. All of the parasites were sensitive to metronidazole with mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC(and standard deviation of 1.9and 0.85µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions:Although, the prevalence of trichomoniasis is relatively low in the studied population but due to the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in public health, strategic measurements are necessary to prevent and control the infection.

  7. Development and validation of HPLC analytical method for quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, K.A.; Shyum, S.B.; Usman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) analytical method with UV detection system for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed by using C18 RP column (250mm X 4.6mm, 5 meu m) as stationary phase and 0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffered at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at 320nm. The method was validated as per the US FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation and was found to be selective without interferences from mobile phase components, impurities and biological matrix. The method found to be linear over the concentration range of 0.2812 meu g/ml to 18.0 meu g/ml (r2 = 0.9987) with adequate level of accuracy and precision. The samples were found to be stable under various recommended laboratory and storage conditions. Therefore, the method can be used with adequate level of confidence and assurance for bioavailability, bioequivalence and other pharmacokinetic studies of metronidazole in human. (author)

  8. Fast and sensitive metronidazole determination by means of voltammetry on renewable amalgam silver based electrode without the preconcentration step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piech Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of cyclic renewable amalgam silver-based electrode (Hg(AgFE for sensitive metronidazole detection by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV is described. The unique properties of the Hg(AgFE such as the relative large surface area and its fast and very simple renewal were fully utilized for sensitive measurements. Compared with the classical hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE, the renewable Hg(AgFE significantly increases the reduction peak current of metronidazole because of its large surface area. The effects of various factors for the metronidazole determination such as: pulse height and width, step potential, surface area of the working electrode, and basic electrolyte composition are optimized. The obtained calibration graph is linear from 0.1 (17 μg L-1 to 2 μM (342 μg L-1 with correlation coefficient 0.999. For the Hg(AgFE with the surface area of 10.1 mm2 the limit of detection (LOD is 20 nM (3.4 μg L-1. The repeatability of the method at a concentration of the analyte of 0.5 μM (5.6 μg L−1, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD is 2.1 % (n = 7. The proposed method was successfully applied and confirmed by studying recovery of metronidazole from spiked samples.

  9. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  10. Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy with Bismuth Subcitrate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline and Omeprazole in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

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    Raymond Lahaie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous study showed that 14 days of qid bismuth-based triple therapy with tetracycline 500 mg, metronidazole 250 mg and colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg resulted in excellent Helicobacter pylori eradication rates (89.5%. The present study looked at a shorter treatment period by adding omeprazole and by reducing the dose of tetracycline.

  11. High rate of non-susceptibility to metronidazole and clindamycin in anaerobic isolates: Data from a clinical laboratory from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sadia Omer; Jabeen, Kauser; Qaiser, Saba; Ahsan, Syed Tanwir; Khan, Erum; Zafar, Afia

    2015-06-01

    Due to increasing resistance amongst anaerobic pathogens periodic surveillance of resistance has been recommended in regional/local settings. Anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not routinely performed in many laboratories in Pakistan, hence absence of local data may lead to inappropriate empirical therapy in serious cases. 121 clinically significant anaerobic strains (26/121; 21% bacteremic isolates) were isolated and saved from 2010 to 2011. Susceptibility testing against metronidazole, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, linezolid and gatifloxacin was performed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A high proportion of non-susceptible strains to metronidazole (10% of 121 isolates) and clindamycin (12% of 121 isolates) was seen, most noticeable in Bacteroides fragilis. Three Bacteroides species strains were non-susceptible to both metronidazole and clindamycin. One strain of Clostridium species was fully resistant to metronidazole and had intermediate resistance to clindamycin. No resistance to any of the other tested antibiotics was seen. Resistance to metronidazole was higher in bacteremic vs. non bacteremic isolates (p = value 0.07). In our setting where there is a high usage of empirical metronidazole and clindamycin for the treatment of serious anaerobic infections clinicians should be aware of increased resistance to these agents. Periodic surveillance of resistance to anti-anaerobic drugs especially metronidazole and clindamycin should be performed to generate antibiogram and guide appropriate empiric therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A meta-analysis of metronidazole and vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, stratified by disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiuzhen; Bai, Nan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Ni, Wentao; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kai; Liang, Beibei; Liu, Youning; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of metronidazole and vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, especially to investigate which agent was superior for treating either mild or severe C. difficile infection. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies identified in Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Four randomized controlled trials and two cohort studies involving 1218 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Metronidazole was inferior to vancomycin for treating C. difficile infection in terms of both initial clinical cure rates (risk ratio, RR=0.91, 95% confidence interval, CI=0.84-0.98, p=0.02) and sustained cure rates (RR=0.88, 95% CI=0.82-0.96, p=0.003). For mild C. difficile infection, the efficacy of metronidazole and vancomycin resulted in similar clinical cure rates (RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.84-1.04, p=0.21) and sustained cure rates (RR=0.93, 95% CI=0.83-1.05, p=0.26). For severe C. difficile infection the efficacy of vancomycin was superior to metronidazole in terms of clinical cure rates (RR=0.81, 95% CI=0.69-0.95, p=0.009), whereas sustained cure rates were similar (RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.72-1.02, p=0.08). Regarding microbiological cure metronidazole therapy was as effective as vancomycin therapy (RR=0.88, 95% CI=0.64-1.21, p=0.43). Recurrence rates with metronidazole and vancomycin for both mild C. difficile infection (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.56-1.60, p=0.85) and severe C. difficile infection (RR=1.27, 95% CI=0.85-1.91, p=0.25) were not different. Likewise, no difference in all-cause mortality was found as well (RR=0.87, 95% CI=0.56-1.35, p=0.53). In conclusion, vancomycin provides improved initial clinical and sustained cure rates in patients with C. difficile infection compared with metronidazole, especially in patients with severe C. difficile infection. In view of these data, vancomycin may be considered first line therapy for severe C. difficile infection. Copyright

  13. Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites.In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G

  14. The use of immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole in the treatment of purulent wounds

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    Anastasia S. Gorohova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate the wound-healing effect of the immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC or polyethylene oxide (PEO in the treatment of an experimental purulent wound.Materials and methods. The following compositions were studied, %. Combination 1: benzalkonium chloride – 0.02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC – 4,0; Purified water – up to 100,0. Combination 2: benzalkonium chloride – 0,02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Polyethylene oxide, m. 400 – 80.0; Polyethylene oxide, m. 1500 – 20,0. The experiment was performed on 180 male Wistar rats, which were divided into three statistically homogeneous groups of 60 animals in each, a purulent wound was modeled in all experimental rats using the method of P.I. Tolstykh. In the control group local treatment of the wound was performed with the help of “Levomekol” ointment, in two experimental groups, the combination was treated with 1 and 2.The course evaluation of the wound process was carried out using planimetric, microbiological and histological methods of investigation. The data were recorded and the animals were eliminated from the experiment on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th and 15th days.Results. The data of the microbiological study confirmed the high efficiency of the combinations developed by the authors in relation to standard test strains of pathogen microorganisms. As a result of the planimetric study, a significant decrease in the area of wounds in the experimental group 1 was found compared to the ontrol group, which indicates a more effective course of the healing process in experimental group 1. The same process was noted in the experimental group 2, starting from the 5th day of observation relative to the Control. The use of combinations developed by the authors in the treatment of the purulent-inflammatory process of the subcutaneous layer

  15. Treatment of vaginal infections: effectiveness of the association of metronidazole and clotrimazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The normal vagina of women of reproductive age is colonised by lactobacilli that produce lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins; these substances contribute to lowering the vaginal pH. A low vaginal pH creates an environment hostile to the growth of other microrganisms. When the number of lactobacilli is decreased, the resulting increase in the pH may favour vaginal infections. The three most common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal candidosis. There are multiple clinical and laboratory tests for diagnosing vaginal infections; the most commonly used methods for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis are the Amsel’s criteria and the Nugent’s Gram stain scale. Infections caused by Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis can be diagnosed by microscopic examination of vaginal secretions. Clotrimazole and metronidazole, especially when administered topically, are highly effective in treating vaginal infections.

  16. Tribulus terrestris ameliorates metronidazole-induced spermatogenic inhibition and testicular oxidative stress in the laboratory mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) and TT (200 mg/kg BW/day) alone for 28 days, respectively. Low (100 mg/kg BW/day) and high (200 mg/kg BW/day) doses of TT along with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) were administered for 28 days in the mice of Groups V and VI, respectively. Twenty four hours after the last treatment, all the animals were euthanized to study the histological changes in the testis and sperm count in the epididymis. Testicular functional markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were also assessed in the mice of all the groups. Results: Metronidazole caused marked alterations in the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and the level of LPO. The epididymal sperm count also declined significantly in MTZ-treated group. These changes were partially restored following co-administration of 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 100 mg/kg BW/day of TT. However, in the mice co-administered with 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 200 mg/kg BW/day of TT, the changes reverted back completely, similar to that of the controls. Conclusion: The fruit extract of TT ameliorates the MTZ-induced alterations in the testis. PMID:26069369

  17. PDGF-metronidazole-encapsulated nanofibrous functional layers on collagen membrane promote alveolar ridge regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho MH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Hua Ho,1 Hao-Chieh Chang,2,3 Yu-Chia Chang,3 Jeiannete Claudia,1 Tzu-Chiao Lin,2 Po-Chun Chang2,3 1Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: This study aimed to develop a functionally graded membrane (FGM to prevent infection and promote tissue regeneration. Poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide encapsulating platelet-derived growth factor (PDLLA-PDGF or metronidazole (PDLLA-MTZ was electrospun to form a nanofibrous layer on the inner or outer surface of a clinically available collagen membrane, respectively. The membrane was characterized for the morphology, molecule release profile, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and preclinical efficiency for alveolar ridge regeneration. The PDLLA-MTZ and PDLLA-PDGF nanofibers were 800–900 nm in diameter, and the thicknesses of the functional layers were 20–30 µm, with sustained molecule release over 28 days. All of the membranes tested were compatible with cell survival in vitro and showed good tissue integration with minimal fibrous capsule formation or inflammation. Cell proliferation was especially prominent on the PDLLA-PDGF layer in vivo. On the alveolar ridge, all FGMs reduced wound dehiscence compared with the control collagen membrane, and the FGM with PDLLA-PDGF promoted osteogenesis significantly. In conclusion, the FGMs with PDLLA-PDGF and PDLLA-MTZ showed high biocompatibility and facilitated wound healing compared with conventional membrane, and the FGM with PDLLA-PDGF enhanced alveolar ridge regeneration in vivo. The design represents a beneficial modification, which may be easily adapted for future clinical use. Keywords: tissue engineering, platelet-derived growth factor, metronidazole, alveolar process

  18. Tribulus terrestris ameliorates metronidazole-induced spermatogenic inhibition and testicular oxidative stress in the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on the metronidazole (MTZ)-induced alterations in spermatogenesis, sperm count, testicular functions, and oxidative stress. Thirty adult Swiss strain mice were divided into six groups. Animals of Groups I and II served as untreated and vehicle-treated controls, while that of Groups III and IV were administered with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) and TT (200 mg/kg BW/day) alone for 28 days, respectively. Low (100 mg/kg BW/day) and high (200 mg/kg BW/day) doses of TT along with MTZ (500 mg/kg BW/day) were administered for 28 days in the mice of Groups V and VI, respectively. Twenty four hours after the last treatment, all the animals were euthanized to study the histological changes in the testis and sperm count in the epididymis. Testicular functional markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were also assessed in the mice of all the groups. Metronidazole caused marked alterations in the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and the level of LPO. The epididymal sperm count also declined significantly in MTZ-treated group. These changes were partially restored following co-administration of 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 100 mg/kg BW/day of TT. However, in the mice co-administered with 500 mg/kg BW/day of MTZ and 200 mg/kg BW/day of TT, the changes reverted back completely, similar to that of the controls. The fruit extract of TT ameliorates the MTZ-induced alterations in the testis.

  19. Clinical experience of using metronidazole as an external therapy of acne

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    A. V. Statsenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrogyl gel for external use (metronidazole 1% has an antioxidant activity and substantially reduces the production of active oxygen compounds by neutrophilic leukocytes in the skin. A combination therapy of light to moderate acne with the use of external retinoids and metronidazole can be more efficient than a monotherapy with the use of these drugs alone. Goal. To assess the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of Metrogyl gel for external use in a combination with Klenzit gel (adapalene 0.1% for treatment of patients with acne vulgaris. Materials and methods. The authors conducted an open-label controlled study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Metrogyl gel for external use in a combination with Klenzit gel for external use. As many as 50 patients suffering from acne vulgaris took part in the study, which lasted for eight weeks. The subjects were subdivided into two groups: combination therapy (Group 1, n = 15 and monotherapy with the use of external retinoids (Group 2, n = 15. Results. Adverse effects such as dry skin and peeling were observed among the patients from Group 1 less often (by 3.3 times - 5/35 (14.3% of cases than in Group 2 (7/15 (46.7% of cases (p = 0.036. The total share of acne patients with clinical recovery and substantial improvement in Group 1 was 33/35 (94.3%, which is 41.4% as much as in Group 2 (10/15 (66.7% (p = 0.033. Conclusions. A combination of Metrogyl gel and external retinoids is more efficient than a monotherapy with the use of topical retinoid alone, and such a therapy demonstrates higher tolerability.

  20. Effect of metronidazole versus standard care on length of stay of patients admitted with severe infectious mononucleosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, P; O'Neill, J P; Fenton, J E

    2014-07-01

    Metronidazole may be of use in the treatment of infectious mononucleosis (IM). Our aim is to show that metronidazole shortens hospital stay for patients with severe IM. A single-centre randomized controlled trial was undertaken in patients admitted with severe IM, who were with a similar group treated by the standard care. Patients were blinded to which treatment arm they were in. Forty-two of these patients were enrolled in the trial. The primary endpoint was the difference in length of stay. This was significantly less in the metronidazole group (3.67 days v 4.67) (p 0.032). This study demonstrates that metronidazole has a role to play in severe infectious mononucleosis. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. [Clinical Characteristics of Metronidazole-induced Encephalopathy: A Report of Two Cases and a Review of 32 Japanese Cases in the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideaki; Sosa, Hiroko; Mori, Masaaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Metronidazole is an antibiotic classically used against most anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Because an intravenous form of metronidazole has recently entered the market, the use of this antibiotic is attracting renewed interest in many clinical settings in Japan. However, neurotoxicity is a major adverse event: in the central nervous system metronidazole-induced encephalopathy is a rare but serious condition. We performed a literature review of 34 cases including 2 of our cases, 25 from domestic conference abstracts, and 7 cases presented in full research papers. The mean patient age was 64.7 years. The conditions most commonly treated with metronidazole were brain abscess (35.3%), liver abscess (17.6%), and Clostridium difficile infection (14.7%). The most common predisposing conditions were liver dysfunction (26.5%), diabetes and other metabolic disorders (20.6%), and hematologic or solid organ malignancy (14.7%). The mean period of administration before the onset of encephalopathy symptoms was 61.3 days, and the mean total dose was 95.9g. The initial chief complaints were dysarthria (in 70.6% of the cases) and ataxia (61.8%); 82.4% of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of MRI (T2-weighted or FLAIR imaging). The key imaging finding was high intensity in the dentate nucleus bilaterally (82.4%). Stopping the metronidazole led to symptom remission within 8.5 days, but the MRI changes remained longer than the clinical symptoms. Two patients (6.0%) developed irreversible disturbance of consciousness. Although the mechanisms of this type of encephalopathy have not yet been elucidated, localized nerve-cell edema is likely caused by decreased metronidazole metabolism associated with liver and metabolic dysfunction. Careful observation for neurologic signs should be conducted during the treatment of brain abscesses associated with metronidazole administration, because patients with brain abscesses are naturally at high risk of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy.

  2. The effect of irritant dermatitis on cutaneous bioavailability of a metronidazole formulation, investigated by microdialysis and dermatopharmacokinetic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P.G.; Hansen, S.H.; Shah, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Determination of drug penetration in diseased skin represents a challenge. Objective: To compare dermal microdialysis and tape-strip sampling of drug penetration in normal skin and skin with irritant dermatitis. Methods: The two methodologies were employed simultaneously in 16 healthy...... methods. Results: Microdialysis showed a significant threefold increase in metronidazole penetration in skin with irritant dermatitis compared with unmodified skin. Conversely, the concentration of metronidazole in tape-strip samples was significantly decreased in irritant dermatitis. Conclusion......: The selection of sampling methodology should be based on the skin layer of interest as well as the integrity of the skin barrier. Whenever the dermal tissue is the target for topical treatment, microdialysis sampling should be the method of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  3. Solid-State FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Two Binary Mixtures: Cefepime-Metronidazole and Cefoperazone-Sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Refat H. Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural information of the pharmaceuticals and insights on the modes of molecular interactions are very important aspects in drug development. In this work, two cephalosporins and antimicrobial combinations, cefepime-metronidazole and cefoperazone-sulbactam, were studied in the solid state using FTIR spectroscopy for the first time. Quantitation of the studied drugs and their binary mixtures was performed by integrating the peak areas of the characteristic well-resolved bands: υ (C=O band at 1773 cm−1 for cefepime and ring torsion band at 826 cm−1 for metronidazole and υ (C=O band at 1715 cm−1 for cefoperazone and ring torsion band at 1124 cm−1 for sulbactam. The results of this work were compared with the relevant spectrophotometric reported methods. This study provides data that can be used for the preparative process monitoring of the studied drugs in various dosage forms.

  4. Intervención comunicacional en la promoción del perfil ambiental del profesorado del Colegio Nacional Integrado Jorge Basadre en Santa María del Valle, Huánuco. Perú-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica SOTOMAYOR BACA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de medidas de mitigación y remediación de la crisis ambiental, la preparación de profesores para la Educación Ambiental es, en la actualidad, reconocida como una prioridad. Ello determina la necesidad de una transformación continua del rol docente, constituyéndose en agentes activos en la formación integral de nuevas generaciones, abordando los problemas ambientales con enfoques emergentes.El objetivo de esta investigación es comprobar si a lo largo de la intervención comunicacional se logra mejorar el perfil ambiental del profesorado del Colegio Nacional Integrado Jorge Basadre en Santa María del Valle, del distrito y provincia de Huánuco-Perú. Y, por tanto, optimizar sus capacidades hacia la enseñanzaaprendizaje del cuidado del ambiente, incorporando en el alumno el compromiso con el cuidado del ambiente. El estudio es experimental, prospectivo, longitudinal y analítico, con diseño de un solo grupo antes y después; de treinta y seis participantes voluntarios de la intervención comunicacional, desarrollada en sesiones mensuales, en un periodo de cinco meses. Se aplicaron satisfactoriamente una encuesta y dos escalas validadas y fiabilizadas. Se comprueban las hipótesis mediante el análisis de varianza de un factor de contrastes multivariados y la prueba t para medias de una muestra relacionada; apoyados en el SPWS V19. La influencia de la intervención comunicacional es demostrada mediante las diferencias significativas obtenidas en los momentos posteriores a la intervención respecto al momento basal. Según los hallazgos, se confirman las hipótesis que establecen diferencias en el comportamiento habitual, en la práctica pedagógica y en las percepciones hacia la educación ambiental de los participantes. Sin embargo, la intervención no mejora la práctica de valores y principios ambientales del profesorado, lo que supone la incidencia de futuros estudios que favorezcan tales cambios. De manera general, la

  5. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  6. Design, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Novel Metronidazole-Loaded Gastro-Retentive pH-Sensitive Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahrouk, Galal M; Aboul-Einien, Mona H; Makhlouf, Amal I

    2016-12-01

    Floating pH-sensitive chitosan hydrogels containing metronidazole were developed for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the stomach. Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking medium or high molecular weight chitosan in lyophilized solutions containing metronidazole using either citrate or tripolyphosphate (TPP) salts at 1% or 2% concentration. A 2 3 factorial design was developed to study the influence of formulation parameters on the physical characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. The interaction between hydrogel components was investigated. The morphology of the prepared hydrogels was inspected and their percentage swelling, release pattern, and moisture content were evaluated. The results revealed the absence of interaction between hydrogel components and their highly porous structure. Percentage swelling of the hydrogels was much higher, and drug release was faster in gastric pH compared with intestinal pH. The formula prepared using 2% high molecular weight chitosan and 2% TPP significantly swelled (700%) within the first 4 h and released the loaded drug over a period of 24 h. Its moisture content was not affected by storage at high relative humidity. Therefore, this formula was selected to be tested in dogs for its gastric retention (using X-ray radiography) and efficacy in the eradication of H. pylori (using histopathological and microbiological examination). The results revealed that the prepared hydrogel formula was retained in dog stomach for at least 48 h, and it was more effective against H. pylori than the commercially available oral metronidazole tablets (Flagyl®).

  7. Genotoxicity Revaluation of Three Commercial Nitroheterocyclic Drugs: Nifurtimox, Benznidazole, and Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buschini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitroheterocyclic compounds are widely used as therapeutic agents against a variety of protozoan and bacterial infections. However, the literature on these compounds, suspected of being carcinogens, is widely controversial. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of three drugs, Nifurtimox (NFX, Benznidazole (BNZ, and Metronidazole (MTZ was re-evaluated by different assays. Only NFX reduces survival rate in actively proliferating cells. The compounds are more active for base-pair substitution than frameshift induction in Salmonella; NFX and BNZ are more mutagenic than MTZ; they are widely dependent from nitroreduction whereas microsomal fraction S9 weakly affects the mutagenic potential. Comet assay detects BNZ- and NFX-induced DNA damage at doses in the range of therapeutically treated patient plasma concentration; BNZ seems to mainly act through ROS generation whereas a dose-dependent mechanism of DNA damaging is suggested for NFX. The lack of effects on mammalian cells for MTZ is confirmed also in MN assay whereas MN induction is observed for NFX and BNZ. The effects of MTZ, that shows comparatively low reduction potential, seem to be strictly dependent on anaerobic/hypoxic conditions. Both NFX and BNZ may not only lead to cellular damage of the infective agent but also interact with the DNA of mammalian cells.

  8. Studies of metronidazole radiosensitizing effect in radiation treatment of patients with oral cavity cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, P.Yu.; Daryalova, S.L.; Pelevina, I.I.; Karakulov, R.K.; Zel'vin, B.M.; Kiseleva, E.S.; Kvasov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical observations of 26 patients with tongue, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer receiving telegammatherapy by dynamic dose fractionation scheme in combination with metronidazole (MZ), and of 38 patients from the control group treated using the identical schedule without MZ suggest that MZ favors increasing radiation damage in tumors in those sites without changing the character or intensifying early radiation reactions. After oral administration of MZ in single doses of 5-6 g/m 2 it reached its maximum in the blood serum within 2-4 h. When the total dose of 30-60 g of MZ was used, a marked toxic effect manifest in gastrointestinal symptoms was observed in 33.3% of patients. MZ has a negative effect on liver functions; however, changes in biochemical tests were reversible and within normal values. Simultaneous studies of biopsy material from 22 patients (11 from each group) in terms of proliferation activity showed that oral cavity tumors contain a significant portion of proliferating cells which notably decrease in the course of radiation therapy. The decrease is marked to a greater extent after irradiation in combination with MZ. (author)

  9. Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Roberto; Rodríguez, Pablo; Mesa, Lumey; Brito, Katia; Prior, Ada; Guilhem, Dirce; Novaes, M R C G

    2012-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections. This study compares the efficacy and safety of ABZ versus metronidazole (MTZ) in human giardiasis. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Centre of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology in Matanzas City, Cuba. Adult patients with confirmed symptomatic G. duodenalis mono-infection were randomly assigned to receive either ABZ [400 mg daily (n = 75)] or MTZ [250 mg t.i.d. (n = 75)], both for 5 days. Follow-up fecal samples were obtained at 3, 5, 7 days after treatment end. The efficacy was similar for both treatment groups: ABZ (82.6%) and MTZ (85.3%); p > 0.05. Side-effects including bitter taste, headache, vomiting and dizziness were significantly higher in the MTZ group. Abdominal pain was significantly higher in ABZ group. ABZ was found as effective as MTZ in the treatment of G. duodenalis infections in adult patients from Cuba and could be a useful drug in areas where co-infection with STH infections is common.

  10. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel contain metronidazole by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Jae; Park, Jong Seok; Jeong, Jin Oh; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Periodontitis is disease of damaged gum tissue that is not removed the plaque onto teeth. In case that the symptoms of disease get pain worse, it will have to extract tooth because of tumefy or bleeding at gums so treatment of drug was required to periodontitis. In this study, the hydrogel was prepared by including superior viscous, excellent elastic, and biocompatibility of Poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA) and antimicrobial drug of Metronidazole (MD). The 15 wt% PVA was dissolved in deionized water and then prepared PVA solution was irradiated using gamma-ray at 25 kGy (10 kGy hr{sup -1}). In addition, PVA hydrogel was immersed in each 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 wt% MD solution using stirrer for 24 hr. The result of the gelation, 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (76%) was lower than PVA hydrogel (88.2%). The swelling ration of 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (294.8%) was higher than PVA hydrogel (105.2%). The compressive strength and thermal properties of MD loaded PVA hydrogel was gradually lower. The drug release test of 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (61%) was higher than 0.1 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (12%). Therefore, MD loaded PVA hygrogel may be a promising tool for periodontitis medicine by gamma-ray.

  11. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel contain metronidazole by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Jae; Park, Jong Seok; Jeong, Jin Oh; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is disease of damaged gum tissue that is not removed the plaque onto teeth. In case that the symptoms of disease get pain worse, it will have to extract tooth because of tumefy or bleeding at gums so treatment of drug was required to periodontitis. In this study, the hydrogel was prepared by including superior viscous, excellent elastic, and biocompatibility of Poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA) and antimicrobial drug of Metronidazole (MD). The 15 wt% PVA was dissolved in deionized water and then prepared PVA solution was irradiated using gamma-ray at 25 kGy (10 kGy hr"-"1). In addition, PVA hydrogel was immersed in each 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 wt% MD solution using stirrer for 24 hr. The result of the gelation, 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (76%) was lower than PVA hydrogel (88.2%). The swelling ration of 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (294.8%) was higher than PVA hydrogel (105.2%). The compressive strength and thermal properties of MD loaded PVA hydrogel was gradually lower. The drug release test of 0.5 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (61%) was higher than 0.1 wt% MD loaded PVA hydrogel (12%). Therefore, MD loaded PVA hygrogel may be a promising tool for periodontitis medicine by gamma-ray

  12. Combined Gemcitabine and Metronidazole Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer Stem-like Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Makoto; Umebayashi, Masayo; Tanaka, Hiroto; Koya, Norihiro; Nakagawa, Sinichiro; Kawabe, Ken; Onishi, Hideya; Nakamura, Masafumi; Morisaki, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Metronidazole (MNZ) is a common antibiotic that exerts disulfiram-like effects when taken together with alcohol. However, the relationship between MNZ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity remains unclear. This study investigated whether MNZ reduces cancer stemness by suppressing ALDH activity and accordingly reducing the malignancy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We developed gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant TFK-1 cells and originally established CCA cell line from a patient with GEM-resistant CCA. Using these cell lines, we analyzed the impacts of MNZ for cancer stem cell markers, invasiveness, and chemosensitivity. MNZ reduced ALDH activity in GEM-resistant CCA cells, leading to decreased invasiveness and enhanced chemosensitivity. MNZ diminished the invasiveness by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and enhancing chemosensitivity by increasing ENT1 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1) and reducing RRM1 (ribonucleotide reductase M1). MNZ reduced cancer stemness in GEM-resistant CCA cells. Combined GEM and MNZ would be a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer stem-like CAA. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic Success of Rifaximin for Clostridium difficile Infection Refractory to Metronidazole and Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tannous

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 46-year-old white male with confirmed Clostridium difficile infection for >4 weeks after fluoroquinolone therapy. The patient received two courses of metronidazole 500 mg three times daily (t.i.d. during which time diarrhea resolved; however, symptoms recurred 14–15 days after treatment termination. He received a 2-week course of vancomycin 125 mg four times daily, with symptoms recurring 10 days after treatment conclusion. The patient then received a pulsed tapering schedule of vancomycin with adjunctive Saccharomyces boulardii. Diarrhea recurred 12 days after treatment completion. He received rifaximin 400 mg t.i.d. while hospitalized for diarrhea-associated complications. Symptoms resolved within 24 h. The patient received a 4-week regimen of rifaximin 400 mg orally t.i.d. after discharge. No further episodes of diarrhea were reported within 6 months after treatment termination. The present case supports the potential benefit of rifaximin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

  14. Use and Effectiveness of Peri-Operative Cefotetan versus Cefazolin Plus Metronidazole for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan, Eleanor; Smith, Janessa; Kruer, Rachel M; Avdic, Edina; Lipsett, Pamela; Curless, Melanie S; Jarrell, Andrew S

    2018-04-24

    Current practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery recommend a cephamycin or cefazolin plus metronidazole for various abdominal surgeries. In February 2016, cephamycin drug shortages resulted in a change in The Johns Hopkins Hospital's (JHH) recommendation for peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgeries from cefotetan to cefazolin plus metronidazole. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the percentage of abdominal surgeries adherent to JHH peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. A sub-group analysis investigated whether prophylaxis with cefazolin plus metronidazole was associated with a lower rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) versus cefotetan. This retrospective cohort study included adult inpatients who underwent an abdominal surgery at JHH in September 2015 (Study Period I: cefotetan) or February to March 2016 (Study Period II: cefazolin plus metronidazole). Two hundred abdominal surgery cases were included in the primary analysis. A subset of 156 surgical cases were included in the sub-group analysis. The overall adherence rate to JHH guidelines was 75% in Study Period I versus 17% in Study Period II (p operative administration time (87% vs. 23%, p site infections occurred in 14% (12/83) of surgeries with cefotetan versus 8.2% (6/73) with cefazolin plus metronidazole for prophylaxis (p = 0.19). Adherence to an institution-specific peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis guideline for abdominal surgeries was limited primarily by the longer infusion time required for pre-operative metronidazole. A higher percentage of SSIs occurred among abdominal surgeries with cefotetan versus cefazolin plus metronidazole for prophylaxis.

  15. Claves en la aplicación del algoritmo Chaid. Un estudio del ocio físico deportivo universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sanz Arazuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es argumentar y explicar la utilidad y el procedimiento de la segmentación jerárquica basada en el algoritmo CHAID como técnica de análisis multivariado. Para facilitar la comprensión de este proceso, la exposición del uso, así como, la interpretación de esta técnica nos hemos servido de una investigación realizada sobre el comportamiento físico-deportivo de tiempo libre de una población universitaria. Este estudio busca definir los perfiles de los universitarios en función de los distintos grados de satisfacción con su práctica físico-deportiva, así como, constatar la existencia de determinadas variables predictoras de dicha satisfacción al relacionar globalmente todas. En el artículo queda demostrada la valiosa capacidad que posee esta técnica de segmentación jerárquica para pronosticar y explicar determinados comportamientos, así como para determinar la relación causa-efecto de dichos comportamientos.

  16. Formas de condicionar la verdad con el uso del montaje en La pelota vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Paz Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar la construcción de sentido en La pelota vasca. La piel contra la piedra (Julio Medem, 2003, el documental sobre terrorismo que más éxito comercial y más polémica ha generado en el cine español. A través de un análisis del montaje, este artículo busca descubrir las pautas, esquemas o estructuras narrativas utilizadas por el director para construir el texto fílmico y para influir en la opinión de los espectadores. Para ello se ha creado una base de datos que permite un minuicioso análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de todAs las intervenciones que hay en la película. Esta propuesta metodológica pretende servir al análisis de otros documentales con similares características narrativas. Las conclusiones obtenidas muestran que el director usa la estructura de parte del documental y las entrevistas a diferentes personalidades del País Vasco para configurar un sentido propio de lo que denomina conflicto vasco, que está muy cercano a las tesis nacionalistas. Queda demostrada la crítica a la acción del PP en sus años de gobierno y el deterioro de la imagen del Estado, principalmente a través de un 80% de referencias negativas sobre las fuerzas de seguridad del Estado. También se prueba que las personas entrevistadas son más o menos creíbles dependiendo de cómo quedan situadas dentro del montaje y de si otros personajes refutan o respaldan lo que dicen.

  17. Análisis del color en los websites de productos sobre flamenco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Antonia Hurtado Guapo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El flamenco se ha convertido en los últimos años en un nicho de mercado en alza, tanto en España como fuera de ella. Teniendo en cuenta esto y la ya demostrada importancia del comercio electrónico, proliferan en Internet los sitios webs donde se venden, o al menos se exponen para su posterior venta, productos relacionados con el mundo del flamenco. El objetivo de esta investigación es el análisis del color de los websites de productos sobre flamenco, atendiendo a la percepción social y cultural del mismo, para orientar al diseñador web en el uso de los mismos en las páginas webs que realice con enfoque empresarial. En el siguiente estudio, se realiza una recuperación de tiendas en línea de venta de productos de flamenco exclusivamente, recuperándose 108 websites en el año 2014. Una vez localizadas las mismas se procede al análisis del color predominante como parte de la primera fase del comportamiento humano de la información. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el color elegido para el diseño de los sitios son el blanco (18,5%, seguido del negro (13% y el gris (10,2%. Se concluye que el color es una característica muy importante a tener en cuenta por el diseñador de tiendas on line de productos de flamenco.

  18. Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, S R R F; Amorim, M M R; Sereno, P F B; Leite, T N F; Ferreira, J A C; Ximenes, R A A

    2011-03-01

    A 7.4% vaginal extract of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) was compared with 0.75% vaginal metronidazole, both manufactured by the Hebron Laboratory, for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, used at bedtime for 7 nights. The condition was diagnosed using the combined criteria of Amsel and Nugent in two groups of 140 and 137 women, aged between 18 and 40 years. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Women were excluded from the study if they presented delayed menstruation, were pregnant, were using or had used any topical or systemic medication, presented any other vaginal infections, presented hymen integrity, or if they reported any history suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. According to Amsel's criteria separately, 29 patients (21.2%) treated with the extract and 87 (62.1%) treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001). According to Nugent's score separately, 19 women (13.9%) treated with the extract and 79 (56.4%) treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001). Using the two criteria together, the so-called total cure was observed in 17 women (12.4%) treated with the extract and in 79 women (56.4%) treated with metronidazole (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the cure rate for bacterial vaginosis using a vaginal gel from a pepper tree extract was lower than the rate obtained with metronidazole gel, while side effects were infrequent and non-severe in both groups.

  19. Effect of stearic acid on the properties of metronidazole/methocel K4M floating matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Lara-Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The properties of metronidazole/Methocel K4M sustained release floating tablets have been studied varying the proportion of the lubricant, stearic acid, on formulations with and without sodium bicarbonate. The variables studied include technological properties of the tablets such as tablet hardness and ejection pressure, the drug release profile, the hydration kinetics and the floating behaviour. The presence of stearic acid and sodium bicarbonate improves the floating behaviour for more than 8 hours. The hydration volume, the tablet hardness and the ejection pressure decrease as the stearic acid content increases and the polymer content decreases. Drug dissolution increases with increasing proportions of stearic acid and decreasing proportions of the polymer in the tablets. The presence of sodium bicarbonate extends the differences in dissolution produced by stearic acid. These results are attributed to decreasing matrices coherence with an increasing quantity of stearic acid and a reducing polymer proportion. The carbon dioxide bubbles produced by sodium bicarbonate expand the matrices facilitating the dissolution, although their presence obstructs also the diffusion path through the hydrated gel layer.Estudaram-se as propriedades de comprimidos flutuantes de metronidazol/Methocel K4M de liberação controlada, variando-se a proporção do lubrificante, ácido esteárico, nas formulações com e sem bicarbonato de sódio. As variáveis estudadas incluem propriedades tecnológicas dos comprimidos, tais como dureza, pressão de ejeção, perfil de liberação do fármaco, cinética de hidratação e comportamento de flutuação. A presença de ácido esteárico e do bicarbonato de sódio melhora o comportamento de flutuação para mais de 8 horas. O volume de hidratação, a dureza e a pressão de ejeção do comprimido decrescem à medida que o conteúdo de ácido esteárico e de polímero diminui. A dissolução do fármaco aumenta com o

  20. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  1. Clostridium difficile Infection and Patient-Specific Antimicrobial Resistance Testing Reveals a High Metronidazole Resistance Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jodie A; Sussman, Daniel A; Fifadara, Nimita; Barkin, Jamie S

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) causes marked morbidity and mortality, accounting for large healthcare expenditures annually. Current CDI treatment guidelines focus on clinical markers of patient severity to determine the preferred antibiotic regimen of metronidazole versus vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance patterns for patients with CD are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to define the antimicrobial resistance patterns for CD. This study included all patients with stools sent for CD testing to a private laboratory (DRG Laboratory, Alpharetta, Georgia) in a 6-month period from across the USA. Patient data was de-identified, with only age, gender, and zip-code available per laboratory protocol. All samples underwent PCR testing followed by hybridization for CD toxin regions A and B. Only patients with CD-positive PCR were analyzed. Antimicrobial resistance testing using stool genomic DNA evaluated presence of imidazole- and vancomycin-resistant genes using multiplex PCR gene detection. Of 2743, 288 (10.5%) stool samples were positive for CD. Six were excluded per protocol. Of 282, 193 (69.4%) were women, and average age was 49.4 ± 18.7 years. Of 282, 62 were PCR positive for toxins A and B, 160 for toxin A positive alone, and 60 for toxin B positive alone. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed 134/282 (47.5%) patients resistant to imidazole, 17 (6.1%) resistant to vancomycin, and 9 (3.2%) resistant to imidazole and vancomycin. CD-positive patients with presence of imidazole-resistant genes from stool DNA extract was a common phenomenon, while vancomycin resistance was uncommon. Similar to treatment of other infections, antimicrobial resistance testing should play a role in CDI clinical decision-making algorithms to enable more expedited and cost-effective delivery of patient care.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and its effect on the body during its use as a radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'vin, B.M.; Polyakov, P.Yu.; Zimina, E.S.; Dar'yalova, S.L.; Kiseleva, E.S.; Sokolova, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    During gamma-beam therapy (40-60 Gy) a study was made of the content of metronidazole (MZ) in the blood of 20 patients with oral mucosa cancer and 12 patients with esophageal cancer devending on a mode of its administration. A MZ effect on liver apd renal fUnction was studied. MZ was administered to the patients with cancer of both sites on the first 3 days of radiation therapy 3 h before an enlarged fraction of 4 Gy, estimated at 145 mg per 1 kg body mass (8-10 g) per os or via a gastrostoma and 15 h in rectal administration. In the patients with oral mucosa cancer after the administration of MZ per os its level which was sufficient for radiosensitization, was achieved after 2 h and remained for subsequent 4 h with maximum accumulation of 262-+22 μg/ml in the blood serum 3-4 h after administration. In the patients with esophageal cancer after MZ administration via the gastrostoma, the nature and time course of drug accumulation in the blood was identical, however accumulation maximum was lower and reached 219+-25 μg/ml. In the patients with esophageal cancer after MZ rectal administration, its level in the blood was 118 μg/ml only and did not achieve a therapeutically effective level. It is assumed that the lowering of MZ repeated dose by 20% will cause a decrease in the drug accumulation in the body and the degree of a toxic effect with maintaining its therapeutically effective level in the blood and tumor

  3. Amperometric Metronidazole Sensor Based on the Supermolecular Recognition by Metalloporphyrin Incorporated In Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Qin Yu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric metronidazole (MTZ sensor using a glycosylated metalloporphyrin as a recognition element, which was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, is reported. For the preparation of a MTZ-sensitive active material, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [2-(2, 3, 4, 6-tetraacetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-O-phenyl]porphyrin (T(oglu PPH2 and its Mn(III complex MnT(o-gluPPCl were synthesized from the reaction of pyrrole with ortho-acetylglycosylated benzaldehyde by Lindsay’s method. The MnT(oglu PPCl-modified electrode showed excellent selectivity toward MTZ with respect to a number of interferents and exhibited stable response. The calibration graph obtained with the proposed sensor was linear over the range of 2.9×10-3-5.8×10-8 M/L, with a detection limit of 5.8×10-8 M/L for MTZ. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that MnT(oglu PPCl included in graphite-epoxy resin matrices could efficiently mediate electron transfer from the base electrode to MTZ causing a decrease of reduction potential for MTZ detection. The sensor could be regenerated by simply polishing with an alumina paper, with an excellent reproducibility (RSD=1.6%. The experimental conditions such as pH and applied working potential were optimized. The prepared sensor is applied for the determination of MTZ in pharmaceutical preparations and the results agreed with the values obtained by the pharmacopoeia method.

