Sample records for dehydrogenase alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

  1. Alpha-ketoglutarate reduces ethanol toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster by enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant capacity. (United States)

    Bayliak, Maria M; Shmihel, Halyna V; Lylyk, Maria P; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I


    Ethanol at low concentrations (Drosophila melanogaster, whereas at higher concentrations it may be toxic. In this work, protective effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) against ethanol toxicity were studied. Food supplementation with 10-mM AKG alleviated toxic effects of 8% ethanol added to food, and improved fly development. Two-day-old adult flies, reared on diet containing both AKG and ethanol, possessed higher alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity as compared with those reared on control diet or diet with ethanol only. Native gel electrophoresis data suggested that this combination diet might promote post-translational modifications of ADH protein with the formation of a highly active ADH form. The ethanol-containing diet led to significantly higher levels of triacylglycerides stored in adult flies, and this parameter was not altered by AKG supplement. The influence of diet on antioxidant defenses was also assessed. In ethanol-fed flies, catalase activity was higher in males and the levels of low molecular mass thiols were unchanged in both sexes compared to control values. Feeding on a mixture of AKG and ethanol did not affect catalase activity but caused a higher level of low molecular mass thiols compared to ethanol-fed flies. It can be concluded that both a stimulation of some components of antioxidant defense and the increase in ADH activity may be responsible for the protective effects of AKG diet supplementation in combination with ethanol. The results suggest that AKG might be useful as a treatment option to neutralize toxic effects of excessive ethanol intake and to improve the physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals, potentially including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification, kinetic properties, and physiological roles. (United States)

    DeLuna, A; Avendano, A; Riego, L; Gonzalez, A


    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. The GDH2-encoded NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase degrades glutamate producing ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. Until very recently, it was considered that only one biosynthetic NADP-GDH was present in S. cerevisiae. This fact hindered understanding the physiological role of each isoenzyme and the mechanisms involved in alpha-ketoglutarate channeling for glutamate biosynthesis. In this study, we purified and characterized the GDH1- and GDH3-encoded NADP-GDHs; they showed different allosteric properties and rates of alpha-ketoglutarate utilization. Analysis of the relative levels of these proteins revealed that the expression of GDH1 and GDH3 is differentially regulated and depends on the nature of the carbon source. Moreover, the physiological study of mutants lacking or overexpressing GDH1 or GDH3 suggested that these genes play nonredundant physiological roles. Our results indicate that the coordinated regulation of GDH1-, GDH3-, and GDH2-encoded enzymes results in glutamate biosynthesis and balanced utilization of alpha-ketoglutarate under fermentative and respiratory conditions. The possible relevance of the duplicated NADP-GDH pathway in the adaptation to facultative metabolism is discussed.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (United States)

    ... this page: // Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase test (United States)

    ... this page: // Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  5. Role of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase in catabolism of lysine as a nitrogen source for Rhodotorula glutinis. (United States)

    Kinzel, J J; Winston, M K; Bhattacharjee, J K


    Wild-type and saccharopine dehydrogenaseless mutant strains of Rhodotorula glutinis grew in minimal medium containing lysine as the sole nitrogen source and simultaneously accumulated, in the culture supernatant, large amounts of a product identified as alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. The saccharopine dehydrogenase and pipecolic acid oxidase levels remained unchanged in wild-type cells grown in the presence of ammonium or lysine as the nitrogen source. Lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity was demonstrated in ammonium-grown cells. This activity was depressed in cells grown in the presence of lysine as the sole source of nitrogen. PMID:6408065

  6. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell


    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... this page: // Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  8. Studies on lipoamide dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.


    Gel-filtration, ultracentrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation demonstrated differences in physico-chemical properties of holoenzyme and apoenzyme of lipoamide dehydrogenase. The native apoenzyme has a mol.wt. of approx. 52,000 which is half that of the native holoenzyme. The

  9. Studies on lipoamide dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.


    At the onset of the investigations described in this thesis progress was being made on the elucidation of the crystal structure of the Azotobactervinelandii lipoamide dehydrogenase. Also the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned in our laboratory. By this, a

  10. Membrane-bound lactate dehydrogenases and mandelate dehydrogenases of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Purification and properties.


    Allison, N; O'Donnell, M J; Fewson, C A


    Procedures were developed for the optimal solubilization of D-lactate dehydrogenase, D-mandelate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase and L-mandelate dehydrogenase from wall + membrane fractions of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. D-Lactate dehydrogenase and D-mandelate dehydrogenase were co-eluted on gel filtration, as were L-lactate dehydrogenase and L-mandelate dehydrogenase. All four enzymes could be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. D-Lactate dehydrogenase and D-mandelate dehydroge...

  11. Tellurite-exposed Escherichia coli exhibits increased intracellular {alpha}-ketoglutarate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoso, Claudia A. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Auger, Christopher; Appanna, Vasu D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Vasquez, Claudio C., E-mail: [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tellurite-exposed E. coli exhibits decreased {alpha}-KG dehydrogenase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells lacking {alpha}-KGDH genes are more sensitive to ROS than isogenic, wt E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KG accumulation may serve to face tellurite-mediated oxidative damage in E. coli. -- Abstract: The tellurium oxyanion tellurite is toxic to most organisms because of its ability to generate oxidative stress. However, the detailed mechanism(s) how this toxicant interferes with cellular processes have yet to be fully understood. As part of our effort to decipher the molecular interactions of tellurite with living systems, we have evaluated the global metabolism of {alpha}-ketoglutarate a known antioxidant in Escherichia coli. Tellurite-exposed cells displayed reduced activity of the KG dehydrogenase complex (KGDHc), resulting in increased intracellular KG content. This complex's reduced activity seems to be due to decreased transcription in the stressed cells of sucA, a gene that encodes the E1 component of KGDHc. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the increase in total reactive oxygen species and superoxide observed upon tellurite exposure was more evident in wild type cells than in E. coli with impaired KGDHc activity. These results indicate that KG may be playing a pivotal role in combating tellurite-mediated oxidative damage.

  12. [Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians]. (United States)

    Vykhrestiuk, N P; Burenina, E A; Iarygina, G V


    Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  15. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.


    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of ?,?-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a

  16. Catalytic electrochemistry of xanthine dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Leimkühler, Silke; Bernhardt, Paul V


    We report the mediated electrocatalytic voltammetry of the molybdoenzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from Rhodobacter capsulatus at a thiol-modified Au electrode. The 2-electron acceptor N-methylphenazinium methanesulfonate (phenazine methosulfate, PMS) is an effective artificial electron transfer partner for XDH instead of its native electron acceptor NAD(+). XDH catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was used to generate the active (oxidized) form of the mediator. Simulation of the catalytic voltammetry across a broad range of substrate and PMS concentrations at different sweep rates was achieved with the program DigiSim to yield a set of consistent rate and equilibrium constants that describe the catalytic system. This provides the first example of the mediated electrochemistry of a xanthine dehydrogenase (or oxidase) that is uncomplicated by interference from product oxidation. A remarkable two-step, sequential oxidation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine by XDH is observed.