  4. Synergistic effects of fenbendazole and metronidazole against Giardia muris in Swiss mice naturally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Romera, Liara Izabela Lopes; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study were proposed different protocols for the treatment of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris. Male Swiss mice were divided into seven groups, with five animals each, in a blind, controlled, randomized by drawing lots and once-repeated experiment. Parasite detection and cure control were performed using the Faust method and search by trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa. Clinical parameters (weight, water and feed consumption, elimination of excreta, aspect of the fur and feces) were also evaluated. All animals were treated with metronidazole (M), fenbendazole (F), and probiotics (P), administered intragastrically, during 7 days. M1, FM1, and F1 groups were treated 1×/day; M3, FM3, and PM3 groups 3×/day; and ST (control group) received only water. After the 5th and 7th days of treatment, the animals in FM1/FM3 and PM3/M3 groups presented, respectively, negative results and remained negative in the following 10 days. Animals in F1 group consumed less water (p = 0.00010) compared with FM1/FM3/PM3. The animals in M1 group compared with FM3/M3, F1 compared with M3, and ST compared with FM1/FM3/M3/PM3 consumed a larger amount of feed (p = 0.00001). The animals in F1 group compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3, FM1 compared with FM3, and ST compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3 eliminated lower volume of excreta (p = 0.00001). The results show that the association between F and M potentiates the effects, indicating a synergistic action of these two drugs, and FM1 is the best protocol due to early negativity in the animals, lower concentrations of the drugs, lower risk of toxicity and stress, and less alterations in clinical parameters.

  5. Occurrence of porphyromonas gingivalis and its antibacterial susceptibility to metronidazole and tetracycline in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Fredy; Acosta, Adriana; García, Dabeiba-Adriana; Velosa, Juliana; Araya, Natalia; Ledergerber, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease associated with Gram-negative strict anaerobes which are immersed in the subgingival biofilm. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is frequently detected in patients with chronic periodontitis. Although isolates of P. gingivalis tend to be susceptible to most antimicrobial agents, relatively little information is available on its in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of P. gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clinical isolates to metronidazole and tetracycline. A descriptive, observational study was performed including 87 patients with chronic periodontitis. Samples were taken from the periodontal pocket using paper points, which were placed in thioglycollate broth. Samples were incubated for 4 hours at 37°C in anaerobic conditions and finally replated on Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobic agar (Oxoid). Bacteria were identified using the RapIDTMANAII system (Remel) and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined with the M.I.C. Evaluator test (MICE, Oxoid). P. gingivalis was identified in 30 of the 87 patients with chronic periodontitis, which represents a frequency of 34.5%. All 30 isolates (100%) were sensitive to metronidazole, with MIC values ranging from 0015-4ug/ml. Regarding tetracycline, 27 isolates (90%) were sensitive, with MIC values ranging from periodontitis between the group of patients with chronic periodontitis and P. gingivalis and the group of patients with chronic periodontitis without P. gingivalis. In conclusion, P. gingivalis was found at a frequency of 34.5% in patients with chronic periodontitis and clinical isolates were highly sensitive to metronidazole and tetracycline.

  6. Multivariate analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix by means of diffuse reflectance NIR spectroscopy and PLS regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Sabrina C; Barbosa, Juliana M; Freitas, Matheus P; Martins, José A

    2006-01-23

    A multivariate method of analysis of nystatin and metronidazole in a semi-solid matrix, based on diffuse reflectance NIR measurements and partial least squares regression, is reported. The product, a vaginal cream used in the antifungal and antibacterial treatment, is usually, quantitatively analyzed through microbiological tests (nystatin) and HPLC technique (metronidazole), according to pharmacopeial procedures. However, near infrared spectroscopy has demonstrated to be a valuable tool for content determination, given the rapidity and scope of the method. In the present study, it was successfully applied in the prediction of nystatin (even in low concentrations, ca. 0.3-0.4%, w/w, which is around 100,000 IU/5g) and metronidazole contents, as demonstrated by some figures of merit, namely linearity, precision (mean and repeatability) and accuracy.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of albendazole and metronidazole on the ultrastructure of Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Spironucleus muris using transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxberry, M E; Thompson, R C; Reynoldson, J A

    1994-08-01

    The three closely related parasitic protozoa, Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Spironucleus muris, all have very different sensitivities to albendazole and metronidazole. Ultrastructural studies reveal that the cytoskeletal elements of the ventral disk in G. duodenalis are affected by albendazole, whereas the other two parasites, neither of which possess this structure, are not affected by albendazole to the same extent. This suggests that albendazole may be having its primary affect on G. duodenalis by binding to cytoskeletal proteins and ultimately causing death of the parasite. Death may be occurring as the parasite loses its ability to adhere to the intestinal villi and obtain nutrients. Metronidazole showed a different pattern of activity against the three parasites. The evidence obtained from these ultrastructural studies supports the current theory that metronidazole adversely affects protozoa by disrupting inner cell membranes.

  8. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Delfan, B; Pournia, Y; Rashidipour, M

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica , and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice. 2 and 5 mg of the plants extracts and powder of metronidazole 250 mg pills were added to 1 ml of G. lamblia cysts suspension (containing 5,000 cyst/ml normal saline), and the percentages of bioavailability of G. lamblia cysts were examined at the 2nd and 4th h after exposure and in 4 and 37 °C temperatures using eosin 0.1 % and a haemocytometer. The data were analyzed by multiway ANOVA test, Tukey's test, and the SPSS software, version 18. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (37.90 ± 7.01 %), followed by the extract of S. khuzestanica (32.52 ± 9.07 %). Metronidazole 250 mg pills had relatively effective fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (28.75 ± 10.30 %), whereas A. sativum (garlic) had the lowest fatality effect on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (22.65 ± 10.47 %). With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S. khuzestanica extracts compared with metronidazole in vitro, these plants can be used as suitable candidates to make new antigiardial drugs with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

  9. Possibilities of the reduction of a dose of metronidazole during irradiation of tumor with subsequent induced hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinskaya, N.P.; Voloshina, E.A.; Kozin, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a scheme of polyradiomodification with metronidazole (MZ) administration was investigated in experiments on mice with Ehrlich carcinoma before local irradiation of tumors and with subsequent induced hyperglycemia (IH) depending on a MZ dose. For equally effective potentiation of the effect of radiation on a tumor during a combined use of MZ and postradiation IH a 4-fold lower dose of the drug was required as combined to MZ used alone. The combined effect of the modifiers was superadditive. The use of IH in this scheme not only potentiated skin radiation reactions on a tumor growth zone but also slighly weakened their expression

  10. UNA APROXIMACIÓN TEÓRICA A LA VALORACIÓN DEL DOBLE AJUSTE EN EL DISEÑO DE LA ESTRATEGIA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Carbonell, Natalia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente la literatura ha considerado la necesidad del doble ajuste, vertical y horizontal, de la estrategia de recursos humanos en las organizaciones. Su importancia estratégica ha sido demostrada en buena parte de los estudios empíricos planteados. Sin embargo, la complejidad de este proceso requiere de un análisis más profundo que permita identificar los elementos que lo hacen posible. En el presente trabajo, partiendo de la revisión de la literatura de las perspectivas de investigación en dirección estratégica de recursos humanos y del concepto «fortaleza del sistema de recursos humanos» propuesto por Bowen y Ostroff (2004, discutimos los 3 factores que integran dicho concepto y su relación con el ajuste del sistema. Como consecuencia de ello, definimos 3 proposiciones teóricas que explican la vinculación entre ambas dimensiones y la fortaleza del sistema.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Metronidazole Monotherapy versus Vancomycin Monotherapy or Combination Therapy in Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global epidemiological problem for both hospitalized patients and outpatients. The most commonly used drugs to treat CDI are metronidazole and vancomycin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of metronidazole monotherapy with vancomycin monotherapy and combination therapy in CDI patients.A comprehensive search without publication status or other restrictions was conducted. Studies comparing metronidazole monotherapy with vancomycin monotherapy or combination therapy in patients with CDI were considered eligible. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects model, and odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated and reported.Of the 1910 records identified, seventeen studies from thirteen articles (n = 2501 patients were included. No statistically significant difference in the rate of clinical cure was found between metronidazole and vancomycin for mild CDI (OR = 0.67, 95% CI (0.45, 1.00, p = 0.05 or between either monotherapy and combination therapy for CDI (OR = 1.07, 95% CI (0.58, 1.96, p = 0.83; however, the rate of clinical cure was lower for metronidazole than for vancomycin for severe CDI (OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.26, 0.80, p = 0.006. No statistically significant difference in the rate of CDI recurrence was found between metronidazole and vancomycin for mild CDI (OR = 0.99, 95% CI (0.40, 2.45, p = 0.98 or severe CDI (OR = 0.98, 95% CI (0.63, 1.53, p = 0.94 or between either monotherapy and combination therapy for CDI (OR = 0.91, 95% CI (0.66, 1.26, p = 0.56. In addition, there was no significant difference in the rate of adverse events (AEs between metronidazole and vancomycin (OR = 1.18, 95% CI (0.80, 1.74, p = 0.41. In contrast, the rate of AEs was significantly lower for either monotherapy than for combination therapy (OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51, p < 0.0001.Metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective for the

  12. Imágenes y sonidos del Wall Mapu. El proyecto de descolonización del universo visual y sonoro del Pueblo Mapuche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa García Mingo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia del vídeo indígena y de las radios indígenas en el Abya Yala (América Latina es una historia de descolonización de la palabra y la imagen. La propuesta de descolonización mediática que han elevado los pueblos indígenas del Abya Yala, basada en la producción de textos verbo-audio-visuales desde su propia cosmovisión y proponiendo nuevos lenguajes visuales, nos permiten (repensar sobre las nuevas (y antiguas formas de ver y las identidades visuales divergentes. A su vez, las radios indígenas han permitido a las comunidades crear un espacio para elevar la voz colectiva y proyectarla en el radioespectro creando paisajes sonoros descolonizados mediante nuevos (y antiguos lenguajes sonoros que se adecuan a una formas de escuchar propias de su cosmovisión y que permiten revisar la matriz epistémica que ha conformado la mirada y el oído occidental, que en muchas ocasiones han constituido una mirada colonial y colonizadora sobre los Pueblos Indígenas. En las dos últimas décadas, el Pueblo Mapuche ha creado proyectos mediáticos que han producido una interferencia en un “mediasfera” (Appadurai, 1995 colonizado que estaba monopolizado por los estados criollos que han construido la memoria de los nuevos estados sobre una identidad no indígena. Este artículo contempla la dimensión política de estos proyectos, ya que la producción audiovisual tiene demostrada capacidad para empoderar a los sujetos subalternizados y permitirles desafiar la violencia de la representación que han experimentado.

  13. Alterações inflamatórias provocadas pelo metronidazol em feridas: estudo experimental em ratos Inflammatory alterations provoked by metronidazole in wounds: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Paraguaçu Pupo Sampaio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Cerca de 2,7% da população brasileira tem úlceras crônicas nos pés e nas pernas, porcentagem que chega a 10% nos diabéticos e que representa a segunda causa de afastamento do trabalho no Brasil. Isso demonstra a necessidade de se encontrar um produto de baixo custo que favoreça a cicatrização dessas feridas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do metronidazol na cicatrização de feridas por segunda intenção. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 80 ratos machos, em cujos dorsos se produziu uma ferida, distribuindo-se, os animais, em dois grupos de 40. Os ratos do grupo-controle tiveram suas feridas tratadas com solução de NaCl 0,9%, e os pertencentes ao grupo-experimento, com metronidazol 4%. No terceiro, sétimo, 14º e 21º dias, avaliou-se o processo cicatricial por parâmetros macroscópicos, histológicos e imunoistoquímicos. RESULTADOS: A concentração de colágeno foi maior nas cicatrizes dos animais do grupo-experimento em todos os tempos examinados. A concentração de colágeno do tipo I também foi significante no sétimo dia (p = 0,020 e no 21º dia (p = 0,016. O colágeno tipo III mostrou concentração semelhante nos tempos iniciais e apresentou-se com maior concentração no 21º dia (p = 0,005. A angiogênese, avaliada pelo anti-CD34, demonstrou maior número de vasos, no grupo-experimento, com diferença significante no terceiro dia (p CONTEXT: Chronic feet and leg ulcers affect about 2.7% of the Brazilian population, 10% of diabetic patients. The condition represents the second most frequent cause of absence from work in Brazil. This shows the need for a product that promotes healing of these wounds at a low cost. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of metronidazole on ulcer healing by second intention. METHODS: Eighty male rats divided into two groups of 40 had a wound made on their dorsum. The control group was treated with a 0.9% NaCl solution and the experimental group was treated with 4% metronidazole. On the third

  14. [Itraconazole and secnidazole capsules vs. vaginal ovules of fluocinolone acetonide, nystatin and metronidazole in the symptomatic treatment of vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado García, A; Gaviño Ambriz, S

    1998-04-01

    Evaluation of oral treatment in vaginitis and vaginosis using Itraconazol and sechidazol, in comparison to topic treatment using vaginal ovules of acetonido of fluocinolona 0.50 mg, nistatina 100,000 U and metronidazol 500 mg. Longitudinal, prospective and open comparative study. Servicio de Reproducción Humana(Human Reproduction Department), Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre". Forty female patients, without any relevant differences in their general characteristics, chose diagnosis was vaginitis and vaginosis, who were medically treated through external consultation, divided in two groups of twenty each one. Group 1 oral treatment with itraconazol and secnidazol. Group 2 had topic treatment with fluocinolona, nistatina and metronidazol. All of the patients were controlled in seven and fourteen days time, in order to evaluate the intensity of their clinical symptomatology, as well as the efficacy in both ways of treatment. Leukorrhea was the most important symptom in all the cases, going from minor to serious white discharge. After the treatment, we found a relevant difference statistically significative in patients treated with intraconazol and secnidazol. We did not find any differences in relation to ardor, pruritus, dispareunia and disuria at post-treatment evaluation. However, group 1 betterment was statistically significative between the first and the seventh days of treatment. Treating vaginitis or vaginosis (or both) with itraconazol and secnidazol takes less time for betterment in addition to comfort and easiness of oral administration; therefore, we consider them proper medicines in these specific cases.

  15. Determination of metronidazole in a rat stomach by HPLC for obtaining basic data of the eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Kubodera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori changes of antibiotics as these concentrations or amount in the stomach after oral administration were not clear. A simple and accurate method for determining the concentration of metronidazole (MTZ in homogenate of rat stomach was developed in order to obtain basic data to design a pharmaceutical preparation having targeting ability to the surface of gastric-mucosa. This method included a deproteinization process by methanol, separation with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and detection with an ultraviolet wavelength of 370 nm. Regression analysis showed that the method was linear over a standard curve range from 5 μg/mL to 2000 μg/mL. The inter-day precision and accuracy values between the ranges were 5.0% or better and −7.5 to 5.2%, respectively. The newly developed method was applied to an analysis of gastric samples after oral administration of MTZ at a dose of 5 mg/kg. It was found that the residual MTZ in the stomach was determined within 5 h after dosing. This method is useful for monitoring MTZ in stomach after its oral administration to rats. Keywords: Metronidazole, HPLC, Homogenate, Stomach, Rat

  16. Pharmaceutical evaluation and comparison of different brands of metronidazole available in the local market of Peshawar (Pakistan

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    Muhammad Adil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the pharmaceutical quality of different brands of metronidazole manufactured, available and prescribed by the doctors of Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: Different film-coated metronidazole products manufactured by multinational and national pharmaceutical industries and prescribed by the doctors were collected from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Their hysico-chemical properties were assessed, which included friability, hardness, disintegration, dissolution and weight variation tests according to the the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP standards. Results: All the brands showed a average weight of 5.74 g for 13 tablets (products A–M. Product J had the highest weight and products D and E failed the hardness, friability and disintegration time according to USP standards. Products M, K and G, L failed disintegration test and dissolution test, respectively. Weight variation of all the products proved statistically that they were in accordance with the standards of USP. Conclusions: The study suggested that products A, F, H and J passed all the tests according to the USP standards while the rest of them did not fulfill the standards specification.

  17. Metronidazole or Cotrimoxazole therapy is associated with a decrease in intestinal bioavailability of common antiretroviral drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and Cotrimoxazole (CTX are used in HIV/AIDS patients eligible for antiretroviral treatment. The objective of this animal study was to determine whether pre-treatment with antibiotics affects the intestinal bioavailability of Atazanavir (ATV and Ritonavir (RTV. After oral administration of 1 mg MTZ and CTX for 7 days, the rat colonic mucosa were analyzed for mucus thickness or placed in Ussing chambers to measure ATV and RTV net transepithelial fluxes (Jnet. 1. In control rats, the mucus thickness was 43.3±7.6 µm and 40.7±6.9 µm, in proximal and distal colon, respectively. In proximal colon, the thickness was 57.2±8.8 and 58.2±6.9 µm after MTZ and CTX, respectively whereas in distal colon, the thickness was 121.1±38.4 and 170.5±35.0 µm (P<0.05 respectively. 2. Transepithelial conductance was reduced after MTZ or CTX in the proximal and distal colon. 3. In control, net ATV secretion was observed both in proximal (-0.36±0.02 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2 and distal colon (-0.30±0.08 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2. After MTZ and CTX, it was increased in the proximal colon by two 2 fold and 4 fold, respectively and in the distal colon by 3 fold and 5 fold, respectively. 4. In control, there was no net active RTV transport either in proximal (+0.01±0.01 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2 or distal colon (+0.04±0.01 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2. After MTZ and CTX, secretion was increased 5 fold and 10 fold, respectively, in the proximal colon and two fold and 5 fold, respectively in the distal colon (p<0.001. In conclusion, after MTZ and CTX therapy, the mucus layer was enlarged, passive permeability was decreased and ATV and RTV were actively secreted by the colonic epithelium suggesting that, in rat, the intestinal bioavailability of ATV and RTV is impaired after antibiotic therapy.

  18. A comparative study of precision cut liver slices, hepatocytes, and liver microsomes from the Wistar rat using metronidazole as a model substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, U. G.; Cornett, Claus; Tjornelund, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Metronidazole is metabolized by rat liver in vitro models to form a hydroxy metabolite, an acetic acid metabolite, a glucuronic acid conjugate, and a sulphate conjugate. 2. Four different in vitro systems for investigation of drug metabolism based on liver preparations from the male Wistar rat...

  19. First report of metronidazole resistant, nimD-positive, Bacteroides stercoris isolated from an abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Erik; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We here present the first case of a metronidazole resistant nimD positive Bacteroides stercoris. The isolate originated from a polymicrobial intra-abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman. The nimD gene was detected by use of whole-genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent use of the ResFinder 2...

  20. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  1. Efficacy of 1% terbinafine cream in comparison with 0.75% metronidazole gel for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Yaşar, Şirin

    2011-06-01

    Topical antifungals comprising imidazole derivatives have been used for the treatment of rosacea previously, owing to their anti-inflammatory activities. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent belongs to allylamine group, has also anti-inflammatory effects. Currently, there are only a few unpublished studies, in which terbinafine has been used systemically for rosacea treatment. In this single-blind, 8-week study, we investigated the potential efficacy and safety of terbinafine 1% cream for the treatment of mild and moderate papulopustular rosacea, and compared the results with those of 0.75% metronidazole gel. Forty patients, 30 females and 10 males, with papulopustular rosacea were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007 years. Twenty of the patients were instructed to apply 1% terbinafine cream, whereas others patients of the study population were instructed to use 0.75% metronidazole gel. A total of 32 patients completed the study. Pre-treatment and post-treatment total severity score (TSS) of the disease were determined by assessing the severity of erythema/telangiectasia, and the number of papules/pustules of the whole face. The overall response rates, differences of pre-/post-treatment scores of each criterium and the percentages of the decrease in TSS of the study groups were compared statistically. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, and disease duration (P = 0.937, 1.000, and 0.055, respectively). No significant difference was found between the mean post-treatment TSSs of the two groups (P = 0.605). The percentage of clearance assessed by the differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment TSSs was 55% in terbinafine group, although the percentage was 45% in metronidazole group, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.496). Local side effects including erythema, pruritus, and burning were mild and transient in both groups, with similar frequencies (P = 0.101). This

  2. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  3. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A M; Nassar, Mohammed W I; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-05

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparative study of combined local treatment (sulfadimidine, metronidazole and nystatin) and the standard monotherapy in uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milánkovits, Márton; Baksay, László; Plachy, János

    2002-12-22

    Comparative, in vivo, human, prospective, single blind, clinical and microbiological diagnoses based and randomised study of the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis with two forms of combined (metronidazole + nystatin + sulfadimidin) vaginal suppositories (laminated and mixed containing the same ingredients) and the standard preparations available in the Hungarian market (Dalacin vaginal cream and Klion vaginal suppository). The examinations involved 60 volunteers and were performed in the Gynecological Outpatient Clinic of the Council of Erd, the microbiological samples were examined at Saint Rókus Hospital in Budapest. The combined treatment was better tolerated and resulted in normal vaginal pH significantly more often at the same rate of recovery. The combined treatment is simultaneously effective in cases of the most prevalent coinfections too.

  5. Application of derivative spectrophotometry under orthogonal polynomial at unequal intervals: determination of metronidazole and nystatin in their pharmaceutical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A; Abdine, Heba H; Ragab, Marwa A A; Aboras, Sara I

    2015-05-15

    This paper discusses a general method for the use of orthogonal polynomials for unequal intervals (OPUI) to eliminate interferences in two-component spectrophotometric analysis. In this paper, a new approach was developed by using first derivative D1 curve instead of absorbance curve to be convoluted using OPUI method for the determination of metronidazole (MTR) and nystatin (NYS) in their mixture. After applying derivative treatment of the absorption data many maxima and minima points appeared giving characteristic shape for each drug allowing the selection of different number of points for the OPUI method for each drug. This allows the specific and selective determination of each drug in presence of the other and in presence of any matrix interference. The method is particularly useful when the two absorption spectra have considerable overlap. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest that the method can be widely applied to similar problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential benefits of amoxicillin-metronidazole in different phases of periodontal therapy in a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cionca, Norbert; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    The specific advantage of administering systemic antibiotics during initial, non-surgical therapy or in the context of periodontal surgery is unclear. This study assesses the differential outcomes of periodontal therapy supplemented with amoxicillin-metronidazole during either the non-surgical or the surgical treatment phase. This is a single-center, randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up. Eighty participants with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-associated moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomized into two treatment groups: group A, antibiotics (500 mg metronidazole plus 375 mg amoxicillin three times per day for 7 days) during the first, non-surgical phase of periodontal therapy (T1) and placebo during the second, surgical phase (T2); and group B, placebo during T1 and antibiotics during T2. The number of sites with probing depth (PD) >4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) per patient was the primary outcome. A total of 11,212 sites were clinically monitored on 1,870 teeth. T1 with antibiotics decreased the number of sites with PD >4 mm and BOP per patient significantly more than without (group A: from 34.5 to 5.7, 84%; group B: from 28.7 to 8.7, 70%; P antibiotics, but only eight treated with placebo, achieved a 10-fold reduction of diseased sites (P = 0.007). Consequently, fewer patients of group A needed additional therapy, the mean number of surgical interventions was lower, and treatment time in T2 was shorter. Six months after T2, the mean number of residual pockets (group A: 2.8 ± 5.2; group B: 2.2 ± 5.0) was not significantly different and was sustained over 12 months in both groups. Giving the antibiotics during T1 or T2 yielded similar long-term outcomes, but antibiotics in T1 resolved the disease quicker and thus reduced the need for additional surgical intervention.

  7. Controlled release of metronidazole from composite poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) rings for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Kehinde, Timilehin; Zhang, Xiangming; Khajotia, Sharukh; Schmidtke, David W; Starly, Binil

    2013-06-01

    Dental implants provide support for dental crowns and bridges by serving as abutments for the replacement of missing teeth. To prevent bacterial accumulation and growth at the site of implantation, solutions such as systemic antibiotics and localized delivery of bactericidal agents are often employed. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a novel method of controlled localized delivery of antibacterial agents to an implant site using a biodegradable custom fabricated ring. The study involved incorporating a model antibacterial agent (metronidazole) into custom designed poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) composite rings to produce the intended controlled release profile. The rings can be designed to fit around the body of any root form dental implants of various diameters, shapes and sizes. In vitro release studies indicate that pure (100%) alginate rings exhibited an expected burst release of metronidazole in the first few hours, whereas Alginate/PCL composite rings produced a medium burst release followed by a sustained release for a period greater than 4 weeks. By varying the PCL/alginate weight ratios, we have shown that we can control the amount of antibacterial agents released to provide the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) needed for adequate protection. The fabricated composite rings have achieved a 50% antibacterial agent release profile over the first 48 h and the remaining amount slowly released over the remainder of the study period. The PCL/alginate agent release characteristic fits the Ritger-Peppas model indicating a diffusion-based mechanism during the 30-day study period. The developed system demonstrates a controllable drug release profile and the potential for the ring to inhibit bacterial biofilm growth for the prevention of diseases such as peri-implantitis resulting from bacterial infection at the implant site. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Collateral Effects of Antibiotics: Carbadox and Metronidazole Induce VSH-1 and Facilitate Gene Transfer among Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Thaddeus B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Zuerner, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic spirochete and the etiologic agent of swine dysentery. The genome of this spirochete contains a mitomycin C-inducible, prophage-like gene transfer agent designated VSH-1. VSH-1 particles package random 7.5-kb fragments of the B. hyodysenteriae genome and transfer genes between B. hyodysenteriae cells. The chemicals and conditions inducing VSH-1 production are largely unknown. Antibiotics used in swine management and stressors inducing traditional prophages might induce VSH-1 and thereby stimulate lateral gene transfer between B. hyodysenteriae cells. In these studies, VSH-1 induction was initially detected by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay evaluating increased transcription of hvp38 (VSH-1 head protein gene). VSH-1 induction was confirmed by detecting VSH-1-associated 7.5-kb DNA and VSH-1 particles in B. hyodysenteriae cultures. Nine antibiotics (chlortetracycline, lincomycin, tylosin, tiamulin, virginiamycin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and florfenicol) at concentrations affecting B. hyodysenteriae growth did not induce VSH-1 production. By contrast, VSH-1 was detected in B. hyodysenteriae cultures treated with mitomycin C (10 μg/ml), carbadox (0.5 μg/ml), metronidazole (0.5 μg/ml), and H2O2 (300 μM). Carbadox- and metronidazole-induced VSH-1 particles transmitted tylosin and chloramphenicol resistance determinants between B. hyodysenteriae strains. The results of these studies suggest that certain antibiotics may induce the production of prophage or prophage-like elements by intestinal bacteria and thereby impact intestinal microbial ecology. PMID:18359835

  9. Aplicaciones clínicas de las células madre del tejido adiposo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, las células madre del tejido adiposo (ASC juegan un papel crucial en las estrategias de reparación o regeneración tisular. Son células mesenquimales multipotenciales que se pueden obtener fácilmente de lipoaspirados. Tras un proceso de digestión enzimática y centrifugación, se recoge la fracción estromal vacular (SVF en el sedimento obtenido y se purifican las ASC a través del cultivo en plástico y realización de varios subcultivos. Hay diversos aspectos que han convertido a las ASC en una importante opción en terapia celular en los últimos años: su seguridad demostrada en ensayos clínicos; la mayor cantidad de células mesenquimales que se obtienen del tejido adiposo con respecto a la médula ósea, con un proceso menos invasivo y con menor morbilidad; su carácter inmunorregulador, bien a través de la secreción de mediadores moleculares o interacción directa; y finalmente, su gran acción trófica con el objetivo de crear un microambiente adecuado para activar los procesos de reparación del propio tejido. En este trabajo también se indican las dosis celulares y las vías de administración que se están utilizando para la aplicación de las ASC y la SVF. Los próximos años serán cruciales para determinar, gracias a distintos ensayos clínicos en marcha, el potencial terapéutico de las ASC y sus mecanismos de acción.

  10. Validez de constructo interna y externa del AGQ y PTEGQ en español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ruiz-Juan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ y el Perceptions of Teacher's Emphasis on Goals Questionnaire (PTEGQ en español, para determinar la fiabilidad, la validez de constructo interna, así como la validez externa partiendo de la hipótesis de que metas de logro y clima motivacional percibido en Educación Física pueden predecir la motivación y la satisfacción intrínseca en los sujetos que realizan actividad físico-deportiva de tiempo libre. Los análisis psicométricos confirman las cuatro dimensiones que se hipotetizan desde el modelo teórico original. Se ha demostrado la validez estructural apoyando la hipótesis de que están basados en el principio de compatibilidad. También ha quedado demostrada su validez de constructo interna, así como la validez de externa ya que las metas de logro y el clima motivacional percibido en Educación Física pueden predecir la motivación y la satisfacción intrínseca en los sujetos activos. Su fiabilidad ha sido aceptable.

  11. Rol del óxido nítrico en modelos experimentales propuestos para inducir inflamación gástrica e intestinal en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Herrera, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente se vienen usando varios modelos que utilizan al etanol (EtOH) y la indometacina (Indo) para inducir inflamación gástrica e intestinal en forma experimental. Con el objeto de determinar cuál es el rol del óxido nítrico (NO) en la inflamación gástrica e intestinal, hemos utilizado como donadores de NO al nitrito de sodio (NIT), nitroprusiato de sodio (NPS) y metronidazol (MET); y como inhibidor inespecífico de la sintasa del NO a la NG-nitro-L-arginina-metil éster (LNAME) y el azul ...

  12. Intensification of antitumor radiation effect by metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia and dependence of therapeutic effect on schedules of fractionation and value of single dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkhvadze, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Combined application of metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia under fractionated irradiation of sarcoma-45, 340 in white rats-males is studied. Tumors were γ-irradiated with 60 Co threefold in 48 hours at 15 Gy single dose or irradiated threefold in a week at 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses. Efficiency of experimental therapy is cheked by dynamics of tumor regression, a number of animals with tumors reabsorbed temporarily, a number of animals recovered and time of tumor grouth up to the initial volume. It is established that combined application of metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia under fractionated irradiation increases essentially the efficiency of radiotherapy carried out by large fractions with great time intervals. 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  13. Long-term results of treatment of patients with metronidazole and protracted radiotherapy: a base for comparative randomized studies with hypoxic radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.B.M.F.; Njo, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    From 1974 to 1978, a pilot study was undertaken in the Academic Hospital of the Free University of Amsterdam to evaluate the use of hypoxic radiosensitizer metronidazole given with conventional protracted radiotherapy. All patients had advanced malignancies, 70 head and neck cancers being available for long-term evaluation. Only four showed evidence of (reversible) neuropathy, including one patient with two attacks of reversible psychosis. With a minimum follow-up period of 30 months, the local control rates of some of these tumors appear to be encouraging and higher (54%) than usually obtained, without evidence of any long-term enhanced late effect of radiation or carcinogenesis. Clinical benefit has been persistently reported from metronidazole from a number of centers. Reports on other hypoxic radiosensitizers are not always clearly encouraging to date. In view of these facts, three-armed studies appear desirable and are being pursued

  14. Are there specific benefits of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis? Double-masked, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Décaillet, Fabien; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that prescription of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the context of periodontal therapy should be limited to patients with specific microbiologic profiles, especially those testing positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The main purpose of this analysis is to determine if patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans with moderate to advanced periodontitis benefit specifically from amoxicillin plus metronidazole given as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planing. This is a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized longitudinal study including 41 participants who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 41 participants who were negative for A. actinomycetemcomitans. All 82 patients received full-mouth periodontal debridement performed within 48 hours. Patients then received either systemic antibiotics (375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole, three times daily) or placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome variable was persistence of sites with a probing depth (PD) >4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) at the 3-month reevaluation. Using multilevel logistic regression, the effect of the antibiotics was analyzed according to the following factors (interaction effect): A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive or -negative at baseline, sex, age, smoking, tooth being a molar, and interdental location. At reevaluation, participants in the test group had significantly fewer sites with a persisting PD >4 mm and BOP than control patients (P antibiotics. Patients benefited from the antibiotics irrespective of sex, age, or smoking status. Molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molars (P for interaction effect = 0.03). Patients who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans had no specific benefit from amoxicillin plus metronidazole. Sites on molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molar sites.

  15. [Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodinamic (PK/PD) evaluation of a short course of oral administration of metronidazole for the management of infections caused by Bacteroides fragilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-León, Felipe; von Plessing-Rossel, Carlos; Villa-Zapata, Lorenzo; Fernández-Rocca, Pola; Sanhueza-Sanhueza, Cindy; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Mella-Montecinos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes. Its administration requires multiple daily doses causing increased medication errors. Due to its high post-antibiotic effect and rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, administration of this antibiotic in an extended dosing interval would achieve PK/PD parameters effectively. To assess the probability of achieving effective PK/PD relationship with the administration of 1,000 mg every 24 hours of metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis infections. A clinical trial was conducted in a group of volunteers who received a single oral dose of 500 or 1,000 mg of metronidazole. Determinations of values of Cmax, t max, and AUCC0-24 h. determined using the trapezoidal method, were obtained for a Markov simulation that would allow for determining the likelihood of achieving a AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio above 70 for infections caused by susceptible B. fragilis. Cmax (24,03 ± 6,89 mg/L) and t max (1,20 ± 0.80 hrs) and the value of AUC0-24 h (241.91 ± 48.14 mg * h/L) were determined. The probability of obtaining a AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio greater than 70 was greater than 99%. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, with the administration of a daily dose of 1,000 mg of metronidazole, it is possible to achieve a therapeutic goal of AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio above 70 for the treatment of anaerobic infections.

  16. Simultaneous detection of metronidazole and chloramphenicol by differential pulse stripping voltammetry using a silver nanoparticles/sulfonate functionalized graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Liang, Zhixian; Chen, Zuanguang; Wang, Haihang; Liu, Zhenping; Su, Zihao; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • A novel and reliable AgNPs/SF-GR modified glassy carbon electrode was constructed and characterized. • The AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE was successfully applied in the shrimp for simultaneous determination of MTZ and CAP. • Under optimized conditions, common substances such as UA, AA, DA and ion did not interfered in the electrode performance. • The modified electrode exhibited considerable sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. • This fabricated electrode achieved a satisfactory level compared with other electrodes toward MTZ and CAP. -- Abstract: A novel silver nanoparticles/sulfonated functionalized graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE) was fabricated to determine chloramphenicol and metronidazole simultaneously. Taking advantage of sulfonic group, AgNPs were successfully electrodeposited on functionalized GR immobilized on the surface of a GCE. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrum analysis results confirmed that AgNPs were deposited on the functionalized GR film. Compared to the bare GCE or the pristine SF-GR modified electrode, AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE exhibited excellent electroreduction towards chloramphenicol and metronidazole. In addition, the two antibacterial drugs were separated completely in 0.10 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.0) by differential pulse stripping voltammetry under optimum conditions. The cathodic current was linearly related with 0.02∼20.0 μM chloramphenicol and 0.10∼20.0 μM metronidazole, with the detection limits of 0.01 μM and 0.05 μM respectively. Furthermore, AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE was applied to the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and metronidazole in an aquatic product

  17. Addition of Ceftriaxone and Amikacin to a Ciprofloxacin plus Metronidazole Regimen for Preventing Infectious Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Izadpanahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding single doses of ceftriaxone and amikacin to a ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole regimen on the reduction of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS Bx. Materials and Methods. Four hundred and fifty patients who were candidates for TRUS Bx were divided into two groups of 225 each. The control group received ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally every 12 hours together with metronidazole 500 mg orally every 8 hours from the day prior to the procedure until the fifth postoperative day. In the second group, single doses of ceftriaxone 1 g by intravenous infusion and amikacin 5 mg/kg intramuscularly were administered 30–60 minutes before TRUS Bx in addition to the oral antimicrobials described for group 1. The incidence of infection was compared between the groups. Results. The incidence of infectious complications in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (4.6% versus 0.9%, p=0.017. Conclusion. The addition of single doses of intramuscular amikacin and intravenously infused ceftriaxone to our prophylactic regimen of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole resulted in a statistically significant reduction of infectious complications following TRUS Bx.

  18. Preliminary investigation of the possibility for implementation of modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in medicinal products used in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Piponski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of veterinary medicine products containing two different frequently used antibiotics metronidazole and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was considered and performed, using modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods. Three different HPLC systems were used: Varian ProStar, Perkin Elmer Series and UPLC Shimadzu Prominence XR. The chromatographic columns used were LiChropher RP Select B 75 mm x 4 mm with 5 μm particles and Discovery C18 100 mm x 4,6 mm with 5 μm particles. Chromatographic methods used for both analytes were compendial, with minor modifications made for experimental purposes. Minor modifications of the pharmacopoeia prescribed chromatographic conditions, in both cases, led to better chromatographic parameters, good resolution and shorter analysis times. Optimized methods can be used for: determination of metronidazole in gel formulation, for its simultaneous quantification with preservatives present in the formulation and even for identification and quantification of its specified impurity, 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole; determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in film coated tablets and eye drops and identification and quantification of its specified impurities. These slightly modified and optimized pharmacopoeial methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin dosage forms used in veterinary medicine can be successfully applied in laboratories for quality control of veterinary medicines.

  19. Post-irradiation degradation of DNA in electron and neutron-irradiated E. coli B/r; the effect of the radiation sensitizer metronidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramp, W A; George, A M; Howlett, J [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1976-04-01

    Suspensions of E.coli B/r were irradiated under aerobic and anoxic conditions with electrons (7 to 8 MeV, 2 and 20 krad/min, MRC linear accelerator), or with neutrons (average energy 7.5 MeV, 2 krad/min, MRC cyclotron) in an investigation of the effects of the radiosensitizer, metronidazole (Flagyl, 5 or 10 mM) on survival and DNA degradation. These results are compared with those for another electron affinic radiosensitizer, indane trione. Survival studies yielded enhancement ratios, for anoxic irradiation only, of 1.7 (5mM) and 1.9 (10mM) for electrons, and 1.2 (5mM and 10mM) for neutrons. Unlike indane trione, metronidazole had no pronounced inhibitory effect on post-irradiation DNA degradation, either when incubated with the bacteria before irradiation or when present during irradiation. When present under anoxic conditions of irradiation with electrons, some enhancement of degradation was observed. DNA degradation was reduced at higher doses, with a pronounced maxiumum effect, for neutrons as well as for electrons. Metronidazole allowed this degradation to continue and showed some sensitizing action, but did not prevent the decrease in total degradation at high doses. It is therefore difficult to correlate DNA degradation with cell-depth.

  20. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the antibiotic metronidazole using a flow plant with a Pt/air-diffusion cell and a CPC photoreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Tzayam; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Nava, José L.; Brillas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Degradation of metronidazole solutions at pH 3.0 by EF and SPEF in a flow plant. • High recalcitrance of the antibiotic and its products to be destroyed by ·OH radicals. • Only 53% mineralization by the most potent SPEF process at 55.4 mA cm −2 . • 5 heterocyclic products, 12 hydroxylated derivatives and 2 carboxylic acids were found. • Release of NO 3 − ion and generation of persistent N-products and N-volatile species. - Abstract: The degradation of 10 dm 3 of solutions of the heterocyclic antibiotic metronidazole in 0.10 mol dm −3 Na 2 SO 4 of pH 3.0 has been comparatively studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF). Experiments were performed in a solar flow plant equipped with a Pt/air-diffusion cell and coupled to a compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor. A very weak mineralization was found for the EF process in the dark, indicating a large recalcitrance of heterocyclic compounds to be destroyed by hydroxyl radicals formed at the Pt anode from water oxidation and mainly in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe 2+ and cathodically generated H 2 O 2 . The quick photolysis of intermediates by UV radiation from sunlight enhanced largely the mineralization process by SPEF. The effect of applied current density and Fe 2+ and drug contents on the SPEF treatment was examined. The best process was found for 1.39 mmol dm −3 metronidazole with 0.50 mmol dm −3 Fe 2+ at 55.4 mA cm −2 giving 53% mineralization, 36% mineralization current efficiency and 0.339 kWh (g DOC) −1 in 300 min. Metrodinazole was completely removed and its decay obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. LC-MS analysis allowed identifying five heterocyclic products and twelve hydroxylated derivatives. Ion-exclusion HPLC analysis revealed that final oxalic and oxamic acids were practically removed at the end of electrolysis due to the efficient photolysis of their Fe(III) complexes by sunlight. The initial N of

  1. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  2. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj, E-mail: hbelhadjammar@yahoo.fr; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH 11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2–4.2 μmol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 0.065 μmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • SWV for the determination of MTZ • Boron-doped diamond as a new electrochemical sensor • Simple and rapid detection of MTZ • Efficiency of BDD for sensitive determination of MTZ.

  3. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH 11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2–4.2 μmol L"−"1, with a detection limit of 0.065 μmol L"−"1. - Highlights: • SWV for the determination of MTZ • Boron-doped diamond as a new electrochemical sensor • Simple and rapid detection of MTZ • Efficiency of BDD for sensitive determination of MTZ

  4. A Meta Analysis of Radiosensitivity on Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
by Metronidazole Amino Acidum Natrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei REN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The efficacy and safety of radiosensitivity on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using metronidazole amino acidum natrium (CMNa are yet to be proven. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of radiosensitivity on NSCLC by CMNa to provide references for further clinical practice and research. Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs were obtained from the Cochrane library, Pubmed, EMbase, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang databases. Dates were searched through other means. RCTs of radiosensitivity on NSCLC by CMNa were included. The data included in the study were evaluated and analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.1 software. Results A total of 21 RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analyses showed that the total effective rate of the test group that received CMNa plus radiotherapy was higher than that of the control group that received radiotherapy alone (OR=3.29, 95%CI: 2.47-4.39, P<0.000,01 or radiotherapy plus placebo (OR=3.65, 95%CI: 2.25-5.92, P<0.000,01, respectively. No significant differences were found in the quality of life between one and two-year survival rates (P>0.05. No significant differences were found among radiation pneumonitis, radiation esophagitis, hematological toxicity, and cardiotoxicity (P>0.05. Conclusion CMNa plus radiotherapy elicit beneficial effects in the treatment of NSCLC and produce fewer adverse effects. Therefore, this technique can be recommended and applied in clinics.