  17. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Adeosun, Ekundayo K; Smith, Thomas J; Hoberg, Anne-Mette; Velarde, Giles; Ford, Robert; Dalton, Howard


    In methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is an important but potentially toxic metabolic intermediate that can be assimilated into biomass or oxidized to yield energy. Previously reported was the purification of an NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) from the obligate methane-oxidizing methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), presumably important in formaldehyde oxidation, which required a heat-stable factor (known as the modifin) for FDH activity. Here, the major protein component of this FDH preparation was shown by biophysical techniques to comprise subunits of 64 and 8 kDa in an alpha(2)beta(2) arrangement. N-terminal sequencing of the subunits of FDH, together with enzymological characterization, showed that the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer was a quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase of the type found in other methylotrophs. The FDH preparations were shown to contain a highly active NAD(P)(+)-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase that was the probable source of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde oxidation activity. These results support previous findings that methylotrophs possess multiple pathways for formaldehyde dissimilation.

  18. Direct Enzymatic Assay for Alcohol Oxidase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase, and Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Colonies of Hansenula polymorpha


    Eggeling, L; Sahm, H.


    A procedure is described for the qualitative direct identification of alcohol oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and formaldehyde dehydrogenase in yeast colonies. The method has been applied successfully to isolate mutants of Hansenula polymorpha with altered glucose repression of alcohol oxidase.

  19. Insights from retinitis pigmentosa into the roles of isocitrate dehydrogenases in the Krebs cycle. (United States)

    Hartong, Dyonne T; Dange, Mayura; McGee, Terri L; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P; Colman, Roberta F


    Here we describe two families with retinitis pigmentosa, a hereditary neurodegeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. Affected family members were homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in IDH3B, encoding the beta-subunit of NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH, or IDH3), which is believed to catalyze the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the citric acid cycle. Cells from affected individuals had a substantial reduction of NAD-IDH activity, with about a 300-fold increase in the K(m) for NAD. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH, or IDH2), an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction, was normal in affected individuals, and they had no health problems associated with the enzyme deficiency except for retinitis pigmentosa. These findings support the hypothesis that mitochondrial NADP-IDH, rather than NAD-IDH, serves as the main catalyst for this reaction in the citric acid cycle outside the retina, and that the retina has a particular requirement for NAD-IDH.

  20. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates. (United States)

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna


    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  1. Palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex formulation enhances activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and respiratory complexes I-IV in the heart of aged rats. (United States)

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K; Krishnan, C V


    Age-related decline in the capacity to withstand stress, such as ischemia and reperfusion, results in congestive heart failure. Though the mechanisms underlying cardiac decay are not clear, age dependent somatic damages to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), loss of mitochondrial function, and a resultant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle cells may be responsible for the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a safe nutritional supplement, POLY-MVA, containing the active ingredient palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex, was evaluated on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV in heart mitochondria of aged male albino rats of Wistar strain. Administration of 0.05 ml/kg of POLY-MVA (which is equivalent to 0.38 mg complexed alpha-lipoic acid/kg, p.o), once daily for 30 days, was significantly (pKrebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. The unique electronic and redox properties of palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex appear to be a key to this physiological effectiveness. The results strongly suggest that this formulation might be effective to protect the aging associated risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of WlbA: A Dehydrogenase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M. (UW)


    2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid (ManNAc3NAcA) is an unusual dideoxy sugar first identified nearly 30 years ago in the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O:3a,d. It has since been observed in other organisms, including Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Here we describe a structural study of WlbA, the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step in the pathway, namely, the oxidation of the C-3{prime} hydroxyl group on the UDP-linked sugar to a keto moiety and the reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. This enzyme has been shown to use {alpha}-ketoglutarate as an oxidant to regenerate the oxidized dinucleotide. For this investigation, three different crystal structures were determined: the enzyme with bound NAD(H), the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate, and the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and its substrate (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminuronic acid). The tetrameric enzyme assumes an unusual quaternary structure with the dinucleotides positioned quite closely to one another. Both {alpha}-ketoglutarate and the UDP-linked sugar bind in the WlbA active site with their carbon atoms (C-2 and C-3{prime}, respectively) abutting the re face of the cofactor. They are positioned {approx}3 {angstrom} from the nicotinamide C-4. The UDP-linked sugar substrate adopts a highly unusual curved conformation when bound in the WlbA active site cleft. Lys 101 and His 185 most likely play key roles in catalysis.

  3. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.


    Mackintosh, R W; Fewson, C A


    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates o...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  5. Neuropathology in Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knerr, I.; Gibson, K.M.; Murdoch, G.; Salomons, G.S.; Jakobs, C.; Combs, S.; Pearl, P.L.


    Reported here is the novel finding of neuropathology in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, an inherited disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism characterized by intellectual deficiency, hypotonia, and epilepsy, with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria and abnormalities of the

  6. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas (United States)

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai


    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase : its structure, function and interactions within the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.


    Pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDHC) is member of a family of multienzyme complexes that catalyse the irreversible decarboxylation of various 2-oxoacid substrates to their corresponding acyl-CoA derivatives, NADH and C02. 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes hold key points in

  8. Glusoce-6-phosphate dehydrogenase- History and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gautam


    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic defect of red blood cells, which increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress leading to hemolytic anemia. Since its identification more than 60 years ago, much has been done with respect to its clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment. Association of G6PD is not just limited to anti malarial drugs, but a vast number of other diseases. In this article, we aimed to review the history of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the diagnostic methods available along with its association with other noncommunicable diseases. 

  9. Reduction of lipoic acid by lipoamide dehydrogenase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, G.Ph.; Dorstijn, M.A.; Verhagen, J.V.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Bast, A.


    Racemic lipoic acid is therapeutically applied in pathologies in which free radicals are involved. The in vivo reduction of lipoic acid may play an essential role in its antioxidant effect. It was found that mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH, EC reduces the R-enantiomer 28 times

  10. Coenzyme and effector binding to glutamate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, Alt


    Glutamaat-dehydrogenase is een enzym dat de reactie katalyseert van 2-oxoglutaraat (substraat), NAD(P)H (co-enzym) en ammonia naar L-glutaminezuur en NAD(P)+. Het enzym is opgebouwd uit 6 identieke subeenheden. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de bestudering van twee aspecten van dit enzym, nl. 1. de

  11. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen


    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  12. Malaria Protection In Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency gene in malaria endemic regions is believed to be due to the enzyme deficiency advantage against fatal malaria. However, the mechanism of this protection is not well understood and therefore was investigated by comparing differences in ...

  13. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin


    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  14. Escherichia coli mutants with a temperature-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase.


    Lorowitz, W; CLARK, D.


    Mutants of Escherichia coli resistant to allyl alcohol were selected. Such mutants were found to lack alcohol dehydrogenase. In addition, mutants with temperature-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase activity were obtained. These mutations, designated adhE, are all located at the previously described adh regulatory locus. Most adhE mutants were also defective in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  15. Calculations of hydrogen tunnelling and enzyme catalysis: a comparison of liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase (United States)

    Tresadern, Gary; McNamara, Jonathan P.; Mohr, Matthias; Wang, Hong; Burton, Neil A.; Hillier, Ian H.