  5. Extremely High Prevalence of Metronidazole-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains in Mountain People (Karen and Hmong) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Chaithongrat, Supakarn; Uchida, Tomahisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey the prevalence, patterns of antibiotic resistance, and clinical factors associated with antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori among the Karen and Hmong mountain people of Thailand. We recruited dyspeptic patients in the Maesod district, Tak Province, Thailand. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and three antral gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease tests and culture. An epsilometer was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and tetracycline (TET). A total of 291 subjects were enrolled; 149 (51.2%) were infected with H. pylori. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in 47.1% of Thai, 51.7% of Karen, and 58.7% of Hmong subjects. Antibiotic resistance was present in 75.8% including AMX (0.8%), TET (0%), CLR (5.6%), MNZ (71.8%), CIP (19.4%), LVX (19.4%), and multidrug resistance in 21.8%. Karen subjects had the highest prevalence of MNZ resistance (84.6%), and Hmong subjects had the highest prevalence of fluoroquinolone (27.3%) and multidrug (34.1%) resistance. MNZ plus fluoroquinolone (14.5%) was the most common multidrug resistance. There was no association between clinical factors and antibiotic resistance. MNZ resistance was prevalent, whereas fluoroquinolone- and multidrug-resistant H. pylori infections are important problems in mountain people of Thailand. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Ameliorative effects of curcumin on the spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone serum level in metronidazole-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalay-Doust, S; Noorafshan, A

    2011-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) is used as an antiparasitic drug. Curcumin is considered as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The ameliorative effects of curcumin on MTZ induced toxicity on mice spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone level were investigated. MTZ was administered in 500 and 165 (high and therapeutic doses) mg/kg/day, with and without curcumin (100 mg/kg/day). After 16 days the above parameters were assessed. Spermatozoon count and motility and serum testosterone level MTZ-treated (500 and 165) mice were reduced. In the mice treated with MTZ+curcumin these parameters decreased but in a lesser extent than the MTZ-treated animals. Mid-piece and total lengths of the spermatozoon tail in control animals were 31.6 ± 9.0 μm and 100.3 ± 15.0 μm and in the mice treated with high doses (500) of MTZ were reduced. The mid-piece and total spermatozoon tail length has been decreased in a lesser extent in the mice treated with high dose MTZ+curcumin than the mice treated with high dose MTZ (paverage increase in mid-piece and total lengths in comparison with the MTZ-treated (500) animals. Stereological estimation of the sperm tail length, including sampling of spermatozoa and also counting of the intersections of their tails with the stereological grids was a rapid technique and took only 5-10 minutes. It can be concluded that curcumin has an ameliorative effect on the spermatozoon, testosterone level and tail length in MTZ-treated mice.

  7. Characterization of the interactions of human serum albumin (HSA), gatifloxacin, and metronidazole using spectroscopic and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Li; Liu, Xiu-fen; Zhou, Qiu-xiang; Zhang, Ji-xiang; Dong, Jing-ya; Wang, Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in blood plasma, is an important carrier for many drugs. Understanding HSA-drug interactions is critical in being able to interpret the distribution and acting mechanisms of these drugs, which is particularly important in the case of multi-drug therapy. In this study, we investigated the interactions between HSA and two commonly used antibiotics, gatifloxacin (GFLX) and metronidazole (MET), in Tris–HCl buffer solution (pH=7.4). The efficacy of the individual drugs (GFLX or MET) and the efficacy of a combination of GFLX and MET were measured using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. Our results demonstrated that GFLX and MET have a synergistic effect. Briefly, one drug decreased the binding stability with HSA of the other drug, thus increasing the concentration of free drug at the action sites. The interaction of drugs with HSA is a process of complex-formation static quenching. There is approximately one binding site between HSA and the drug (GFLX or MET). The binding distance, r, between the drug and HSA was determined on the basis of the theory of Forster-type non-radiative energy transfer. It was shown that the interaction between the two drugs increased the r-value. Using thermodynamic parameters, we found that the binding of drug-HSA interactions is mainly controlled by electrostatic force. Analysis of the synchronous fluorescence spectrum suggested that the interactions between the drugs have important effects on protein conformation. In conclusion, combining GFLX and MET enhances treatment efficacy. Our study provides a basis to understand the mechanism of the interaction of MET, GFLX and HSA in the human body. - Highlights: • The synergistic effects between MET and GFLX were founed. • The type of interaction between the drugs and HSA was identified

  8. Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria before and after periodontal therapy. The purpose of this analysis is to assess changes in resistance patterns of the commensal Gram-positive microbiota. The viridans group streptococci (VGS) have been suggested to serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for more pathogenic streptococci and may be implicated in some non-oral infections. In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with periodontitis are distributed randomly into two groups. In group A, patients received 375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times per day for 7 days during the non-surgical treatment phase (T1). In group B, the antibiotics were administered during the surgical phase (T2). Resistance of VGS to penicillin and erythromycin was determined by the epsilometer test. At baseline, VGS from 12.5% (group A) and 11.8% (group B) of patients had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >2 μg/mL to penicillin. Three months after T1, VGS from 15.6% and 16.7% of patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL, respectively. Six months after T2 VGS from 5.9% and 5.9% and 12 months after T2 VGS from 6.1% and 6.3% patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL. There was no effect of therapy with antibiotics, administered either in T1 or T2, on the carriage of penicillin-resistant VGS. Erythromycin resistance was high at baseline and remained unchanged throughout the study. MICs for penicillin and erythromycin were correlated (P penicillin or erythromycin.

  9. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  10. Eudragit FS 30D as a potential polymer for use in the technology of preparing matrix tablets contain metronidazole – an experimental and mathematical modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmanski Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of a pH-dependent copolymer - Eudragit FS - for employment in the technology of preparing modified release metronidazole matrix tablets. In addition, in our work, Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS were included in the composition of some formulations, as well as sodium lauryl sulfate and polysorbate 80. As part of the study of the dissolution test, the similarity coefficient (f2 for the obtained profiles was calculated, and mathematic models were used to estimate the kinetics and mechanism of active substance release. In our work, it was observed that the inclusion of polymer Eudragit FS alone in the tablet composition ensured a modified release of the active substance for 10 h. After this time period, the amount of metronidazole determined in the acceptor fluid was 71% - 81% of the declared dose. Modification of the composition by the addition of surfactants resulted in an increased release of the active substance of up to 98%. This effect was dependent on the type of surfactant and its quantitative ratio to the Eudragit FS. Similar release profiles were obtained for tablets containing Eudragit RS and sodium lauryl sulfate, as well as Eudragit RS and polysorbate 80. Depending on the composition of tablets, metronidazole release proceeded in accordance with either first or second-order kinetics. We calculated as well, that the differing masses of Eudragit FS in the studied formulations correlates with the order of release kinetics (p < 0.002. Such an effect was validated using the Weibull model, wherein, in all the studied formulations, the release rate was seen as a decreasing function of time. An analysis of data according to the Ritger-Peppas model and the Peppas-Sahlin model for some formulations, indicated that the mechanism of active substance release from matrix tablets is diffusion.

  11. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  12. Efforts for improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using metronidazole with special regard to head and neck. Part of a coordinated programme on improvement of cancer therapy by the combination treatment of conventional radiation and physical and chemical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, M.B.

    1984-03-01

    A great effort has been expended in the search for means which would be of immediate practical interest to the radiotherapist in order to achieve improvement of the result of cancer treatment. These means include modifiers which are sensitizers to potentiate radiation effects on tumour cells without affecting normal tissue. We started a controlled therapeutic trial on locally advanced head and neck carcinomas using metronidazole. There was good tolerance to metronidazole although improvement of local tumour control with this drug was not observed. We also observed that irradiation with fractions daily gave a better tumour control than single fractions a day

  13. Development and validation of a RP–HPLC method for the quantization studies of metronidazole in tablets and powders dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabriela Oltean,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in tablets and powders. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phasechromatography on Kromasil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.e.; 5 ìm particle size, held in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/ 0.1% phosphoric acid aq. (20/80v/v, with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and with UV detection at 317 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated: linearity (r2=0.9999, range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of the active pharmaceuticalcompound in tablets and powders. This paper aimed to develop and validate an HPLC sensitive applicable method to determine the quantity of metronidazole in tablets and powders, contributing to the quality and safety control of these types of pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  15. PCR en tiempo real para el sexaje y análisis citológico de la sinapsis del bivalente más pequeño en espermatocitos en paquiteno de Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulita Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue dar a conocer nuevos marcadores moleculares para la PCR en tiempo real asociados a los cromosomas sexuales y el análisis de la sinapsis del bivalente más pequeño en espermatocitos en paquiteno de Oreochromis nil oticus . Se diseñaron cuatro pares de cebadores y se pusieron a prueba por PCR punto final y por PCR en tiempo real utilizando el fluorescente SYBR® Green en muestras de ADN de hembras XX, machos XY y supermachos YY. Los tamaños de los fragmentos amplificad os por PCR punto final fueron concordantes a los valores esperados y por PCR en tiempo real se demostró igual especificidad pero con ventaja en rapidez en la detección de amplificación de marcadores asociados a los cromosoma X y Y, de acuerdo con las condi ciones de la PCR establecidas. Las diferencias genéticas entre las regiones de los cromosomas X y Y demostradas con los marcadores específicos no fueron perceptibles citológicamente en los espermatocitos en paquiteno de O. niloticus XY. En base a las difer encias y homologías de las secuencias de ADN entre las accesiones KC710223 y KC710224 de los cromosomas X y Y se propone un modelo de sinapsis del bivalente XY.

  16. Comparación del comportamiento en la red eléctrica del aerogenerador asincrónico de jaula de ardilla y el doblemente alimentado; Comparison of the Behavior in the Electric Network of the Squirrel Cage Wind Turbine Generator and the Doubly Fed Wind Turbin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariely Francisco Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se lleva a cabo un análisis comparativo entre estos dos tipos de aerogeneradores. Labase para la comparación es el comportamiento del generador en el sistema sujeto a diferentes tiposperturbaciones tales como: valles de tensión, cortocircuitos, rachas de viento y cambios de carga.Para lasimulación se utiliza el SimPowerSystem del MATLAB. Sus últimas versiones tienen entre sus herramientasmodelos de turbinas y generadores eólicos que facilitan mucho el trabajo.En el caso de los GeneradoresAsincrónicos con Rotor Jaula de ardilla se analizaron tanto el caso de Condensadores Variables enParalelo como la utilización de Compensadores Estáticos de Reactivo. Ésta última permite la regulación dela tensión en el punto de conexión del Aerogenerador. Finalmente, queda demostrada y bien argumentadaen el trabajo la superioridad del generador doblemente alimentado. In this paper, a comparative analysis of these two types of wind turbine generators is made. The base forthe comparison is the behaviour of the generator and the system submitted to different disturbances suchas voltage dips, short-circuits, winds gusts and load changes. The MATLAB SimPowerSystem toolbox isused for doing these analyses. Its last version has a Wind Turbine Generator tool that facilitates the work.In the case of the Cage Induction Generator, a changing paralleled capacitor bank and a static varcompensator are supposed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that the last one is capable of supportnetwork voltage. Finally, the superiority of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator is clearly demonstrated andwell argument. 

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  19. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  20. Validação de método de doseamento e aplicação em estudo de equivalência farmacêutica de solução injetável de metronidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE REBELLO LOURENçO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivos validar métodos por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para o doseamento de metronidazol em solução injetável e aplicá-los em estudo de equivalência farmacêutica entre medicamento de referência, genérico e similar. Os métodos propostos para doseamento de metronidazol em solução injetável por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta e por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram validados, mostrando especificidade / seletividade, linearidade e faixa linear, limite de detecção / quantificação, exatidão e precisão adequados para o uso pretendido. Os medicamentos foram avaliados quanto aos testes de determinação de pH, volume médio, identificação por espectrofotometria de absorção no infravermelho, identificação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, esterilidade, endotoxinas bacterianas e doseamento por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta e por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os três medicamentos atenderam as especificações para os testes avaliados e, portanto, podem ser considerados apresentando equivalência farmacêutica. Palavras-chave: Metronidazol. Equivalência farmacêutica. Validação. Flagyl. ABSTRACT Validation of metronidazole assay methods and application to study of pharmaceutical equivalence of injectable solutions of this drug The aim of this study was to validate analytical methods, based on UV absorption spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, to assay metronidazole supplied in injectable solutions, and to employ these methods in a study of the pharmaceutical equivalence of the original brand name medicine (‘reference’, generic and similar (brand medicines. The methods proposed for the metronidazole assay were validated, showing adequate specificity/selectivity, linearity, linear range, detection and

  1. Use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum intimate liquid soap for external hygiene in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis recurrence after metronidazole oral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, M Valeria; Portugal, Priscila Mendes; Brolazo, Eliane Melo; Simões, José Antônio; Bahamondes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To determine the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) after the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap starting immediately after the treatment with oral metronidazole and the quality of life of the participants. A total of 123 women with diagnosis of BV with at least three of the following criteria: 1) homogeneous vaginal discharge without inflammation of the vagina or vulva; 2) vaginal pH ≥ 4.5; 3) positive Whiff test; and 4) "clue cells" in more than 20% of the epithelial cells in the vagina. A Nugent score ≥ 4 in the vaginal bacterioscopy was also used. After BV diagnosis, metronidazole 500 mg was administered orally bid during 7 days. Patients cured of BV were then instructed to use 7.5 to 10 mL of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap once-a-day for hygiene of the external genital region. Three subsequent control visits after starting the hygiene treatment (30, 60, and 90 days; ± 5 days) were scheduled. A questionnaire was applied in the form of visual analogue scale (VAS) in all the visits regarding: 1) level of comfort at the genital region; 2) malodorous external genitalia; 3) comfort in sexual intercourse; 4) satisfaction with intimate hygiene; and 5) self-esteem. Ninety two (74.8%) women initiated the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap at visit 1. At visit 2, 3, and 4 there were 84, 62 and 42 women available for evaluation, respectively. The rate of recurrence of BV was 19.0%, 24.2% and 7.1%, respectively in the three visits and vaginal candidiasis was observed in five treated women. Quality of life was evaluated in the 42 women who completed the four visits schedule and there were significant improvement in the five domains assessed. A lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap for external intimate hygiene may be an option for the prevention of BV recurrence after treatment and cure with oral metronidazole.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation on assisted sonocatalytic damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by metronidazole (MTZ) under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingqun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Jiang, Renzheng; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Baoxin; Xu, Yongnan

    2010-11-01

    The previous work proved that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be damaged under the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and ZnO. In this work, the assisted sonocatalytic damage of BSA using metronidazole (MTZ) as a sensitizer was further investigated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that the adding of MTZ could obviously promote the sonocatalytic damage of BSA under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized ZnO powder. Furthermore, it was found that the damage degree of BSA was aggravated by some influencing factors except ionic kind and strength. In addition, the damage site of BSA was also studied with synchronous fluorescence technology. It was found that the damage site was mainly at tryptophan (Trp) residue.

  3. A prospective cohort study comparing the effect of single-dose 2 g metronidazole on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in HIV-seropositive versus HIV-seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mochache, Vernon; Chohan, Vrasha; Chan, Jeannie D; Masese, Linnet; Shafi, Juma; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2013-06-01

    This analysis compared the frequency of persistent Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Data were obtained from women enrolled in an open cohort study of sex workers in Kenya. Participants were examined monthly, and those diagnosed as having TV by saline microscopy were treated with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole. All women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) used nevirapine-based regimens. Generalized estimating equations with a logit link were used to compare the frequency of persistent TV (defined as the presence of motile trichomonads by saline microscopy at the next examination visit within 60 days) by HIV status. Three-hundred sixty participants contributed 570 infections to the analysis (282 HIV-seropositive and 288 HIV-seronegative). There were 42 (15%) persistent infections among HIV-seropositive participants versus 35 (12%) among HIV-seronegative participants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.87). Persistent TV was highest among HIV-seropositive women using ART (21/64 [33%]) compared with HIV-seropositive women not using ART (21/217 [10%]). Concurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) at TV diagnosis was associated with an increased likelihood of persistent TV (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.09). The frequency of persistent TV infection after treatment with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole was similar by HIV status. Alternative regimens including multiday antibiotic treatment may be necessary to improve cure rates for women using nevirapine-based ART and women with TV and concurrent BV.

  4. Susceptibility trends of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina Tendencias en el perfil de sensibilidad de aislamientos del grupo Bacteroides fragilis obtenidos en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández Canigia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the susceptibility trends to seven antibiotics of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates based on three survey studies performed by the Committee of Anaerobic Bacteria between 1989 and 2002. Fifty three, 82 and 65 B. fragilis group isolates were collected during each period. The antimicrobial agents included were: ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam (2:1, cefoxitin, piperacillin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined according to the reference agar dilution method described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS. The most active antibiotics for B. fragilis and non- B. fragilis species throughout the three periods were: imipenem with 99.1 and 100% of activity, respectively, and metronidazole with 100% of activity. The susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam showed a decrease, from 100% to 90.3% and to 82.4 % in the last period, for both B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species, respectively. The overall susceptibility rates for cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin were significantly different between B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species (84.2% vs. 56.5%; 85.9% vs. 66.7% and 88.8% vs. 64.7%, respectively, pEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las variaciones en el perfil de sensibilidad frente a siete antimicrobianos de aislamientos del grupo Bacteroides fragilis, mediante el análisis de tres relevamientos realizados por la Subcomisión de Bacterias Anaerobias de la Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (años 1989-1991, 1996-1998 y 1999-2002. En los citados períodos se recolectaron 53, 82 y 65 aislamientos del grupo B. fragilis. Se evaluó la actividad de: ampicilina, ampicilina-sulbactama (2:1, cefoxitina, piperacilina, imipenem, clindamicina y metronidazol. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se determinó utilizando el método de dilución en agar, según las normas del Clinical and Laboratory

  5. Modelo para la evaluación del desempeño por competencias en los directivos de la Dirección de ETECSA en Sancti Spíritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhomis Mendoza Bernal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra el diseño e implementación de un modelo de evaluación del desempeño (ED a cuadros y dirigentes de la Dirección Territorial de la Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba S.A. (ETECSA en Sancti Spíritus, (DTSS, que tiene como eje fundamental del análisis las competencias laborales. Actualmente constituye una demanda en las empresas cubanas la implementación del Sistema de Gestión Integrada de Capital Humano (SGICH, este sistema de gestión prevé alinear el aporte y desarrollo del trabajador con el logro de metas organizacionales; ETECSA no está al margen de estas exigencias, lo que permite reconocer el giro que debe tomar la actual Gestión de Recursos Humanos (GRH para introducir la variable competencias y armonizar estratégicamente cada uno de sus procesos. Se utilizaron un grupo de técnicas investigativas: método de expertos, entrevistas estructuradas, encuestas, análisis de documentos, diagrama causa-efecto, evaluación 360° y la aplicación de determinados estadígrafos en el procesamiento de la información. El modelo fue aplicado en uno de los departamentos de la DTSS, la investigación ilustra uno de los casos y describe en la valoración final de este, el necesario balance entre el logro de los resultados esperados y los comportamientos (competencias demostradas que se asocian a estos.

  6. Uso do metronidazol como medicação intracanal em dentes com necrose pulpar e reação periapical: relato de caso = The use of metronidazol as an intracanal medication for teeth with pulpar necrosis and periapical reaction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Sérgio Murilo Barbalho de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar dois tratamentos endodônticos realizados em dentes com abscesso periapical crônico, em um mesmo paciente, empregando-se medicações intracanais diferentes. Para isso foram relatados dois casos clínicos de tratamentos endodônticos em dois dentes (31 e 41, nos quais foram empregados a mesma técnica de preparo biomecânico e obturação, variando apenas a medicação intracanal, pois no dente 31 foi empregada uma pasta a base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen e no dente 41, o metronidazol na forma de gel ginecológico. Após um ano de proservação dos tratamentos realizados, verificou-se reparação dos tecidos periapicais em ambos os dentes, concluindo-se que, nesse caso, a variação da medicação intracanal não interferiu no resultado do tratamento instituído e que o metronidazol pode ser uma alternativa viável como coadjuvante na terapia endodôntica desse tipo de patologia

  7. Metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery from peritonsillar abscess when compared with penicillin alone: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstén, Johanna E; Pitkäranta, Anne; Blomgren, Karin

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing the recurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and to learn whether metronidazole enhances the recovery from PTA when compared with penicillin alone. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 200 adult outpatients with PTA at our ear, nose and throat emergency department received either penicillin (1 000 000IU) × 3 and metronidazole (400 mg) × 3 for 10 and 7 days orally (combination group, N = 100) or penicillin and placebo (penicillin group, N = 100) after incision and drainage of the PTA. Afterwards they received a symptom questionnaire via e-mail daily for 2 weeks, then weekly for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing PTA recurrence in 56 days; the secondary outcome was ability of metronidazole plus penicillin to enhance recovery from PTA in 28 days. All healthcare contacts were registered during follow-up. Registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identifier NCT01255670. Of the 200 patients, 20 returned to hospital with recurrent symptoms, 10 in each group (P = 1.00). In the combination group, the mean (SD) duration of throat-related symptoms was 5.6 (5.0) days and in the penicillin group it was 5.3 (2.7) days, values for fever were 1.5 (0.9) and 1.6 (1.0) days, respectively, and those for poor overall physical condition were 4.0 (3.9) and 4.5 (4.9) days; there were no significant differences between groups. The adverse effects nausea and diarrhoea lasted longer in the combination group (P = 0.01). For healthy adult PTA patients treated with incision and drainage, metronidazole neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery when combined with penicillin compared with penicillin alone, but instead leads to increased adverse effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  8. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  9. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine if oral metronidazole (MTZ-400 mg bid with 2% vaginal clindamycin-cream (Clind or a Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal-probiotic containing oestriol (Prob reduces 6-month bacterial vaginosis (BV recurrence. METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group single-site study with balanced randomization (1:1:1 conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Participants with symptomatic BV [Nugent Score (NS = 7-10 or ≥3 Amsel's criteria and NS = 4-10], were randomly allocated to MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob or MTZ-Placebo and assessed at 1,2,3 and 6 months. MTZ and Clind were administered for 7 days and Prob and Placebo for 12 days. Primary outcome was BV recurrence (NS of 7-10 on self-collected vaginal-swabs over 6-months. Cumulative BV recurrence rates were compared between groups by Chi-squared statistics. Kaplan-Meier, log rank and Cox regression analyses were used to compare time until and risk of BV recurrence between groups. RESULTS: 450 18-50 year old females were randomized and 408 (91%, equally distributed between groups, provided ≥1 NS post-randomization and were included in analyses; 42 (9% participants with no post-randomization data were excluded. Six-month retention rates were 78% (n = 351. One-month BV recurrence (NS 7-10 rates were 3.6% (5/140, 6.8% (9/133 and 9.6% (13/135 in the MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob and MTZ-Placebo groups respectively, p = 0.13. Hazard ratios (HR for BV recurrence at one-month, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy, were 0.43 (95%CI 0.15-1.22 and 0.75 (95% CI 0.32-1.76 in the MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob groups compared to MTZ-Plac respectively. Cumulative 6-month BV recurrence was 28.2%; (95%CI 24.0-32.7% with no difference between groups, p = 0.82; HRs for 6-month BV recurrence for MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob compared to MTZ-Plac, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy were 1.09(95% CI = 0.70-1.70 and 1.03(95% CI = 0.65-1.63, respectively. No serious

  10. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  11. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  12. Facile synthesis and high activity of novel BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst for degradation of metronidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinhai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University of Engineering Science, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhao, Wei; Guo, Yang; Wei, Zhongbo; Han, Mengshu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); He, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60631 (United States); Yang, Shaogui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Sun, Cheng, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} was synthesized by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. • BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} displays superior photocatalytic activity. • The photocatalytic mechanism were discussed in detail. - Abstract: The novel BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method firstly. The physical and chemical properties of as-prepared samples were characterized based upon XRD, XPS, BET, SEM, EDS, TEM, UV–vis DRS and fluorescence spectrum techniques. The TEM images showed a clear interface between BiVO{sub 4} and FeVO{sub 4}, indicating that a heterojunction between BiVO{sub 4} and FeVO{sub 4} was formed during the hydrothermal reaction. In addition, the photodegradation activity of metronidazole (MNZ) was used as a measurement for photocatalytic performance of BiVO{sub 4}, FeVO{sub 4} and BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst. It indicated that under visible light irradiation the photocatalytic activity of BiVO{sub 4}/FeVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was very effective, and moreover, much higher than the single BiVO{sub 4} or single FeVO{sub 4}. The possible photocatalytic mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the theoretical calculation of the electronic structure, and the experimental results.

  13. Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens controlled with a combination therapy: Systemic antibiosis (Metronidazole Plus Clindamycin, dermatosurgical approach, and high-dose isotretinoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is a suppurative process that involves the scalp, eventually resulting in extensive scarring and irreversible alopecia. The condition is also known as ′acne necrotica miliaris′ or ′Proprionibacterium′ folliculitis. Most often the disease affects men of African-American or African-Caribbean descent between 20 and 40 years of age. The clinical picture is determined by fluctuating painful fistule-forming conglomerates of abscesses in the region of the occipital scalp. The cause of scalp folliculitis is not well understood. It is generally considered to be an inflammatory reaction to components of the hair follicle, particularly the micro-organisms. These include: bacteria (especially Propionibacterium acnes, but in severe cases, also Staphylococcus aureus, Yeasts (Malassezia species and mites (Demodex folliculorum. The initial histopathologic finding is an exclusively neutrophilic infiltration followed by a granulomatous infiltrate. The treatment of the disease is usually difficult and often disappointing. Successful treatment with isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass could be achieved only after regular systematic administration in the course of 3-4 months. Here we describe a patient with eruptive purulent form of the disease, which has been controlled with combination therapy: systemic antibiosis with metronidazole and clindamycin, dermatosurgical removal of single nodular formations, and isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass for 3-5 months.

  14. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  15. A randomized treatment trial: single versus 7-day dose of metronidazole for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan L; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H

    2010-12-15

    To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2-gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7-day 500 mg twice a day dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2-gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg twice a day 7-day dose. All women were given 2-gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were recultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again recultured at a 3-month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Two hundred seventy HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ±9.4; 92.2% African American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, antiretroviral therapy status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7-day arm had lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11 of 130) versus 16.8% (21 of 125) (relative risk: 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 1.00; P TV among HIV+ women.

  16. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS: GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM. I-IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; EL-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidisis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells causing a major health problem for man and animals. Experimentally the immunologic mediated elimination of C. parvum requires CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma. But, the innate immune responses also have a significant protective role in both man and animals. the mucosal immune response to C. parvum in C57BL/6 neonatal and GKO mice shows a concomitant Thl and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, with a crucial role for IFN-gamma in the resolution of the infection. NK cells and IFN-gamma have been shown to be important components in immunity in T and B cell-deficient mice, but IFN-gamma-dependent resistance is demonstrated in alymphocytic mice. Epithelial cells may play a vital role in immunity as once infected these cells have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines and demonstrate anti-infection killing mechanisms. C. parvum immunological response was used to evaluate the efficacy of anti-cryptosporidisis agents of Garlic, Ginger, Mirazid and Metronidazole in experimentally infected mice.

  17. Outcome evaluation of clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole regimens in Helicobacter pylori positive or negative children with resistant otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel-Hennawi, D; Ahmed, M R

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of two treatment regimens among Helicobacter pylori stool antigen positive children suffering from resistant otitis media with effusion. The study comprised 258 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; 134 were positive for H pylori stool antigen, and were equally and randomly allocated to the control group or study group. The control group received standard otitis media with effusion therapy (amoxicillin and clavulanate), while the study group received standard H pylori triple therapy (clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole). In the control group, there was a marked clinical response to treatment in 33 of the 67 children (49.3 per cent). In the study group, there was a marked response in a significantly higher number of children (46 out of 67, 68.7 per cent). The 124 H pylori stool antigen negative children not included in the 2 aforementioned groups received amoxicillin and clavulanate, and a marked response in symptoms was evident in 98 of these children (79 per cent). H pylori infection may lead to resistance to traditional otitis media with effusion treatment in some cases. H pylori eradication is associated with a high cure rate.

  18. Comportamiento del diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino en el municipio Cienfuegos Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino están entre las más frecuentes causas de muerte en la población femenina. Su diagnóstico está entre los programas priorizados del Sistema de Salud Pública. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del Programa del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino en el municipio de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal que se realiza en el marco del proyecto CARMEN y comprende el periodo 2010-2011. Se tomó una muestra aleatoria, estratificada al azar. Se analizaron variables como: edad, estado civil, color de la piel, visita de profesionales de la salud, dominio sobre el autoexamen de mama, examen clínico de las mamas, mamografía, prueba citológica y tiempo transcurrido desde el último chequeo de cada una de las pruebas. Se utilizó el cuestionario del estudio CARMEN. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15,00. El nivel de significación estadístico que se utilizó fue del 95 %. Resultados: un total de 428 mujeres (41,1 % llevaban más de un año sin ser chequeadas y de ellas 49 (4,6 % llevaba más de cinco años. El 71,2 % de la muestra estudiada nunca se ha realizado una mamografía, del 28,6 % que se las ha realizado. El 91,0 % de las mujeres en las edades comprendidas en el Programa alguna vez se ha hecho la prueba citológica. Conclusiones: no se alcanzan los propósitos establecidos por el Programa Integral para el Control del Cáncer en Cuba. Quedan demostradas las áreas de insuficiencias del Programa de Control del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino.Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted

  19. Cardiomioplastia celular con médula ósea autóloga en pacientes con cardiomiopatía isquémica. Cardioimplante de células madre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Trainini

    2005-01-01

    Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos demuestran la factibilidad y seguridad del cardioimplante celular de CPE. La eficiencia clínica a pesar de estos auspiciosos resultados debe ser aún demostrada con evidencias tanto funcionales como histológicas.

  20. Etiología de la infección del sitio quirúrgico en pacientes egresados del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Joaquín Albarrán" Enero a marzo del 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linet Alemán Mondeja

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta que las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ constituyen formas frecuentes de infecciones nosocomiales, las cuales se originan por múltiples gérmenes (bacterias, virus, hongos. Se pretende mostrar la etiología de la ISQ de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Joaquín Albarrán" en el período de enero a marzo del 2000, cuando se observó una elevación de estas infecciones. Se realiza un estudio de serie de casos de ISQ, reportados por el sistema local de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales, del cual se obtuvieron sus características generales, de los procederes quirúrgicos realizados y la causa de dichas infecciones. De los casos presentados se les realizaron estudios microbiológicos a 31 pacientes y 61 aislamientos de gérmenes. El 9,6 % de ellos falleció y el 61,9 % tuvo que ser reintervenido por complicaciones quirúrgicas. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes en los pacientes fueron la ancianidad (42,8 % y el hábito de fumar (47,6 %, anemia y alcoholismo en el 19 % de los casos respectivamente. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26,2 %, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21,3 %, Escherichia coli (19,7 %, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (9,8 % y Staphylococcus aureus (8,2 %, fueron los gérmenes más detectados; todos mostraron niveles elevados de resistencia a los antibióticos disponibles. Se evidenció que los casos reportados fueron pacientes con alto riesgo de adquirir ISQ, y éstas fueron producidas básicamente por gérmenes gramnegativos multirresistentes a los antibióticos. Se requiere una evaluación preoperatoria del riesgo de adquirir ISQ, y la implementación de medidas de prevención y control de eficacia demostrada para estas infecciones.It is reported that surgical site infections (SSI are frequent forms of nosocomial infections, which are originated by multiple germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi. It is intended to show the etiology of SSI among patients attended at "Joaquin Albarrán" Clinical and

  1. Iron doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites synthesized by sol-gel and precipitation method for metronidazole antibiotic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Shilpi [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tyagi, Inderjeet [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, 247667 (India); Gupta, Vinod Kumar, E-mail: vinodg@uj.ac.za [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Sohrabi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Sanaz [Department of Chemistry, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golikand, Ahmad Nozad, E-mail: anozad@aeoi.org.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaber Research Laboratory, NSTRI, P.O. Box: 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, Ali, E-mail: ali.fakhri88@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Sol-gel and precipitation reaction methods were used to synthesize Un-doped and Fe-doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites under UV light; the synthesized nanocomposites were applied for the photocatalytic degradation of metronidazole antibiotic. The developed photo catalyst was well characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV–Visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Effective parameters such as pH, photocatalyst dose and contact time was optimized and well investigated. From the obtained facts it is clear that the 98.3% of MTZ was degraded with in 15 min, pH 6 and 0.1 g catalyst when the Fe molar ratio was 1:1 at %. As compared to results obtained from un-doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites Fe doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites possess greater photocatalytic efficiency. - Graphical abstract: Surface textural and morphological presentation. - Highlights: • Un-doped and Fe-doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites were applied as photocatalyst. • The nanocomposites exhibited photocatalytic property under UV light. • The maximum degradation was observed for Fe-doped SnO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (1:1) photocatalyst. • 0.1 g photocatalyst is sufficient to carry out 98.3% degradation of MTZ.

  2. Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2014-03-14

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conjugation of metronidazole with dextran: a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control colonic distribution of the anti-amebic drug susceptible to metabolism by colonic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Yang, Yejin; Kim, Dohoon; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTDZ), the drug of choice for the treatment of protozoal infections such as luminal amebiasis, is highly susceptible to colonic metabolism, which may hinder its conversion from a colon-specific prodrug to an effective anti-amebic agent targeting the entire large intestine. Thus, in an attempt to control the colonic distribution of the drug, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, MTDZ conjugated to dextran via a succinate linker (Dex-SA-MTDZ), was designed. Upon treatment with dextranase for 8 h, the degree of Dex-SA-MTDZ depolymerization (%) with a degree of substitution (mg of MTDZ bound in 100 mg of Dex-SA-MTDZ) of 7, 17, and 30 was 72, 38, and 8, respectively, while that of dextran was 85. Depolymerization of Dex-SA-MTDZ was found to be necessary for the release of MTDZ, because dextranase pretreatment ensures that de-esterification occurs between MTDZ and the dextran backbone. In parallel, Dex-SA-MTDZ with a degree of substitution of 17 was found not to release MTDZ upon incubation with the contents of the small intestine and stomach of rats, but it released MTDZ when incubated with rat cecal contents (including microbial dextranases). Moreover, Dex-SA-MTDZ exhibited prolonged release of MTDZ, which contrasts with drug release by small molecular colon-specific prodrugs, MTDZ sulfate and N -nicotinoyl-2-{2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethyloxy}-d,l-glycine. These prodrugs were eliminated very rapidly, and no MTDZ was detected in the cecal contents. Consistent with these in vitro results, we found that oral gavage of Dex-SA-MTDZ delivered MTDZ (as MTDZ conjugated to [depolymerized] dextran) to the distal colon. However, upon oral gavage of the small molecular prodrugs, no prodrugs were detected in the distal colon. Collectively, these data suggest that dextran conjugation is a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control the colonic distribution of drugs susceptible to colonic microbial metabolism.

  4. Bi-functionalization of a calcium phosphate-coated titanium surface with slow-release simvastatin and metronidazole to provide antibacterial activities and pro-osteodifferentiation capabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Liu

    Full Text Available Coating the surface of titanium implants or other bone graft substitute materials with calcium phosphate (Ca-P crystals is an effective way to enhance the osteoconduction of the implants. Ca-P coating alone cannot confer pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities on implants; however, it can serve as a carrier for biological agents which could improve the performance of implants and bone substitutes. Here, we constructed a novel, bi-functional Ca-P coating with combined pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities. Different concentrations of metronidazole (MNZ and simvastatin (SIM were integrated into biomimetic Ca-P coatings on the surface of titanium disks. The biological effects of this bi-functional biomimetic coating on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs, human adipose derived stromal cells (hASCs, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were assessed in vitro. We observed that Ca-P coatings loaded with both SIM and MNZ display favorable release kinetics without affecting cell proliferation or attachment. In the inhibition zone test, we found that the bi-functional coating showed lasting antibacterial effects when incubated with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 2 and 4 days. Moreover, the osteodifferentiation of hBMMSCs and hASCs were increased when cultured on this bi-functional coating for 7 and 14 days. Both drugs were loaded onto the Ca-P coating at specific concentrations (10(-5 M SIM; 10(-2 M MNZ to achieve optimal release kinetics. Considering the safety, stability and low cost of SIM and MNZ, this novel bi-functional Ca-P coating technique represents a promising method to improve the performance of metal implants or other bone substitute materials, and can theoretically be easily translated to clinical applications.

  5. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  6. Del bit al qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Font, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aquest document pretén donar una visió del desenvolupament dels computadors electrònics i dels components que els han fet possibles. Dintre de les opcions de futur en computació, també intenta donar una visió de les bases en que es fonamenta la computació quàntica.

  7. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product.

  8. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  9. Minimización del impacto ambiental en la ejecución de fachadas mediante el empleo de materiales reciclados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero, M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New recycled construction materials, developed by the authors among others, have been proposed in order to reduce the environmental and economical impact of the building facades. The model "Quantification of resources consumed in construction", by means of the bill of quantities which is based on the Andalusia Building Cost System, assesses the impact minimization. A real dwelling facade is analyzed, which is made of brick cladding and plasterboard, materials widely used in Andalusia, Spain. In the analysis these construction materials control the impact and are replaced by gypsum and concrete recycled panels, respectively. Finally the changes are evaluated by the quantification model, showing a significant reduction in the environmental and economical impact of the facade construction. The present work shows that the model "Quantification of resources consumed in construction" is sensible to changes in the construction materials.

    Nuevos materiales de construcción reciclados, desarrollados por los autores entre otros, han sido propuestos para minimizar el impacto ambiental y económico de las fachadas. Para medir dicha minimización se ha empleado un modelo de cuantificación de recursos consumidos en construcción basado en la clasificación sistemática de la medición y del presupuesto de obras de edificación del Banco de Costes de la Construcción de Andalucía. Se ha analizado la fachada de una vivienda compuesta principalmente por fábrica de ladrillo y trasdosado de paneles de yeso laminado, materiales comúnmente empleados en las viviendas en Andalucía, que controlan tanto el impacto ambiental como el económico de la solución y han sido sustituidos por paneles reciclados de yeso y placas recicladas de hormigón. Finalmente se ha comprobado mediante el modelo de cuantificación como se reduce significativamente el impacto ambiental sin incrementar el económico, quedando demostrada la sensibilidad del modelo.

  10. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  11. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  12. Vigencia del Darwinismo

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Enrique P

    2009-01-01

    En este ensayo se presenta una revisión histórica del signifcado y legado del darwinismo, con énfasis en el último siglo. La principal conclusión es que la visión darwiniana de la evolución, con las modifcaciones requeridas para dar cuenta de los grandes desarrollos de la disciplina, se ha impuesto y mantiene vigencia en nuestros días. En particular, el papel del azar, la evolución como proceso de “descendencia con modifcación” a lo largo de diversas ramas del árbol de la vida, el pensamiento...

  13. Programa piloto municipal "mejorar la calidad de la vida del diabético".: Resultados sobre mortalidad, complicaciones y costos en la diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quirantes Hernández

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros resultados del programa Mejorar la Calidad de la Vida del Diabético, que está basado en una estrecha interrelación entre los niveles de salud primario y secundario, así como en un método asistencial que propicia el cumplimiento por parte de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus de lo que hemos llamado Las 7 Leyes del Éxito del Paciente Diabético. Este programa ha sido desarrollado en el municipio Cerro de Ciudad de La Habana durante el segundo semestre de 1997 y todo el año 1998. Se compra el tiempo de aplicación del programa con una etapa de tiempo similar inmediatamente anterior al mismo. En la etapa previa, los diabéticos residentes en el municipio Cerro constituían el 31,8 % de los fallecidos por esta enfermedad en el Hospital Docente "Dr. Salvador Allende"; después de la aplicación del programa, este grupo sólo constituyó el 9,1 % del total de diabéticos fallecidos. En todo el municipio, los diabéticos fallecidos disminuyeron en un 41 % después de la aplicación del programa. Se dejaron de ingresar 91 diabéticos, perteneciendo 89 (97,8 % al municipio Cerro lo que representó un ahorro de $ 25 705.87. Se concluye que dada la efectividad demostrada por este programa se recomienda su aplicación en todos los municipios del paísThe first results of the program "To improve the quality of the diabetic´s life", which is based on a close interrelation between the primary and secondary health care levels, as well as on an assistance method that propitiates the fulfillment on the part of the patients of what we have called The 7 Laws of Success of the Diabetic Patient are shown in this paper. This program has been implemented in the Cerro municipality of Havana City during the second semester of l997 and throughout 1998.The time of application of the program is compared with a similar period of time immediately before it. In the previous stage, the diabetics living in Cerro municipality were 31,8 % of the

  14. La luz del origen del universo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in 1965. The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary. At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored.En 1965 se descubrió el fondo de radiación de microondas, un eco luminoso de la Gran Explosión (Big Bang. La cantidad de información contenida en esta reliquia del universo primitivo es verdaderamente extraordinaria. En la actualidad los datos más precisos sobre el origen y estructura del universo provienen del estudio de esta luz primigenia, que aún no ha sido explorada en todo su potencial.