    Although the potential energy barrier for hydrogen transfer is similar for the enzymes liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase, the degree of tunnelling is predicted to differ greatly, and is reflected by their primary kinetic isotope effects.

  16. A new metabolic link. The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and mitochondria. (United States)

    Jordan, S W; Cronan, J E


    Lipoic acid is an essential enzyme cofactor that requires covalent attachment to its cognate proteins to confer biological activity. The major lipoylated proteins are highly conserved enzymes of central metabolism, the pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. The classical lipoate ligase uses ATP to activate the lipoate carboxyl group followed by attachment of the cofactor to a specific subunit of each dehydrogenase complex, and it was assumed that all lipoate attachment proceeded by this mechanism. However, our previous work indicated that Escherichia coli could form lipoylated proteins in the absence of detectable ATP-dependent ligase activity raising the possibility of a class of enzyme that attaches lipoate to the dehydrogenase complexes by a different mechanism. We now report that E. coli and mitochondria contain lipoate transferases that use lipoyl-acyl carrier protein as the lipoate donor. This finding demonstrates a direct link between fatty acid synthesis and lipoate attachment and also provides the first direct demonstration of a role for the enigmatic acyl carrier proteins of mitochondria.

  17. Alpha ketoglutarate nanoparticles: A potentially effective treatment for cyanide poisoning. (United States)

    Sultana, Shaheen; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Nishad, Dhruv Kumar; Mittal, Gaurav; Ahmad, F J; Bhatnagar, Aseem


    The purpose of this research work was to prepare nanosized formulation of alpha ketoglutarate as dry powder inhaler for cyanide poisoning. Nanosizing can be approached by solid phase and liquid phase method. The different conditions encountered in both these approaches can greatly affect the particle characteristics. In this study milling and precipitation technique were compared to study their effect on α-KG particles characteristics. Differences in choice of stabilizers were observed between the two processing techniques. Sonication processes followed by HPH produced small sized particles in which Pluronic F68 was employed as stabilizing agent. Precipitation approach produced ultrafine drug particles by utilizing combination of stabilizers (PVA+PEG 400). Amongst the two sonication processes, probe sonication process produced well stabilized small sized particles. The designed particles showed 43.13±2.36% lung deposition when compared with ultrasonication and precipitation technique that showed 31.69% and 21.67% respirable fraction. The MMAD of the designed particles was found suitable for deep alveolar deposition. Clinical studies (Phase-I trial) showed whole lung deposition of 52.51% for DPI. The P/C ratio was found to be 1.02 suggesting uniform distribution of particles in different lung compartments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glioma-derived mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 beneficial to traditional chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yuejun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biotechnology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Huang, Rui; Zheng, Yali; Zhang, Zhiyun; Liang, Aihua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biotechnology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are not detected in the rat C6 glioma cell line model. {yields} IDH2 mutations are not required for the tumorigenesis of glioma. {yields} IDH2{sup R172G} can sensitize glioma sensitivity to chemotherapy through NADPH levels. {yields} IDH2{sup R172G} can give a benefit to traditional chemotherapy of glioma. {yields} This finding serves as an important complement to existing research on this topic. -- Abstract: Heterozygous mutations in either the R132 residue of isocitrate dehydrogenase I (IDH1) or the R172 residue of IDH2 in human gliomas were recently highlighted. In the present study, we report that mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 are not detected in the rat C6 glioma cell line model, which suggests that these mutations are not required for the development of glioblastoma induced by N,N'-nitroso-methylurea. The effects of IDH2 and IDH2{sup R172G} on C6 cells proliferation and sensitivity to chemotherapy and the possible mechanism are analyzed at the cellular level. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations lead to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), respectively, and result in lowering NADPH levels even further. The low NADPH levels can sensitize tumors to chemotherapy, and account for the prolonged survival of patients harboring the mutations. Our data extrapolate potential importance of the in vitro rat C6 glioma cell model, show that the IDH2{sup R172G} mutation in gliomas may give a benefit to traditional chemotherapy of this cancer and serve as an important complement to existing research on this topic.

  19. Surface functionalization of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (United States)

    Li, Gui-yin; Zhou, Zhi-de; Li, Yuan-jian; Huang, Ke-long; Zhong, Ming


    A novel and efficient immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH, EC1.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed by using the surface functionalization of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3O 4/KCTS) as support. The magnetic Fe 3O 4/KCTS nanoparticles were prepared by binding chitosan alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KCTS) onto the surface of magnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. Later, covalent immobilization of YADH was attempted onto the Fe 3O 4/KCTS nanoparticles. The effect of various preparation conditions on the immobilized YADH process such as immobilization time, enzyme concentration and pH was investigated. The influence of pH and temperature on the activity of the free and immobilized YADH using phenylglyoxylic acid as substrate has also been studied. The optimum reaction temperature and pH value for the enzymatic conversion catalyzed by the immobilized YADH were 30 °C and 7.4, respectively. Compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized YADH retained 65% of its original activity and exhibited significant thermal stability and good durability.

  20. Development of an amine dehydrogenase for synthesis of chiral amines. (United States)

    Abrahamson, Michael J; Vázquez-Figueroa, Eduardo; Woodall, Nicholas B; Moore, Jeffrey C; Bommarius, Andreas S


    A leucine dehydrogenase has been successfully altered through several rounds of protein engineering to an enantioselective amine dehydrogenase. Instead of the wild-type α-keto acid, the new amine dehydrogenase now accepts the analogous ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), which corresponds to exchange of the carboxy group by a methyl group to produce chiral (R)-1,3-dimethylbutylamine. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in a Sussex spaniel. (United States)

    Abramson, C J; Platt, S R; Shelton, G D


    A two-year-old, intact female Sussex spaniel was presented with signs of exercise intolerance. Pre- and post-exercise serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and urinary organic acid screening supported a diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, as previously reported in this breed. Dietary therapy was initiated for six months, during which time there was no reported clinical deterioration. A full neurological examination and repeat evaluation of lactate and pyruvate concentrations before and after exercise was conducted one year after diagnosis, at which time the patient had been without dietary modification for six months and had developed more severe exercise intolerance along with evidence of central nervous system dysfunction.

  2. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase


    Amauri Antiquera Leite


    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of various carbonyl compounds against cyanide toxicity with particular reference to alpha-ketoglutaric acid. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Tulsawani, Rajkumar


    Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that necessitates immediate, vigorous therapy. The commonly used treatment regimen for cyanide includes the intravenous administration of sodium nitrite (SN) and sodium thiosulphate (STS). Due to many limitations of these antidotes, a search for more effective, safer molecules continues. Cyanide is known to react with carbonyl compounds to form the cyanohydrin complex. The present study addresses the efficacy of several carbonyl compounds and their metabolites or nutrients with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (A-KG), citric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, fumaric and oxaloacetic acid, glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannitol, sorbitol, dihydroxyacetone, and glyoxal (5 or 10 mM; -10 min) against toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN; 10 mM) in rat thymocytes in vitro. Six hours after KCN, cell viability measured by MTT assay and crystal violet dye exclusion revealed maximum cytoprotection by A-KG, followed by oxaloacetic acid. A-KG also resolved the leakage of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase, loss in nuclear integrity (propidium iodide staining), and altered mitochondrial membrane potential (rhodamine 123 assay) as a result of cyanide toxicity. Protection Index (ratio of LD(50) of KCN in protected and unprotected animals; PI) of all the compounds (oral; 1.0 g/kg; -10 min) determined in male mice, revealed that maximum protection was afforded by A-KG (7.6 PI), followed by oxaloacetic acid (6.4 PI). Comparative evaluation of various salts of A-KG alone or with STS (intraperitoneal; 1.0 g/kg; -15 min) showed that maximum protection was conferred by disodium anhydrous salt of A-KG, which also significantly prevented the inhibition of brain cytochrome oxidase caused by 0.75 LD(50) KCN. This study indicates the potential of A-KG as alternative cyanide antidote.