  15. 甲硝唑及双氢青蒿素对阴道毛滴虫抗虫效果观察%The Effects of Metronidazole and Dihydroartemisinin on Trichomonas Vaginalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树国; 郭鄂平; 王娅

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定阴道毛滴虫十堰分离株对甲硝唑的敏感性,并观察双氢青蒿素对甲硝唑低敏感株的抗虫效果.方法:自2009年至2011年,从湖北医药学院附属太和医院妇科门诊收集25株阴道毛滴虫临床分离株,体外纯化培养传代,测定292.1、182.6、146.1、91.3、45.6、22.8、11.4、5.7 μmol/L甲硝唑浓度下4、8、12、24 h时间点滴虫死亡率,获取各虫株24h最低致死量(Minimum lethal concentration,MLC).对24 h MLC大于22.8 μmol/L的虫株进行抗虫实验,测定5.3、3.5和1.8 mmol/L双氢青蒿素浓度下4、8、12、24h时间点滴虫死亡率,获取24 h MLC.结果:25株滴虫中,24株对甲硝唑较敏感,24 h MLC为11.4 ~ 22.8 μmol/L,1株滴虫为22.8 ~ 45.6 μmol/L.在22.8和45.6 μmol/L浓度作用下,该株滴虫24h死亡率无差异(P>0.05);该株滴虫在3.5和5.3 mmol/L双氢青蒿素浓度作用下,4、8、12 h死亡率有统计学意义(P<0.05),24 h MLC约为3.5 ~5.3 mmol/L.结论:阴道毛滴虫十堰分离株对甲硝唑总体较敏感,但存在个别虫株敏感性下降,双氢青蒿素对甲硝唑低敏感株抗虫效果较好,体外有效杀虫浓度为3.5 ~5.3 mmol/L.%Objective To analyze the sensitivity of trichomonas vaginalis strains isolated in Shiyan district to metronidazole,to study the effect of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on low sensitive strains of metronidazole in vitro.Methods From 2009 to 2011,total 25 strains of trichomonas vaginalis were isolated from gynecological clinic service in Taihe hospital,and then cultured and purified in vitro.All the strains was administrated by metronidazole with concentrations of 292.1,182.6,146.1,91.3,45.6,22.8,1 1.4,5.7 μmol/L,and then the death rate of strains were determined at 4,8,12,24 h,respectively.The minimum lethal concentration(MLC) in all 25 strains were analyzed in the given time.If the MLC of the strain in 24 h was much more than 22.8 μmol/L,the death rate of the strain should be determined after treatment

  16. Archivo del Duelo

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Photos taken from the Archive of Mourning following the March 11 terrorist attacks El Archivo del Duelo. Creación de un archivo etnográfico de los Atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia HUM2005-03490.

  17. Displasias del seno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrade Valderrama

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available En general, las Displasias no se presentan antes de la iniciación del estímulo Gonadal y tienden a desaparecer con el climaterio. Se definen entonces como las afecciones benignas del Seno, de origen endocrino.

  18. La crisi del diritto del lavoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto - L’Autore ripercorre in chiave critica l’evoluzione delle politiche legislative in materia di lavoro, alla luce dell’attuale fase di crisi economico finanziaria. Nell’esaminare i principali interventi normativi attuati da inizio secolo, l’Autore mette in evidenza le scelte di metodo e gli elementi di continuità che accomunano i vari provvedimenti, individuandoli nell’affannosa ricerca del punto di equilibrio tra flessibilità e garantismo. La riflessione si chiude con alcuni interrogativi sulle ultime linee di riforma del mercato del lavoro e con l’auspicio che, anche al cospetto delle imprescindibili ragioni dell’economia, il diritto del lavoro possa continuare a svolgere il proprio tradizionale ruolo di disciplina di tutela della persona.   Abstract - The author analyzes, with a critically oriented approach, the development of the employment law, in the light of the current economic and financial crisis. In examining the main regulatory measures implemented since the beginning of the century, the author highlights the methodological choices and the elements of continuity that unite the various measures, focusing them in a hard research of a point of balance between flexibility and security. The discussion concludes with some questions about the last lines of the reform of the labor market and with the hope that, even in the face of compelling reasons of economy, labor law can continue to play its traditional role of governing the protection of person.

  19. OBJETIVO DEL DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M. Pérez O.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, también conocidos como los Objetivos del Milenio, constituyeron las metas finales que aprobaron los dirigentes mundiales, 189 jefes de estado y de gobierno en la Cumbre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas celebrada en Nueva York en el año 2000, en la cual los Estados miembros de la organización reafirmaron su compromiso de luchar por un mundo en el que el desarrollo sostenible y la eliminación de la pobreza tuvieran máxima prioridad1 . En la cumbre se definió la Declaración del Milenio, la cual detalla los objetivos, principios, valores, metas y acciones para erradicar la pobreza Mundial hacia el año 2015, todos ellos ratificados con alto interés y acción estratégica de carácter global, como marco para la medición de los progresos en materia de desarrollo.

  20. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  1. Estudio Descriptivo del Programa “Hatos Libres de Brucelosis” de FEDEGAN Tunja periodo abril 2008 - abril 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Esperanza Divantoque, Julio Roberto Sánchez, Juber Oswaldo Bernal y Martin Orlando Pulido

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de fincas con ganaderías libres de  brucelosis  es  una  estrategia  diseñada  en  el ámbito mundial para avanzar en  la prevención, control  y  erradicación  de  la  brucelosis  y,  así mismo, cumplir con requisitos para el comercio internacional  de productos  y  subproductos  de origen bovino. Colombia se encuentra ante  la OIE, como uno de  los países con enfermedad clínica demostrada, por  tal razón se han creado campañaspara  la  erradicación  de  esta  enfermedad. FEDEGAN ha hecho esfuerzos conjuntos con sus planes  sanitarios  de  vacunación  y  creación  de organismos de  inspección en el control de esta enfermedad. En Boyacá se ha creado un proyecto piloto, en el cual se realiza un análisis sanitario de la  situación  de  la  brucelosis mediante pruebasdiagnósticas, como  son: Rosa de Bengala  (RB, ElisaIndirecta  (EI y Elisa Competitiva  (EC. En el periodocomprendido entre abril de 2008 y abril de 2009 se muestrearon  1910  animales  en  41  fincas ubicadas en las provincias de Centro, Tundama y Sugamuxi, en las cuales el 98.8% de los bovinos muestreados fueron hembras y el 1.2% machos, encontrándose en éstos una positividad  ante  la prueba RB del 2.9%, ante la prueba EI un 0.8% y ante  la prueba EC un 2.8% de positividad, conuna  prevalencia  de  0.73%  en  la  población analizada.Palabras clave: brucelosis, rosa de Bengala, Elisa indirecta, Elisa competitiva.

  2. Birinci basamak Helikobakter pilori eradikasyon tedavisinde 7 ve 14 günlük lansoprazol, amoksisilin, metronidazol protokolünün karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    UYGUN, Ahmet; KANTARCIOĞLU, Murat; POLAT, Zülfikar; KİLCİLER, Güldem; GÜLŞEN, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Giriş ve Amaç: Ülkemizde günümüzde birinci basamak Helikobakter pilori eradikasyon tedavisinde protokollerin süresi ve eradikasyon oranları konusunda tartışmalar sürmektedir. Bu çalışmadaki amacımız; nonülser dispepsili Helikobakter pilori pozitif hastalarda lansoprazol, amoksisilin, metronidazol'den oluşan 7 ve 14 günlük tedavi protokollerinin eradikasyon oranlarını karşılaştırmaktır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmaya Helikobakter pilori pozitif nonülser dispepsili 180 hasta (84 kadın,...

  3. Castillo del Real. Olocau

    OpenAIRE

    AUÑÓN VALLEJO, JONATAN

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo que se quiere alcanzar con este proyecto es el de realizar un estudio lo más cercano posible del Catillo del Real, de manera que se pueda conocer su origen, su evolución a lo largo de la historia, así como las diferentes técnicas y sistemas constructivos utilizados en su construcción. Auñón Vallejo, J. (2011). Castillo del Real. Olocau. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14244. Archivo delegado

  4. La Representabilidad del Genocidio

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona González, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta hacer una aproximación histórica y analítica al fenómeno del Genocidio, sus implicaciones sociales y culturales que dieron como resultado la reformulación analítica y conceptual de hechos que hasta entonces superaban el conocimiento y la moral humana. De este modo, se hace un trayecto histórico de la paulatina aparición del asesinato masivo como practica de Estado, enmarcado en las experiencias del genocidio armenio y el alemán. A su vez, se hace una mirada sobre ...

  5. Significado presente del CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Gallardo, Miguel Angel

    2000-01-01

    Not available

    Este artículo, elaborado en 1999, ofrece una panorámica de la realidad del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en la actualidad. Repasa su organización, su volumen de publicaciones, sus indicadores de productividad, su capacidad de obtener recursos y, en suma, su lugar en el conjunto del sistema español de Ciencia y Tecnología, considerado en sí mismo y en relación con la Universidad. Como conclusión del repaso de datos, se afirma que, aunque la fó...

  6. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  7. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  8. Mycoplasma hominis Symbiosis and Trichomonas vaginalis Metronidazole Resistance%人型支原体共生与阴道毛滴虫甲硝唑耐药性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 谢成彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人型支原体(Mycoplasma hominis)的共生与阴道毛滴虫(Trichomonas vaginalis)甲硝唑耐药性的关系.方法 2010年11月至2011年7月,自四川省妇幼保健院妇科门诊患者生殖道分泌物中分离出160株阴道毛滴虫,用梯度浓度1 024、512、256……4、2和1 μg/ml甲硝唑分别处理该批虫株,以死亡率≥90%的最低浓度作为甲硝唑最小致死浓度(MLC).以160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中提取的DNA为模板,用PCR技术特异性扩增人型支原体16S rRNA基因,检测滴虫细胞内是否有人型支原体共生.对检出人型支原体DNA的分离株用32μg/ml多西环素清除支原体,比较清除前后甲硝唑MLC的变化.结果 160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中甲硝唑MLC为1~8μg/ml的占61.3%(98/160),16~32μg/ml的占26.3%(42/160),64~256μg/ml的占12.5%(20/160).PCR检测结果显示,有61株(38.1%)检出人型支原体DNA,其中MLC为1~8μg/ml的分离株检出率为13.3%(13/98),16~32μg/ml的分离株检出率为73.8%( 31/42),64~256μg/ml的分离株检出率为85.0%(17/20),不同MLC范围的分离株人型支原体检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).用多西环素处理后,61株中仅有8株支原体被清除,清除前后甲硝唑MLC无明显变化.结论 四川地区的阴道毛滴虫分离株对甲硝唑表现出一定程度的耐药性,人型支原体的共生可能与之有关,但尚未发现直接证据.%Objective To investigate the relation of Mycoplasma hominis symbiosis and the resistence of Trichomonas vaginalit to metronidazole. Methods From November 2010 to July 2011, 160 isolates of T. Vaginalis were collected from the genital tract secretion of gynecological out-patients at the Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) to metronidazole of these isolates was determined by an in. Vitro sensitivity assay with different concentration gradients of metronidazole (from 1 to 1 024 μg/ml), and M

  9. Preferencias del Turista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Leiva Olivencia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen aplicaciones orientadas al turismo basadas en realidad aumentada, pero no integran técnicas de recomendación. Este articulo describe RAMCAT (Realidad Aumentada Móvil Contextual Aplicada al Turismo un modelo de guía turística, que recomienda puntos de interés, teniendo en cuenta factores como preferencias personales y atributos contextuales. Se presentan los componentes teóricos de la arquitectura propuesta, así como sus características, destacando la integración de diferentes sistemas de recomendación, que permiten añadir nuevos motores en el futuro. El articulo se centra en describir sus funcionalidades y el modulo correspondiente al sistema de recomendación basado en el perfil del turista. Otra característica importante del sistema propuesto es la retroalimentación del mismo mediante calificaciones del turista y su trazabilidad.

  10. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La millonaria contratación del futbolista David Beckham, un fenómeno del mercado, ha provocado cuestionamientos a los que se busca respuesta. Es tema de análisis el por qué el betseller "Harry Potter" ha causado tanta conmoción en la opinión pública. Respecto al periodista cibernético, se señalan los contornos del presente y atisban las posibilidades del futuro de esta nueva profesión. El tratamiento de los mitos de la prensa, los temores de la Ley mordaza venezolana y la brutalidad de los video juegos e Internet son temas de enorme interés. Se comenta las pocas veces que la prensa reflexiona sobre la comunicación corporal y la anorexia.

  11. Los muertos del Floreanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del crimen político un “vicio de nacimiento”. El asesinato del general Antonio José de Sucre, la muerte de los miembros de la sociedad El Quiteño Libre, el homicidio de Juan Otamendi, entre otros, hicieron patente esta característica.

  12. Niveles del aprendizaje organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Castrillón, Manuel Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    En la propuesta de modelo de aprendizaje organizacional (AO), la segunda variable se denomina niveles del aprendizaje organizacional ; los niveles de aprendizaje que contemplamos para nuestra investigación son: individual, de equipo, organizacional e interorganizacional.

  13. La escritura del Yo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Landaeta Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Si la creación de una imagen fidedigna del mundo fue la condición de la conquista cognitiva y económica de la tierra, las imágenes mediáticas circulan hoy en día a la manera de un montaje que organiza los sujetos como elementos de un territorio. En esta presentación abordaremos el cruce entre estos dos hechos, entre la escritura del mundo y la de los sujetos, a partir de la idea de Fabulación para mostrar otra escritura del mundo y del yo, leyendo textos e imágenes de la Primera buena Corónica y Buen Gobierno de Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala.

  14. Consideraciones alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartaLucía Tamayo Fernandez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La doctora MarthaLucía Tamayo comparte muchas inquietudes alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar; de dónde salió ese nombre; de juntar en medicina y en genética a tres escritores como lo son Jorge Luis Borges, Macedonio Fernández y Julio Cortázar. Su conferencia dice así:

    El término almismo fue ideado por Macedonio Fernández porque defendía mucho el ensimismamiento y el pensamiento hacia el interior, mirar hacia adentro; cada uno somos un “sí mismo” que nos hace diferentes aunque al mismo tiempo podemos ser iguales. Todos tenemos esa parte interior que la medicina debe trabajar y que no puede olvidar.

    “El Libro del Almismo, el libro del pensar” nos lleva a replantear y a repensar un poco la medicina que queremos, una medicina vuelta a pensar.

    Quiero contarles la historia de cómo se llegó a este libro y por qué y para qué se sigue trabajando en estos temas: Después de mi internado y de un trabajo un poco triste de rural, volví al Instituto de Genética y a la Universidad Javeriana en donde encontré al doctor Bernal y un espacio que estaba buscando para esa medicina diferente que quería, con un grupo de personas que me permitía no sólo ver la medicina sino ver muchas otras cosas más; había espacio para la literatura, para Mafalda, para hablar de niños, de locos, había incluso tiempo para hablar de medicina dentro del golf, de carros antiguos y de todo eso fui aprendiendo.

    Eso era lo que estaba buscando. Una medicina que diera espacios diferentes, que fuera más humanizada. Rápidamente me ubiqué y me quedé! No me arrepiento en lo absoluto de haberme quedado porque fue, ha sido y sigue siendo, una experiencia enriquecedora, de muchas vivencias importantes. Sabía exactamente dónde estaba y sabía que había que seguir rápido y había que trabajar muchos aspectos de esa medicina que estábamos buscando y de esa genética especial.

    Rápidamente empezamos a trabajar

  15. Actualidad del relativismo cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Durá, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo tiene tres propósitos. En primer lugar, propone examinar las relaciones entre etnocentrismo y relativismo. El etnocentrismo puede tomar tres formas distintas: a saber, la de una universalidad impostada, la del exotismo y la de un particularismo narcisista exacerbado. El relativismo cultural es una postura que asume la inconmensurabilidad de los conceptos y valores que deben ser considerados como válidos dentro de las imágenes del mundo definidas. En segundo lugar, se argumenta que...

  16. Use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum intimate liquid soap for external hygiene in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis recurrence after metronidazole oral treatment Uso do ácido láctico com lactoserum em sabonete líquido íntimo para higiene externa na prevenção da recorrência de vaginose bacteriana após tratamento oral com metronidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valeria Bahamondes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV after the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap starting immediately after the treatment with oral metronidazole and the quality of life of the participants. METHODS: A total of 123 women with diagnosis of BV with at least three of the following criteria: 1 homogeneous vaginal discharge without inflammation of the vagina or vulva; 2 vaginal pH ≥ 4.5; 3 positive Whiff test; and 4 "clue cells" in more than 20% of the epithelial cells in the vagina. A Nugent score ≥ 4 in the vaginal bacterioscopy was also used. After BV diagnosis, metronidazole 500 mg was administered orally bid during 7 days. Patients cured of BV were then instructed to use 7.5 to 10 mL of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap once-a-day for hygiene of the external genital region. Three subsequent control visits after starting the hygiene treatment (30, 60, and 90 days; ± 5 days were scheduled. A questionnaire was applied in the form of visual analogue scale (VAS in all the visits regarding: 1 level of comfort at the genital region; 2 malodorous external genitalia; 3 comfort in sexual intercourse; 4 satisfaction with intimate hygiene; and 5 self-esteem. RESULTS: Ninety two (74.8% women initiated the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap at visit 1. At visit 2, 3, and 4 there were 84, 62 and 42 women available for evaluation, respectively. The rate of recurrence of BV was 19.0%, 24.2% and 7.1%, respectively in the three visits and vaginal candidiasis was observed in five treated women. Quality of life was evaluated in the 42 women who completed the four visits schedule and there were significant improvement in the five domains assessed. CONCLUSION: A lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap for external intimate hygiene may be an option for the prevention of BV recurrence after treatment and cure with oral metronidazoleOBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de vaginose bacteriana (VB após o

  17. el Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enfoca en la identi- ficación de aquellos factores estructurales que explican la pérdida de dinamismo económico de largo plazo en Colombia y, en particular, en el Valle del Cauca. Se examina la competitividad del Valle en relación con Colombia y con el resto del mundo. Se cuestiona la insistencia en una estrategia exportadora como dinamizadora del desarrollo económico. Se identifica que una gran parte de la población está excluida de los beneficios del desarrollo económico. Para construir un modelo de desarrollo que incluya a esta población se recomienda recuperar la senda de la industrialización, invertir en el capital humano (educación de alta calidad, salud, salubridad y nutrición, e invertir en infraestructura. La participación del Estado en estas inversiones sociales es necesaria para disminuir la desigualdad y aumentar el crecimiento económico.

  18. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  19. Inventario nacional del uso actual del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Oficina Nacional de Evaluación de Recursos Naturales

    1984-01-01

    Establece como se emplea el agua en el Perú, teniendo en cuenta el tipo de uso, consuntivo y no consuntivo, discriminando según sea el destino: agrícola, pecuario, poblacional,industrial, minero, energético y pesquero, así como su localización geográfica; ello con la finalidad de que sirva de información básica para la planificación del desarrollo.

  20. Gerencia del cuidado-gerencia del servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Palmet Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La gerencia de este siglo debe estar plenamente identificada con la administración para planear, organizar, decidir y obtener resultados definidos, evaluados y alcanzados a través de las personas. Para poder gerenciar el cuidado se debe saber administrar. El objetivo de enfermería es cuidar; el objetivo de la gerencia es la conducción de la producción de bienes o servicios en las organizaciones. La gerencia del cuidado implica: motivación, creatividad, responsabilidad y ética por parte del cuidador y de quien cuida, claridad de actitud frente al ser y al qué hacer por parte del cuidador. Se puede concluir que la gerencia (administración, el cuidado (producto de calidad, el servicio (valor intangible, querer servir son un trinomio que deben ir de la mano de manera integrada para el logro de los objetivos propuestos por la organización de salud y de enfermería.

  1. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources Mejoramiento de la salud humana en África al sur del Sahara mediante el manejo integrado de enfermedades transmitidas por artrópodos y el manejo de recursos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2001-01-01

    a un medio ambiente favorable para las condiciones de vida del ser humano, y es la base de la sostenibilidad social. Para la planificación y la ejecución del esquema de mejoramiento de la salud humana, se necesita un sistema participativo de toma de decisiones, adaptado a las condiciones locales y desarrollado en base a acuerdos institucionales. La aplicabilidad de este esquema es demostrada en la zona rural y urbana de Etiopia.

  2. Determinantes del ingreso y del gasto corriente de los hogares

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz C., Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Este ensayo de investigación empírica analiza los determinantes del ingreso y del gasto en los hogares colombianos. Utilizando un modelo del ciclo de vida con datos de la encuesta de hogares de 1994 y 1995, muestra que el comportamiento del ingreso está afectado principalmente por las características demográficas del hogar y los rasgos socio ocupacionales de sus miembros. El comportamiento del gasto está determinado ante todo por el ingreso y, en menor medida, por las características sociales...

  3. Las fluctuaciones del nivel del mar durante el Cuaternario

    OpenAIRE

    Pousa, Jorge Lorenzo; Isla, Federico Ignacio; Schnack, Enrique Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Los cambios del nivel del mar han ejercido una fuerte influencia en la evolución del planeta y en la historia de la humanidad. En una escala de tiempo geológico, las variaciones de los niveles oceánicos han dejado un registro ampliamente distribuido en la forma de depósitos sedimentarios. El descenso del nivel del mar durante la Ultima Glaciación, que alcanzó unos 120 metros hace 18.000 años, permitió la emergencia del estrecho de Bering y la migración humana desde Eurasia hacia América. Se e...

  4. La imagen del pase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Bernal.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un texto del poeta Octavio Paz llamado «La imagen», se busca proseguir la equivalencia entre las imágenes de la poesía y la función que ellas tienen para el poeta, y el fantasma fundamental y su función para el analizante que está en el momento del pase. Se parte de la idea de que la poesía busca entrar en el ser así como el psicoanálisis tiene como finalidad apuntar al corazón del ser del sujeto. Se hace entonces una distinción del concepto de «ser» para el psicoanálisis, haciendo alusión también al discurso de la filosofía. Esclarecido el sentido de lo que es el «ser» para el psicoanálisis, se aborda de lleno – entre otras cosas, relacionadas con la experiencia del pase específicamente- la equivalencia entre la definición que hace Octavio Paz de «La Imagen» y el momento del pase en el análisis de un sujeto, imagen que, al igual que el mito para la filosofía, las leyes para la ciencia y el matema para el psicoanálisis, se constituyen en los instrumentos con los que cada una de estas disciplinas horadan en lo real.

  5. del Estado Aragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselys Cintia Zerpa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostica la situación actual de los bienes que conforman al patrimonio histórico-cultural del Municipio Zamora, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. La Investigación es descriptiva y de campo, comprendió la elaboración de un inventario de los bienes inmuebles, festividades religiosas y manifestaciones artesanales del municipio. Se estudiaron la condición física y uso actual de estos bienes y los planes y proyectos existentes. Analizó el marco normativo que los rige. Se obtuvo la opinión de los representantes de organismos públicos relacionados con la actividad turística del Municipio, de los visitantes, cronistas e historiadores. Aportes: La mayoría de los bienes se encuentran en buen estado de conservación, Las manifestaciones culturales, festividades y la artesanía se desarrollan periódicamente pero no son aprovechadas turísticamente, Se determinó que existe un marco normativo para tales bienes y No existen propuestas actuales referentes a estos bienes. Se reflejó el interés de los sectores institucional y privado para la incorporación de estos bienes a la oferta turística del Municipio y del Estado

  6. APOSTILLAS ACERCA DEL POSTRABAJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torrecilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El más reciente debate en torno al postrabajo transforma la herencia de los dos ciclos que le precedieron desde los años setenta. El primero se correspondía con la crítica de la división social y técnica de labores informada por una filosofía de la alienación o bien por una rectificación de la arquitectónica marxista pero salvaguardando la promesa laborista del buen trabajo. El segundo ciclo hacía eco del rechazo a las cadenas de montaje fordistas y se abría al horizonte de la abolición del trabajo salarial, manteniendo sin embargo el abolengo del sujeto unitario de la historia. La presente escena asume una densidad mayor, producto del encuentro entre las nuevas tecnologías informacionales, las discusiones en el ámbito de la sociología y la antropología, de la tecnología y la ciencia, junto al dueto que inaugura el posmodernismo.

  7. Apostillas acerca del postrabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torrecilla

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available El más reciente debate en torno al postrabajo transforma la herencia de los dos ciclos que le precedieron desde los años setenta. El primero se correspondía con la crítica de la división social y técnica de labores informada por una filosofía de la alienación o bien por una rectificación de la arquitectónica marxista pero salvaguardando la promesa laborista del buen trabajo. El segundo ciclo hacía eco del rechazo a las cadenas de montaje fordistas y se abría al horizonte de la abolición del trabajo salarial, manteniendo sin embargo el abolengo del sujeto unitario de la historia. La presente escena asume una densidad mayor, producto del encuentro entre las nuevas tecnologías informacionales, las discusiones en el ámbito de la sociología y la antropología, de la tecnología y la ciencia, junto al dueto que inaugura el posmodernismo.

  8. La universidad del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO SANCÉN CONTRERAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo señala la necesidad de reconstruir la Universidad, dado el dinamismo que muestra la ciencia y la sociedad, pues trae consigo cambios sustanciales en la visión del mundo y en el aumento del poder del hombre sobre la naturaleza. Se analizan los supuestos epistemológicos de la universidad tradicional y se propone una nueva explicación del conocimiento humano, enfatizando el conocimiento científico. Postula una docencia fundada en las propiedades de la ciencia, cuyo método inductivo basado en los paradigmas vigentes: analítico, crítico, pragmático, ofrece una herramienta para la docencia, la investigación y la difusión de la cultura. Se propone una educación centrada en el sujeto que se hace a sí mismo (etopoiética y que insiste en el proceso de auto-creación del individuo y de la sociedad.

  9. Significado presente del CSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Gallardo, Miguel Angel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Este artículo, elaborado en 1999, ofrece una panorámica de la realidad del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en la actualidad. Repasa su organización, su volumen de publicaciones, sus indicadores de productividad, su capacidad de obtener recursos y, en suma, su lugar en el conjunto del sistema español de Ciencia y Tecnología, considerado en sí mismo y en relación con la Universidad. Como conclusión del repaso de datos, se afirma que, aunque la fórmula del CSIC, como organismo nacional e interdisciplinario, no es la única posible, la organización del Estado de las Autonomías, así como la evaluación de los datos con que se cuenta, la hacen vivamente recomendable. No hay, pues, sino que seguir con su desarrollo.

  10. Dalt del tren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Subirana

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Ens consta que la saviesa popular hi toca més del que a aquest temps d’enquestes, telèfons mòbils i targetes de crèdit li ve de gust admetre, per això em fa gràcia, en veure la pausada però continuada intrusió de la cultura catalana a Internet, recordar les cançons de quan era petit: “Dalt del tren, tots anem-hi dalt del tren, hi ha lloc per tota la gent”, dèiem, i “El tren pinxo de Banyoles és el més bonic que hi ha, ple de llaunes i cassoles i barrets de capellà”. I resulta que per una vegada a la vida hem pujat, efectivament, dalt del tren que passava per l’estació de Catalunya i en cinc anys hem passat de gairebé res a prou pàgines amb un contingut, a més, apreciable i, sobretot, a un petit teixit de persones i institucions que han entès la importància de la revolució comunicativa que Internet representa i que hi teixeixen i projecten webs amb el convenciment dels conversos.

  11. Las carreras del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Piscoya Hermoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La primera década del siglo XXI ha estado signada por un énfasis en los estudiosde prospectiva, los mismos que, a partir de procesos de complejizacióny articulación de la sociedad planetaria como son la digitalización, el progresivodeterioro del medio ambiente, la necesidad del cambio de la matriz energéticay la globalización del mercado, han ensayado hipótesis para identificar lastendencias que se fortalecerán y profundizarán durante las próximas décadas.Desde el punto de vista metodológico, existen muchas maneras de clasificarlaspara conceptualizarlas y entenderlas mejor. Sin embargo, considerando lanaturaleza de esta edición nos proponemos enfocar directamente aquellas queestán estrechamente ligadas a la formación universitaria.Naturalmente, no pensamos que estamos ante tendencias inevitables en lamedida que epistemológicamente la creencia en leyes históricas deterministases insostenible y la práctica social nos muestra que la construcción del futuroes nuestra responsabilidad y siempre rebasa las mejores previsiones.

  12. Componente Cultura del Agua del PMGRH: plan de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Autoridad Nacional del Agua; Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos

    2012-01-01

    Describe el plan de trabajo del Componente Cultura del Agua del Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos (PMGRH) en relacion a dos aspectos estructurales del proyecto: 1. Mejora de la capacidad de la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH) a nivel nacional y 2. Fortalecimiento de las capacidades de GIRH en las cuencas.

  13. En busca del concepto de gerencia del cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Teresa Mora-Delgado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo, presenta los conceptos de gerencia del cuidado de enfermería, desarrollado por las enfermeras profesionales que laboran en le Empresa social del estado Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz de las Ciudad de Cúcuta, desde su desempeño en la asistencia, administración y docencia. Se pretende además precisar los elementos gerenciales, sociales, humanísticos y éticos que deben hacer parte del concepto de gerencia del cuidado.

  14. LA PERSISTENCIA DEL SUBALTERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Beverley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el texto literal de una ponencia presentada en un panel sobre los estudios culturales latinoamericanos en el congreso de LASA en 2001 en Washington DC. Representa la posición desarrollada en el trabajo colectivo del llamado Grupo de Estudios Subalternos Latinoamericano, desde nuestra fundación en 1992 hasta la disolución del grupo en 2001, que sirve como pretexto introductorio para la ponencia. Los otros participantes en el panel eran Walter Mignolo, representando los estudios poscoloniales, Néstor García Canclini y John Kraniauskas, representando los estudios culturales, y Nelly Richard representando la llamada crítica cultural. El trabajo dialoga y debate con cada una de estas posiciones respectivamente desde el punto de vista específico de los estudios subalternos. Concluye con un llamado a una crítica del saber académico en sí.

  15. Acalasia. Controversias del tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo P, Antonio J; Rey T, Mario H; Garzón O, Martín A; Farfán Q, Yesid A; Molano V, Juan C; Marulanda, Juan C; Lizarazo, Jorge I

    2007-01-01

    La acalasia es un desorden motor del esófago caracterizado por pérdida de la peristalsis esofágica con falta en la relajación o relajación incompleta del esfínter esofágico inferior (EEI) (1). La causa exacta de este trastorno es desconocida. Los síntomas más comunes son disfagia, regurgitación, pérdida de peso y dolor torácico (2). La manometría esofágica es el principal método diagnóstico, mostrando aperistalsis del cuerpo esofágico con aumento de la presión, falta de relajación o relajació...

  16. Procedimiento Del Triple Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar L. Bellido Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un procedimiento novedoso basado en un método dialéctico - sistémico - integrador, que facilita la precisión de los fines u objetivos más generales de un proceso de desarrollo comunitario o de otros procesos de cambio deseados (un proyecto sociocultural, una investigación social, un proceso de mejoramiento organizacional, etc.. Su importancia radica en que los fines, según Marx, son una guía que rige como una ley la actuación del hombre y determinarlos es parte esencial del planeamiento del cambio. Se trata de un asunto aparentemente simple, sin embargo, en la práctica es mucho más problemático de lo que comúnmente se cree.

  17. Efecto del silicio y plaguicidas en la fertilidad del suelo y rendimiento del arroz

    OpenAIRE

    Furcal-Beriguete, Parménides; Herrera-Barrantes, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Efecto del silicio y plaguicidas en la fertilidad del suelo y rendimiento del arroz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del silicio en la fertilidad del suelo, la incidencia de enfermedades y plagas insectiles, el rendimiento y la calidad de granos del cultivo de arroz. El estudio se realizó en La Vega, Florencia, San Carlos, Costa Rica entre mayo y octubre en los años 2010 y 2011, en el mismo lote con la variedad CR 4477. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos: silicio al suelo, ...

  18. Storia del pensiero matematico

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1999-01-01

    Costruita con l'intento di presentare le idee oltre ai protagonisti della matematica, questa storia ha il duplice pregio dell'esaustività e della chiarezza. Essa prevede infatti vari livelli di lettura: lo specialista vi trova una messe di dati, fonti e spunti di ricerca, mentre lo studente ha a disposizione un formidabile strumento di consultazione e sintesi. L'arco temporale coperto è vasto: dalla Mesopotamia a Euclide, da Fibonacci all'invenzione del calcolo infinitesimale, da Gauss a Poincare, con un'appendice dedicata agli sviluppi piu recenti scritta appositamente per la prima edizione italiana del 1991, nei «Manuali» Einaudi.

  19. La escritura del quechua

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, Martine du

    2015-01-01

    La mayor fantasía ha acompañado siempre la transcripción del quechua. El primer intento de sistematización fue el sistema de la Paz, en 1953. Sin embargo, no existe en el comercio un diccionario satisfactorio en lo que se refiere al quechua del Cusco y, prácticamente, nada se edita en quechua, fuera de algunos trabajos antropológicos bilingües. Bajo la égida de la UNESCO, la Academia Peruana de la Lengua Quechua, que tiene su sede en el Cusco, ha colaborado en un diccionario de doce de los tr...

  20. El lenguaje del cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibáñez Molina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de nuevas técnicas de análisis de ritmos EEG en estudio de la comprensión del lenguaje permite explorar esta habilidad humana desde una perspectiva de integración de grupos de redes neuronales. Los ritmos de disparo neuronal que generan estos grupos pueden conectarse por sincronía formando unidades funcionales transitorias distribuidas en diversas áreas del cerebro. En esta revisión comentamos algunos de estos ritmos y su relación con el lenguaje.

  1. Plasticidad del sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Garcia-Segura

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan los conocimientos más recientes sobre el fenómeno de la plasticidad del sistéma nervioso, tanto a nivel morfológico como a nivel fisiológico y molecular. Se estudian los cambios morfólogicos y fisiológicos de las neuronas frente a la experiencia. Tambien se considera la adaptación molecular del sistéma nervioso a la información que recibe como la base de todo tipo de plasticidad.

  2. Las causas del desempleo

    OpenAIRE

    García Balbás, Salomé

    2014-01-01

    En este documento vamos a tratar de dar respuesta a la siguiente pregunta: ¿cuáles son las causas del desempleo? Para ello realizaremos un repaso de las principales teorías económicas del desempleo llegando a la conclusión de que existe una causa fundamental que lo genera: la rigidez de los salarios a la baja. Consideramos el desempleo como la existencia de un exceso de oferta en el mercado de trabajo y haremos alusión, únicamente, a la existencia de desempleo involuntario. La exposición de l...

  3. Inventario del Archivo del conde de Bornos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Porras Arboledas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Mi primer contacto con esta Casa se remonta a algunos años atrás, cuando me Mamó la atención un documento muy interesante, publicado a comienzos del presente siglo por el ilustre erudito ubetense don Alfredo Cazaban, por el que los Reyes Católicos hacían merced a su secretario y jefe de la artillería real durante la Guerra contra Granada, Francisco Ramírez de Madrid, personaje madrileño de origen cántabro, de una heredad en término de Jaén —el cortijo de Bornos— por sus grandes esfuerzos en la conquista de las plazas, hasta el momento inexpugnables, de Cambil y Alhabar. Posteriormente, al realizar un estudio sobre el régimen señorial en el Reino de Jaén, intenté localizar los archivos de las diferentes casas nobiliarias asentadas en esta provincia, gracias a lo cual pude saber que la documentación del Condado de Bornos se hallaba en Madrid, bien en la Biblioteca Nacional o en el Archivo Histórico, ya que el actual Conde, el Excmo. Sr. Don Ignacio Ramírez de Haro, así me lo comunicó en marzo de 1983.

  4. Competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Eric; Miceli, Francisco; Tiburcio, Georgina; Gómez, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    1. ¿Qué significa la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 2. ¿Por qué es relevante que adquiera la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo en mi formación? 3. ¿Cómo aprendo la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 4. ¿Cómo aplico la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 5. ¿Cómo puedo autoevaluar mi competencia (con miras a un constante crecimiento)?

  5. Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2010-01-01

    La tesi doctoral "Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions" analitza els efectes del consentiment a les tècniques de reproducció assistida prestat en el marc d'un projecte parental. La tesi ofereix una resposta als conflictes que enfronten exesposos o exconvivents en relació al destí dels preembrions sobrants d'un cicle de fecundació "in vitro" iniciat durant la relació. Aquests conflictes constitueixen un grup de casos al voltant del qual no hi ha solucions legislatives qu...

  6. La equinoterapia en las distintas alteraciones del desarrollo del menor.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro González, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    La equinoterapia consiste en la utilización del caballo como un método terapéutico para rehabilitar a personas con discapacidad. Esta terapia es considerada una gran alternativa para aumentar el autoestima de los que sufren algún tipo de discapacidad, también a través de esta terapia se mejora y fortalece el estado emocional, así del mismo modo ayuda a mejorar la manera de desenvolverse en su entorno social. Esta terapia se realiza a través de la trasmisión del calor corporal del caballo, del...

  7. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (segunda parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla Salgador, Juan Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición del riesgo base.Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición d...

  8. del's Proof

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Gödel's Proof - Incompleteness Theorems. S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 71-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/05/0071-0084. Keywords.

  9. Marketing Mix del Software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith del Carmen Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Por ello, en este trabajo se define el concepto de producto software, se caracteriza al mismo y se exponen sus atributos de calidad. Además, se aborda la mezcla de marketing del software necesaria y diferente a la de otros productos para que este triunfe en el mercado.

  10. Gerencia del servicio

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Peña Acosta

    1992-01-01

    Estamos en la era de la pirámide invertida donde el cliente es primero por lo que es fundamental incentivar la calidad desde abajo; hacer que el trabajador defina su misión, sienta que es parte de la compañía para que la satisfacción del negocio realizado sea de todos.

  11. El Juego del Juego

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Nazaré Cristina

    2012-01-01

    DUVIGNAUD, Jean. El Juego del Juego. Santafé de Bogotá, Colômbia: Fondo de Cultura Econômica, 1997.The game gameDUVIGNAUD, Jean. The Game Game. Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia: Fondo de Cultura Econômica, 1997

  12. El helor del cuerpo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1992-01-01

    Ensayo sobre las formas clásicas y modernas de la metamorfosis. En esta figura mitológica se advierte de manera privilegiada la entrada del imaginario científico, biológico y genético en el dominio de las construcciones literarias y cinematográficas.

  13. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La publicación se centra en temas como: Procesos electorales en México e Italia, se analizan los procesos comunicacionales y sus efectos; las infiltraciones de las agencias de seguridad en la actividad periodística en Europa; la radio y la televisión pública en los EE.UU. Para conocer cómo la prensa enfrenta los problemas críticos entre países, esta el caso de Uruguay y Argentina (discrepancia por la planta de procesamiento de papel y la contaminación del Río de La Plata. Otro artículo refiere la difícil relación entre los medios de comunicación y el gobierno de Chávez en Venezuela. Se aborda el caso brasileño para entender el crecimiento de los Observatorios de Medios; otro sobre el crecimiento del "periodismo confidencial" en la web y la prensa gratuita. Se estudia el impacto de la telenovela "pasión de gavilanes". Para quienes interese la penetración del Internet está: "Usos y competencias del weblog en las corporaciones" más otro sobre la lucha sorda que mantienen los gigantes de la autopista de la información Google y Yahoo.

  14. Punctualizaciones del CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Viene de la pagina anterior. Puntualizaciones del CERN. La valoracion que me merece la aprobacion en el Consejo de Ministros el 24 de mayo de un acuerdo de colaboracion entre el MCYT y el CERN para el proyecto de neutrinos al Gran Sasso es positiva" (1 page).