  4. Changes in native alcohol dehydrogenase activity of Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    and within the Mexican populations of the insect after treatment with the denaturants. Keywords. Drosophila melanogaster; alcohol dehydrogenase; guanidine hydrochloride; urea; heat. Introduction. The existence of clines in the frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) alleles in. Drosophila under various environmental ...

  5. Cloning and expression analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase ( Adh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid promoters are created by shuffling of DNA fragments while keeping intact regulatory regions crucial of promoter activity. Two fragments of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter from Zea mays were selected to generate hybrid promoter. Sequence analysis of both alcohol dehydrogenase promoter fragments through ...

  6. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells. (United States)

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital


    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Kooij, A.; Vogels, I. M.; Frederiks, W. M.


    The biochemical mechanism underlying the 'nothing dehydrogenase' reaction during the histochemical demonstration of dehydrogenases using tetranitro BT as the final electron acceptor has been investigated in unfixed, frozen rat liver sections. The reaction is stronger with NAD+ than either with NADP+


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  9. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate enhances formation of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.


    The effect of leucine and alpha-ketoglutarate addition on transamination of branched-chain amino acids was studied in model minces inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus. Leucine addition changed the ratio of volatile breakdown products of leucine, isoleucine and vali...

  10. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH): three players for one phenotype in cancer? (United States)

    Laurenti, Giulio; Tennant, Daniel A


    In the early 1920s Otto Warburg observed that cancer cells have altered metabolism and from this, posited that mitochondrial dysfunction underpinned the aetiology of cancers. The more recent identification of mutations of mitochondrial metabolic enzymes in a wide range of human cancers has now provided a direct link between metabolic alterations and cancer. In this review we discuss the consequences of dysfunction of three metabolic enzymes involved in or associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle: succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) focusing on the similarity between the phenotypes of cancers harbouring these mutations. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.


    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  12. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase (United States)

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A.; Biehl, R.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.; Richter, D.


    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D2O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  13. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan]. (United States)

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi


    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  14. Variants of glycerol dehydrogenase having D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and uses thereof (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal


    The present invention provides methods of designing and generating glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) variants that have altered function as compared to a parent polypeptide. The present invention further provides nucleic acids encoding GlyDH polypeptide variants having altered function as compared to the parent polypeptide. Host cells comprising polynucleotides encoding GlyDH variants and methods of producing lactic acids are also provided in various aspects of the invention.

  15. E. coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase reveals structural and functional distinctions between different classes of dihydroorotate dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Sofie; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Björnberg, Olof


    The flavoenzymes dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) catalyze the fourth and only redox step in the de novo biosynthesis of UMP. Enzymes belonging to class 2, according to their amino acid sequence, are characterized by having a serine residue as the catalytic base and a longer N terminus...... by comparison of the E. coli DHOD with the other known DHOD structures, and differences with the class 2 human DHOD explain the variation in their inhibitors....

  16. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci. (United States)

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin


    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  17. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Aragonès

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS and steatohepatitis (NASH cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients.We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30 and morbidly obese women (n = 97 with or without NAFLD.We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis.These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Deficiency of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (2 links) Baby's First Test MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Dilated Cardiomyopathy General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. (United States)


    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as acute...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (United States)


    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction...

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice...

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children: e68800

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olatundun Williams; Daniel Gbadero; Grace Edowhorhu; Ann Brearley; Tina Slusher; Troy C Lund


      Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice...

  3. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    1) glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) and (2) glutamine synthetase (GS)/ glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In the GS/ GOGAT route, ammonia is first incorporated into glutamine by the action of GS and subsequently into glutamic acid by GOGAT.

  4. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. (United States)


    ... found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  5. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Tanner


    Full Text Available Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2, Sjögren–Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2, hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1, methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1, pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1, and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1. We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015 5513–5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013 3106–3120. Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs.

  6. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer. (United States)

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip


    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas.

  7. A bioluminescence assay for aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J; Valley, Michael P; Kotraiah, Vinayaka; Vidugiriene, Jolanta; Zhou, Wenhui; Bernad, Laurent; Osterman, Jean; Kimball, Joshua J; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Cali, James J


    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family of enzymes is critical for cell survival and adaptation to cellular and environmental stress. These enzymes are of interest as therapeutic targets and as biomarkers of stem cells. This article describes a novel, homogeneous bioluminescence assay to study the activity of the ALDH enzymes. The assay is based on a proluciferin-aldehyde substrate that is recognized and utilized by multiple ALDH enzyme isoforms to generate luciferin. A detection reagent is added to inactivate ALDH and generate light from the luciferin product. The luminescent signal is dependent on the ALDH enzyme concentration and the incubation time in the ALDH reaction; moreover, the luminescent signal generated with the detection reagent is stable for greater than 2 h. This assay provides many advantages over standard NADH fluorescence assays. It is more sensitive and the signal stability provided allows convenient assay setup in batch mode-based high-throughput screens. The assay also shows an accurate pharmacological response for a common ALDH inhibitor and is robust, with a large assay window (S/B=64) and Z'=0.75. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a simple chemically defined medium for Porphyromonas gingivalis: requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate. (United States)

    Milner, P; Batten, J E; Curtis, M A


    The aim of this study was the development of a simple, defined medium for the growth of laboratory and clinical isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis. A medium was designed in which the carbon and nitrogen requirements were provided by a single protein source--bovine serum albumin. High cell yields were achieved in this medium but growth was accompanied by a heavy blackening of the cells due to the deposition of metal sulfide(s), most probably iron(II) sulfide, at the cell surface. Good growth in the absence of blackening was achieved when the iron salt in the medium was substituted with alpha-ketoglutarate. The resultant alpha-ketoglutarate/BSA medium was able to support the growth of all laboratory and clinical P. gingivalis strains examined and should prove useful in the investigation of the physiology and nutritional regulation of virulence of this organism.

  9. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica


    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  10. Identification of two alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in extracts of Rhodotorula glutinis catalyzing deoxyuridine hydroxylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbe, J.