  15. Software del sistema osteomioarticular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianelys León Medina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aplicación en la enseñanza de las Tecnologías de la Informática y las Comunicaciones, es una de las líneas que ha trazado el sistema de salud cubano en estudiantes de las ciencias médicas. La anatomía es una de las ciencias que integra la disciplina de Morfofisiología y para facilitar su comprensión resulta necesario el empleo de recursos y estrategias, entre los que puede figurar un software educativo. Objetivo: diseñar un software sobre la anatomía del sistema osteomioarticular de cabeza y cuello para los estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Estomatología de Pinar del Río. Material y método: se realizó un estudio cualitativo. Para obtener los resultados se utilizó el método materialista dialéctico. Para la dialéctica del desarrollo del proceso estudiado se utilizaron los métodos teóricos, empíricos, el estudio profundo del tema, tipo de plataforma a utilizar y criterios de los especialistas. Para su procesamiento se utilizaron técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales no paramétricas. Resultados: debido a la necesidad de fortalecer en los estudiantes las habilidades en la utilización de las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones, se elaboró el software de la anatomía del sistema osteomioarticular de cabeza y cuello "Aprendiendo anatomía" mediante imágenes, videos y textos. Conclusiones: el software constituye un aporte al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje, el cual facilita el trabajo independiente y autopreparación mediante la interactividad con el contenido, retroalimentación y evaluación utilizando medios de enseñanza modernos, lo cual tributa al modo de actuación del futuro egresado.

  16. Historia deldel = History of Padel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo resume la historia del deporte deldel. Existen dos versiones sobre el origen deldel. La primera versión relaciona los antecedentes deldel con los de otros deportes de raqueta como el tenis o el bádminton, siendo su origen común el jeu de la paume francés. Posteriormente, surgen variantes en Estados Unidos como el Paddle Tennis y el Platform Tennis, siendo versiones reducidas del tenis, pero con elementos muy comunes al pádel actual. La segunda versión, aprobada por la Federación Internacional de Pádel, afirma que este deporte nació en México, en 1969, a través del empresario Enrique Corcuera.--------------------------------------------------------------------This research summarizes the history of paddle sport. There are two versions about the origin of paddle. The first version relates the history of paddle with other racket sports like tennis or badminton, and its common origin of the Jeu de Paume French. Later, in in the United States, appear two sports called Paddle Tennis and Platform Tennis, which are reduced versions of tennis sport, but these have lot of common characteristics with paddle. The second version, approved by the International Padel Federation, said the sport was born in Mexico in 1969, through the businessman Enrique Corcuera.

  17. Determinantes del ingreso y del gasto corriente de los hogares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz C., Manuel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo de investigación empírica analiza los determinantes del ingreso y del gasto en los hogares colombianos. Utilizando un modelo del ciclo de vida con datos de la encuesta de hogares de 1994 y 1995, muestra que el comportamiento del ingreso está afectado principalmente por las características demográficas del hogar y los rasgos socio ocupacionales de sus miembros. El comportamiento del gasto está determinado ante todo por el ingreso y, en menor medida, por las características sociales del hogar y el gasto de otros hogares con características similares. También examina la influencia de la incertidumbre acerca de los ingresos en el gasto de los hogares para comprobar si estos actúan con motivos de precaución.

  18. Estudio del CH interestelar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  19. La pluridimensionalidad del rol del docente hospitalario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Serradas Fonseca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el fruto de la observación y la investigación en la trayectoria personal y profesional de la autora dedicada a la educación de niños y niñas en situación de enfermedad u hospitalización. El objetivo de este ensayo es intentar definir de manera específica, el papel, tareas y competencias que el profesional del ámbito educativo tiene en la atención educativa hospitalaria; haciendo especial énfasis en la importancia de la formación de este profesional abogándose por una preparación que permita brindar una atención educativa de calidad a los niños y niñas en situación de enfermedad u hospitalizados.

  20. Metronidazole removal in powder-activated carbon and concrete-containing graphene adsorption systems: Estimation of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters and optimization of adsorption by a central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, S V; Kumar, S Mathava; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2017-12-06

    Metronidazole (MNZ) removal by two adsorbents, i.e., concrete-containing graphene (CG) and powder-activated carbon (PAC), was investigated via batch-mode experiments and the outcomes were used to analyze the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of MNZ adsorption. MNZ sorption on CG and PAC has followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the thermodynamic parameters revealed that MNZ adsorption was spontaneous on PAC and non-spontaneous on CG. Subsequently, two-parameter isotherm models, i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Elovich models, were applied to evaluate the MNZ adsorption capacity. The maximum MNZ adsorption capacities ([Formula: see text]) of PAC and CG were found to be between 25.5-32.8 mg/g and 0.41-0.002 mg/g, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on MNZ adsorption were evaluated by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The CCD experiments have pointed out the complete removal of MNZ at a much lower PAC dosage by increasing the system temperature (i.e., from 20°C to 40°C). On the other hand, a desorption experiment has shown 3.5% and 1.7% MNZ removal from the surface of PAC and CG, respectively, which was insignificant compared to the sorbed MNZ on the surface by adsorption. The overall findings indicate that PAC and CG with higher graphene content could be useful in MNZ removal from aqueous systems.

  1. ABC del Ajedrez. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisel Piñeiro Gomez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La promoción del Ajedrez, su conocimiento y práctica por la población constituye uno de los programas de la Revolución, por tal motivo el presente trabajo está encaminado a proponer un material bibliográfico con variadas posiciones sobre el movimiento-captura de las piezas y los sistemas de notación para los masificadores de Ajedrez del municipio Pinar del Río. En esta investigación se utilizaron variados métodos: teóricos, empíricos y estadísticos, además, como método rector el dialéctico materialista. Constituye una novedad científica porque aporta un material bibliográfico que contiene: la composición,  disposición  e  identificación  del  tablero de  ajedrez;  identificación, colocación, movimiento y captura de las piezas de ajedrez; la promoción del Peón; el valor absoluto de las piezas; los sistemas de notación: descriptivo y algebraico. Se le incluyen más de trescientos gráficos, conceptos que son trabajados de lo simple a lo complejo de manera tal que el masificador de Ajedrez lo utilice en sus clases donde se viabilice el conocimiento gracias a las facilidades que le aporta el material; ofrece algoritmos que le guiarán a elaborar nuevas posiciones, los cuales son inexistentes para este propósito en otras bibliografías; su significación práctica radica en que proporciona, tanto al estudiantado como profesorado, ejercicios de ajedrez sencillos que les permitirá a los primeros para que les sirva en su comportamiento, y a los segundos utilizarlos en su auto preparación; el interés social se halla en que pueden ser utilizados por profesores, personal de apoyo a la docencia,  técnicos  del  INDER,  familiares  de  los  estudiantes  para  ayudarlos;  el interés educativo reside en que a través de esos ejercicios contribuimos al fortalecimiento de valores.

  2. Arco del milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adell, Josep Mª

    2005-02-01

    the most significant stages in the erection of the Millennium Arch outside the Palacio de Congresos, venue for the 12th IBMAC.
    These pictures are divided into six chapters: Background, Components, Springline, Piers, Arch, Centring Erection and Removal, and Trimming.

    A lo largo de la historia, el Arco de fábrica ha sido el componente constructivo más característico de la Arquitectura y la Ingeniería desde que después de sus inicios etruscos en la época romana fuera desarrollado adelantándose con ello a la cultura helénica.
    El Arco, desde entonces, viene empleándose como una solución constructiva eficiente para cubrir espacios con materiales que no soportan tracciones. La originalidad técnica del Arco lo ha llevado a imponerse como símbolo de las hazañas bélicas como era el Arco de Triunfo.
    En el cambio de siglo y milenio en el que nos encontramos, un salto técnico fundamental se desvela en este Congreso, el Sistema de Albañilería Integral, que abre la posibilidad de ampliar el campo de aplicación de la albañilería con la incorporación del acero, a través de las perforaciones de las piezas, lográndose por fin armar en las tres direcciones del espacio cualquier muro de fábrica que se desee.
    El Arco del Milenio conmemoró el 12th IBMAC de Madrid, mostrando en él los avances técnicos que el Sistema de Albañilería Integral permite, al tratarse de un arco inclinado en el espacio y, por tanto, el primer arco de fábrica construido fuera de la vertical, mediante fábrica de Ladriflor aparejada a tizón, reforzada con barras y cercos.
    El Arco del Milenio, diseñado por J.M. Adell (Presidente del 12th IBMAC, parte de un cilindro de 14 m de diámetro, inclinado 30º sobre el terreno, y construido con fábrica de ladrillo de un pie de grueso, alternando una hilada de color amarillo de cada seis en rojo. El hueco deja un paso libre de 10 m de lado y 5,5 m de altura. La fábrica está armada regularmente por tendeles con cerchas cada

  3. Determinantes del trabajo infantil y la escolaridad: el caso del Valle del Cauca en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Urueña Abadía

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Colombia, al igual que la mayoría de países latinoamericanos, consciente de las repercusiones sociales y económicas negativas del trabajo infantil, se ha comprometido en la lucha por la erradicación de este fenómeno. Prueba de ello es la ratificación por parte del gobierno colombiano en el año 2007, del Convenio 182 de la OIT sobre la Prohibición de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil y la Acción Inmediata para su Eliminación. En el plano regional, como parte del Plan de Desarrollo del Departamento del Valle del Cauca 2008-2011, se está implementando actualmente una estrategia territorial de erradicación del trabajo infantil en sus 42 municipios. Considerando este panorama, este trabajo indaga cuáles son los determinantes del trabajo infantil y la escolaridad en el departamento del Valle a partir de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Calidad de Vida del año 2003. Para el análisis se emplea un modelo econométrico Probit Bivariado, que permite el estudio conjunto e interrelacionado de decisiones diferentes, en este caso la asistencia escolar y el trabajo.

  4. Resultados refractivos obtenidos mediante la cirugía del cristalino transparente en altas miopías Refractive outcomes in the transparent crystalline surgery to treat high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andújar Coba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de corte longitudinal donde se incluyeron 212 pacientes (ojos con diagnóstico de altas miopías que fueron sometidos a cirugía facorrefractiva en el Servicio de Microcirugía del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el período de tiempo comprendido entre abril del 2001 y abril del 2006. OBJETIVOS: Valorar los resultados refractivos obtenidos mediante la cirugía del cristalino transparente en altas miopías, analizando los índices de seguridad y eficacia del procedimiento. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron métodos de estadística descriptiva como el cálculo de frecuencias absolutas, relativas (%, y desviación estándar para presentar resultados evolutivos y la incidencia de complicaciones. La información se obtuvo de las evaluaciones preoperatorias y posoperatorias (3 meses,todo fue procesado en el sistema SPSS para Windows y se presentó en forma de tablas y gráficos para su mejor entendimiento. RESULTADOS: En nuestro trabajo encontramos en el preoperatorio que la agudeza visual promedio sin corrección mejoraba de un valor de 0,2 a 0,7 en el posoperatorio, la seguridad del proceder quirúrgico fue calculada en un índice de 2 , con una eficacia de tres líneas de ganancia promedio en la cartilla de Snellen y un astigmatismo promedio inducido de 0,74 dioptrías. CONCLUSIONES: Se halló mejoría indudable de la agudeza visual con corrección y sin ella después de la cirugía. La eficacia y seguridad del proceder quirúrgico fue más que demostrada con el alto porcentaje de pacientes que quedaron con una AVsc satisfactoria posquirúrgica. Identificamos la opacidad de cápsula posterior como la complicación más frecuente en afáquicos. En los pacientes a los cuales no se les implantó lente intraocular encontramos el mayor número de complicaciones posquirúrgicas.INTRODUCTION: A retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 212

  5. Análisis de la serie de precios del trigo mediante la metodología box-jenkins , y su cointegración con las series de precios de productos derivados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns de la Fuente Mella

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente estudio presenta un análisis de series temporales de los precios reales del trigo en Chile, para el período comprendido entre el mes de enero de 1990 y enero de 2007, utilizando la metodología Box-Jenkins. Además, se presenta un análisis de cointegración entre los precios reales del trigo y algunos de sus derivados como el Pan, la Harina y los Tallarines. La muestra fue ajustada con un modelo ARIMA (2,1,1, mostrando algunos inconvenientes en una de las hipótesis que el procedimiento necesita confirmar, lo que fue solucionado aplicando la "Ley de Los Grandes Números", es decir, utilizando el teorema del límite central. Respecto de la cointegración, nuestro supuesto de la existencia de ésta fue validado mediante el test de Phillips-Perron para raíces unitarias, demostrando cuantitativamente la existencia de cointegración entre los precios del trigo y sus derivados en estudio.Además, se valida la hipótesis de estacionalidad de los precios del trigo para los meses de Noviembre, Diciembre y Enero debido a la escasez del producto en dichos períodos.Finalmente, la presencia de cointegración demostrada sirve de incentivo para que futuros investigadores puedan utilizar estos resultados, con el objeto de realizar pronósticos para el precio del trigo y sus derivados, pensando en la existencia de un equilibrio estable entre las variables. The following study presents a serial temporal analysis of the real prices of Wheat in Chili, for the period between, January, 1990 and January 2007 , using the Box- Jenkins methodology. Besides,we present an analysis of cointegration between the real prices of Wheat and sorne of his derivates products like bread, Flour and noodles. We suppose cointegration that was confirmed with the Phillip-Perron test. The sample of data was fitted whit a model ARIMA (2,1,1 showing sorne troubles in one of the hypothes1s that the procedure need to confirm.That was solved by applying de "Big Numbers Law

  6. En defensa del indigenismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Huamán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El indigenismo como movimiento literario, cultural, ideológico y políticoconstituye un hito, una referencia obligada de nuestra tradición culturaly literaria nacional. Su debate no se reduce ni limita a las primerasdécadas del siglo XX, etapa privilegiada en forma recurrente en los estudiosiniciales sobre esta corriente. Podemos afirmar, sin temor a equivocarnos,que no hay momento ni periodo, más o menos visible, en elque no se haya evaluado en forma crítica este acontecimiento, el mismoque ha resurgido con otras denominaciones o referencias (regionalismo,andinismo, mariateguismo, humalismo, etc., a lo largo de nuestro procesohistórico, pero imbuidas de la perspectiva inicial. El propósito deeste artículo es hacer una defensa del indigenismo contestando algunasposiciones contrarias como la de Mirko Lauer.

  7. RESPONSABILIDAD DEL ODONTOPEDIATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Guillen B., Celso

    2014-01-01

    La Responsabilidad de la atención del niño, requiere de una formación y preparación universitaria de la Segunda Especialidad en Odontopediatría para manejar organismos en proceso de crecimiento somático y psicológico. Es por eso que con el proceso de la ciencia se ha comprendido la importancia de la atención del niño desde que nace. Es así que se ha creado sistemas integrales de atención odontopediátrica durante los primeros años de vida, debido a la alta vulnerabilidad de contraer las enferm...

  8. Responsabilidad Constitucional del Gobierno

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    Francisco Zúñiga Urbina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la responsabilidad constitucional del Gobierno y sostiene que es jurídico-política, de lejano cuño penal y administrativo, y el procedimiento empleado para hacerla efectiva es la acusación en juicio político, que es un típico caso de "justicia política". A la responsabilidad constitucional se suman las responsabilidades civil y penal de Derecho Público del Presidente de la República y sus ministrosThis paper analyses constitutional responsibility of the government and sustains that it is political and juridical, of distant penal and administrative inspiration, and that the procedure used for persecution is impeachment in political trials, demonstrating a typical case of "political justice." Added to the constitutional responsibility of the government are the civil and penal responsibilities of the President and minister's public law

  9. Infecciones del tracto urinario

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    K. Andrés Wurgaft, Dr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La infección del tracto urinario (ITU, con sus múltiples presentaciones clínicas, está entre las enfermedades infecciosas más frecuentes, tanto en pacientes ambulatorios como hospitalizados. El uso del examen de orina completa y de urocultivo debe ser racional. La bacteriuria asintomática no debe ser buscada ni tratada, en parte porque esto favorece el desarrollo de bacterias resistentes a antibióticos. Distintos cuadros clínicos requieren de distintas duraciones de terapia antibiótica, y tanto el exceso de días de tratamiento como su falta deben evitarse. Se requiere investigación en la búsqueda de estrategias más efectivas para prevenir las ITU recurrentes y en el desarrollo de nuevos antibióticos orales para las ITU resistentes.

  10. Las cruces del olvido

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    Carla Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Les tragiques événements du « mars paraguayen » ont signifié la disparition de l’espoir en la transition démocratique dans laquelle le pays s’était engagé depuis presque une dizaine d’années. Renée Ferrer, poète, dramaturge, auteur de plusieurs recueils de contes et de deux romans, consigne alors le témoignage poétique de ce drame national dans le recueil Las cruces del olvido (2001. Elle a auparavant publié d’autres textes qui peuvent rentrer dans la catégorie de la poésie sociale : c’est le cas en particulier de Viaje a destiempo (1989 dédié aux victimes de la dictature. Las cruces del olvido, dès son paratexte, insiste sur la fonction de témoignage que l’auteur souhaite assigner à ses vers et sur le rôle que ceux-ci peuvent jouer dans la transmission d’une mémoire collective. La voix d’un jeune disparu de ce « mars paraguayen », le dédoublement qu’il subit et travers lequel il évoque son entrée dans la mort et son absence du monde des vivants, rendent possible l’écriture de cette expérience de l’indicible qu’est la disparition.Los trágicos acontecimientos del «marzo paraguayo» significaron la desaparición de la esperanza en la transición democrática que el país está viviendo desde unos diez años. Renée Ferrer, poeta, dramaturga, autora de varios libros de cuentos y de dos novelas, escribe entonces el testimonio poético de ese drama nacional en su poemario Las cruces del olvido (2001. Ya había publicado antes textos que se pueden considerar como poesía social: es el caso de Viaje a destiempo (1989 dedicado a las víctimas de la dictadura. Desde el texto apertural, Las cruces del olvido potencia la función de testimonio que la autora desea conceder a sus versos y el papel que éstos pueden desempeñar en la transmisión de una memoria colectiva. La voz de un joven desaparecido del «marzo paraguayo», el desdoblamiento que sufre y a través del cual evoca su entrada en la

  11. Carta del editor

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    José Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación científica en México vive enormes retos ante la carrera de adaptar sus formas de comunicación a las nuevas tecnologías. No es tarea fácil convencerse de abandonar el papel y la imprenta para apostar por el código abierto. Sin embargo, esto es apremiante debido al retraso que se lleva en comparación con otras regiones.  Un reto muy evidente ha sido comprender el acceso abierto, reconociendo que este permite mayor visibilidad a la ciencia y que ayuda a evitar el plagio.  Razón por la que nos alegra que a partir del número 37, Mercados y Negocios cuenta con el ISSN electrónico, además del impreso

  12. Carta del Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Henos aquí con un nuevo número de RIESED. Después de casi un año de ver la luz, y como lo anticipábamos en la carta del editor que acompañaba al número fundacional, hacer una revista electrónica no ha sido una tarea sencilla. Un año más tarde no podemos sino confirmar esa opinión.Gracias al decidido trabajo de los autores, revisores y miembros del equipo editorial hemos podido hacerlo. El proceso de revisión de los artículos ha merecido un cuidado, dedicación y tiempo especiales, que hicieron...

  13. Sonidos del Silencio

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    Luz Rodríguez Carranza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela ha muerto, afirmaba Alberto Moravia, popularizada, anexada y banalizada por el cine, la televisión, la prensa, la sicología y la sociología. Para Carlos Fuentes en cambio - quien cita a Moravia en 1969 – « lo que ha muerto es sólo la forma burguesa de la novela, el realismo » (17. Basta un viaje rápido por la red para verificar, sin embargo, que la víctima goza de buena salud y que no está confinada en la cultura de masas o en las ciencias sociales : el modelo realista del siglo XIX – y particularmente la creación de tipos representativos de una época, sean éstos promediales o excepcionales - constituye aún la principal preocupación de los escritores y críticos literarios del siglo XXI.

  14. del consumidor mexicano

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    Nadia Huitzilin Jiménez Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pese a que el 80% de la población del mundo vive en mercados emergentes y países en desarrollo, como México, la investigación sobre el consumidor de estos países ha sido insuficiente. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el perfil del consumidor mexicano en función de variables psicosociológicas como el etnocentrismo, la apertura cultural, el patriotismo, el colectivismo y las características demográficas. Con este propósito se recogió la información de una muestra de 274 consumidores, se realizaron un análisis factorial de sus principales componentes y un análisis cluster con el cual se aglomeró a los individuos en tres grupos con diferentes perfiles psicosociológicos y demográficos.

  15. del noroeste murciano

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    Ma. Luz Tudela Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Región de Murcia se está realizando un esfuerzo por aumentar la producción de energías renovables en cumplimiento de los objetivos de Kyoto establecidos para España. Paralelamente, la percepción social acerca de las mismas preocupa cada vez más. En este trabajo, los ciudadanos opinan ante la necesidad de promover el uso e implantación de energías renovables en varias poblaciones afectadas del noroeste. Emplazamientos idóneos, la conservación de los valores naturales y paisajísticos del entorno y las necesidades socioeconómicas de la zona se suman a un uso racional de estas energías y un desarrollo tecnológico paralelo para alcanzar un desarrollo sostenible.

  16. Lo siniestro del enigma.

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    Victoria Eugenia Diaz.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available En "El nacimiento de la filosofía griega", Giorgio Colli nos muestra una faceta tenebrosa del enigma. El dios Apolo, de naturaleza ilimitada, insondable, caprichosa, plantea al hombre enigmas que lo enfrentan con el sufrimiento y con la muerte. Allí, Edipo se confronta con enigmas enviados por el dios en los que se pone en juego su propia existencia. Tiempo después, en el transcurrir del siglo XX, reaparece una nueva forma de este dios arbitrario y arrogante: el desaparecedor de personas, ese inmoderado que impone moderación, borra con su acto un cuerpo, una imagen, un nombre, y formula un nuevo enigma siniestro que enfrenta otra vez al hombre con el dolor y con la muerte.

  17. Carta del Editor

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    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El aparecimiento del periodista digital y la educación superior en su formación, el cine indígena y la resistencia cultural, más los Grammy latinos, son temas protagónicos de este número. Se suman la prensa en el combate de piráticas corruptas, los errores de la comunicación del presidente URIBE en el referendo, el fútbol y las Relaciones Públicas en España, la libertad de prensa encarcelada, el Internet y la sociedad de la Información y México: profesiones emergentes para los comunicadores, completan la edición.

  18. Percepcion multisensorial del sabor

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    Charles Spence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la integración multisensorial de los estímulos auditivos, visuales y táctiles nos está ayudando a entender el funcionamiento de la percepción del sabor. Este conocimiento está teniendo ya un impacto sobre el diseño de alimentos y bebidas, desde los productos que compramos en un supermercado hasta aquellos que encontramos en los restaurantes con estrellas Michelin.

  19. Estado Nutricional del Yodo.

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    Hernando Vargas Uricoechea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo son un problema serio de salud pública, con cerca de 2 mil millones de personas a riesgo de padecerlos, pudiendo causar bocio neonatal, cretinismo, retardo mental, hipotiroidismo, entre otros. Estos desórdenes son aún prevalentes, y en algunos casos los esfuerzos para su erradicación se han traducido en aumento del riesgo de exceso poblacional de yodo y autoinmunidad tiroidea. En Colombia, se desconoce el estado real de yodo en la población. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la mediana de la yoduría en población escolar, y de los hábitos del consumo de sal, función y parámetros de autoinmunidad tiroidea, y cociente intelectual. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio basado en la comunidad, de corte transversal. Se evaluaron las variables sociodemográficas, la frecuencia de bocio y los niveles de TSH, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, anti-TSHR, yoduria, test de factor G de Cattell, y hábitos del consumo de sal. RESULTADOS: El consumo de sal promedio persona/día fue de 18,13 g. El 37,9% presentó bocio. 36,1% tenían un valor límite en el cociente intelectual. La mediana de yoduria fue de 510,3 μg/L. El 42,75% tuvo anti-TPO positivos, y el 2,87% anti-Tg positivos. El 10% presentó niveles de TSH elevados. CONCLUSIÓN: En escolares de zona urbana, hay un exceso en la mediana de yoduria, pudiendo explicarse por el alto consumo de sal. La alta prevalencia de autoinmunidad tiroidea y bocio, junto al alto nivel de la TSH, puede ser consecuencia del exceso en la ingesta de sal y de otros factores medioambientales/ hereditarios.

  20. El lenguaje del pensamiento

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    Alberto Andreu Marín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ¿Somos capaces de interpretar las señales eléctricas que genera nuestro cerebro cuando estamos pensando? Lo que a priori parece ciencia ficción comienza a ser factible gracias a los avances recientes en técnicas de registro cerebral y en aprendizaje automático. Nos encontramos en el inicio de una nueva era en lo que al conocimiento del cerebro se refiere.

  1. Fundamentos del saber administrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Podestá Correa; Juan Carlos Jurado Jurado

    2005-01-01

    El presente texto tiene por objetivo delimitar, de manera general, algunos de los conceptos más importantes del saber administrativo; en primera instancia, práctica administrativa y saber administrativo. Estos conceptos están ligados con los que en el texto se denominan fundamentos de la administración, estableciendo consensos sobre algunas expresiones comunes en el lenguaje administrativo, y contribuyendo a la comprensión de estos temas para los estudiantes de los primeros niv...

  2. Carta del Editor

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    Jorge Aguirre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de la prensa Argentina a efecto del mal manejo de la economía y las finanzas, ocupa el tema central. Pasa revista a tres temas de actualidad: El aumento de cobertura y difusión de la prensa gratuita; los esfuerzos de los "viejos" diarios por cambiar de apariencia y el caso del diario estadounidense TODAY que hace veinte años dio un cambio revolucionario en la forma de hacer periodismo diario. Se analizan también temas como: el "carisma" de los líderes actuales, los acuerdos entre los medios de comunicación y el gobierno de México para la difusión de planes y programas oficiales y el rol de los medios en el proceso de establecimiento del ALCA. Agrega el tema controversial sobre la Ley de radiodifusión privada, vigente desde la época de la dictadura pinochetista. En este mismo campo de la Radio otro artículo señala las normas para "contar las noticias" con impacto e interés.

  3. Carta del Editor

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    Jorge Mantilla Jarrín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este número, el módulo Dibujos Animados, recoge las experiencias del primer curso realizado por el CIESPAL con apoyo de la UNICEF sobre la producción de programas educativos y culturales que utilizan este recurso como una opción comunicacional. Se trata de nuevas tecnologías aprovechadas en Cuba y que pueden ser aplicadas en nuestros países. El módulo relativo al medio ambiente habla del periodismo ecológico con importante desarrollo en América Latina, tema de actualidad que requiere preocupación por parte de los medios de comunicación. Incluye entrevistas a Gunter Grass y Jesús Polanco. Gabriel Alba adentra a los lectores en una novedosa forma de usar las computadoras. En el módulo Debate se trata la Economía, cultura y comunicación; La publicidad vía televisión, La evolución del merchandising en las novelas brasileñas ¿Exigir Ética solo al periodista?

  4. Los felinos del canciller

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    Marco Palacios

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available En la introducción a una de las obras más influyentes de la historiografía colombiana de nuestros tiempos, el autor, Luis Ospina Vásquez, advierte ciertas dificultades inherentes al oficio de historiar la economía: "Otros aspectos del tema son difíciles de tratar por otros motivos: no se puede citar, entre las causas del difícil adelanto económico de cierta región nuestra, llamada por la generosidad de la naturaleza a una gran riqueza; el hecho de que en ella la política se haya reducido con frecuencia a una pugna entre grupos de hampones[...] Y en el supuesto de que se pudiera dar tratamiento adecuado a lo que, al fin y al cabo, es cosa tangible, no muy difícil de percibir y de describir, faltaría aun dar entrada a un elemento sumamente importante, pero este sí difícil de captar y de transmitir: la 'atmósfera', las 'atmósferas' sucesivas del país y sus regiones, elemento esencial en la historia de la evolución económica.

  5. El Museo del Oro

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    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El 22 de diciembre de 1939 el Banco de la República compró un objeto de oro de 777,7 gramos de peso y 23,5 centímetros de altura que dio origen al Museo del Oro. Era un poporo quimbaya, pieza maestra de la orfebrería prehispánica. Un objeto bello bello que levanta su bruñido vientre globular y su cuello coronado por cuatro cuerpos esféricos sobre una exquisita base de filigrana fundida, y parece flotar en un espacio propio. Quien lo contempla no puede menos que asombrarse, deleitarse y sentir admiración por sus artífices. Detrás de la compra del poporo había una clara preocupación oficial por proteger una riqueza que comenzaba a entenderse como parte del patrimonio nacional. Esta motivación se pone de manifiesto en una serie de documentos relativos a su adquisición.

  6. Llanto del adulto

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    Alegría Majluf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un primer estudio transcultural del llanto del adulto que comprende 30 países, entre los que se encuentra el Perú. Vingerhoets et al. (1997 de la Universidad de Tilburg, Holanda, analizan las causas, tendencia y frecuencia del llanto, emociones y sentimientos que inducen al llanto, diferencias y similitudes entre los países y los sexos. Los autores encuentran que las mujeres tienden a llorar con más frecuencia e intensidad que los varones, advirtiendo que en algunos países las mujeres establecen mayor relación entre la tendencia al llanto y el ciclo menstrual que en otros. The results of a first cross-cultural study on adult crying in 30 countries including Peru are presented. Vingerhoets et al. (1997 from the University of Tilburg have analyzed motives, tendencies and frequency of crying, emotions and feelings that provoke crying, as well as differences and similarities among countries and sexes. Results show that women have a tendency to cry more frequently and intensively than men. It has also been noted that, in certain countries, there is a link between crying in women and their monthly period.

  7. Carta del Editor

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    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artículo de fondo es un ejemplo de una campaña exitosa de Relaciones Públicas realizada para rescatar a Medellín para el turismo, ahora herida de muerte por el narcotráfico. Reinicia el tema sobre el cine, recordando el aniversario del nacimiento de Luis Buñuel. Y sobre el Nuevo Orden Internacional de la Información, Luis Ramiro Beltrán da respuesta a las múltiples interrogantes planteadas en la controversia surgida alrededor del tema. Se da a conocer cómo era el periódico de ayer, de hoy y del futuro frente al desafío de las nuevas tecnologías. Se señala el camino para hacer publicidad en Internet. El Internet y la radio nuevos actores para un mismo mercado. Y para los interesados en la investigación se trata cómo y cuándo hacer sondeos flash y se cierra con el lenguaje periodístico cuándo el dequeísmo es lícito.

  8. comportamiento del consumidor

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    Erico Rentería Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el posicionamiento exitoso de los profesionales, particularmente los jóvenes, a partir de las nuevas realidades del mundo y del mercado laboral, así como la empleabilidad como constructo, estrategias posibles y, finalmente, una discusión sobre falacias y realidades de discursos sobre mercado de trabajo profesional. La reflexión se liga a dos investigaciones, y a redes de discusión en Brasil y Colombia, que reflexionan sobre las implicaciones y requerimientos estratégicos que marcan el ingreso o permanencia en el mercado de trabajo de profesionales jóvenes, y se reconoce que esto afecta a otros tipos de profesionales. La investigación de Rentería (2006ª sobre Empleabilidad arroja información sobre las dos primeras partes. La de Enríquez y Rentería (2006 sobre Estrategias de aprendizaje y empleabilidad informa sobre la tercera. Apoyan la discusión elementos de psicología y comportamiento del consumidor. Se discute la inclusión social y calidad de vida por el trabajo.

  9. Carta del Editor

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    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abre la revista una retrospectiva de la crisis económica, política y social en la que se precipitó Argentina (2001-2002 y el tratamiento que dieron los medios a esta situación. En opinión se describe el significado de los nuevos paradigmas de Internet como: interactividad, personalidad, multimedialidad, hipertextualidad, actualización, abundancia y mediación. Responde a la cuestión de ¿cómo y cuándo en la prensa latinoamericana sigue imperando la prensa amarilla? Recoge en un artículo los factores que más inciden en el éxito o fracaso de una campaña política. Aborda la implantación de una nueva moneda única en la Unión Europea y sus incidencias. Destaca las consecuencias vividas por México tras el ataque terrorista del 11 de septiembre 2001 y analiza el tratamiento que los medios dan a las informaciones procedentes del Tercer Mundo en Europa. Contesta a la pregunta inquietante sobre las posibilidades del liberalismo económico para garantizar o contrarrestar la libertad de prensa y por último se aclara los mitos y realidades que se han tejido alrededor de Windows XP de Microsoft.

  10. Inestabilidad compleja del codo

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    Héctor Gabriel Díaz Carrillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad compleja del codo es de reciente descripción y controversial en sus resultados; es el estado que se deriva del daño estructural y funcional, producido por la incongruencia de las superficies articulares y las estructuras ligamentosas que estabilizan el codo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2011 y abril de 2013, en una muestra no probabilística de ocho pacientes (diez codos, seleccionados según criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Los objetivos fundamentales del estudio fueron: la actualización de conocimientos para el manejo de la enfermedad y la caracterización de los resultados obtenidos en los afectados por esta dolencia que fueron operados en el Hospital Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna de la provincia de Las Tunas. Se analizaron los datos mediante técnicas estadísticas descriptivas y se realizó la evaluación clínica y radiográfica de los lesionados. El tratamiento se ejecutó según los hallazgos y consistió en: reparación ligamentosa, actuación sobre las partes óseas dañadas y colocación de osteosíntesis diversas. La edad promedio fue de 39,2 años y predominó el sexo masculino. A todos se les practicó reparación ligamentosa, siete cupulectomías y seis aplicaciones de cerclajes anti-distractores. Existieron dos reluxaciones y una sepsis local. La amplitud de movimientos fue aceptable dentro del rango compatible, con una buena función ergonómica; de acuerdo a las comparaciones bibliográficas actualizadas que se realizaron. La fijación y reparación de los estabilizadores del codo brindan buenos resultados funcionales. La sistematización en el manejo de la enfermedad, la detección de complicaciones y el arsenal terapéutico disponible son factores a tener en cuenta

  11. Nuevos usos del cemento

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    Páez Balaca, A.

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the evolution of the different systems of transporting and storing submarine oil and its by-products (petroleum gas and natural gas, is dealt with stressing the importance of the use of concrete boats. Due to the high cost of oil pipelines, we have passed from tanks built on land to prestressed concrete tanks which can be berthed at great depths or anchored to the bottom to keep them afloat, it being possible to unmoor them for transferring them. Transporting and storing liquated gas leads US to see the advantages of prestressed concrete over steel, as the latter becomes brittle at low temperatures, whereas the former's strength increases. The different forms and possible sections are analyzed, stressing the great importance of the solution of the double concrete hull with pearlite insulation. Finally, a study is made of «light concretes », not the classical types used as thermal and acoustic insulation, but the semi-heavy ones made with expanded clay, high quality sand and P-450 cement, which technique is not yet as developed in Spain at might be wished.En este artículo se trata la evolución de los distintos sistemas de transporte y almacenamiento del petróleo submarino y sus derivados (gas de petróleo y gas natural, resaltando la importancia del uso de barcos de hormigón. Debido al gran coste de los oleoductos, se ha pasado de los tanques construidos en tierra firme a los depósitos de hormigón pretensado que pueden estar fondeados a gran profundidad o anclados al fondo para mantenerlos flotantes, existiendo la posibilidad de poder desamarrarlos para su traslado. El transporte y almacenamiento del gas licuado nos hace ver las ventajas del hormigón pretensado sobre el acero, pues éste se vuelve quebradizo a bajas temperaturas, mientras aquél aumenta su resistencia. Se analizan las diferentes formas y secciones posibles, destacando la gran importancia de la solución del doble casco de hormigón con

  12. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

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    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  13. Max Weber o el enigma emocional del origen del capitalismo

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza el trabajo clave de Max Weber, La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo, desde la perspectiva de la Sociología de las Emociones. Aunque la inclusión de las emociones de los fenómenos sociales es clave para entender la idea de Weber sobre el dogma de la predestinación, los sociólogos han trivializado el papel de la emoción. Tras detallar la creencia de Weber en que el espíritu del capitalismo parte del conocimiento de que el destino del hombre está predeterminado (la ética...

  14. Sobre el significado del descubrimiento del gen FOXP2

    OpenAIRE

    Longa Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2006-01-01

    El reciente descubrimiento del gen FOXP2 ha ofrecido la primera evidencia clara de la base genética del lenguaje, mostrando una correlación inequívoca desde la perspectiva genética entre una versión mutada de F0XP2 y los trastornos lingüísticos de diferente tipo sufridos por una familia inglesa, conocida como KE. El objetivo central del presente trabajo es discutir diferentes aspectos relacionados con tal descubrimiento; especialmente, la discusión del significado de FOXP2 con ...

  15. Competitividad sectorial internacional. Caso: sector del cuero y del calzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Villegas Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito se origina en un trabajo de investigación cuya pretensión fue indagar sobre el nivel de competitividad internacional (C.I, del sector del cuero y del calzado colombiano, mediante la aplicación de indicadores que, a partir de la información estadística de las variables de comercio exterior permiten establecer ciertas relaciones que dan cuenta de la importancia del producto en los mercados de los países de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN, seleccionados para la comparación.

  16. La impronta del nuevo mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lagos Vergara

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando nos aprontamos a conmemorar el quinto centenario del Nuevo Mundo, cabe hacer algunas reflexiones acerca de nuestro continente a la luz del lenguaje propio de las artes y la arquitectura a través del tiempo. Hablamos del Nuevo Mundo en la medida que aceptamos, por una parte, la concepción del nuevo espacio generado a partir del encuentro de dos culturas, la precolombina americana y la propiamente europea llegada principalmente a través de España, y, por otra parte, aceptando también que el nuevo continente resulta ser la pieza clave que ayuda definitivamente a configurar un nuevo cosmos que revela al mundo su otro extremo y aquella parte que manifiesta la totalidad en la certeza de que la tierra es un planeta.

  17. Efectos colaterales del voto preferente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Brenes Villalobos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la multiplicidad de potenciales efectos que la implementación del voto preferente podría acarrear en el ordenamiento jurídico y el sistema de partidos. La primera parte del análisis se dirige a caracterizar y definir el voto preferencial. En segunda instancia, el estudio comprenderá la revista de los efectos colaterales del voto preferente como modalidad de votación.

  18. El movimiento del software libre

    OpenAIRE

    Prudencio Óscar Mochi Alemán

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el surgimiento y desarrollo del movimiento de software libre. Para ello se analizan algunas características importantes que dan cuenta del origen y desarrollo del mismo, así como de sus momentos más críticos y sus tensiones, sus desafíos y sus retos. Otra de las grandes inquietudes de este trabajo, es intentar descifrar cómo el movimiento del software libre y Linux, en su versión más conocida, sobrevivieron y se afirmaron hasta llegar a ...

  19. Analisi del decadimento $W -> \\tau \

    CERN Document Server

    Coscetti, Simone

    Questo lavoro di tesi si e' svolto nell'ambito dell'esperimento CMS a LHC, ed in particolare verte sullo studio delle strategie di identificazione off-line del leptone tau, atteso tra i prodotti di decadimento del bosone di Higgs, cosi' come di altre particelle previste in altri modelli teorici. Il canale utilizzato per testare la procedura di identificazione del tau e' il decadimento semileptonico del bosone vettore W. Infine, sulla base dei risultati ottenuti viene presentata una stima quantitativa della sezione d'urto di produzione pp-> W + X

  20. El pie del adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi García, José Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Acta Médica Peruana es una publicación del Colegio Médico del Perú El estudio del pie y sus patologías es un capítulo muy importante de la Geriatría. Las patologías del pie no escapan las características comunes de muchos síndromes geriátricos como son el ser asumidos como "normales para la edad", ser poco valorados, menospreciados, no tratados, con gran impacto sobre la salud en general y la calidad de vida.

  1. El maestro del Pavo Real

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Martín, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende hacer una primera aproximación al Maestro del Pavo Real, un platero barcelonés del siglo XIX que usó como marca personal la silueta de un pavo real visto de frente con la cola desplegada y todo ello dentro de un círculo. Este trabajo pretende hacer una primera aproximación al Maestro del Pavo Real, un platero barcelonés del siglo XIX que usó como marca personal la silueta de un pavo real visto de frente con la cola desplegada y todo ello dentro de un círculo.

  2. LIDERAZGO VISIONARIO: CENTRO DEL CONOCIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez Uribe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El gestor del conocimiento es el ser humano. En el mundo como en las empresas es el centro de la destrucción y la creación del conocimiento. Por esta razón en las empresas se deben generar los escenarios adecuados para revertir el conocimiento de las personas y convertirlo en patrimonio de las organizaciones. El papel del líder es vital para la construcción de escenarios adecuados para que los trabajadores se conviertan en auténticos gestores del «knowledge» y esto permita que las organizaciones sean entes permanentes de aprendizaje continuo.

  3. Las aristas del racismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Rivera Vélez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia un ámbito que normalmente se esquiva y se enmascara: Las prácticas racistas. Esta evasión del tema se da en diferentes planos discursivos, y es una práctica, cada vez más frecuente en América Latina, pues aquí se hace de la integración étnica uno de los ejes centrales de la construcción de sus relaciones identitarias y políticas. Se propone, entonces, este trabajo develar la naturaleza y el movimiento de prácticas racistas presentes no sólo discursivamente, en la práctica política, en la práctica laboral, sino que también están presente en nuestra vida cotidiana, bajo nuevas formas y contenidos que se distancian del racismo tradicional e incorpora una nueva gramática racista, una suerte de racismo moderno, no basado en el fenotipo o características físicas como elemento central, sino en un racismo basado en la diferencia cultural, lo cual plantea un plano más excluyente, pues en este planteamiento el “objeto de racismo” no es un objeto de racismo limitado, como en el racismo tradicional, en el cual siempre es utilizado por quien practica el racismo; en el racismo contemporáneo se pretende una ruptura completa y una exclusión total del otro.