    Attempts to isolate deoxyuridine 2'-hydroxylase from Rhodotorula glutinis J. Biol. Chem. 258, 10551-10557) have led to the identification and partial purification of a newly recognized alpha-ketoglutarate-requiring oxygenase. This activity, designated deoxyuridine (uridine) 1'-hydroxylase, in the presence of iron and ascorbate, catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine (uridine), O2, and alpha-ketoglutarate to uracil, deoxyribonolactone (ribonolactone), CO2, and succinate. Incubation of (1'-TH)uridine with this activity results in time-dependent formation of uracil concomitant with production of CO2 and 3H2O. Also reported in this paper is the partial purification and characterization of the alpha-ketoglutarate-requiring enzyme, deoxyuridine 2'-hydroxylase. Incubation of (2'-alpha-TH)deoxyuridine with this activity results in concomitant production of uridine and 3H2O. Incubation with (2'-beta-TH) deoxyuridine results in the production of uridine whose specific activity is identical to that of the starting material. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine to uridine with retention of configuration. No isotope effect is observed on this transformation.

  11. Characterization of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1-related short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase DHRS7


    Seibert, Julia Katharina


    Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes metabolize a broad spectrum of substrates and play a pivotal role in the regulation of different metabolic and signaling pathways. In one part of this thesis the activity and specificity of potential inhibitors of the SDRs were tested. These enzymes, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 (11βHSD1 and 2), are currently evaluated as potential novel therapeutic targets for several diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, ost...

  12. Effect of fermented sea tangle on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Bae-Jin; Cho, Young-Su


    Sea tangle, a kind of brown seaweed, was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented sea tangle (FST) was 5.56% (w/w) and GABA in total free amino acid of FST was 49.5%. The effect of FST on the enzyme activities and mRNA protein expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) involved in alcohol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast was cultured in YPD medium supplemented with different concentrations of FST powder [0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0% (w/v)] for 18 h. FST had no cytotoxic effect on the yeast growth. The highest activities and protein expressions of ADH and ALDH from the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae were evident with the 0.4% and 0.8% (w/v) FST-supplemented concentrations, respectively. The highest concentrations of GABA as well as minerals (Zn, Ca, and Mg) were found in the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae cultured in medium supplemented with 0.4% (w/v) FST. The levels of GABA, Zn, Ca, and Mg in S. cerevisiae were strongly correlated with the enzyme activities of ADH and ALDH in yeast. These results indicate that FST can enhance the enzyme activities and protein expression of ADH and ALDH in S. cerevisiae.

  13. [Distribution of genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in Japanese twin children]. (United States)

    Qu, W; Yamagata, Z; Wu, D; Zhang, B; Zhang, Y


    In order to prevent alcohol related deseases, this study investigated the distribution of the genes controlling alcohol metabolism in Japan's twin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used to measure the control gene of alcohol metabolized enzymes and the genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which were distributed in Japan's twins. At the same time, according to the difference in genotypes, the sensitive individuals were screened from the study subjects. The distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes were consistent with the Hardy-weinberg equation. The three genotypes of ADH2 gene were ADH2(1)/ADH2(1) (1.1%), ADH2(1)/ADH2(2) (44.6%) and ADH2(2)/ADH2(2) (54.3%). And those of ALDH2 gene were ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) (41.3%), ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(2) (39.1%) and ALDH2(2)/ALDH2(2) (19.6%). The frequency of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes was 0.255, 0.745 and 0.609, 0.391 respectively. Not only the distribution of genotypes of ADH2 and ALDH2 is known, but also the sensitive individuals are found, which can help prevent alcohol related disease.

  14. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and mitochondrial driven neoplasia. (United States)

    Gill, Anthony J


    The genes for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD are encoded in the autosome. The proteins are assembled in the mitochondria to form the mitochondrial complex 2, a key respiratory enzyme which links the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Thirty percent of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are hereditary and perhaps as many as half of these familial cases are caused by germline mutations of the SDH subunits. Negative immunohistochemical staining for the SDHB subunit identifies PHEO/PGL associated with germline mutation of any of the mitochondrial complex 2 components and can be used to triage formal genetic testing of all PHEO/PGL for SDH mutations. PHEO/PGL associated with SDHA mutation also show negative staining for SDHA as well as SDHB.A unique subgroup of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are driven by mitochondrial complex 2 dysfunction. These SDH deficient GISTs can also be definitively identified by negative staining for SDHB and show distinct clinical and morphological features including frequent onset in childhood and young adulthood, gastric location, a tendency to multifocality, absence of KIT and PDGFRA mutations, a prognosis not predicted by size and mitotic rate and a tendency to indolent behaviour of metastases. Some of these SDH deficient GISTs are driven by classical SDH mutations, but the precise mechanisms of tumourigenesis in many (including those associated with the Carney triad) remain unknown. Germline SDHB mutation is associated with a newly recognised type of renal carcinoma which commonly but not always demonstrates distinctive morphology and can also be recognised by negative staining for SDHB.Immunohistochemistry for SDHB therefore has emerged as a useful tool to recognise these distinct neoplasias driven by mitochondrial complex 2 dysfunction and to triage formal genetic testing for the associated syndromes.

  15. Structural Studies of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (United States)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of Mg(2+) and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) followed by the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The three-dimensional structure of human E1 is elucidated using the methods of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. The structure is an alpha, alpha', beta and beta' tetramer with the protein units being in the tetrahedral arrangement. Each 361-residue alpha-subunit and 329-residue beta-subunit is composed of a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helical domains. Each subunit is in extensive contact with all the three subunits involving TPP and magnesium cofactors, and potassium ions. The two binding sites for TPP are at the alpha-beta' and alpha'-beta interfaces, each involving a magnesium ion and Phe6l, His63, Tyr89, and Met200 from the alpha-subunit (or alpha'-subunit), and Met81 Phe85, His128 from the beta-subunit (or beta'-subunit). K+ ions are nestled between two beta-sheets and the end of an alpha-helix in each beta-subunit, where they are coordinated by four carbonyl oxygen groups from Ile12, Ala160, Asp163, and Asnl65, and a water molecule. The catalytic C2 carbon of thiazolium ring in this structure forms a 3.2 A contact with a water molecule involved in a series of H-bonds with other water molecules, and indirectly with amino acids including those involved in the catalysis and regulation of the enzyme.

  16. Kinetics of soil dehydrogenase in response to exogenous Cd toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiangping [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS 723 Xingke Rd., Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Wang, Ziquan; Lu, Guannan [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); He, Wenxiang, E-mail: [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Gehong [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Huang, Feng; Xu, Xinlan; Shen, Weijun [Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS 723 Xingke Rd., Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650 (China)


    Highlights: • pH explained 30–45% of the dehydrogenase activity (DHA), V{sub max}, and K{sub m} variations across soils. • Different inhibition mechanism of Cd to DHA varied soil types. • Soil properties and inhibition constant affect the toxicity of Cd. • Reaction constant (k) could indicate sensitively the toxicity of Cd to DHA. - Abstract: Soil dehydrogenase plays a role in the biological oxidation of soil organic matter and can be considered a good measure of the change of microbial oxidative activity under environmental pollutions. However, the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase under heavy metal stresses has not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we characterized the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase in 14 soil types, and investigated how kinetic parameters changed under spiked with different concentrations of cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of soil dehydrogenase was among 1.4–7.3 mM and 15.9–235.2 μM h{sup −1} in uncontaminated soils, respectively. In latosolic red soil and brown soil, the inhibitory kinetic mechanism of Cd to soil dehydrogenase was anticompetitive inhibition with inhibition constants (K{sub i}) of 12 and 4.7 mM, respectively; in other soils belonged to linear mixed inhibition, the values of K{sub i} were between 0.7–4.2 mM. Soil total organic carbon and K{sub i} were the major factors affecting the toxicity of Cd to dehydrogenase activity. In addition, the velocity constant (k) was more sensitive to Cd contamination compared to V{sub max} and K{sub m}, which was established as an early indicator of gross changes in soil microbial oxidative activity caused by Cd contamination.

  17. Monovalent Cation Activation of Plant Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase. (United States)

    Schuller, K. A.; Gemel, J.; Randall, D. D.


    The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-catalyzed inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was studied using dialyzed, soluble proteins from mitochondria purified from green leaf tissue of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. At subsaturating ATP concentrations, K+ or NH4+, but not Na+, stimulated the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by lowering the Km(ATP). Micromolar concentrations of NH4+ were required to produce the same effect as millimolar concentrations of K+. This is apparent from the observations that the activation constant (Kact) for NH4+ was 0.1 mM, whereas the Kact(K+) was 0.7 mM. Maximal pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase velocities attained with NH4+ were higher than those with K+, and, therefore, NH4+ was able to stimulate PDH kinase further in the presence of saturating K+. This result supports our conclusion that photorespiratory NH4+ production in plant mitochondria may be involved in regulating the entry of carbon into the Krebs cycle by way of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

  18. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Patel, Mulchand S., E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)


    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Polymorphisms in Uzbekistan. (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Soo; Abdiev, Shavkat; Rahimov, Bakhodir; Malikov, Yusuf; Bahramov, Saidkarim; Okada, Rieko; Naito, Mariko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki


    The alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) -2 (47His) allele and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) - 2 (487Lys) alleles are seen among some Asian peoples, but rare among other ethnic groups. This study examined the allele frequencies in the Uzbekistan Republic, which is located in Central Asia. Subjects were derived from a case-control study on peptic ulcer disease, which included 161 Uzbeks and 23 Russians. They were enrolled at the Republic Research Center of Emergency Medicine located in the capital, Tashkent City. Genotyping was performed for ADH1B Arg47His and ALDH2 Glu487Lys with a polymerase chain reaction using confronting two-pair primers. The frequency for the ADH1B- 2 allele was similar among cases and controls. The ALDH2 -2 allele was rare in both. Among 161 Uzbeks, the ADH1B -2 allele frequency was 0.286 (95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.338) and for the ALDH2 -2 allele was 0.016 (0.005-0.036), while among the 23 Russians the figures were 0.083 (0.024-0.208) and 0.000 (0.000-0.077), respectively. There were no significant differences in drinking habits among individuals with different genotypes, although the ALDH2 -2-2 genotype was not observed. The present study demonstrated that the ADH1B -2 allele frequency among Uzbeks was closer to that among Caucasians than East Asians, some Uzbeks also demonstrating the ALDH2 -2 allele.

  20. [Informatics analysis of malate dehydrogenase from Taenia saginata asiatica]. (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang


    Tools from bioinformatics websites such as NCBI, ExPaSy were used for the analysis. The malate dehydrogenase full-length gene from Taenia saginata asiatica was 1 212 bp in length, with a coding region of 30-1 028 bp and coding 332 amino acids. It was a complete and full-length gene compared with the homologues in GenBank. The protein showed no transmembrane region, with stable physical-chemical characteristics. Three major linear epitopes located aa95-aa100, aa322-aa327 and aa117-aa122, with certain distance from each other on the surface of spatial structure of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The last one was the linear epitope of Taenia. This cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene is a potential antigen for diagnosis.

  1. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of Mycobacterium smegmatis alcohol dehydrogenase C. (United States)

    Galamba, A; Soetaert, K; Buyssens, P; Monnaie, D; Jacobs, P; Content, J


    The gene encoding of an alcohol dehydrogenase C (ADHC) from Mycobacterium smegmatis was cloned and sequenced. The protein encoded by this gene has 78% identity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG ADHC. The M. smegmatis ADHC was purified from M. smegmatis and the kinetic parameters of this enzyme showed that using NADPH as electron donor it has a strong preference for aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde substrates. Like the M. bovis BCG ADHC, this enzyme is more likely to act as an aldehyde reductase than as an alcohol dehydrogenase. The discovery of such an ADHC in a fast-growing, and easily engineered mycobacterial species opens the way to the utilisation of this M. smegmatis enzyme as a convenient model for the study of the physiological role of this alcohol dehydrogenase in mycobacteria.

  2. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  3. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C. (Michigan); (UCSF)


    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  4. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam


    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  5. [Human semen lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in fertility studies (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Gonzalez Buitrago, J M; García Díez, L C; de Castro, S


    The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern has been obtained in the semen of 87 males undergoing fertility studies. The proportion of LDH-X, the isoenzyme specific to the spermatozoa, is reduced in proportion to the reduction of the sperm density and motility. LDH-X is the most abundant isoenzyme in the semen of normospermic subjects. As to the other isoenzymes, the most abundant ones are the LDH-2 and the LDH-3. The results obtained lead us to conclude that the measurement of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes may be useful in studies of fertility as an indicative parameter of the quality of the semen.

  6. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreß, Oliver [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Gnida, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Pelzmann, Astrid M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Marx, Christian [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, 07745 Jena (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Meyer, Ortwin, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)


    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceeds at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration step in

  7. Isocitrate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase polymorphysm enzyme of Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fab. which is hydrogen sulfide resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The hydrogen sulfide is one of compound which very often found in the shrimp pond caused by anaerobic decomposition or as a natural condition of the sea water which have volcano activity. This research was obtaining information of the differences of genetic expression between black tiger shrimp which could resist to H2S and the one which could not survive in this H2S. This research also trying to obtain information the genetic variety which could resist to H2S. The genetic variety of black tiger shrimp which could resist to H2S has been analysis with allozyme electrophoresis technique, using specific tissue meat and buffer CAPM (Citric Acid Aminopolimorpholine pH 6. From the three enzymes analyzed it could be detected that IDH enzyme (Isocitrate dehydrogenase has locus polymorphic, whereas enzyme α-GDP (α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase with monomorphic locus. The average heterozygosity for the group which could resist to H2S is 0.070, whereas the group which could not survive in the H2S is 0.042. The control group has heterozygosity 0.041. The group which could resist to H2S with higher heterozygosity will have bigger chance to survive and have better adaptation ability in environmental changes. A high heterozygosity made possible for genetic population improvement by exploiting the good gene.

  8. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a house keeping enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects approximately 400 million people worldwide.

  9. Studies on the structure and function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, de R.


    The aim of the present investigation was to obtain more information of the structure and function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.

    In chapter 2 a survey is given of the recent literature on

  10. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pradeep Kumar


    Feb 6, 2016 ... REVIEW. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in India: An updated meta-analysis. Pradeep Kumar, Upendra Yadav, Vandana Rai*. Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur 222003, UP, India. Received 18 December 2015; accepted 14 January 2016.