  4. Etiche del paesaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Venturi Ferriolo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available L’etica riflette sui rapporti fra uomo e ambiente. Indaga l’azione dell’uomo. Svela la sua visione della vita e il mondo possibile e accoglie in sé un complesso di norme morali e di costume che identificano un preciso comportamento nella vita di relazione. Si riferisce all’agire dell’individuo in una struttura sociale che lo comprende. Siamo alla ricerca di un’essenza del paesaggio indipendente dalla mera pittura, dalla rappresentazione, dall’immagine sentimentale: dalla natura sia ideale che reale. Prendere coscienza della cosa in sé, anche nei suoi aspetti ideali, significa comprenderne la complessità. Possiamo leggere quindi ogni paesaggio come realtà etica, risultato dell'operosità dell'uomo nella natura, ambito complessivo della vita: nel significato peculiare di progetto del mondo umano, che parte da lontano, da quando l'uomo ha incominciato a trasformare il proprio ambiente naturale per creare i luoghi dell'abitare, modellati con la mano e con lo spirito. La conoscenza dei paesaggi in tutta la loro complessità, a partire dal mondo antico, diventa quindi un nostro obiettivo. Questo significa superare, se non addirittura rovesciare, alcuni luoghi comuni consolidati e storicizzati: la teoria secondo la quale il paesaggio, nella sua dimensione estetica, sarebbe un'invenzione della modernità; il collegamento tra la moderna pittura di paesaggio e la nascita dei concetti estetici; la confusione tra natura e paesaggio, frequente nelle concezioni ecologico- ambientaliste; la tesi lessicale della nascita della coscienza del paesaggio, legata all'esistenza di una parola specifica che lo indichi. 

  5. del paradigma comprensivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Bacarlett Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la distinción planteada por von Wright en su texto ya clásico Explicación y comprensión, se analiza la obra de Giambattista Vico (1668-1744 a la luz de su crítica desarrollada hacia Descartes y la distinción que realiza en tre "crítica" y "tópica". No es aventurado decir que en la propuesta viquiana la actividad propia de la tópica, ligada al uso del lenguaje, la retórica y la elocuencia, se acerca más aquello que von Wright ubica dentro del "paradigma comprensivo"; mientras que la crítica, identificada con el método cartesiano, privilegia la abstracción, la deducción lógica y el análisis matemático; es decir, todo aquello ligado al conocimiento de la naturaleza. La gran diferencia en tre tópica y crítica radica, al final, en el criterio de verdad propio de cada perspectiva: mientras la crítica encuentra la verdad en la exterioridad del mundo natural, en algo que los hombres no hacen; en cambio, la única forma de verdad en el terreno de la tópica es como "verdad hecha" o "verum factum"; es decir, la verdad que nosotros mismos hacemos como agentes históricos, lingüísticos, creadores de cultura, de vida política y social.

  6. La era del youtuber

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Arufe, Irene

    2017-01-01

    En el trabajo se analizan los cambios que ha provocado y la recuperación que ha tenido la red social YouTube en la sociedad actual, poniendo como antecedentes la aparición de Internet y el auge de las nuevas redes sociales. También se examinan la figura del youtuber como la creación de una nueva profesión y los aspectos económicos y sociales de este nuevo trabajo. Grado en Publicidad y Relaciones Públicas

  7. El desarrollo del emprendedor

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Juan, Francisco Javier del

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo pretendemos abordar el desarrollo de las competencias y de las cualidades del emprendedor. Para ello analizaremos como mediante el trabajo en equipo, el liderazgo y la toma de decisiones a la hora de elaborar un Plan de Negocio, el alumno desarrollo todas estas competencias básicas. Además, por supuesto, de la capacidad de emprender un negocio a través de las herramientas básicas para la puesta en marcha de un negocio. No data (2010) UEM

  8. Peter Carravetta, Del postmoderno.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Carrera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Carravetta, professor of “Italian and Italian American Studies” at SUNY Stony Brook, with an Italian and American education, has put together in his massive Del postmoderno possibly the most complete critical review so far of American academic production from the 1970s to the present. “Postmodern” is the key word of the cultural turn that took place between the 1950s and the 1970s only to meet its death, in Carravetta’s opinion, on September 11, 2001, when the shortlived illusion that h...

  9. A favor del Plagio

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Arranz

    2007-01-01

    Yo no tengo nada contra el plagio. Ustedes, como lectores, seguramente tampoco. Bueno, tal vez prejuicios. Es lógico que los tengan con tanto artículo condenándolo. Hasta ahora, que yo sepa, nadie ha escrito para defenderlo. Los que sí tienen algo, parece ser, son los autores. Una minoría al fin y al cabo. Ya sé que hay que respetar el derecho de las minorías, pero el asunto del plagio, como tantos otros, deberíamos examinarlo con más detalle, y preguntarnos, por ejemplo, ¿por qué se molestan...

  10. El mundo del postfordismo.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipietz, Alain

    2012-01-01

    La crisis de la relación salarial fordista ha conducido a diferentes regímenes salariales aún en bloques continentales integrados. Característica que se suma a la transformación jerárquica de las economías mundiales ocasionadas por el avance competitivo de los nuevos países industrializados y por la concentración de las relaciones económicas internacionales por bloques continentales. Tales son las características básicas del mundo económico internacional posterior a la guerra fría.Este artícu...

  11. emergencia del trabajo liberado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Gómez Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo sugiere que habría una inestimable conexión entre el compromiso subjetivo y emocional de los jóvenes usuarios de Internet, que invierten tiempo y deseo en realizar un conjunto variado de obras menores (correos electrónicos, imágenes de sí mismos en Facebook, trozos de música, mantenimiento de la bitácora en la Red, y los malestares del bienestar urbano. Estas obras menores encarnan y objetivan las demandas de trabajo liberado -frecuentemente reprimidas, pospuestas, administradas o reguladas-, que algunos de los nuevos repertorios tecnológicos canalizan y movilizan vigorosamente.

  12. Funciones sociales del folclore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Londoño Álvarez

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estudiar los principales aspectos sociológicos del folclore, empecemos con uno de los problemas más significativos, cual es el análisis de sus funciones que cumple en una sociedad. se trata de un asunto perteneciente al sociólogo, quien, con el propósito de mostrar al folclórogo, que su investigación no es única, porque se refiere a un hecho que pertenece al grupo de los fenómenos sociales.

  13. Trastorno del espectro autista

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Mendoza, María Yésica

    2012-01-01

    Se explica qué es el autismo, sus causas, tipos, síntomas, tratamiento, detección temprana, técnicas y programas específicos de intervención. A continuación, se analiza el resultado de unos cuestionarios pasados a los padres que tienen hijos con autismo para identificar y conocer el impacto de dicho trastorno en los miembros que conviven con el paciente diagnosticado de autismo y otras comorbilidades asociadas: ansiedad, presión psicológica y trastornos del estado de ánimo

  14. Les Malalties dels cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Puiggrós i Jové, Josep Maria

    1989-01-01

    En aquest treball es fa una descripció de les principals malalties dels cereals que han estat trobades a Catalunya. Agrupant-les segons ataquin la fulla i espiga: oïdi, rovells, septòries, Rhynchosporium, Helminthosporium, i virus; al coll i tija: Cercosporella, Ophiobolus, Rhizoctbnia i Fusarium o bé les que vénen de la llavor: carbons, càries i Helminthospbrium. A part de la descripció, hom fa esment de les observacions efectuades els darrers anys en els diferents indrets de...

  15. La inutilidad del etnocentrismo

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas Betancourth, Paula C.

    2017-01-01

    El etnocentrismo como filosofía de poder en el mundo occidental. Ha evitado el exaltamiento de las mezclas culturales como opción de vida. Dándole a las minorías un lugar en los suburbios del conocimiento y de la ciencia. La exclusión de las fuentes de conocimiento primitivo por el hombre contemporáneo. Le permite la sensación de dominio sobre el mismo hombre y sobre la naturaleza. La industrialización le permitió al hombre. Como lo menciona David Dickson: « El supuesto dominio sobre la natur...

  16. 甲硝唑诱导阴道毛滴虫凋亡样细胞死亡%Induction of Apoptotic-like Cell Death in Trichomonas vaginalis by Metronidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓致刚; 黄景政; 辛致炜; 张仁利; 刘居理; 傅玉才

    2007-01-01

    目的 凋亡或程序性细胞死亡在多细胞生物体中已经被广泛研究,然而,关于单细胞寄生性原生动物细胞凋亡发生的分子机制却知之甚少.本研究旨在了解甲硝唑诱导阴道毛滴虫细胞凋亡的特征.方法 培养阴道毛滴虫并用不同浓度的甲硝唑进行处理.在不同的时间间隔进行活细胞计数.提取甲硝唑处理过的阴道毛滴虫基因组进行DNA断裂片段检测.用DNA断端末端标记(TUNEL)法测定甲硝唑处理后阴道毛滴虫核酸内切酶活性.流式细胞检测分析脂酰丝氨酸暴露情况.结果 甲硝唑可以诱导阴道毛滴虫出现凋亡样细胞死亡.这种凋亡样细胞死亡表现为细胞皱缩,磷脂酰丝氨酸暴露以及核染色体凝聚,但并未检测到寡核苷酸DNA梯带.结论 阴道毛滴虫程序性细胞死亡的调节通路不同于多细胞生物体.确定导致原生动物细胞死亡的凋亡通路也许最终可用于鉴定新的治疗靶点.%Objective Apoptosis or programmed cell death(PCD) has been studied extensively in multicellular organisms,however,very little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which apoptosis occurs in unicellular protozoan parasites.The aim of this study is to characterize the apoptosis or PCD of Trichomonas vaginalis induced by metronidazole (MTZ).Methods T. Vaginalis strain cultures were treated with various concentrations of MTZ and the number of viable cells were determined at different time intervals.The genomic DNA of MTZ treated T. Vaginalis was extracted and DNA fragmentation was analyzed.TUNEL assay was carried out to detect the endonuclease activity in T. Vaginalis after MTZ treatment.Flow cytometric analysis was used to analyse the phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of T. Vaginalis.Results Metronidazole (MTZ) induced an apoptotic-like cell death in T. Vaginalis.This apoptotic-like cell death was demonstrated by cell shrinkage,phosphatidylserine exposure,and nuclear chromatin condensation

  17. Catàleg dels Miridae (Heteroptera) del Massís del Garraf

    OpenAIRE

    Goula Goula, Marta

    1989-01-01

    Per a la redacció d'aquest catàleg, s'aporten dades d'observació pròpia al llarg dels anys 1980-1984, així com les troballes publicades per CUNI (1889a,1889b,1889c,1891) i per RIBES (1978a,1978b,1980,1984). Totes aquestes observacions s'han fet en localitats del Massis del Garraf, que será objecte d'una curta descripció.

  18. Comparison of microbiological, histological, and immunomodulatory parameters in response to treatment with either combination therapy with prednisone and metronidazole or probiotic VSL#3 strains in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giacomo; Pengo, Graziano; Caldin, Marco; Palumbo Piccionello, Angela; Steiner, Jörg M; Cohen, Noah D; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic enteropathy in dogs. There are no published studies regarding the use of probiotics in the treatment of canine IBD. The objectives were to compare responses to treatment with either combination therapy (prednisone and metronidazole) or probiotic strains (VSL#3) in dogs with IBD. Twenty pet dogs with a diagnosis of IBD, ten healthy pet dogs, and archived control intestinal tissues from three euthanized dogs were used in this open label study. Dogs with IBD were randomized to receive either probiotic (D-VSL#3, n = 10) or combination drug therapy (D-CT, n = 10). Dogs were monitored for 60 days (during treatment) and re-evaluated 30 days after completing treatment. The CIBDAI (Pdogs in the D-VSL#3 group compared to the D-CT group. Changes in apical junction complex molecules occludin and claudin-2 differed depending on treatment. Faecalibacterium and Turicibacter were significantly decreased in dogs with IBD at T0, with a significant increase in Faecalibacterium abundance observed in the animals treated with VSL#3 strains. A protective effect of VSL#3 strains was observed in dogs with IBD, with a significant decrease in clinical and histological scores and a decrease in CD3+ T-cell infiltration. Protection was associated with an enhancement of regulatory T-cell markers (FoxP3+ and TGF-β+), specifically observed in the probiotic-treated group and not in animals receiving combination therapy. A normalization of dysbiosis after long-term therapy was observed in the probiotic group. Larger scale studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of VSL#3 in canine IBD.

  19. LAS NEURONAS DEL SEPTUM LATERAL MODIFICAN LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS NEURONAS DEL NUCLEO TUBEROMAMILAR DEL HIPOTALAMO

    OpenAIRE

    FARIAS RODRIGUEZ, PAULA ANDREA; FARIAS RODRIGUEZ, PAULA ANDREA

    2012-01-01

    El septum lateral (SL), es un núcleo del cerebro anterior, que, procesa la información sensorial afectiva procedente del hipocampo y dirige sus respuestas, importantes para la supervivencia, hacia las zonas del hipotálamo importantes para la motivación, como lo es el núcleo tuberomamilar del hipotálamo (TMN). El TMN contiene las neuronas histaminérgicas en el cerebro, la cual relacionamos con la vigilia y alerta en conductas motivadas y así puede dirigir y reforzar el comportamiento. El TM...

  20. La superación del modelo del ángel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Muñoz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superación del modelo del "ángel del hogar". Recuperación de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un análisis sociológico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer española en el cambio de siglo en el ámbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las características propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye que la cr...

  1. RASGOS GEOGRÁFICOS DEL VALLE DEL RIO AGRIO INFERIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Torren

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una síntesis del trabajo "Rasgos Geográficos del Valle del Río Agrio Inferior, el cual es un estudio de base para el conocimiento de la geografía de la región: - apoyando el esfuerzo que está realizando la población del área para lograr una identidad propia y una definitiva integración al contexto provincial; - aportando al proyecto "Rescate Arqueológico en Quili Malal, Neuquén" (subsidiado por CONICET y UNESCO, cuya dirección está a cargo de la profesora Susana Rodríguez de la U.N.C., a través de la confección del mapa geomorfológico del área; y - contribuyendo a los estudios que resultan necesarios ante la construcción de una obra hidroeléctrica de la magnitud de "El Chihuido I", emprendimiento que será llevado a cabo por Agua y Energía eléctrica de la Nación. Los límites del área estudiada fueron establecidos teniendo en cuenta el área del valle inferior del Río Agrio que será completamente inundada por el futuro embalse de la represa "El Chihuido I", a emplazarse 5,5 Km aguas abajo de la confluencia de los ríos Agrio y Neuquén. Además de esta área de afectación directa se tomó también una zona de perilago estrechamente vinculada a la anterior. De esta manera los límites este y oeste quedaron establecidos por la confluencia de los ríos antes mencionados y la localidad de Bajada del Agrio, respectivamente.

  2. del cuerpo femenino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute cómo las prácticas de salud dirigidas a las mujeres construyen determinadas significaciones sobre la salud y el cuerpo femenino, comprendiendo que las prácticas en salud producen determinadas formas de ser, vivir y sentir, y constituyen modos de ser mujer y de ser hombre. Se presentan los datos de una investigación desarrollada en un servicio académico de salud, con mujeres que se realizaron exámenes de prevención de cáncer de útero y mama, entre mayo y diciembre del 2002. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante observaciones de las prácticas de la salud y entrevistas con las usuarias del servicio. En términos teóricos, el punto de referencia fueron los estudios feministas, especialmente autores(as cuyas teorizaciones son postestructuralistas. Se espera que este estudio contribuya con la reflexión sobre las prácticas de salud dirigidas a las mujeres, posibilitando una ampliación sobre lo que se entiende por femenino y, dando espacio a otras formas de ser y de estar en el mundo, además de aquellas que el discurso hegemónico sobre mujeres propone como adecuadas.

  3. Fundamentos del metodo cientifico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badii, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta obra no radica en realizar una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en el tema, sino, sentar las bases del método científico, notando los aspectos filosóficos e éticos de la ciencia. Se presentan los conceptos y definiciones fundamentales relacionados con la metodología de la investigación científica. Se maneja el concepto de la toma de los datos válidos como un requisito básico en cualquier trabajo científico. Se pone a disposición del lector un modelo denominado el ECOEE que es una herramienta poderosa para establecer puntos de comparación e discusión entre los resultados de diferentes trabajos científicos. Finalmente, ofrece unas sugerencias de que hacer o no hacer en cuanto a realizar un trabajo de investigación.

  4. RECUERDOS DEL SIGLO XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASUNCIÓN LAVRIN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo hace una revisión de conceptos clave en la educación de la mujer en Hispanoamérica, en la primera mitad del siglo XX, y el debate sobre la educación superior de la mujer. También analiza las ideas de Gabriela Mistral para la educación femenina en su Lectura para mujeres, y las compara con las de la escritora mexicana Rosario Castellanos. Finalmente, hace un llamado por nuevos modelos educativos para la mujer de siglo XXI.Este ensayo hace una revisión de conceptos clave en la educación de la mujeren Hispanoamérica, en la primera mitad del siglo XX, y el debate sobre laeducación superior de la mujer. También analiza las ideas de Gabriela Mistralpara la educación femenina en su Lectura para mujeres, y las comparacon las de la escritora mexicana Rosario Castellanos. Finalmente, hace unllamado por nuevos modelos educativos para la mujer de siglo XXI.

  5. Incorrecciones del habla infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino LECUONA NARANJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretende dar una visión de algunos rasgos característicos del lenguaje infantil, centrándonos especialmente en el estudio de los niños de 4 a 6 años de edad. Es pues, su finalidad fundamental la descripción y análisis de los rasgos que se pueden observar en la expresión verbal de los preescolares. Las diversas peculiaridades que van a ser objeto de examen se refieren a la emisión de incorrecciones de carácter fonético, morfológico y semántico. El análisis unificado de estos tres factores responde a la consideración de que todos surgen como consecuencia de un proceso de simplificación lingüística originado por un estado inconcluso de desarrollo del lenguaje.

  6. Carta del Editor

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    Jorge Jarrín Mantilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comunicación y Género, acopia trabajos que vinculan a la mujer y la comunicación y sus esfuerzos por no ser consideradas inferiores. Del libro a la pantalla, acerca a algunas reflexiones sobre el proceso que lleva del libro a la pantalla por la polémica que despierta la adaptación de las novelas, puesto que muchos señalan que la trama se ve desfigurada. Se agregan varios temas sobre el cine. En "Días de Radio", se plantea el que a pesar de la censura y los problemas económicos que deben enfrentar, las radios populares de América Latina, siguen ganando espacios, de su desarrollo depende una mayor profundización de la democracia. Tema de debate es Estrategias comunicativas en Chiapas y Haití. Se añaden dos entrevistas a un caricaturista brasileño y a un corresponsal de guerra muy prestigiado.

  7. Gerencia del Siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orlando Crissien Castillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El cambio es más rápido que nunca, la tecnología genera nuevos modelos gerenciales, los mercados se abren, el paradigma de la competitividad y la productividad. Los gerentes modernos estamos expuestos a muchas presiones generadoras de estrés; hecho que, según la OMS (Organización Mundial de la  alud, está entre las tres enfermedades que cobran más muertes en el mundo. EL campo de juego gerencial ha cambiado: por ende la gerencia del siglo XXI requiere un perfil de administrador-gerente diferente. Este nuevo gerente se debe tornar líder y administrador. Las cosas se administran, la gente se lidera, se gerencia. Por esto el gerente líder del siglo XXI se debe formar, capacitar, entrenar en aquellas habilidades-competencias requeridas por este nuevo entorno. Por tal razón debe generar dos sets de competencias: las de gerente integral y el desarrollo de la capacidad directiva.

  8. Carta del Editor

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    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el Informe Nacional de Brasil sobre el Diagnóstico de la Comunicación en América Latina en el que se analizan los más importantes medios de comunicación de ese país. En el artículo de opinión se reflexiona sobre los cambios que sufre la comunicación política en la región como resultado de nuevos protagonistas con nuevos mensajes como: Hugo Chávez, Venezuela, Bucarám, Ecuador y Fujimori, Perú. Describe dos noticias que han llamado la atención: la desinformación en la campaña electoral de los Estados Unidos y el peculiar sistema de comunicación del Presidente Chávez para mantener la popularidad. En cultura para la imagen periodística impresa o Infografía muestra los esfuerzos que la prensa diría del mundo entero hace para competir en cuanto a imagen con la televisión. Se trata la elaboración de los guiones cinematográficos y en Comunicación Institucional se responde a cómo a solucionar los problemas de un banco desde Argentina.

  9. El Gobierno del mal menor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    El Gobierno no aspira a ser bueno ni malo. Se conforma con ser el Gobierno del mal menor, cuyas medidas drásticas y poco populares están destinadas a salvar a los ciudadanos del desastre que no ha llegado todavía pero podría llegar....

  10. El Derecho universal del Trabajo

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    Héctor-Hugo Barbagelata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La idea de un derecho universal del trabajo no es nueva, en realidad es más antigua quela legislación del trabajo y por lo tanto, más antigua que la propia rama del derecho que estudia estas cuestiones.Sí, son nuevos los avances que con ese objetivo se han ido registrando desde fines del siglo pasado.I- Introducción.- II Antecedentes.- II Constitucionalización e internacionalización.- IV Principios y criterios de interpretación del bloque de constitucionalidad.- A Criterio fundado en las condiciones del Estado Social de Derecho; B Principio de complementariedad e interdependencia de todas las normas sobre derechos humanos; C Primacía de la disposición más favorable a la persona humana; D Criterio resultante del principio de progresividad.; E Principio de irreversibilidad o de no regresión. F Principio de autoejecución y autoaplicación..- V Conflictos entre los derechos fundamentales .- VI.- Los principios filosóficos: a La Justicia social ; b La especificidad del trabajo humano; c Reafirmación de la dignidad de la persona humana; VII Conclusiones. 

  11. Taquicardias supraventriculares. Estado del arte

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    Jairo Alfonso Gándara Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    El tratamiento de las taquicardias supraventriculares dependerá del estado hemodinámico del paciente, el cual definirá el requerimiento de terapia eléctrica o tratamiento médico. Se debe hacer una selección adecuada de los pacientes que requieren estudio electrofisiológico y ablación.

  12. Epidemiología molecular del dengue en las Américas

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    Francisco Javier Díaz Castrillón

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Después de varias décadas de erradicación, el dengue se ha hecho endémico en la mayor parte de la América tropical y presenta tendencia al crecimiento en la mayoría de los países. La enfermedad ha sufrido un cambio en su expresión clínica en las últimas dos décadas. Una forma grave inexistente hasta los años 80 conocida como fiebre hemorrágica dengue (FHD se ha diseminado primero por las Antillas, luego en Suramérica y más tarde en Centroamérica y Méjico, convirtiéndose en un problema significativo para la salud pública del continente. Las causas del aumento en la virulencia de la enfermedad producida por el virus del dengue (DENV solo se conocen parcialmente. La potenciación de la enfermedad por acción de la inmunidad previa a serotipos diferentes al causante de la infección actual fue demostrada en el sureste asiático, pero no ha sido muy estudiada en las Américas. Además, este mecanismo no provee una explicación completa, puesto que FHD se ha observado también en personas que se infectan por primera vez, y la infección secundaria no siempre resulta en un cuadro severo.

    La epidemiología molecular permite correlacionar la variación genética del agente infeccioso con los eventos epidemiológicos en un marco espacio-temporal. Utilizando técnicas moleculares es posible clasificar las diferentes cepas de cada serotipo del DENV en tres a seis subtipos o “genotipos”. Estos genotipos generalmente están segregados geográficamente pero ocasionalmente son introducidos en países o continentes que no los habían detectado previamente. Estos episodios migratorios pueden o no ir acompañados de cambios en la frecuencia y en la expresión clínica de la enfermedad.

    En las Américas, sólo se ha detectado

  13. Notas del Consejo Editorial

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    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Merecida Distinción
    Complacidos registrados la señalada distinción de que fue objeto en Hiroshima, Japón, durante la celebración del IX Congreso Mundial de la Organización Internacional a Médicos para la Prevención de la Guerra Nuclear (lPPNW el Académico Honorario Alberto Cárdenas Escovar quien recibió el Premio Albert Schweitzer, en reconocimiento a la meritoria labor que ha cumplido en el campo internacional de la medicina.

    Fernando Serpa Flórez

    Breves de la Academia
    En el número anterior de nuestra revista, por involuntaria omisión no se incluyeron dos señalados acontecimientos, que nos apresuramos a subsanar en la presente edición. Se trata del ingreso a la Corporación de dos distinguidos y muy apreciados Miembros de nuestro Instituto, el Académico correspondiente Joaquín Silva, Profesor de Cirugía y eminente maestro de numerosas generaciones médicas, quien disertó en forma erudita y ponderada sobre el tema “Los albores de la Medicina y Cirugía”. Así mismo tomó posesión como Miembro de Número el actual Presidente del Capítulo de los Santanderes de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, ex-decano de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Industrial de Santander y notable escritor y psiquiátra doctor Roberto Serpa Flórez, quien presentó su libro sobre medicina y enfermedades tropicales en Colombia en la primera mitad de este siglo que, en forma interesante y amena, desarrolló alrededor de la biografía de su padre, el también Académico de Número profesor Roberto Serpa Novoa.

  14. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  15. Presentación del XXVI Congreso de la Sociedad Otorrinolaringológica de Castilla y León, Cantabria y La Rioja. Segovia (España 2018 (31 de mayo, 1 y 2 de junio de 2018

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    Bernardo Riva Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentación El Comité Organizador de este XXVI Congreso de nuestra Sociedad, os da la bienvenida a esta hermosa ciudad de Segovia, patrimonio de la humanidad, para que en estos días podamos compartir la experiencia de destacados profesionales de nuestra Comunidad en áreas, que siendo de gran interés, presentan, sin embargo, controversias.Es nuestro deseo contar con vuestra participación, aprovechando esta oportunidad para que solicitéis de los ponentes su posición acerca de aquellas cuestiones que nos inquietan y sabemos controvertidas, y sobre las que su demostrada experiencia nos ayudará.El programa incluye tres sesiones principales sobre tres tópicos de gran relevancia en nuestra especialidad.El manejo de las otorreas y sus secuelas, presentada por el Dr. Vallejo Valdezate del   Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega de Valladolid.La Unidad de Cirugía Oncológica ORL del Complejo Asistencial de Salamanca, que dirige el Dr. D. Ángel Muñoz. Jefe de Servicio de ORL quien junto con los doctores D. Santiago Estévez Alonso y D. Ender Goñi Moreno presentarán un tema de constante actualidad, las complicaciones y secuelas del tratamiento de los tumores de VADS. Un tercer tópico, presentado por el Dr. D. Jaime Santos y las Dras. Dña. Ana Fernández Rodríguez y Dña. Ana Sánchez Martínez discutirán el manejo del paciente con rinosinusitis y poliposis nasosinusal: de las guías a la práctica clínica.La Dra. Dña. María Rey del Servicio de ORL Complejo Asistencial de Segovia   nos presentará el Cribado de Infección congénita por citomegalovirus, demostrando el esfuerzo constante de nuestros compañeros en mantener la vigencia y actualizar el programa de detección precoz de la hipoacusia infantil que coordina el Dr.  D. Ignacio Benito.Dr. D. Ángel Batuecas, del Grupo Otoneurológico de nuestra Sociedad nos presentará un importante trabajo de colaboración y coordinación que viene a demostrar, como indica su título: la

  16. Caracterización del potencial de abuso del flunitracepam

    OpenAIRE

    Martí de la Llave, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    Con el presente estudio se pretende caracterizar el potencial de abuso del flunitracepam. La pauta de administración del flunitracepam está ajustada para alcanzar concentraciones máximas plasmáticas similares entre los dos regímenes de administración del fármaco activo, aunque a diferente velocidad; con la dosis única se alcanza la concentración máxima plasmática más rápidamente que con la dosis dividida. Cuando el voluntario recibe el fármaco activo a dosis única toma cinco cápsulas que ...

  17. Del Charco del Agua Amarga (Alcañiz

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    Tomás MAIGI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de 1947, habiendo llegado a la excelentísima Diputación Provincial de Teruel rumores de recientes deterioros en el friso pintado del abrigo rupestre del "Charco del Agua Amarga", nos fué requerida oficialmente, por dicha Corporación, la presentación de un informe sobre la realidad de los hechos expuestos, así como el planeamiento de las medidas adecuadas para salvaguardar en forma eficaz, en el futuro, las referidas pinturas.

  18. Calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo

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    Joheni A. Urdaneta G.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la calidad del servicio de los taxis en el municipio Maracaibo, ya que los mismos forman parte del sistema de transporte urbano de la ciudad, y es un servicio público fundamental para la convivencia de la sociedad; para lograr este objetivo se realizó una adaptación del modelo SERVPERF, diseñando un instrumento tipo cuestionario, con 32 ítems en 6 dimensiones, adecuado a las características propias del servicio de taxi, con la finalidad de confirmar que los ítems de los instrumentos se correspondían con las dimensiones adaptadas se aplicó la técnica de análisis factorial resultando un nuevo instrumento con 24 ítems en 3 dimensiones. Se utilizó la escala de Likert con tres (3 alternativas de respuesta. La investigación es de tipo descriptiva y aplicada, bajo diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional descriptiva y de campo. La población quedó conformada por los usuarios de las líneas de taxis del municipio Maracaibo. Se aplicó muestreo aleatorio por conglomerado. La confiabilidad del instrumento se midió a través del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach resultando de 0,82 lo cual se considera aceptable. Los resultados revelan que la calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo es mediana por lo tanto este servicio es susceptible a mejoras, las cuales son necesarias para elevar la calidad de vida de los marabinos. Este resultado se obtuvo con el instrumento originalmente adaptado de 32 ítems y con el cuestionario resultante del análisis factorial, de 24 ítems; esto confirma lo apropiado de esta técnica, ya que se redujo el número de ítems y de las dimensiones originalmente adaptadas y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los resultados con ambos instrumentos; de esta manera se puede medir la calidad del servicio de taxis en el municipio Maracaibo a través de las dimensiones: confiabilidad del servicio, socialización y responsabilidad.

  19. DE LA SOCIEDAD DEL CONOCIMIENTO A LA SOCIEDAD DEL RIESGO

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala Cardona, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    El tiempo en el que vivimos: el siglo XXI, presenta a la vez, retos y exigencias al conjunto global de los habitantes del mundo, puesto que, no solo se nos presenta la actualidad como aquella coyuntura histórica en los que el cambio de los acontecimientos gira en torno al rol central del conocimiento, sino también, en torno al potencial que dicho conocimiento trae tras de sí; es decir, el presente siglo impone al conjunto de personas el rótulo de "sociedad del conocimiento" donde se puede enc...

  20. Historia del desarrollo institucional turístico del Meta

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    Ramón Vergel

    2002-11-01

    el primer plan de desarrollo turístico departamental, se comienza a visualizar diferentes tipologías de turismo que se podían desarrollar como el Ecoturismo y a trabajar en pro de ello. Surge luego el segundo Plan Sectorial del Meta visualizando al turismo como producto. Posteriormente se realiza un Estudio Exploratorio sobre el Potencial Turístico del Meta y la promoción turística del departamento comienza a surgir con la participación en ferias y vitrinas turísticas importantes logrando así fijar un mercado turístico: Bogotá.

  1. Perfil del director hospitalario

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    Gabril Pontón Laverde

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El hospital, sin importar su tamaño, es una empresa de servicios con una importante función social que trabaja dentro de las características administrativas y económicas generales, toda vez que actúa dentro de un  SISTEMA ABIERTO con los componentes clásicos de una demanda cíclica de servicios de salud, que requiere de una organización con personas, materiales y equipos que trabajan para dar respuesta a esa carencia y que produce resultados que benefician a la comunidad. Tienen un efecto de retroalimentación (Feed – back con base con las experiencias, expectativas y nuevas demandas de servicios y que trabajan dentro de una comunidad precisa, como parte integrante de un sistema mayor, al cual beneficia y fortalece con sus resultados y del que depende para su supervivencia.

  2. Los presupuestos del Concurso

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    Línea de Investigación “De la Crisis Empresarial

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito es el resultado de uno de los proyectos de investigación adelantados por el Departamento de Derecho Comercial de la Universidad Externado de Colombia. En el se hace una aproximación histórica a los presupuestos para acceder a los trámites concursales en Perú, Argentina y España, analizándolos desde los puntos doctrinal, académico y legal.Así mismo, es parte integrante de un trabajo más amplio que pretende elaborar un documento contentivo del tratamiento que se da a los presupuestos concursales a nivel mundial.En este orden de ideas, nos permitimos presentar un análisis minucioso de la legislación de los citados países iberoamericanos.

  3. cuarto del siglo XX

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    José Antonio Nieto Calmaestra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos 25 años del siglo XX han supuesto un sustancial cambio en el modelo de crecimiento de la población andaluza. Así, mientras la caída de la fecundidad y la estabilización de las tasas de mortalidad han contribuido a un progresivo retroceso de la vitalidad natural, la masiva emigración de antaño ha dado paso al papel de Andalucía como incipiente foco de inmigración y al creciente protagonismo de movimientos internos de relocalización de la población. Desde el punto de vista territorial estas afirmaciones quedan matizadas por los notables contrastes que se producen entre los distintos ámbitos que conforman la región y que contraponen al medio rural con el urbano, al litoral con el interior o a las grandes ciudades con sus periferias.

  4. del caribe colombiano

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    José Amar A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación indagó acerca de la construcción de conceptos económicos en una muestra de 50 estudiantes universitarios, residentes en una ciudad multifinanciera de la región Caribe colombiana. Para conocer las conceptualizaciones se aplicó una entrevista en profundidad que permitió indagar sobre la función, valor y circulación del dinero y la emisión y acuñación monetaria. Se encontró que sólo el 24% de los jóvenes universitarios alcanza el nivel de pensamiento económico inferencial, y no hay diferencias significativas de acuerdo con el programa académico al que pertenecen. Los resultados indican que los jóvenes presentan un desfase en cuanto a nivel de pensamiento económico, de acuerdo con el contexto internacional.

  5. Avatares del paradigma conexionista

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    Asier Arias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hace ahora un año que falleciera David Everett Rumelhart, conexionista pionero y editor junto con James Lloyd McClelland de la llamada “biblia del Procesamiento Distribuido en Paralelo” (PDP. Al mismo tiempo, los dos volúmenes de la referida biblia celebraban su vigésimo quinto cumpleaños. También uno de los padres de la inteligencia artificial, John McCarthy, que bautizara de hecho la disciplina, nos abandonó el pasado mes de octubre a los 84 años. Estas tres efemérides nos sirven de pretexto para un breve recorrido por las derivas y obstáculos a los que se ha enfrentado el llamado paradigma conexionista desde su puesta en escena como alternativa al cognitivismo clásico.

  6. El reordenamiento del mundo

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    Antonio Pasquali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se publica la propuesta de marco histórico y proyección de futuro de Antonio Pasquiali, en nuestra opinión, es útil referente contextualizado para los ensayos y estudios de caso sobre la formación del comunicador profesional. La evolución reciente de la filosofía, la ciencia y la tecnología llevan a Pasquali a afirmar que la humanidad se encamina lentamente hacia la reformulación global de la moral de la intersubjetividad, y a replantear desde sus cimientos el contrato social que concierne a la comunicación social mediática.

  7. Beneficios del descanso peritoneal

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    Jesús Lucas Martín Espejo

    Full Text Available Introducción: Valorar si el descanso peritoneal, de al menos un día semanal, ha supuesto mejoras en la rehabilitación de los pacientes y el impacto clínico que puede suponer. Nos planteamos además cuantificar el beneficio económico. Material y Método: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, retrospectivo, descriptivo. De los pacientes atendidos en nuestra unidad desde el 1 de enero de 2014 al 31 de diciembre de 2014, se estudiaron los pacientes que cumplieran todo el año de seguimiento y que no procedieran de otras técnicas de depuración como la hemodiálisis o trasplante renal. La muestra de estudio estuvo compuesta por 40 pacientes, de los que 21 tuvieron prescrito al menos 1 día semanal de descanso peritoneal y 19 pacientes sin descanso. Se recogieron las siguientes variables al inicio del periodo de estudio y a los 12 meses: Variables demográficas, variables relacionadas con el estado de volumen, datos clínicos relacionados con la técnica, se pasó una encuesta de satisfacción a todos los pacientes estudiados, y se recogieron los importes del coste mensual de cada tipo de tratamiento. Resultados: Las diferencias iniciales entre los grupos, eran esperables ya que son los valores en los cuales se ha basado la prescripción del día de descanso. La exposición a la glucosa, al comienzo y al final fue menor en el grupo con descanso. Al año, no se encontró diferencias en los parámetros estudiados. Una encuesta de satisfacción nos reveló a que dedican los pacientes el día de descanso y los que no lo tienen a que lo dedicarían. Conclusiones: El descanso peritoneal no ha supuesto una peor evolución de los parámetros clínicos estudiados al año de seguimiento, cumpliendo las recomendaciones de adecuación de diálisis de las guías clínicas. La exposición a la glucosa, aun sin llegar a ser significativa por la duración del estudio, ha sido menor en el grupo con descanso. El día de descanso ha facilitado a los pacientes

  8. Carta del editor

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    Oscar Mauricio Covarrubias-Moreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henos aquí con un nuevo número de RIESED. Después de casi un año de ver la luz, y como lo anticipábamos en la carta del editor que acompañaba al número fundacional, hacer una revista electrónica no ha sido una tarea sencilla. Un año más tarde no podemos sino confirmar esa opinión.Gracias al decidido trabajo de los autores, revisores y miembros del equipo editorial hemos podido hacerlo. El proceso de revisión de los artículos ha merecido un cuidado, dedicación y tiempo especiales, que hicieron necesario demorar unos días la fecha de publicación de este tercer número. Asumimos un compromiso con la calidad y estamos convencidos que esa es la única posibilidad de éxito para una revista científica. El contenido y nivel de los artículos disponibles servirá sin duda como incentivo para que los investigadores deseen publicar sus aportes en RIESED.Agradezco especialmente a la Dra. Gloria Rosique Cedillo, Editora Invitada y Coordinadora de este tercer número, así como al investigador César Nicandro Cruz-Rubio, Editor Asociado, apreciados colegas con quienes he tenido el privilegio de trabajar a lo largo de estos meses, y cuya dedicación y esmero han hecho posible RIESED 3.Por otra parte, derivado de nuestro proyecto editorial informo a ustedes de la creación de la Cátedra RIESED. Educación y Sociedad. Esta Cátedra es una iniciativa que la Universidad del Desarrollo Empresarial y Pedagógico ha impulsado en estrecha colaboración con el Grupo de Investigación en Gobierno Administración y Políticas Públicas (GIGAPP del Instituto Universitario de Investigación Ortega y Gasset (IUIOG, Fundación Ortega – Marañón; así como, con la Academia Internacional de Ciencias Político Administrativas y Estudios de Futuro A.C.La Cátedra está concebida como un espacio de diálogo y reflexión interdisciplinario sobre las diferentes temáticas abordadas en RIESED. En el marco de esta iniciativa académica, se invita a los miembros

  9. Memoria del mal

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    Semprún, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2003 the twelfth edition of the «Aranguren Conferences» was held. Jorge Semprún gave three keynote speeches titled «Kant and the Maquis’ rucksack», «The radical evil and the Buchenwald latrines» and «Literature and memory of the evil: from Sartre to Paul Ricoeur», all of them grouped under the generic denomination Memory of Evil. The thread running through the three speeches was Semprún’s experience as a political deportee at Buchenwald concentration camp, so close to the Weimar camp of Schiller and Goethe. There, he could experience the radical evil, but also the brotherhood through the antifascist resistance groups who coordinated the various clandestine political groups at the camp. This experience helped him review some of the philosophical readings he had done as a philosphy student at the Sorbonne, as well as those readings he took an interest in following the end of the war. In this way, Semprún went over various authors (Immanuel Kant, André Malraux, Edmund Husserl, Jacques Maritain, Martin Heidegger, Karl Marx, Hannah Arendt, Jean Paul Sartre, Paul Ricoeur or Primo Levi arguing their relationship with the issue of Evil.

    En mayo de 2003 se celebró la duodécima edición de las «Conferencias Aranguren». Jorge Semprún dictó tres conferencias magistrales tituladas «Kant y la mochila del maquis», «El mal radical y las letrinas de Buchenwald» y «Literatura y memoria del mal: de Sartre a Paul Ricoeur», agrupadas todas ellas bajo el título genérico de Memoria del mal. El hilo conductor de las tres intervenciones fue la experiencia de Semprún como deportado político en el campo de concentración de Buchenwald, tan cercano al Weimar de Schiller y Goethe. Allí pudo experimentar el mal radical, pero también la fraternidad, a través de los grupos de resistencia antifascista que coordinaban en el campo los distintos grupos políticos clandestinos. Esta experiencia le sirvió para repasar las lecturas

  10. [Feminismos del siglo XXI

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    M. Xosé Agra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué soluciones políticas podemos encontrar para las nuevas formas de subjetividad? ¿Cómo debe la teoría feminista interpretar la voluntad de romper los límites y, al mismo tiempo, la necesidad de normalidad? Los pensadores posmodernos son escépticos respecto de las nociones tradicionales de identidad; los límites que definen al sujeto no sólo construyen sino que también excluyen. Debemos oponernos a las interpretaciones dominantes de normalidad y aceptar otras posibles alternativas a los modelos tradicionales. Necesitamos ir más allá del binario sistema sexo/género y de la orientación sexual y mantener una mentalidad abierta, persiguiendo una filosofía de la libertad.

  11. La materialidad del sonido

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    Esteban Manuel Stepanian Taracido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre los procesos de producción sonora en la crea-ción de obras audiovisuales afectan, en términos generales, a cuestio-nes exclusivamente tecnológicas. Para valorar su rendimiento expresi-vo en la construcción del discurso es imprescindible que, de forma paralela, esta investigación se aborde también desde la perspectiva de la realización audiovisual.Para ello es necesario asumir que los conceptos básicos en los que se fundamenta el desarrollo tecnológico no han de ser necesariamente esenciales en los estudios que se plantean desde puntos de vista creati-vos.En particular es oportuno someter a examen el concepto de fidelidad y reivindicar las posibilidades emotivas, e incluso significantes, de formatos de producción sonora hoy en desuso.

  12. La democracia del futuro

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    Rodrigo Borja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo logrado por la informática, la microelectrónica y en general las nuevas tecnologías de la información, hace que del zoon politikon aristotélico se pase al homo digitalis posmoderno, de una "democracia restringida" a una telecracia: en el siglo XXI. El autor vaticina que el voto se hará vía computadores desde casa a través de éstos, los gobernantes podrán tener una relación directa con los gobernados, las consultas populares serán más frecuentes, las implicaciones para los regímenes democráticos serán enormes y es en torno a ellas que reflexiona el autor

  13. Valor social del anciano

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    Luna Torres Bertha

    1997-11-01

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    The old age is been surrounded bymisteries, myths and prejuidices. The concepts and the valoration of the ancient man, have been contradictory. In different places and in many cultural moments, the old man has been taken from the glory to the scorn. The actual world scrolls the ancient in a very fast rhythm; the social changes have generayed conditions of disadvantajes for that group of the population, difficulting even more the process of growing old, that in fact has a lot of limitations. Its important that a lot of professionals from many institutions involved with this important cause, join the work developed by geriatrics and gerontologics;  soin this way we can restore the social values of the ancient, who deserves a peacefull old age in compensation with his participation in the job of building a better society. Only in this way, the fear to grow old will be lost.

    La vejez se ha visto rodeada de tabúes, mitos y prejuicios. Han sido contradictorios los conceptos y la valoración del anciano, quien en lugares y momentos culturales ha estado desde ensalzado hasta despreciado. El mundo actual, desplaza al geronte a ritmo acelerado; los cambios sociales han generado condiciones de marginalidad para ese sector de población, dificultando aun más el proceso de envejecer, que de hecho tiene limitaciones. Es por eso importante que al trabajo que desarrollan geriatras y gerontólogos se sumen otros profesionales y un sinnúmero de entidades; en aras de eliminar prejuicios y rescatar el valor social del anciano, quien por su legado merece un ocaso, que compense su aporte y participación en la construcción de la sociedad, solo así se perderá el miedo a envejecer.

     

  14. Para aprender del pasado

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    Esquivel Valverde, Lidier

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto reflexiona sobre la importancia de reconocer el valor que tiene el conocimiento de los eventos del pasado, como fuentes importantes de lecciones aprendidas. Inicia presentando ejemplos de sucesos históricos en Japón y cómo estos han sido utilizados de forma positiva en los procesos de educación en niños y adultos. Posteriormente presenta la realidad de Costa Rica, donde a nivel de la población existe un desconocimiento de hechos históricos sobre el tema, al propiciarse su olvido u ocultamiento. Finalmente, los autores exponen sobre un programa del Área de Prevención de la Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias, quienes se han dedicado de distribuir reseñas históricas breves de los principales eventos en el país This text reflects about the importance of recognizing the value of knowing past events as important sources for lessons learned. It starts including examples of historical events in Japan and how they have been used positively in the educational processes for children and adults. Lately, it includes the reality in Costa Rica. The population does not know about historical events on the topic because they have been forgotten or not shared. Finally, the authors refer to a program of the Prevention Area of the National Commission of Risk Prevention and Emergency Response that has dedicated to distribute brief historical reviews about the main events in the country

  15. Discurso del Presidente Entrante

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    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., 17 de mayo de 1994

    Señoras y señores:

    Estoy profundamente conmovido y emocionado, al escuchar los elogiosos comentarios de quienes me precedieron en el uso de la palabra, pues, aunque inmerecidos, naturalmente me enorgullecen sobremanera.

    Quiero, antes de iniciar mi discurso, agradecer a la noble Academia de la Lengua, a su presidente doctor Jaime Posada y a los miembros de su Junta Directiva, la generosa hospitalidad en este precioso auditorio que contribuye a dar realce a esta sesión solemne.

    Muchas Gracias.

    Deseo manifestar, que los conceptos que vaya emitir, reflejan mi pensamiento y por tanto, de ellos soy responsable. No pretendo con ellos criticar, ni mucho menos ofender, a personas o instituciones, son más que todo reflexiones, que me llevan a propuestas de trabajo para el futuro y espero que así sean percibidas y analizadas por esta distinguida audiencia.

    El día 3 de enero de 1873, el joven médico Abraham Aparicio, reunió en su residencia, en las primeras horas de la fría noche santafereña, a sus colegas Manuel Plata Azuero, Nicolás Osario, Liborio Zerda, Leoncio Barreta y Evaristo García, con el propósito de crear una sociedad científica, para el estudio y adelanto de las ciencias médicas y naturales, así como para solidarizar al cuerpo médico y darle unidad al ejercicio profesional en el país. Así nació la Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales que posteriormente sería elevada a la categoría de Academia Nacional de Medicina, por la Ley 71 de 22 de noviembre de 1890.

    Sin embargo, bien vale la pena rememorar los orígenes aún más remotos, de esta insigne institución.

    El 29 de diciembre de 1816, el Dr. Pablo Fernández de la Reguera, médico cirujano, químico y boticario mayor del ejército expedicionario, inspector de los hospitales, en comunicación dirigida al Sr. Brigadier Don Juan Sámano, Gobernador militar y político de la

  16. Carta del Editor

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    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En "El laberinto de la ciberred" se habla de los beneficios y problemas que caracteriza el caos existente en la telaraña cibernética. Ahora el cibernauta puede acceder a una inimaginable oferta de información multimedia. Este caos garantiza libertades, pero presenta enormes limitaciones para quienes no tienen acceso a la tecnología, particularmente en países de América Latina, carentes de Políticas de Comunicación que generen condiciones para un uso intensivo, extensivo y democrático de la ciberred. En el tema “La televisión por cable" relacionado con la cultura visual, multimediática, satelital, informática, televisionada, se señala que tiene como soporte a la más antigua nueva tecnología, la televisión por cable. Se trata de uno de los más grandes negocios disputados por los magnates nacionales y transnacionales de la comunicación que atraparon para el año 2000 a más de 20 millones de suscriptores de la televisión pagada. En esta entrega se presentan distintos acercamientos del perfil del ombudsman de prensa, las ventajas y límites de esta institución, su necesaria independencia, trasfondo ético, autonomía y otros aspectos que contribuirán a fortalecer mecanismos adecuados para controlar este "peligroso poder”

  17. Carta del editor

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    Simón Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora relata la historia de las Relaciones Públicas y dice que surgieron y se desarrollaron para legitimar ante el público los intereses económicos y políticos de quienes detentan el poder. Se cuestiona sobre el por qué no aplicar las relaciones públicas, en organizaciones populares, para que mejoren su publicación y orienten sus propósitos de desarrollo. El tema que aborda las Políticas culturales en América Latina acopia un extracto de lo más trascendente de los ensayos del libro editado por Néstor García Canclini. Sobre la telenovela se afirma que esta ha llegado a ser uno de los instrumentos más importantes de la comunicación popular: por ella desfilan las identidades de las más variadas culturas brasileñas. Y en cuanto a la caricatura se relata lo que ocurrió en el Seminario taller " Caricatura y Periodismo", realizado el(9-11 de Nov.- 1987 en el CIESPAL. El estudio sobre el mercado del vídeo se ve dificultado por la imprecisión de los datos obtenidos. Los datos oficiales no siempre se aproximan a la realidad, pues el mercado de vídeo se instauró en América Latina partiendo de una lógica totalmente diversa de los equipos de sonido e imagen.

  18. Los objetivos del desarrollo

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    Currie Lauchlin

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available To broach the goals of development implies broaching the problem of economic growth in a critical manner. Not only the concept of growth but also the means of achieving it in practice should be questioned. Growth is not an end, it is a means of gaining access to development And development should not be understood as a goal, but as a permanent process of learning tending towards more control over the environment and greater levels of well-being. It is not a matter of increasing GNP linearly; development must occur, sustained growth that, without being a threat to mm or to our natural resources, can lead to the eradication of absolute and relati.ve poverty. The low rates of growth of the developing countries constitute structural problem that can /lot be reso1.ved by resorting to the neo-classical mechanisms of mobility, nor to the Keynesian formulas. These have served as a source of inspiration to the Harrod-lX:m3r·type models of growth which limit themselves to stimulating savings and ending unemployment by concentrating exclusively on the monetary demand. Getting OUt of the vicious circle of low growth implies eradicating poverty with respect into the immediateness of a direct attack on the problem. with respect to the developed counties, growth is starting to became harmful, and, given the prevalence of ostensible consumption and of pecuniary emulation, it is imperative to foment non-economic motivation that will permit the eradication of relative poverty.

    Abordar los objetivos del desarrollo implica abordar de manera crítica el problema del crecimiento econ

  19. Deslumbramientos del mercado

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    Monique Selim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Con eje en los diferentes aspectos que adopta el actual proceso de mundialización de la lógica del mercado y expansión capitalista, aún en países socialistas, el presente artículo plantea la necesidad de una reflexión antropológica susceptible de articular el surgimiento de nuevas formas de dominación y representación simbólicas. Se discute el aparente efecto de unificación intelectual producido por la hegemonía del mercado respecto de hechos sociales heterogéneos dados en la historia reciente de las sociedades contemporáneas. Así, la renovada atracción que ejercen los nuevos escenarios sociales reconfigurados en virtud de las modalidades específicas de encarnación y operación de los procesos globalizantes, llama al estudio antropológico de las coyunturas. La autora despliega una interpretación del socialismo de mercado, conjunción -siempre en tensión- de un monopolio político estatal y una liberalización del mercado económico. En esta perspectiva se reubica el interés de una antropología del presente en relevar localmente, en este caso en Vietnam del Norte, la conformación de un nuevo mercado de demandas simbólicas, donde la reaparición de las prácticas culturales de comunicación con los antepasados expresa la necesidad de reunificación familiar y reconciliación con los muertos en la "larga guerra".Tendo como eixo os aspectos diferentes que adota o processo atual de mundialização da lógica do mercado e de expansão capitalista, até mesmo nos países socialistas, este artigo propoe a necessidade de uma reflexão antropológica capaz de articular o aparecimento de novas formas de dominação e de representação simbólica. Discute-se o efeito de superfície de unificação intelectual causado pela hegemonia do mercado em fatos sociais diversos em sociedades contemporâneas. Assim, a atração renovada de novos fatos sociais pelos modos específicos de incorporação e operação de processos de globaliza

  20. La legitimidad del derecho penal

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    Francisco Bernate-Ochoa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante sobre la legitimidad del derecho penal se ha convertido en un asunto medular dentro de los estudios contemporáneos sobre la materia, dado que hoy en día se reconoce que a partir de la solución a este interrogante teórico se puede asumir la tarea de construir un sistema. El panorama contemporáneo nos ofrece dos soluciones al respecto: por una parte, se sostiene que la legitimación del derecho penal emana de la Constitución, y se prescinde de una construcción sistémica del delito en aras de la obtención de consecuencias acordes con lo planteado en la Carta Política. Por otra, desde una propuesta -de corte normativista- se entiende que la legitimación del derecho penal debe encontrarse en la sociedad, y a partir del entendimiento de ésta se encuentra la necesidad de aquél, lo cual ejerce una influencia en la construcción del sistema del delito.

  1. Del internacionalismo al nacionalismo: rumbos del conflicto armado en Colombia

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    Mónica Zuleta P.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene por propósito sugerir una interpretación del desarrollo del conflicto armado colombiano durante la última década del siglo XX mediante el uso de la concepción de poder de Michel Foucault. Ello con miras a presentar alternativas analíticas frente a la relación entre lo global y lo local donde se consideren algunas de las hipótesis contemporáneas sobre la cuestión del nacionalismo. El ensayo utiliza el término nacionalismo como sustantivo (lo que es en lugar de como adjetivo (lo que debe ser y ordena los conjuntos de acciones que, en torno al proyecto de lo nacional, han sido puestos en práctica por las guerrillas en Colombia.

  2. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (primera parte

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    Juan Pablo Zorrilla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la desaparición del sistema Bretton-Woods, y la libre flotación del tipo de cambio, el mundo se volvió más susceptible a todo tipo de riesgos. El presente artículo pretende explicar a los gestores financieros o empresarios interesados en el tema de instrumentos financieros derivados, a conocer lo más relevante y necesario acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio, instrumento útil para cubrir riesgos derivados del tipo de cambio para las empresas que se dedican a importar, exportar o para protegerse de un crédito otorgado en moneda extranjera.

  3. Calidad del software: camino hacia una verdadera industria del software

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    Saulo Ernesto Rojas Salamanca

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available El software es quizá uno de los productos de la ingeniería que más ha evolucionado en muy poco tiempo, pasando desde el software empírico o artesanal hasta llegar al software desarrollado bajo los principios y herramientas de la ingeniería del software. Sin embargo, dentro de estos cambios, las personas encargadas de la elaboración del software se han enfrentado a problemas muy comunes: unos debido a la exigencia cada vez mayor en la capacidad de resultados del software, debido al permanente cambio de condiciones lo que aumenta su complejidad y obsolescencia; y otros, debido a la carencia de herramientas adecuadas y estándares de tipo organizacional encaminados al mejoramiento de los procesos en el desarrollo del software. Hacia la búsqueda de mecanismos de solución de estos últimos problemas se orienta este artículo...

  4. Perspectivas del derecho procesal constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Villarreal, Gabriel-Angel

    2007-01-01

    Este texto recoge las ponencias que participaron en el Foro Internacional de Derecho Procesal Constitucional, que con gran éxito se realizó en el mes de junio de 2005, en las aulas de la Universidad Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Bogotá; razón por la cual contiene el fruto maduro de las investigaciones realizadas por algunos de los más notables exponentes del derecho procesal constitucional en América del Sur. El lector de esta obra se encontrará con riguroso trabajo sobre alg...

  5. Contabilidad del impuesto sobre beneficios

    OpenAIRE

    Luceño Martínez, Haizea

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado pretende dar una explicación al tratamiento contable del Impuesto de Sociedades. Siendo un impuesto que hay que contabilizar, pero que se calcula siguiendo criterios fiscales, lleva a tener que realizar ajustes que tendrán su repercusión contable. El punto de partida no es otra que la norma de registro y valoración 13ª del PGC, que versa sobre cómo hay que proceder a contabilizar el Gasto por Impuesto de Sociedades, que se compone tanto del Gasto por Impuesto Co...

  6. Entrenamiento funcional del core: eje del entrenamiento inteligente

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    Iván Dario Pinzón Ríos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La evolución del entrenamiento físico busca la optimización de la salud y el bienestar, como piedra angular de todo programa de ejercicio. El Entrenamiento Funcional (EF es recomendable para optimizar el control postural del core, mejorando el balance y la ejecución de actividades de la vida diaria.  Objetivo: Revisar la definición, elementos constitutivos, características e implicaciones del EF del core en el movimiento corporal humano (MCH y la salud desde la perspectiva del fisioterapeuta. Metodología: Se incluyeron artículos en inglés y español de las bases Pubmed, Scielo y Ebsco; adicionalmente se incluyeron fuentes electrónicas e impresas y libros. Resultados: 56 documentos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La definición más adoptada de EF fue entrenar con un propósito buscando obtener un efecto positivo en la aptitud física. Las implicaciones del EF en el MCH, se relacionan con la ganancia y mejoría de la estabilidad. La propuesta de EF enfocada a las actividades de la vida diaria incluye fases que permiten adquirir la estabilidad hasta lograr el desarrollo de movimiento que demanden más agilidad. En la planificación del EF se deben estructurar los procesos a ejecutar considerando el criterio de funcionalidad. Para organizar la sesión del EF, el fisioterapeuta cuenta con tres maneras de planificar la sesión: globales, por hemisferios y por grupos musculares. Conclusión: La fundamentación teórica sobre el EF permite al fisioterapeuta comprender y determinar cómo esta modalidad de intervención repercute de manera positiva sobre el desempeño funcional y calidad de vida de los sujetos.

  7. Aspectos Hardware y Software del microprocesador 68000

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Martínez, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN AL 68000.ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNA DEL 68000. PROGRAMACIÓN DEL 68000 EN LENGUAJE ENSAMBLADOR. ORGANIZACIÓN EXTERNA DEL 68000. EXCEPCIONES. PROGRAMACIÓN DE LA VÍA 6522. PROGRAMACIÓN DE LA DUART 68681 PARA COMUNICACIÓN SERIE. EVOLUCIÓN DEL 68000

  8. La finalidad del proceso

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    Iván Alfonso Cordero Gutiérrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El tipo de Estado que Colombia asumió desde 1991 (Estado Social de Derecho, implica que el cumplimiento de los fines estatales se comparten con la población, generando de esta forma grados de responsabilidad respecto a las cargas asumidas por ellos y el Estado para la materialización de los objetivos planteados. La satisfacción de las necesidades básicas de la población como unode los fines esenciales del Estado Social de Derecho, no escapa a este esquema, lo que determina la colaboración armónica no sólo entre las entidades y organismos del Estado sino de este, complementado con la población. Una de las necesidades básicas de la población, se refiere a la posibilidad de resolver sus conflictos haciendo uso de los mecanismos que para tal efecto tiene a su disposición, utilizando las formas de Auto tutela, Autocomposición, híbridas y de Heterocomposiciòn, que el Estado autoriza,de acuerdo a los lineamientos propios de cada mecanismo, respecto a las materias que componen los derechos sustanciales que se debaten en la relación conflictiva. Dentro de estos mecanismos de solución de conflictos, la heterocomposiciòn presenta uno llamado el proceso jurisdiccional, en donde un tercero investido de poderes específicos ejerce la jurisdicción y toma la decisión respecto al conflicto, después del agotamiento de etapas sucesivas y preclusivas que garantizan la efectiva participación, ejercicio y defensa de los derechos fundamentales y sustanciales de las partes, generando una mayor garantía de legalidad respecto a la decisión generada por ese tercero investido de plena Jurisdicción (el Juez. Por ser el proceso jurisdiccional el mecanismo más idóneo por su garantismo reglado y tecnificado, debe ser protegido, fortalecido y preferente respecto a los denominados equivalentesjurisdiccionales pues con estos el Estado pretende desplazar la competencia al momento de la resolución de los conflictos, generando un

  9. Hacia una conceptualización del legado del traductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán María Constanza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone investigar el aporte de perspectivas traductológicas para el estudio de la figura del traductor y su legado. Se centra en enfoques teóricos contemporáneos, principalmente aquellos basados en perspectivas postestructuralistas, que consideran el papel del sujeto traductor como un aspecto crucial en la traducción y los estudios literarios, y proponen maneras interesantes de abordarlo. A lo largo del artículo se cuestionan nociones como la idea de un original sacralizado, la relación entre autoría y propiedad, el ideal del significado transparente, y la tensión entre la traducción y la escritura del "original". Se presta especial atención a la importancia de ubicar históricamente la práctica del traductor, reconocer su papel como agente visible, y conceptualizar la traducción como una forma de escritura que se desarrolla en medio de complejas interacciones y negociaciones.

  10. HACIA UNA CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN DEL LEGADO DEL TRADUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Constanza Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone investigar el aporte de perspectivas traductológicas para el estudio de la figura del traductor y su legado. Se centra en enfoques teóricos contemporáneos, principalmente aquellos basados en perspectivas postestructuralistas, que consideran el papel del sujeto traductor como un aspecto crucial en la traducción y los estudios literarios, y proponen maneras interesantes de abordarlo. A lo largo del artículo se cuestionan nociones como la idea de un original sacralizado, la relación entre autoría y propiedad, el ideal del significado transparente, y la tensión entre la traducción y la escritura del "original". Se presta especial atención a la importancia de ubicar históricamente la práctica del traductor, reconocer su papel como agente visible, y conceptualizar la traducción como una forma de escritura que se desarrolla en medio de complejas interacciones y negociaciones.

  11. Ensayo del lisado de amebocitos del Limulus (LAL

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    Rolando Perdomo Morales

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los principales organismos reguladores de productos farmacéuticos (Farmacopeas exigen cada vez más en sus monografías la aplicación del método del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL para la liberación de pirógenos en productos terminados parenterales. El análisis de pirógenos constituye uno de los principales ensayos en el control de calidad de la fabricación de inyectables por su repercusión en la salud humana, puesto que la presencia y administración de los mismos, es capaz de provocar una serie de respuestas fisiológicas, en su mayoría de carácter perjudicial y en casos extremos, la muerte del paciente. Por las razones anteriores, existe un creciente interés en el conocimiento y dominio de estos métodos. El presente trabajo muestra una revisión bibliográfica del método del LAL, se tratan aspectos como su descubrimiento y estandarización, aparición en la industria farmacéutica y razones para su triunfo, y los basamentos de los principales métodos o variaciones comerciales del LAL (gelificación, turbidimétricos y cromogénicos que se describen en las Farmacopeas.

  12. Ensayo del lisado de amebocitos del Limulus (LAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Perdomo Morales

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los principales organismos reguladores de productos farmacéuticos (Farmacopeas exigen cada vez más en sus monografías la aplicación del método del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL para la liberación de pirógenos en productos terminados parenterales. El análisis de pirógenos constituye uno de los principales ensayos en el control de calidad de la fabricación de inyectables por su repercusión en la salud humana, puesto que la presencia y administración de los mismos, es capaz de provocar una serie de respuestas fisiológicas, en su mayoría de carácter perjudicial y en casos extremos, la muerte del paciente. Por las razones anteriores, existe un creciente interés en el conocimiento y dominio de estos métodos. El presente trabajo muestra una revisión bibliográfica del método del LAL, se tratan aspectos como su descubrimiento y estandarización, aparición en la industria farmacéutica y razones para su triunfo, y los basamentos de los principales métodos o variaciones comerciales del LAL (gelificación, turbidimétricos y cromogénicos que se describen en las Farmacopeas.

  13. HACIA UNA CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN DEL LEGADO DEL TRADUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Constanza Guzmán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone investigar el aporte de perspectivas traductológicas para el estudio de la figura del traductor y su legado. Se centra en enfoques teóricos contemporáneos, principalmente aquellos basados en perspectivas postestructuralistas, que consideran el papel del sujeto traductor como un aspecto crucial en la traducción y los estudios literarios, y proponen maneras interesantes de abordarlo. A lo largo del artículo se cuestionan nociones como la idea de un original sacralizado, la relación entre autoría y propiedad, el ideal del significado transparente, y la tensión entre la traducción y la escritura del "original". Se presta especial atención a la importancia de ubicar históricamente la práctica del traductor, reconocer su papel como agente visible, y conceptualizar la traducción como una forma de escritura que se desarrolla en medio de complejas interacciones y negociaciones.

  14. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous quantitation of ceftriaxone, metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole in plasma from seriously ill, severely malnourished children [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 3 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ongas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and validated a novel, sensitive, selective and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous quantitation of ceftriaxone (CEF, metronidazole (MET and hydroxymetronidazole (MET-OH from only 50 µL of human plasma, and unbound CEF from 25 µL plasma ultra-filtrate to evaluate the effect of protein binding. Cefuroxime axetil (CEFU was used as an internal standard (IS. The analytes were extracted by a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile and separated on a reversed-phase Polaris 5 C18-Analytical column using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v formic acid and 10 mM aqueous ammonium formate pH 2.5, delivered at a flow-rate of 300 µL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed in the positive ion mode using the transitions m/z555.1→m/z396.0 (CEF, m/z172.2→m/z 128.2 (MET, m/z188.0→m/z125.9 (MET-OH and m/z528.1→m/z 364.0 (CEFU to quantify the drugs. Calibration curves in spiked plasma and ultra-filtrate were linear (r2 ≥ 0.9948 from 0.4–300 µg/mL for CEF, 0.05–50 µg/mL for MET and 0.02 – 30 µg/mL for MET-OH. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were less than 9% and the mean extraction recoveries were 94.0% (CEF, 98.2% (MET, 99.6% (MET-OH and 104.6% (CEF in ultra-filtrate; the recoveries for the IS were 93.8% (in plasma and 97.6% (in ultra-filtrate. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of CEF, MET and MET-OH in hospitalized children with complicated severe acute malnutrition following an oral administration of MET and intravenous administration of CEF over the course of 72 hours.

  15. Comparison of microbiological, histological, and immunomodulatory parameters in response to treatment with either combination therapy with prednisone and metronidazole or probiotic VSL#3 strains in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Giacomo Rossi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a common chronic enteropathy in dogs. There are no published studies regarding the use of probiotics in the treatment of canine IBD. The objectives were to compare responses to treatment with either combination therapy (prednisone and metronidazole or probiotic strains (VSL#3 in dogs with IBD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty pet dogs with a diagnosis of IBD, ten healthy pet dogs, and archived control intestinal tissues from three euthanized dogs were used in this open label study. Dogs with IBD were randomized to receive either probiotic (D-VSL#3, n = 10 or combination drug therapy (D-CT, n = 10. Dogs were monitored for 60 days (during treatment and re-evaluated 30 days after completing treatment. The CIBDAI (P<0.001, duodenal histology scores (P<0.001, and CD3+ cells decreased post-treatment in both treatment groups. FoxP3+ cells (p<0.002 increased in the D-VSL#3 group after treatment but not in the D-CT group. TGF-β+ cells increased in both groups after treatment (P = 0.0043 with the magnitude of this increase being significantly greater for dogs in the D-VSL#3 group compared to the D-CT group. Changes in apical junction complex molecules occludin and claudin-2 differed depending on treatment. Faecalibacterium and Turicibacter were significantly decreased in dogs with IBD at T0, with a significant increase in Faecalibacterium abundance observed in the animals treated with VSL#3 strains. CONCLUSIONS: A protective effect of VSL#3 strains was observed in dogs with IBD, with a significant decrease in clinical and histological scores and a decrease in CD3+ T-cell infiltration. Protection was associated with an enhancement of regulatory T-cell markers (FoxP3+ and TGF-β+, specifically observed in the probiotic-treated group and not in animals receiving combination therapy. A normalization of dysbiosis after long-term therapy was observed in the probiotic group. Larger

  16. Instalaciones del edificio de Costillares

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    Laorden, José

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se describen las instalaciones de calefacción y refrigeración, fontanería, gas, central eléctrica, iluminación, teléfonos y aislamiento térmico del edificio construido en Chamartín de la Rosa para sede del instituto Técnico de la Construcción y del Cemento, dando las consideraciones generales que sirvieron para proyectarlas y analizando después para cada una de ellas las bases del proyecto, su ejecución y, finalmente, los primeros resultados de su funcionamiento. De especial interés creemos los comentarios que hacemos sobre algunos errores de proyecto o de ejecución, con lo cual quizá se puedan evitar en otros trabajos.

  17. Virus del Ébola

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    Miguel Lugones Botell

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el panorama epidemiológico internacional se presenta con enfermedades infecciosas graves como el Ébola. Recientemente han ocurrido brotes en tres países del África Occidental, por lo que la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha insistido acerca del peligro que existe sobre la expansión y gravedad de esta epidemia. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica del tema con el objetivo de actualizar al médico sobre aspectos esenciales de la fiebre hemorrágica o enfermedad del Ébola. Los índices de letalidad se encuentran entre el 50 y 90 %, por lo que la Organización Mundial de la Salud hace énfasis en la importancia de la prevención mediante la higiene, lo que constituye un aspecto clave.

  18. TEA, Trastorno del Espectro Autista :

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas Martín, Irene

    2015-01-01

    La autora expone los aspectos fundamentales sobre el concepto del TEA para posteriormente mostrarnos un caso práctico y su tratamiento durante unos meses con la finalidad que sea un trabajo de consulta práctico

  19. Comportamiento del riesgo preconcepcional

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    Jesús L Regueira Naranjo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio analítico de casos y controles 1 x 1 sobre el comportamiento del riesgo preconcepcional en 35 consultorios, pertenecientes al Policlínico Comunitario Docente "Tula Aguilera", del Municipio Camagüey. El grupo estudio estuvo constituido por las mujeres con riesgo preconcepcional que concibieron un embarazo y fueron captadas en el período desde el 1ro. de enero al 30 de junio de 1994. El grupo control se constituyó con mujeres sin antecedentes de riesgo preconcepcional y que fueron captadas en igual período y la misma área de salud. Los resultados más notables fueron: como riesgo biológico la desnutrición materna III-IV con el 36,76 %, la anemia con el 48,52 %, la sepsis urinaria con el 25 % y la vaginal con 22,79 %. Se demostró la hipótesis de que los niños nacidos de madres con riesgo preconcepcional y obstétrico están expuestos a tener una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal que los recién nacidos de madres sin riesgo con un embarazo normalAn analytical 1-1 case-control study on the preconceptional risk behaviour in 35 physicians'offices from «Tula Aguilera» community teaching polyclinic located in Camagüey municipality was performed. The group was made up of women with preconceptional risk who got pregnant and were followed-up from January 1st to June 30th, 1994. The control group was formed by women without preconceptional risk history and who were followed-up in the same period of time and in the same health area. The most out-standing results as to biological risks were: maternal malnutrition III-IV, 36.76 %; anemia, 48.52 %; urinary tract infection; 25 % , and vaginal infection, 22.79 %. The hypotesis that infants born from mothers with preconceptional and obstetric risks are exposed to higher perinatal mortality and morbility risks than those from riskless mothers with a normal pregnancy was proved

  20. Caracterización del mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villasmil R., María A.; Andrade, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación trata sobre modelos que permiten caracterizar Mercados Laborales Locales (MLL), ya que en Venezuela el manejo de los mismos es casi inexistente. En este sentido, se plantea como objetivo caracterizar al mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida-Venezuela en función del conocimiento de las particularidades económicas, institucionales, políticas, sociales, educativas y culturales de la zona así como las condiciones que se tengan en materia de empleo, oferta de for...

  1. EFECTO DEL SILICIO Y PLAGUICIDAS EN LA FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Parm\\u00E9nides Furcal-Beriguete; Alejandra Herrera-Barrantes

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del silicio en la fertilidad del suelo, la incidencia de enfermedades y plagas insectiles, el rendimiento y la calidad de granos del cultivo de arroz. El estudio se realizó en La Vega, Florencia, San Carlos, Costa Rica entre mayo y octubre en los años 2010 y 2011, en el mismo lote con la variedad CR 4477. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos: silicio al suelo, silicio al suelo más plaguicidas (alternativas químicas), silicio foliar, silicio fol...

  2. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  3. Carta del editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Braun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Son temas de interés de esta entrega Mujeres, comunicación y desarrollo, en el que se arenga a todas a no solo luchar por el género sino por una sociedad más libre y más justa, de la mano de los hombres. Abre un amplio espectro para exponer la situación de la mujer; Mujer e Iglesia,Prensa, Mujer y revolución, Mujeres comunicadoras, mujer líder comunitaria, etc. Periodismo deportivo, que nunca se incluyó en la revista, hoy gracias a la tecnología, la televisión y la publicidad es el género de mayor crecimiento en el mundo. El tema abarca: Génesis del deporte, Fútbol México - 86. Maradona, Deporte y negocio, Análisis de una Olimpiada, Prensa Olimpiadas y política, Juegos Panamericanos, Escuelas de Periodismo deportivo, Cadenas deportivas en televisión. Se incluye entrevistas a cuatro Mujeres Comunicadoras.

  4. Los Anhelos Del Agro

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    Chaparro G. A.

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available Hablemos hoy del campesino y de su desventura, y hagámoslo, perfectamente libres de toda insana y falaz intención demagógica. Démosle el frente con resolución a esa obscura costumbre de halagar las pasiones de las gentes y explotar con fines proclives las profundas esperanzas y los honrados anhelos de los campesinos, y digamos que en Colombia, y en muchos países de América, se ha abusado impunemente de esa masa resignada que sustenta las economías de estos países, y se ha desconocido el meollo verdadero de sus problemas fundamentales, sin que las fórmulas prácticas de resolvemos íntegramente hayan aparecido, limitándose la acción a meras iniciativas aisladas e inconexas a veces contradictorias, cuyos resultados quedan perdidos en medio de la magnitud total de las situaciones.

  5. A Favor del Plagio

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    Manuel Arranz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Yo no tengo nada contra el plagio. Ustedes, como lectores, seguramente tampoco. Bueno, tal vez prejuicios. Es lógico que los tengan con tanto artículo condenándolo. Hasta ahora, que yo sepa, nadie ha escrito para defenderlo. Los que sí tienen algo, parece ser, son los autores. Una minoría al fin y al cabo. Ya sé que hay que respetar el derecho de las minorías, pero el asunto del plagio, como tantos otros, deberíamos examinarlo con más detalle, y preguntarnos, por ejemplo, ¿por qué se molestan tanto los autores cuando les plagian? ¿En nombre de qué?, sería también una buena pregunta. No me irán a decir a estas alturas que en nombre de la comunidad científica. A fin de cuentas el plagio beneficia la difusión de la ciencia. Los autores se molestan en nombre propio. Naturalmente tienen su derecho, no se lo vamos a discutir, pero, ¿no demuestra eso cierto narcisismo impropio de un científico? ¿La ciencia no es de todos?, como suelen decir en otras ocasiones.

  6. La liberazione del tempo

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Negli ultimi dieci anni ho lavorato alla descrizione dei fenomeni naturali da parte di osservatori in movimento. E' un problema che molti credono risolto una volta per tutte dalle trasformazioni di Lorentz della teoria della relatività speciale (TRS nel seguito), ma che in realtà era rimasto aperto per una serie di ragioni che esporrò. Sento di dover dire che ho trovato risultati molto importanti, anche se il giudizio finale sul loro valore non può certo essere il mio. Infatti la conclusione di questa ricerca è duplice: una spiegazione dei dati empirici migliore di quella relativistica, e l'eliminazione di quegli aspetti della TRS che fanno a pugni con il buon senso; il tutto grazie alla liberazione del tempo dall'asservimento alle coordinate spaziali cui era stato costretto nello spazio a quattro dimensioni di Minkowski. La faccenda è raccontata con dovizia di particolari in un libro recente [FS]. Nel presente articolo espongo gli aspetti salienti della ricerca lasciando da parte quelli matematici.

  7. del establecimiento permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ma. Antonieta Martin Granados

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que en México se han realizado adiciones a la legislación en materia civil y mercantil relacionadas con el uso de medios electrónicos como instrumentos para realizar actos jurídicos, éstas resultan insuficientes, pues nada se ha hecho en materia procesal, penal y laboral, entre otras. En este trabajo se presentan, en materia fiscal, algunas consideraciones acerca del concepto de establecimiento permanente tanto en la legislación mexicana como en el Convenio Modelo (CM de la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico (OCDE y se argumenta que a pesar de que la definición de la legislación mexicana es mucho más amplia que la que se encuentra en el mencionado convenio, el comercio electrónico presenta algunos retos para determinar el lugar en donde residen las partes involucradas, el lugar en donde se celebran las operaciones y se pagan o cobran, sobre todo tratándose de servicios o adquisición de bienes intangibles. Por último, se señala que en materia fiscal es necesario que las autoridades mexicanas permitan el uso de la factura electrónica

  8. del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro González Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos las diferentes etapas por las que ha pasado el desarrollo turístico de la isla de Lanzarote. Se distinguen tres periodos de características diferenciadas. El primero, antes de los años setenta, supone el desarrollo de una incipiente industria turística, donde predominan el capital belga y francés; el segundo es un periodo que abarca desde 1973 hasta 1983, en estos 10 años la isla experimenta un cambio sustancial, el capital alemán se vuelve hegemónico y se desarrolla con fuerza el denominado turismo de masas, sobre todo en el municipio de Tías (Puerto del Carmen; por último a partir de principios de los ochenta nos encontramos con una etapa de similares características que la anterior hasta 1995, con un gran desarrollo de Yaiza y Teguise, a partir de esta fecha y hasta la actualidad se introducen los valores de sostenibilidad, aunque sin demasiado éxito, pues se sigue construyendo mucho y no de precisamente alta calidad.

  9. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la sección Sociedad, mujer y comunicación, analiza, expone propuestas, experiencias novedosas y aportes teóricos en torno a la problemática de la discriminación de la mujer en el periodismo, pues pese a los avances de la causa femenina todavía perduran estereotipos y discrímenes en la organización y contenidos mediáticos. En Erotismo, Pornografía y Medios se establecen las diferencias entre los dos primeros términos. Señala que los medios son el escenario privilegiado de estas expresiones sexuales. Incluyen dos experiencias, una sobre radio erótica que busca recrear "el prohibido sonido del placer" y la otra una revista brasileña "El tercer sexo", caso inédito, que rompiendo tabúes, aparece para satisfacer los requerimientos informativos de los homosexuales de Brasil. Completan esta entrega con temas como: El mercado audiovisual latinoamericano; La información exterior en América Latina; Tumbas de papel, sobre los desaparecidos en la dictadura argentina; la ciencia como cultura; Variedades de la luz y el abandono.

  10. Calculo del valor en riesgo del futuro de energia e internacionalizacion del sector energetico en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel Fonseca, Leidy Gioanna

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado busca definir cuál es el mejor método para determinar el valor en riesgo del contrato de futuro de energía eléctrica que se transa en Colombia, para cumplir con este objetivo se toma como referencia el marco histórico del VaR y de los futuros seguido de las características de la fijación de precios, la estructura del contrato, que políticas y métodos hay para cubrirse del riesgo y como se realiza en otros países, realizando algunos cálculos de los modelos más trad...