  11. Properties of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase and its potential applications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These 3-ketoglucosides are useful as building blocks for chemicals such as detergents and polymers. The versatile glucoside 3-dehydrogenase has potential applications in different fields including sugar industry, clinical diagnosis and pharmaceutical intermediates synthesis. This review attempts to describe the glucoside ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... as some antibiotics and medications used to treat malaria). Hemolytic anemia can also occur after eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is also a significant cause of mild to severe jaundice in newborns. Many ...

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in ...

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients attending the haematology clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos- Nigeria. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the 130 sickle cell anaemia patients studied was found to be 18.5%. G6PD ...

  15. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah


    the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors...... such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH....

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of the red cell and an important risk factor for neonatal jaundice. Methodology: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency among jaundiced neonates, and describe the associated morbidity ...

  17. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ammonia assimilation, glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH, Gracilaria sordida, red alga, enzyme activity. Glutamate ... NAD-/NADP- and NADH-/ NADPH-dependent activities were the order of 11:1 and 1:1.8, respectively. The pH optima for ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien


    cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...

  19. Study on soluble expression of glutamate dehydrogenase from tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 20, 2012 ... Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC1.4.1.2) catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate for the synthesis of glutamate using ... CsGDH2 was predominantly found in insoluble bodies and no soluble protein was detected by either .... phosphatase (TAP) to remove the 50 cap structure from intact full-.

  20. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.


    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  1. Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes by sodium perchlorate evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, G. T.; van der Neut, E.; van Straalen, J. P.


    We evaluated a method of measuring lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (LD-1) selectively (Clin Chem 1987;33:991-2), in which all other LD isoenzymes were inhibited by adding sodium perchlorate to the reaction medium to a final concentration of 0.825 mol/L. In this study we used the different

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moezelaar, R.; Teixeira, de M.J.; Stal, L.J.


    The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806 was found to possess an NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (EC which catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to l-lactate. The enzyme required fructose 1,6-bisphosphate for activity and displayed positive cooperativity towards pyruvate. Lactate was not

  3. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lignin is a major constituent of plant cell walls and indispensable to the normal growth of a plant. However, the presence of lignin complicates the structure of the plant cell walls and negatively influences pulping industry, lignocellulose utilization as well as forage properties. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), a key ...

  4. Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of red blood cell Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in one hundred and twenty six healthy male individuals who are Nigerians residing in Jos was evaluated. The enzyme activity was determined quantitatively by spectrophotometer assay method. The activity of red cell G6PD enzyme was subnormal ...

  5. Prevalence and Pattern of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and haemoglobin (Hb) types were determined in 1,216 individuals in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using methaemoglobin reduction and cellulosoe acetate electrophoresis methods. The subjects were made up of 556 males and 660 females. Their ages ranged between 1 and 65 ...

  6. Assessment of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) which reduces NADP to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate. In turn, NADPH then provides reducing equivalents needed for the conversion of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione, which protects against ...

  7. Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie A Brown

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  8. Assessment of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ina bid to investigate the influence of menopausal on coronary heart disease, plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were analysed on a prospective cohort of 100 women attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Edo state-Nigeria. They were divided into two groups; ...

  9. Assay of partially purified glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (E C isolated from the seeds of asparagus beans was partially purified to a factor of 22 by dialysis after fractional precipitation with solid ammonium sulphate at 40 and 60% saturation. A specific activity of 11.78μmol min-1 mg-1 protein was calculated for the partially purified enzyme when ...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670 Section 862.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disorders such as...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section 862.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1420 Section 862.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  13. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.


    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for

  14. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.


    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  15. Study on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride– dehydrogenase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that dehydrogenase activity (DHA) can effectively facilitate the biochemical reaction of tomato paste wastewater treatment upon analysis of the influences of various DHA and kinetic factors. The biological activity of the activated sludge by TTC-DHA was changed to become applicable to aeration and ...

  16. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin


    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We ...

  17. Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify mutation among Turkish individuals who demonstrated deficiency of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase(G 6 P D). Design: Laboratory based experimental study. Setting: The molecular diagnostic laboratory of the Royal Postgraduate medical school Hammersmith Hospital, London. Subject: Six DNA ...

  18. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase levels in babies delivered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, an X-linked recessive disorder, is the most common enzymopathy producing disease in humans.It is known to cause severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Aims and Objectives: To determine G6PD levels in babies delivered at the University of Ilorin Teaching ...

  19. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates. (United States)

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W


    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  20. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.


    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The

  1. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian...

  2. Evidence for a critical glutamyl and an aspartyl residue in the function of pig heart diphosphopyridine nucleotide dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Ramachandran, N; Colman, R F


    The pH dependence of the maximum velocity of the reaction catalyzed by diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN) dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase indicates the requirement for the basic form of an ionizable group in the enzyme-substrate complex with a pK of 6.6. This pK is unaltered from 10 to 33 degrees C, suggesting the ionization of a carboxyl rather than an imidazolium ion. The enzyme is inactivated upon incubation with 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide in the presence of glycinamide or glycine ethyl ester. This inactivation is dependent on pH and the rate constant (k) increases as the pH is decreased in the range 7.3 to 6.25. A plot of 1/(H+) vs. 1/k suggests that the enzyme is inactivated as a result of the modification of a single ionizable group in this pH range. The coenzyme DPN and substrate alpha-ketoglutarate do not affect the rate of inactivation. In contrast, manganous ion (2 mM) and isocitrate (60 mM) produce a sevenfold decrease in the rate constant. The allosteric activator ADP (1 mM) does not itself influence the rate of inactivation; however, it reduces the concentration of Mn2+ (1 mM) and isocitrate (20 mM) required to produce the same decrease in the inactivation constant. These observations imply that the modification occurs at the substrate-binding site. Experiments employing [1-14C]glycine ethyl ester show a net incorporation of 2 mol of glycine ethyl ester per subunit (40 000), concomitant with the complete inactivation of the enzyme. The radioactive modified enzyme, after removal of excess reagent by dialysis, was exhaustively digested with proteolytic enzymes. High voltage electrophoretic analyses of the hydrolysate at pH 6.4 and 3.5 yield two major radioactive spots with approximately equal intensity, which correspond to gamma-glutamylglycine and beta-aspartylglycine, the ultimate products of reaction with glutamic and aspartic acids, respectively. Modification in the presence of manganous ion and isocitrate results in

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibition: biochemical relevance and therapeutical potential. (United States)

    Laganà, Giuseppina; Barreca, Davide; Calderaro, Antonella; Bellocco, Ersilia


    Lactate dehydrogenase (LHD) is a key enzyme of anaerobic metabolism in almost all living organisms and it is also a functional checkpoint for glucose restoration during gluconeogenesis and single-stranded DNA metabolism. This enzyme has a well preserved structure during evolution and among the species, with little, but sometimes very useful, changes in the amino acid sequence, which makes it an attractive target for the design and construction of functional molecules able to modulate its catalytic potential and expression. Research has focused mainly on the selection of modulator especially as far as LDH isozymes (especially LDH-5) and lactate dehydrogenases of Plasmodium falciparum (pfLDH) are concerned. This review summarizes the recent advances in the design and development of inhibitors, pointing out their specificity and therapeutic potentials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  4. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  5. Methanol dehydrogenase biofuel cells and enzyme-based electrodes


    Aston, W. J.