  11. Medicamentos de alto costo: análisis y propuestas para los países del Mercosur Costly drugs: analysis and proposals for the Mercosur countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H Marín

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la forma en que los países del Mercosur acceden, regulan y financian los medicamentos de alto costo (MAC y proponer estrategias de selección y financiación conjunta a nivel sub-regional. MÉTODOS: Diseño cualitativo, utilizando análisis de contenido de fuentes primarias y secundarias, revisiones documentales, entrevistas, grupos focales y análisis de casos Las variables seleccionadas incluyeron: criterios de selección, acceso, financiación y regulación en los distintos países. Los MAC se clasificaron en aquellos que no modifican el curso natural de la enfermedad y aquellos que tiene eficacia demostrada, utilizando la dosis diaria definida para comparar los costos entre tratamientos clásicos y los realizados con MAC. RESULTADOS: Los países del Mercosur carecen en su gran mayoría de estrategias formales para enfrentar las demandas de MAC, y gobiernos y aseguradoras terminan por financiarlos por vía judicial. Los análisis de casos muestran que existen MAC sin eficacia comprobada que igualmente generan demanda. Las compras atomizadas, los compromisos internacionales respecto a propiedad intelectual y el bajo poder de negociación incrementan los precios de MAC exponencialmente, poniendo en riesgo la economía de los sistemas sanitarios. CONCLUSIONES: Los MAC deben ser regulados y seleccionados racionalmente permitiendo que solo aquellos que beneficien sustantivamente a la población sean aceptados. Para financiar los MAC así seleccionados se requieren estrategias comunes entre países que incluyan opciones tales como flexibilidades de acuerdos comerciales, creación de fondos nacionales de recursos o compra conjunta entre países para potenciar su poder de negociación.OBJECTIVE: Determine how the Mercosur countries access, regulate, and finance costly drugs and propose joint selection and financing strategies at the subregional level. METHODS: Qualitative design, using content analyses of primary and secondary

  12. Experimental study on the sensitivity of isolated strains of trichomonas vaginalis in Shiyan city to metronidazole%阴道毛滴虫十堰分离株对灭滴灵敏感性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树国; 王娅; 张光玉; 杨宏伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:实验观察阴道毛滴虫十堰分离株对灭滴灵的敏感性.方法:收集阴道毛滴虫临床分离株,体外传代培养4代,培养11管至对数生长期,调整虫体浓度为0.5×10 6个/ml,计算加入甲硝唑,使终浓度分别为:62.50 μg/ml、50.00 μg/ml、31.25 μg/ml、25.00 μg/ml、15.63 μg/ml、7.81 μg/ml、3.91 μg/ml、1.95 μg/ml、0.98 μg/ml、0.49 μg/ml、0 μg/ml,置37℃培养,分别于2、4、6、8、12、24 h观察虫体生长存活情况,计算高倍镜下虫体数目和死亡率.结果:62.50 μg/ml和50.00 μg/ml浓度组,滴虫死亡率均为100.00%;作用后2 h,15.63 μg/ml浓度组死亡率为7.69%,31.25 μg/ml组死亡率为65.51%;作用后4 h,7.81 μg/ml浓度组死亡率为78.94%,3.91 μg/ml浓度组死亡率为18.75%;作用后6 h,3.91 μg/ml浓度组死亡率为73.68%,1.95 μg/ml浓度组死亡率为21.52%;24 h滴虫最低致死量为3.91 μg/ml.结论:阴道毛滴虫十堰分离株对灭滴灵较敏感,体外有效最低杀虫浓度为3.91 μg/ml.%Objective: To observe the sensitivity of isolated strains of trichomonas vagina lis in Shiyan city to metronidazole. Methods: The clinical isolated strains of trichomonas vaginalis were collected, cultured for four generations in vitro, the clinical isolated strains in 11 tubes were cultivated to exponential phase, then the concentration of trichomonas vaginalis was regulated at 0.5 × 106/ml, metronidazole was added into the tubes, the terminal concentrations were 62.50 μg/ml, 50. 00 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml,25.00 μg/ml, 15.63 μg/ml, 7. 81 μg/ml, 3.91 μg/ml, 1.95 μg/ml, 0. 98 μg/ml, 0. 49 μg/ml and 0 μg/ml, the clinical isolated strains of trichomonas vaginalis were cultivated at 37℃, then the survival conditions of trichomonas vaginalis were observed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours; the amount and death rates of trichomonas vaginalis were calculated under high power lens. Results: 62. 50 μg/ml group and 50. 00 μg/ml group: the death rates of trichomonas

  13. Funciones del estilo personal del terapeuta en profesionales del campo de las adicciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Casari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar el estilo personal del terapeuta entre dos grupos de profesionales, uno dedicado a la atención de pacientes drogodependientes (grupo adicciones y otro a la atención clínica en general (grupo clínico. Método. La muestra estuvo formada por 100 psicoterapeutas que trabajan en instituciones públicas y privadas de tres provincias del interior de Argentina, pareados por las variables socioprofesionales (sexo, edad, años de experiencia profesional, enfoque teórico, grupo etario de trabajo, tipo de abordaje predominante, duración del tratamiento y grado de especialización. El instrumento empleado fue el Cuestionario de Estilo Personal del Terapeuta. Resultados. Para el análisis de datos se emplearon pruebas de comparación de medias y se analizó su tamaño del efecto. Se obtuvieron diferencias signifi cativas en la función expresiva: grupo clínico (M = 40.36 y grupo adicciones (M = 29.86; así como también en la función instruccional: grupo clínico (M = 28.01 y grupo adicciones (M = 32.67. Esto indica una mayor distancia emocional y un incremento en la rigidez del encuadre terapéutico en los terapeutas de pacientes adictos. Conclusión. Se discuten estos resultados en función de postulados previos que señalan la complejidad del vínculo terapéutico y el énfasis en las características del encuadre terapéutico, tal como la puesta de límites.

  14. Estrategias del Teatro del Oprimido para la formación permanente del profesorado

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    Tomás Motos-Teruel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relata una experiencia y su valoración de formación permanente del profesorado basada en el aprendizaje vivencial utilizando como estrategia metodológica el Teatro del Oprimido (TO para estimular y favorecer la reflexión sobre la práctica educativa. Sus objetivos básicos fueron dar a conocer la formulación teórica y la metodología del TO y hacer la transferencia de las estrategias metodológicas vivenciadas a la práctica docente. El estudio se ha planteado desde una óptica cualitativa con el estudio de caso único. Y como resultados más destacables hay que reseñar el interés y la percepción de la utilidad personal y profesional del TO como instrumento de reflexión sobre la acción y generador de clima positivo. El Teatro del Oprimido es una formulación teórica y un método estético cuya teoría y praxis están inspiradas en la Pedagogía del Oprimido de Paulo Freire, utiliza las técnicas dramáticas como un instrumento eficaz para la comprensión y la búsqueda de alternativas a problemas sociales, interpersonales e individuales.

  15. Franco Modigliani e la teoria del ciclo vitale del consumo

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    Angus Deaton

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nei primi anni ’50, Franco Modigliani e il suo studente Richard Brumberg elaborarono una teoria della spesa fondata sull’idea che gli individui effettuano scelte intelligenti su quanto desiderano spendere a ogni età, con il solo limite delle risorse disponibili nel corso della loro vita. Attraverso l’accumulo e il decumulo delle attività, chi lavora può provvedere alla propriapensione e, più in generale, può adattare i propri modelli di consumo alle esigenze che sipresentano alle diverse età, indipendentemente dal reddito disponibile in ogni momento della suavita. Questa semplice teoria conduce a previsioni rilevanti e non scontate per l’economia nel suo complesso, ad esempio che il risparmio nazionale dipende dal tasso di crescita del reddito nazionale e non dal suo livello, e che esiste una semplice relazione tra il livello della ricchezza nelsistema economico e la lunghezza del periodo trascorso in pensione. Tali previsioni, non verificabili negli anni ’50, hanno trovato considerevole sostegno empirico in successivi lavori di Modigliani e di altri ricercatori. Sebbene nel corso degli anni la teoria del consumo abbia subitonumerosi attacchi, i più recenti dei quali mossi da una coalizione di psicologi ed economisti,l’ipotesi del ciclo vitale rimane una parte essenziale del pensiero degli economisti.

  16. Disgerminoma del ovario (D

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    Jorge Amorocho

    1949-05-01

    Full Text Available Hospital de San Juan de Dios. Pabellón Quirúrgico. Clínica Ginecológica. Servicio del Profesor Aparicio. Historia Clínica número 49-24. G. C. Edad: 36 años. Natural de Susa. Ingresó al Servicio el 28 de febrero de 1949. Antecedentes a Familiares: Sin importancia. b Patológicos: Sarampión, viruela y tos ferina en la infancia. c Quirúrgicos; No. d Traumáticos; Golpe fuerte en la rodilla izquierda hace 4 años, sin fractura. e Tóxicos: Sin importancia. f Obstétricos; Casada desde hace 12 años, vive con el marido y no ha tenido embarazos. Frigidez sexual. g Ginecológicos; Amenorrea primitiva. Su primera regla la tuvo a los 23 años de edad, ' mediante tratamiento especial, a base de estrógenos (distil-estil-gestrol de 0.005 gm. Posteriormente cada 60 días experimentaba malestar general y mediante la ingestión de 2 comprimidos diarios, durante 10 días, de dietil-estil-bestrol de 5 mg. le aparecía su regla que era amenálgica, hipomenorreica y de 4 días de duración. En la fase premenstrual, esto es, mis ntras estaba tornando los comprimidos, le molestaba un flujo blancuzco, claro e inodoro que le almidonaba la ropa; dicho flujo desaparecía tan pronto como venía la menstruación, lo mismo que los síntomas de malestar general.

  17. EFECTO DEL SILICIO Y PLAGUICIDAS EN LA FERTILIDAD DEL SUELO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL ARROZ

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    Parm\\u00E9nides Furcal-Beriguete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del silicio en la fertilidad del suelo, la incidencia de enfermedades y plagas insectiles, el rendimiento y la calidad de granos del cultivo de arroz. El estudio se realizó en La Vega, Florencia, San Carlos, Costa Rica entre mayo y octubre en los años 2010 y 2011, en el mismo lote con la variedad CR 4477. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos: silicio al suelo, silicio al suelo más plaguicidas (alternativas químicas, silicio foliar, silicio foliar más plaguicidas y testigo comercial. Como fuente se utilizaron si- licio en polvo al 70% de SiO2, aplicado quince días antes de siembra en dosis de 100 kg SiO2/ha, y líquido concentrado 40% SiO2 y 36% MgO, aplicado al follaje en dosis de 4 l/ha a los 17 y 30 días después de la siembra. El suelo del orden inceptisol de formación aluvial, al inicio del experimento tenía pH 4,9, valores de P y Si disponibles de 29 ppm y 44,7 ppm, respectivamente, acidez intercambiable 1,2 cmol(+/l y suma de bases 19,11 cmol(+/l. No hubo diferencia estadística significativa del silicio en la fertilidad del suelo, la incidencia de plagas y enfermedades, y en la calidad molinera; sin embargo, la combinación del silicio aplicado al suelo y el uso de plaguicidas incrementaron el contenido de zinc y cobre en el suelo, y del zinc y magnesio en las hojas de arroz, pero este efecto no se tradujo en rendimiento y calidad de granos. La aplicación de plaguicidas influyó positivamente en el peso y rendimiento del arroz en granza (p≤0,05.

  18. Epidemiologia del parasitismo intestinal infantil en el Valle del Guadalquivir

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    Pérez Armengol Cristina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Las parasitosis intestinales en los niños constituyen un problema de salud pública que debe ser valorado periódicamente en cada región. En este trabajo se aborda, por primera vez en la región natural del Valle del Guadalquivir, un estudio amplio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en la población infantil de la zona. MÉTODOS: Durante el período 1994-1996, mediante análisis coprológico y método de Graham, se ha estudiado a 1.917 niños y niñas asintomáticos, con edades comprendidas entre seis y diez años, residentes en veinte localidades del Valle del Guadalquivir. RESULTADOS: El índice global de parasitación ha sido del 27,12 %. Las especies parásitas detectadas, así como sus prevalencias fueron: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%, Giardia lamblia (5,05%, Entamoeba coli (2,45%, Endolimax nana (1,61%, Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%, Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia global encontrada es similar a la de otras regiones españolas, aunque quizás pueda considerarse algo más favorable. No se detectan geohelmintos, debido posiblemente a la mejora de la infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y a los efectos de la prolongada sequía en la zona. La giardiasis, a diferencia de las restantes protozoosis, mantiene una prevalencia relativamente alta.

  19. El valor del consejo en el Libro del caballero Zifar

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    Patricia ROCHWERT-ZUILI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es mostrar el valor que cobra en el Libro del caballero Zifar la definición del consejo como elemento fundamental del molinismo. El análisis permite distinguir no solo la afirmación de una palabra linajística ejemplar sino también la importancia del consejo del verdadero amigo, y en particular, el de la mujer o del caballero. A través de la valoración de la prueba que le tiene que imponer el rey al consejero se vislumbra además la imagen de este consejo privado que se impuso bajo el reinado de Alfonso XI y cuyo papel no fue sino confortar el poder de la realeza.Le propos de cet article est de montrer l’importance que revêt dans le Livre du chevalier Zifar la définition du conseil comme trait essentiel du molinisme. L’analyse permet non seulement de mettre en évidence l’affirmation d’une parole lignagère exemplaire mais aussi de distinguer le conseil de l’ami véritable, en particulier celui de la femme ou du chevalier. À travers la valorisation de l’épreuve que le roi se doit d’imposer au conseiller, on entrevoit en outre l’image du conseil privé qui s’imposa sous le règne d’Alphonse XI et dont le rôle fut de conforter le pouvoir de la royauté.

  20. Clima de segurança do paciente: percepção dos profissionais de enfermagem Clima de seguridad del paciente: percepción de los profesionales de enfermería The climate of patient safety: perception of nursing professionals

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    Mayara Carvalho Godinho Rigobello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a percepção do clima de segurança dos profissionais de enfermagem atuantes nas clínicas médicas e cirúrgicas de um Hospital de Ensino. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo e com abordagem quantitativa. Foi utilizado o Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ - Short Form 2006, traduzido para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A percepção do clima de segurança dos profissionais variou conforme o gênero, a clínica, a categoria profissional e o tempo de atuação. A satisfação no trabalho foi demonstrada por todos os profissionais, com escores acima de 75, enquanto o domínio Percepção da Gerência apresentou valores mais baixos. CONCLUSÃO: A satisfação do profissional, o diálogo e o suporte à equipe por parte da administração são essenciais para a garantia da segurança do paciente. Conhecer a percepção dos profissionais de enfermagem sobre o clima de segurança contribui para a melhoria do cuidado em saúde e para a redução dos riscos ao paciente.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la percepción del clima de seguridad de los profesionales de enfermería que actúan en las clínicas médicas y quirúrgicas de un Hospital de Enseñanza. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y con abordaje cuantitativo. Fue utilizado el Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ - Short Form 2006, traducido para la lengua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: La percepción del clima de seguridad de los profesionales varió conforme el género, la clínica, la categoría profesional y el tiempo de actuación. La satisfacción en el trabajo fue demostrada por todos los profesionales, con scores arriba de 75, en cuanto que el dominio Percepción de la Gerencia presentó valores más bajos. CONCLUSIÓN: La satisfacción del profesional, el diálogo y el soporte al equipo por parte de la administración son esenciales para la garantía de la seguridad del paciente. Conocer la percepción de los profesionales de enfermería sobre el clima de seguridad

  1. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Figure 1. Weight loss in different situation of diets. Each point represents ... using sterile ground-glass stoppers (Heimo et al., 2001). To .... In fact, selective elimination ... attention in recent years, because the ability of bacteria.

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy Evaluation of Metronidazole and Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    million new human cases arise every year, and at least 350 ... Leishmania burdens in different mouse tissues. This is ... parasite load in mice infected with L. major .... LC PCR development ..... Medicine," McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984; p. 443.

  3. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the effects of protein malnutrition (PM) associated with antibiotic on growth weight, cecal bacterial overgrowth and enterobacteria translocation. Eighteen Gnotobiotic young Wistar rats (135 ± 2.35 g) were treated orally with antibiotic and submitted to dietary restriction based on maize diet ...

  4. Gestión del riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Documento Anexo del Manual de Geología para Ingenieros, con temas asociados a la gestión integral del riesgo de interés para la ecorregión cafetera y Colombia. Parte de los temas ha sido tomada del módulo “Diálogos con el Territorio y Gestión del Riesgo Natural, a mi cargo en la Especialización en Geografía, Ordenamiento Territorial y Manejo del Riesgo Natural en la Universidad de Caldas. Otros, provienen del compendio de temas sobre la materia, elaborado en el marco de mis actividades académ...

  5. Fenomenología del prejuicio

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    Montero Moliner, Fernando

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este trabajo expone la defensa del «prejuicio » llevada a cabo por Gadamer, mostrando su efectividad histórica y confrontándola con la crítica husserliana del «prejuicio» desde el apriorismo. Se pone de relieve, además, la historicidad del «mundo de la vida» y su incidencia en la teoría del a priori, para terminar con un estudio de la racionalidad del a priori y la facticidad del prejuicio.

  6. DESPUÉS DEL COLAPSO

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    Carmen M. Reinhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina el comportamiento delPIBreal (montos y tasas decrecimiento, el desempleo, la inflación, el crédito bancario y los precios de los bie-nes raíces a lo largo de un periodo de 21 años en torno de una serie de importantessucesos y choques adversos, tanto globales como específicos por país. Entre estosepisodios se encuentran la caída del mercado accionario de 1929, la crisis petrolerade 1973, el colapso de los créditossubprimede 2007 en los Estados Unidos y 15crisis financieras severas posteriores a la segunda Guerra Mundial. Se hace hincapiéno en los antecedentes inmediatos y las repercusiones de estos sucesos, sino en ho-rizontes más amplios que comparan decenios y no años. Si bien la evidencia de dé-cadas perdidas, como es el caso de la depresión del decenio de los treinta, el deceniode los ochenta en la América Latina y de los noventa en Japón no es omnipresente,el crecimiento delPIBy los precios de la vivienda son significativamente más bajosy el desempleo es mayor en el periodo de 10 años posteriores a la crisis cuando secomparan estos datos con los del decenio precedente...

  7. El sentido cultural del cuidado en casa del enfermo

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    Marina Sánches-Sanabria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene un diseño cualitativo descriptivo, transversal para comprender las diferencias existentes en los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas influidas por la percepción o sentido cultural de cuidar del cuidador primario, como elemento básico para caracterizar elementos culturales presentes en el ambiente de cuidado al enfermo o discapacitado que está en casa a través de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos que tiene tanto el cuidador primario como el ser cuidado en casa. Se realizó con los usuarios inscritos del Programa de Promoción y Prevención de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos Universidad Popular del Cesar (IPS-UPC de los enfermos crónicos y discapacitados a nivel comunitario del grupo extramural de la comuna cinco y del Hospital Eduardo Arredondo Daza de la ciudad de Valledupar, Colombia. El valor de realizar este proyecto, está en desocultar los múltiples significados que en la realidad vivida por los seres cuidadores primarios y en los seres cuidados; son esas distintas formas de percibir la existencia, influido por el conocimiento de lo ancestral, los sentimientos y la sabiduría de la cultura que cada uno posee para expresarse en las múltiples formas que el cuidado lo acontece y lo requiere para dar el sentido cultural característico y diferenciado que se percibe en el modo de cuidar y la satisfacción de quien lo recibe y lo ofrece. Este aspecto fue valioso para la comunidad académica del programa de enfermería, porque ubicó epistémicamente la transculturalidad del cuidado como una mirada y forma de enseñar transdisciplinariamente, enseñando y ofreciendo el cuidado desde la cultura, sentimientos y pensamientos del ser cuidado para el mantenimiento de la vida y la salud, en la que estudiantes de enfermeria desde sus primeras experiencias formativas deben incursionar en la intervención holística que se requiere en el cuidado de la salud y de la vida.

  8. Comunidad del conocimiento Ecosalud Etv

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    Laura Magaña Valladares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Liderazgo en Ecosalud para las Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (ETV en América Latina y el Caribe colocó entre los principales objetivos de trabajo la conformación de una comunidad del conocimiento que garantizara la sostenibilidad de la estrategia de capacitación. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación documental centrada en la construcción de una comunidad del conocimiento desde el Portal de la iniciativa, aprovechando las bondades del trabajo colaborativo que brinda la perspectiva de la web 2.0 y colocando a las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones como un agente clave al servicio de la salud pública en la región.

  9. Discurso del Presidente Saliente

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    Juan Jacobo Muñoz

    1994-09-01

    honra con su personalidad a la profesión médica.

    Ellos constituyen un notable grupo, que con la colaboración del Secretario Perpetuo, doctor Hernando Groot, de grande y rica experiencia, conocedor de los problemas colombianos, llevarán a la Academia por seguros senderos.

    Se ha constituido esta entidad en un organismo científico social de extraordinaria importancia, respetado por el Gobierno y por la sociedad, en ente normativo para atender a nuestros graves problemas sanitarios, en directora de la acción médica sobre la comunidad y que por todo ello, representa la institución más prestante del cuerpo médico nacional.

    Como tal, es apenas lógico que muchos de sus miembros quieran intervenir en sus actividades decisorias y tomar parte en las grandes políticas sanitarias nacionales, con las cuales debemos estar comprometidos.

    Es por ello necesario que los señores académicos dediquen sus esfuerzos a devolver al pueblo colombiano, a través de su gobierno, como un agradecimiento por lo recibido, las normas de salud que mejoren la difícil situación sanitaria de aquél.

    Para esta tarea ya disponemos de las necesarias facilidades locativas y de un presupuesto que permitirá laborar sin angustias.

    Nuestra casa actual, con sus oficinas, su mobiliario austero, su auditorio, su equipo, es suficiente para la labor intelectual que debemos realizar. Es urgente unir los cerebros y las voluntades de todos para influir en los destinos médicos patrios en una labor que es de ciencia médica pura, de influencia política y administrativa, en estas épocas en que son tan necesarios los sistemas de prevenir y curar las enfermedades de las grandes masas.

    Sería importante mejorar los servicios de nuestra biblioteca. Es cierto que ella y la hemeroteca no han sido utilizadas eficientemente por los Académicos. Debemos pensar si utilizaremos las conexiones que podemos realizar y que nos han sido ofrecidas por una importante firma, para

  10. La importancia del patrocinio deportivo : el surf como última tendencia

    OpenAIRE

    Lvov a Zemlianskaia,Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Se pretende dar a conocer el motivo del constante incremento del patrocinio deportivo, concretamente en el mundo del surf. Esta estrategia de marketing es empleada por muchas marcas como clave del éxito en la diferenciación

  11. Fundamentos del derecho sancionador tributario

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gervilla, Antonio,

    2017-01-01

    Es podria afirmar que el Dret sancionador administratiu, i per tant el Dret sancionador tributari, és una de les branques del Dret que més controvèrsia ha generat des de la seva gènesi; bona prova d'això la podem trobar en la seva evolució històrica, atenent al fet que aquest va evolucionar des del inicialment denominat Dret penal de policia, passant pel Dret penal administratiu, el Dret penal de l'ordre, fins arribar a l'actual Dret sancionador administratiu. En la nostra opin...

  12. Unificar las ciencias del deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natàlia Balagué Serre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El deporte no es solo un fenómeno social de nuestro mundo, sino que también es un campo privilegiado para el estudio del comportamiento social y humano. Durante las últimas décadas, se ha producido un enorme crecimiento y especialización de las ciencias del deporte y el lema del 18º Congreso del European College of Sport Sciences (ECSS “Unificar las ciencias del deporte” representa desafiar este proceso de fragmentación. El lema conlleva un cambio de la especialización a la integración, de una concepción de los sistemas vivos basada en la teoría de la información y la ingeniería a una de base biológica, de la investigación multidisciplinaria a la transdisciplinaria. Pero aparece una pregunta: ¿es posible integrar las áreas fragmentadas y facilitar la transferencia de los principios explicativos teóricos, técnicas y perspectivas metodológicas entre disciplinas? En el marco de las contribuciones hechas en el congreso, este artículo tiene como objetivo introducir enfoques científicos ya extendidos en los ámbitos de la física, la química, la biología (incluyendo las ómicas y las ciencias sociales, y que centradas en las interacciones dinámicas complejas de los componentes sistémicos (proteínas, células, organismos, grupos, sociedades, revelan principios explicativos generales que contribuyen a la unificación del conocimiento. Intentamos animar a las personas interesadas en las ciencias del deporte a percibir nuevas formas de investigación y a complementar, sin sustituirlos, los enfoques dominantes, con la esperanza de que ir de las partes al todo y del todo a las partes ayudará a los científicos a reconocer los caminos más adecuados.

  13. Desarrollo de la Habilidad de Administración del Tiempo en directivas del primer nivel del MITRANS.

    OpenAIRE

    García Remus, Mayelín

    2009-01-01

    Valoración de cómo administran el tiempo las mujeres directivas del sector del transporte en Ciudad de La Habana. Establece las competencias individuales que pueden influir en el desarrollo de la habilidad de administración del tiempo.

  14. Max Weber o el enigma emocional del origen del capitalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el trabajo clave de Max Weber, La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo, desde la perspectiva de la Sociología de las Emociones. Aunque la inclusión de las emociones de los fenómenos sociales es clave para entender la idea de Weber sobre el dogma de la predestinación, los sociólogos han trivializado el papel de la emoción. Tras detallar la creencia de Weber en que el espíritu del capitalismo parte del conocimiento de que el destino del hombre está predeterminado (la ética protestante, se destaca que la angustia, más específicamente la humillación, invocada por esta creencia, debe figurar dentro de cualquier teoría acerca de la cultura. El sentimiento de humillación es explorado a través de los componentes cognitivos, evaluativos y emotivos de la cultura, proporcionando una mejor comprensión de la omnisciencia divina, la falta de respeto que la humanidad se merece y la ausencia de felicidad. A causa de la humillación y la falta de dignidad sufrida en muchos niveles, el hombre busca el orgullo personal, el éxito mundano y la modernidad, olvidando la humildad, la salvación eterna y la tradición.

  15. Historia del trabajo social latinoamericano. Estado del arte

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria E. Leal L.; Édgar Malagón B.

    2006-01-01

    La literatura sobre la historia del trabajo social latinoamericano contiene vacíos importantes y planteamientos de lo que significó el desarrollo de la profesionalización en los años setenta y en el período de la reconceptualización. Por tal razón es indi

  16. Historia del trabajo social latinoamericano. Estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E. Leal L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura sobre la historia del trabajo social latinoamericano contiene vacíos importantes y planteamientos de lo que significó el desarrollo de la profesionalización en los años setenta y en el período de la reconceptualización. Por tal razón es indi

  17. Colestasis del recién nacido y del lactante

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    Norma Hondal Álvarez

    Full Text Available Los recién nacidos y lactantes pequeños tienen una inmadurez funcional y anatómica que justifica que las enfermedades hepáticas que se manifiestan en estas edades tengan la ictericia como signo principal y que otros procesos extrahepáticos o sistémicos puedan condicionar colestasis. La colestasis del lactante es un síndrome clínico caracterizado por ictericia, acolia o hipocolia, y coluria, que evoluciona con elevación de la bilirrubina directa y de los ácidos biliares séricos. La evaluación diagnóstica del lactante con colestasis, realizada por un equipo multidisciplinario, debe minimizar la realización de pruebas innecesarias para lograr un diagnóstico correcto en el menor tiempo posible, diferenciar entre colestasis intrahepática o extrahepática y lograr un diagnóstico etiológico, que incluya aquellos procesos que ponen en peligro la vida o requieren un tratamiento específico médico o quirúrgico. El presente trabajo pretende revisar las principales causas, procedimientos diagnósticos y el enfoque terapéutico de la colestasis del recién nacido y del lactante en aras de contribuir a su diagnóstico temprano y su tratamiento adecuado.

  18. Nota editorial: la medalla del internado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1940-05-01

    Full Text Available Discursos pronunciados por el Profesor jefe José del Carmen Acosta y el estudiante Eduardo J. Rivera, con motivo de la entrega de la Medalla del Internado, correspondiente al año de 1939.

  19. Una alabarda procedente del valle del Manzanares (Madrid

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    Miguel Ángel de BLAS CORTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudia una alabarda metálica procedente —sin datos precisos de su localización— del valle del Manzanares (Madrid. Posiblemente apareciera con otros materiales (¿puntas Palmela?, pero el hecho no pudo ser comprobado. Fundida en un molde monovalvo que proporciona un acabado homogéneo a una sola de las caras, se integra metalúrgicamente en el grupo E 01 (cobres arsenicales propio de la Península Ibérica durante el Calcolítico y el Bronce Antiguo. Tipológicamente puede ser clasificada como integrante del grupo Carrapatas al que pertenecen un conjunto de alabardas procedentes del N.E. de Portugal (Bragança y Tras os Montes del que se conocen escasos testimonios fuera del área característica. Especialmente significativo es el hallazgo de la finca de la Paloma (Pantoja, Toledo que muestra la asociación entre las alabardas Carrapatas y elementos propios del campaniforme tardío de España y Portugal, circunstancia que permite fechar el tipo entre el 1700-1500 a. de J.C., datación similar a las fechas admitidas para las alabardas irlandesas con las que algunos autores ven posibles relaciones. La existencia de alabardas grabadas en estelas más tardías o en rocas al aire libre plantea el problema de su perduración. No obstante, el carácter simbólico de las armas grabadas puede hacer que sea solamente la imagen representada la que superviva, aunque el arma como tal haya perdido vigencia. La alabarda del Manzanares, junto con las de Pantoja, señala la presencia en la Meseta Sur de elementos metalúrgicos propios del N.W. de la Península en un momento sincrónico con las fases finales del campaniforme.ABSTRACT: We study a metallic halberd found in an indeterminate place in the valley of the river Manzanares (Madrid. It might have appeared with other materials (Palmela Points?, although this fact could not be confirmed. Made in a single-faced mould which allows a homogeneous finish to only one of the sides, it belongs from

  20. Evolución clínica del síndrome de disfunción dolorosa de la articulación temporomandibular con acupuntura Clinical evolution of the pain dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint using acupuncture

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    Felicia C Morejón Alvarez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y prospectivo con el objetivo de determinar la efectividad del tratamiento con acupuntura en el síndrome de disfunción dolorosa de la articulación temporomandibular, patología que aqueja a un por ciento elevado de la población y debido a su etiología multifactoria,l se hace difícil establecer un tratamiento. Esta investigación se desarrolló en el Hospital Universitario Abel Santamaría Cuadrado, durante el período de febrero a septiembre de 2006. La muestra estuvo constituida por 104 pacientes que asistieron a la consulta de cirugía maxilofacial, por presentar síntomas y signos propios del síndrome de disfunción dolorosa de la articulación temporomandibular. De manera aleatoria quedó la muestra dividida en dos grupos: un grupo control que se trató con el tratamiento convencional y uno de estudio, tratado con acupuntura. Los datos fueron recogidos en tablas y tabulados por el método estadístico de chi cuadrado. Se concluye que en la terapia con acupuntura no existieron reacciones adversas y a los cinco días de tratamiento solo un 29% presentó dolor a la masticación y un 27% a la palpación de la musculatura, mientras que por el tratamiento convencional un 40,4% y un 50% respectivamente tenían estas alteraciones. Con acupuntura el promedio de sesiones necesarias para la remisión de los síntomas fue de 9, quedó demostrada la efectividad de esta terapia en el tratamiento del dolor disfunción temporomandibular.A longitudinal prospective study is carried out aimed at studying the effectivity of the treatment with acupuncture in presence of pain temporomandibular joint dysfunction, present in a high percentage of patients.Due to the multifactorial etiology is hard to establish the treatment.The present research was carried out in "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado"University Hospital during February _September 2006. The sample was comprised of 104 patients attending to the dental surgeon office

  1. El papel del marketing en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Manassero Mas, María Antonia

    1998-01-01

    La aplicación del marketing se va extendiendo a gran diversidad de campos en los que tradicionalmente no tenía cabida, por ejemplo, el deporte. Dos coordenadas fundamentales explican el desarrollo del marketing deportivo: en primer lugar, el afianzamiento del marketing como disciplina y los avances de sus herramientas y resultados, y en segundo lugar, la creciente importancia del fenómeno deportivo como hecho social y cultural.

  2. LA GESTIÓN DEL SUPERMERCADO VIRTUAL: TIPIFICACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CLIENTE ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimon Viadiu, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza diferentes elementos que influyen en el comportamiento de compra del cliente de un supermercado online. Estos elementos están relacionados tanto con aspectos estéticos del sitio web, como con los procesos que tienen lugar en el momento de realizar la compra. A partir de este análisis, se estudian los distintos grupos de consumidores con comportamientos homogéneos y se posicionan en función de sus actitudes. El análisis también permite definir la calidad del servicio prestado por este tipo de establecimientos, así como las principales dimensiones en que se despliega. En las conclusiones se citan aspectos en los que el gestor de un supermercado online debe incidir para mejorar la calidad de su servicio.

  3. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  4. Tratamiento especializado del abuso o dependencia del alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Suelves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos.El Plan Nacional sobre Drogas (PNSD impulsó la prevención y el tratamiento de los trastornos por uso de drogas ilegales, y ahora abarca los trastornos por uso de alcohol. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una estimación de las personas en tratamiento especializado por alcohol en la red pública. Métodos.Se revisan documentos del PNSD, del sistema de información sobre drogodependencias de Cataluña y del de Barcelona. Para Cataluña y Barcelona se presentan datos de 1991 a 2010. Resultados.Para el conjunto de España hay información disponible desde hace pocos años, con exhaustividad y validez variable. En Catalunya, el número de admisiones a tratamiento por alcohol notificadas se incrementó: el alcohol causa anualmente más del 40% del total de admisiones a tratamiento en la red de drogodependencias; la edad media es de 44 años y el 23% son mujeres. En Barcelona las admisiones a tratamiento por alcohol superan las 2.000 al año, suponiendo 217 por 100.000 habitantes mayores de 15 años varones y 67 en mujeres. Conclusiones.Los datos disponibles sugieren que por lo que respecta al alcohol el sistema de información sobre drogas ha de desarrollarse más en España, resolviendo problemas metodológicos. Los datos disponibles para Cataluña sugieren que la red de atención a drogas ha permitido abordar la necesidad asistencial por dependencia al alcohol conjuntamente con la de drogas ilegales. Esta información es relevante, pues apenas existen datos de tratamiento referidos a la población.

  5. Historia del Desarrollo del Mapa de la Mente

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    Jorge González Hernández

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el desarrollo de la neurología y psicología se remonta cientos de años, la investigación en neurociencias a gran escala es un logro del siglo XX. En estos últimos 100 años, se ha generado gran parte del cuerpo de conocimientos que sustenta nuestra visión general del sistema nervioso. Numerosas características bioquímicas, fisiológicas, farmacológicas y estructurales del cerebro han sido descritas, primero en invertebrados y luego en vertebrados. En los últimos años, esfuerzos importantes han sido destinados también a definir las bases de las funciones de percepción, emoción, memoria, atención y cognición. Por último, tanto los métodos experimentales como la observación de individuos (a menudo pacientes con lesiones definidas nos han permitido asociar ciertas funciones a regiones neuroanatómicas específicas. Como resultado, hoy tenemos un campo de estudio del cerebro y las ciencias cognitivas (mente tan bullente en información como en incógnitas de compleja solución. El misterio de la relación mente/cerebro es un viaje apasionante a través de un laberinto de información, hipótesis y teorías, que captura tanto al estudioso de la biología como al matemático o al filósofo. De hecho, solo parece razonable enfrentar tamaña tarea desde las trincheras de la interdisciplinariedad, dada la multiplicidad de los componentes y su naturaleza que solo emerge desde un todo coherente.

  6. Ciclo cósmico del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Frías, J.

    2008-01-01

    1 página.-- Trabajo presentado en la Exposición Internacional "Agua y Desarrollo Sostenible" celebrada en Zaragoza del 14 de Junio al 14 de septiembre del 2008 (Pabellón: Torre del Agua. Agua para la vida).

  7. Acerca de tres dimensiones del ser humano

    OpenAIRE

    Fúnez, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    El autor resume las ideas importantes del libro "Tres dimensiones del ser humano", se pregunta por la importancia del planteamiento zubiriano, tanto para la historia de la filosofía, como para la situación que actualmente nos ha tocado vivir.

  8. Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili

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    Alberto Trivero

    Full Text Available No hace mucho tiempo apareció en el mercado anticuario italiano un libro extremadamente raro e interesante para el mundo chileno y, particularmente mapuche. Se trata de la primera edición del "Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili", del jesuita Giovanni Ignazio Molina, publicado en Bologna en el año 1787.

  9. Double-stranded RNA viral infection of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and its effect on the metronidazole resistance of parasites%阴道毛滴虫双链RNA病毒感染及其对甲硝唑耐药性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 王东; 袁玉青; 杜纪英; 薛长责

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from Henan Province for the presence of T. vagi-nalis virus(TVV) and analyze the effect of TVV of the metronidazole resistance of T. vaginalis. Methods DNA and RNA were simultaneously extracted after T. vaginalis isolates were grown on TYM (trypticase-yeast extract-maltose) medium and maintained as axenic cultures. Samples were then analyzed on 1 % agarose gel. The MLC of metronidazole of T. vaginalis isolates was tested using serial dilution. Results TVV was detected in 6 of 30 T. vaginalis isolates; the rate of TVV infection in T. vaginalis isolates was 20. 0%. The MLC of metronidazole against TVV-negative T. vaginalis strains in vitro was (24. 27 ±20. 899)μg/ml. This was significantly higher than that against TVV-positive strains (5. 68±3. 588)μg/ml), and the difference between the two was statistically significant(t = 2. 143,P<0. 05). Conclusion T. vaginalis virus was detected in T. vaginalis isolates from Henan. T. vaginalis isolates not harboring TVV were more likely to be resistant to metronidazole.%目的 调查河南地区阴道毛滴虫临床分离株阴道毛滴虫病毒感染情况,探索病毒感染对阴道毛滴虫甲硝唑耐药性的影响.方法 TYM(trypticase-yeast extract-maltose)无菌培养基培养阴道毛滴虫临床分离株,达到纯培养后提取虫体总核酸(DNA和RNA),进行1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳分析;连续稀释法测量每株虫体的甲硝唑最小致死浓度.结果 对30株阴道毛滴虫总核酸进行电泳,其中6株有5.5 kb双链RNA病毒带,病毒感染率为20.0%.阴道毛滴虫病毒阴性组甲硝唑最小致死浓度为( 24.27±20.899)μg/ml,病毒阳性组为(5.68±3.588)μg/ml,差异有统计学意义(t=2.143,P<0.05).结论 河南地区阴道毛滴虫临床分离株中检测到阴道毛滴虫病毒,无阴道毛滴虫病毒寄生的虫体易发生甲硝唑抵抗.

  10. Reforzamiento no presencial del currículo del posgrado de medicina del deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Pino Bedón, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis parte de la noción de que el posgrado de Medicina del Deporte (PMD) de la Facultad de Medicina de la PUCE, como todos los procesos educativos, tiene en las NTICs una opción para enriquecer el currículo y que al evaluar los potenciales y limitaciones de esta interacción, la incorporación de la tecnología pasa a ser un acto pedagógico técnicamente implementado. Para el planteamiento teórico del tema se presenta una argumentación amplia sobre las bases conceptuales d...

  11. Relación del Virus del Oeste del Nilo con las Aves Silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Soler-Tovar; Victor J Vera

    2009-01-01

    El Virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON) es un Flavivirus que produce una encefalomielitis y puede afectar aves y mamíferos; los efectos varían desde poco notorios hasta la muerte, y en su difusión es importante la participación de especies animales como las aves donde es transmitido a través de mosquitos vectores. El VON se conoce de Uganda desde 1937 y está ampliamente distribuido en África, el oriente y la región sur y tropical de Eurasia. En el Hemisferio Occidental, el VON fue la primera causa ...

  12. El mejor campo del mundo: Francesc Mitjans y el proyecto del Estadio del Futbol Club Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto López, Juan Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Los estadios deportivos se convirtieron, a comienzos del siglo XX, en grandes aglutinadores de la masa social y los equipos en referentes de la identidad nacional o local. Los años cincuenta fueron un momento clave en la construcción de grandes equipamientos deportivos, como el mítico Maracaná de Río de Janeiro inaugurado en 1950 o el nuevo Estadio de Chamartín inaugurado en 1947 y ampliado nuevamente en 1954. Estos estadios se convirtieron en los referentes inmediatos del proy...

  13. Gestión del talento humano y competencias laborales del personal del hospital Hermilio Valdizán 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa Reyes, Elisa Soledad

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo general, Conocer la relación que existe entre gestión del talento humano y las competencias laborales del personal del hospital Hermilio Valdizán en el año 2016. El tipo de investigación es no experimental, de diseño descriptivo correlacional. La población fue de 709 trabajadores, y la muestra de 217 trabajadores del hospital Hermilio Valdizán, la muestra es probabilística aleatoria simple. Se aplicó el cuestionario de gestión del...

  14. Equazioni: le icone del sapere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, S.

    2009-01-01

    Il mistero del cosmo è scritto nel linguaggio della matematica, e le equazioni sono le frasi che ne esprimono la bellezza e la profondità. Cercare di spiegare la scienza senza equazioni è come cercare di spiegare l’arte senza illustrazioni: partendo da questo presupposto, Sander Bais presenta una

  15. Quark i mattoni del mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1983-01-01

    Quark rossi, verdi e blu ; quark dotati di stranezza e di incanto ; quark 'su' e 'giù' : sembra che i fisici delle particelle giochino a confondere la curiosità del profano, con queste denominazioni fantasiose. Che cosa significano ? e, soprattutto, i quark sono i costituenti davvero elementari della materia ?

  16. Instituto de derecho del trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional, Colombia

    2010-01-01

    Dependencia de la Facultad de Derecho.Directivas del Instituto; Estudiantado; Plan de estudios; Grados en 1953; Reseña - Organización; Grados y títulos que confiere; Condiciones especiales de admisión; Derechos de matrícula.

  17. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

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    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  18. Video nueva herramienta del campo

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    Manuel Calvelo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Video resulta ser una herramienta sumamente útil para el desarrollo rural. Entendemos por desarrollo rural el intento de regular las relaciones campo-ciudad en términos más equitativos para el hombre del campo. Es por tanto una decisión política.

  19. Memorias para armar: Las conmemoraciones del 24 de Marzo en escuelas primarias del conurbano bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Amézola, Gonzalo de; D'Achary, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se ocupa del problema del tratamiento del pasado reciente en la escuela. Describe las distintas representaciones de la última dictadura militar que se encuentran presentes en los discursos pronunciados en las conmemoraciones realizadas en 2008 para recordar el golpe de Estado del 24 de marzo de 1976 en escuelas primarias del partido de Malvinas Argentinas, ubicado en el Conurbano Bonaerense. Se analiza en esos discursos la presencia de distintas narraciones de la memoria colecti...

  20. Memorias para armar. Las conmemoraciones del 24 de Marzo en escuelas primarias del conurbano bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo de Amézola; Claudia D\\u2019Achary

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se ocupa del problema del tratamiento del pasado reciente en la escuela. Describe las distintas representaciones de la última dictadura militar que se encuentran presentes en los discursos pronunciados en las conmemoraciones realizadas en 2008 para recor - dar el golpe de Estado del 24 de marzo de 1976 en escuelas primarias del partido de Malvinas Argentinas, ubicado en el Conurbano Bonae - rense. Se analiza en esos discursos la presencia de distintas narracio - nes de la memori...