    This thesis describes the linking of enzymes to electrodes and their application in biofuel cells and as analytical devices. Methanol dehydrogenase, an NAD independent enzyme was purified by two phase aqueous partition. The enzyme incorporated into a biofuel cell was capable of producing a current in the presence of either a soluble or insoluble mediator. Optimisation of the current was carried out and a variety of alternative membranes, mediators and electrodes were investigated for possi...

  6. Characterization of Flavin-Containing Opine Dehydrogenase from Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Watanabe

    Full Text Available Opines, in particular nopaline and octopine, are specific compounds found in crown gall tumor tissues induced by infections with Agrobacterium species, and are synthesized by well-studied NAD(PH-dependent dehydrogenases (synthases, which catalyze the reductive condensation of α-ketoglutarate or pyruvate with L-arginine. The corresponding genes are transferred into plant cells via a tumor-inducing (Ti plasmid. In addition to the reverse oxidative reaction(s, the genes noxB-noxA and ooxB-ooxA are considered to be involved in opine catabolism as (membrane-associated oxidases; however, their properties have not yet been elucidated in detail due to the difficulties associated with purification (and preservation. We herein successfully expressed Nox/Oox-like genes from Pseudomonas putida in P. putida cells. The purified protein consisted of different α-, β-, and γ-subunits encoded by the OdhA, OdhB, and OdhC genes, which were arranged in tandem on the chromosome (OdhB-C-A, and exhibited dehydrogenase (but not oxidase activity toward nopaline in the presence of artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The enzyme contained FAD, FMN, and [2Fe-2S]-iron sulfur as prosthetic groups. On the other hand, the gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium japonicum consisted of OdhB1-C-A-B2, from which two proteins, OdhAB1C and OdhAB2C, appeared through the assembly of each β-subunit together with common α- and γ-subunits. A poor phylogenetic relationship was detected between OdhB1 and OdhB2 in spite of them both functioning as octopine dehydrogenases, which provided clear evidence for the acquisition of novel functions by "subunit-exchange". To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have examined flavin-containing opine dehydrogenase.

  7. SDHAF4 promotes mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and prevents neurodegeneration


    Van Vranken, Jonathan G.; Bricker, Daniel K.; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P.; Cox, James E.; Thummel, Carl S.; Rutter, Jared


    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) occupies a central place in cellular energy production, linking the tricarboxylic cycle with the electron transport chain. As a result, a subset of cancers and neuromuscular disorders result from mutations affecting any of the four SDH structural subunits or either of two known SDH assembly factors. Herein we characterize a novel evolutionarily conserved SDH assembly factor designated Sdh8/SDHAF4, using yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. Sdh8 interacts speci...

  8. Role of mannitol dehydrogenases in osmoprotection of Gluconobacter oxydans. (United States)

    Zahid, Nageena; Deppenmeier, Uwe


    Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans is able to incompletely oxidize various sugars and polyols for the production of biotechnologically important compound. Recently, we have shown that the organism produces and accumulates mannitol as compatible solute under osmotic stress conditions. The present study describes the role of two cytoplasmic mannitol dehydrogenases for osmotolerance of G. oxydans. It was shown that Gox1432 is a NADP+-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (EC, while Gox0849 uses NAD+ as cofactor (EC The corresponding genes were deleted and the mutants were analyzed for growth under osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. A severe growth defect was detected for Δgox1432 when grown in high osmotic media, while the deletion of gox0849 had no effect when cells were exposed to 450 mM sucrose in the medium. Furthermore, the intracellular mannitol content was reduced in the mutant lacking the NADP+-dependent enzyme Gox1432 in comparison to the parental strain and the Δgox0849 mutant under stress conditions. In addition, transcriptional analysis revealed that Gox1432 is more important for mannitol production in G. oxydans than Gox0849 as the transcript abundance of gene gox1432 was 30-fold higher than of gox0849. In accordance, the activity of the NADH-dependent enzyme Gox0849 in the cell cytoplasm was 10-fold lower in comparison to the NADPH-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase Gox1432. Overexpression of gox1432 in the corresponding deletion mutant restored growth of the cells under osmotic stress, further strengthening the importance of the NADP+-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase for osmotolerance in G. oxydans. These findings provide detailed insights into the molecular mechanism of mannitol-mediated osmoprotection in G. oxydans and are helpful engineering strains with improved osmotolerance for biotechnological applications.

  9. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases: Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Jeoung


    Full Text Available Impaired glucose homeostasis is one of the risk factors for causing metabolic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. In glucose metabolism, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC mediates a major regulatory step, an irreversible reaction of oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Tight control of PDC is critical because it plays a key role in glucose disposal. PDC activity is tightly regulated using phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1 to 4 and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDP1 and 2. PDKs and PDPs exhibit unique tissue expression patterns, kinetic properties, and sensitivities to regulatory molecules. During the last decades, the up-regulation of PDKs has been observed in the tissues of patients and mammals with metabolic diseases, which suggests that the inhibition of these kinases may have beneficial effects for treating metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of specific PDK isoenzymes on the induction of metabolic diseases and describes the effects of PDK inhibition on the prevention of metabolic diseases using pharmacological inhibitors. Based on these reports, PDK isoenzymes are strong therapeutic targets for preventing and treating metabolic diseases.

  10. A quantitative histochemical study of lactate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in the membrana granulosa of the ovulatory follicle of the rat. (United States)

    Zoller, L C; Enelow, R


    Using a microdensitometer, lactate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activities were measured in the membrana granulosa of the rat ovulatory follicle. Ovaries were removed on each day of the oestrous cycle; oestrus, dioestrus-1, dioestrus-2, and proestrus; and enzyme activities measured in the membrana granulosa as a whole and in four regions within it: peripheral (PR), antral (AR), cumulus oophorus (CO) and corona radiata (CR). Throughout the cycle, lactate dehydrogenase activity was greatest in PR. On oestrus, lactate dehydrogenase activity was progressively less in AR, CO and CR. On dioestrus-1, activity was identical in AR and CO and less in CR. On dioestrus-2, activity was greater in AR than in CO or CR. By proestrus, activity was equal in AR, CO and CR. In the membrana granulosa as a whole, and in each region, lactate dehydrogenase activity declined as ovulation approached. In contrast, succinate dehydrogenase activity in the membrana granulosa as a whole and in PR was constant throughout the cycle. Activity fluctuated in the other regions. Succinate dehydrogenase activity on oestrus was greatest in PR, less in AR and CO and least in CR. On the remaining days, succinate dehydrogenase activity was greatest in PR and less but equal in the remainder of the membrana granulosa.

  11. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX (United States))


    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma


    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  13. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11 is a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira


    We report characterization of a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily encoded in a human gene, DHRS11. The recombinant protein (DHRS11) efficiently catalyzed the conversion of the 17-keto group of estrone, 4- and 5-androstenes and 5α-androstanes into their 17β-hydroxyl metabolites with NADPH as a coenzyme. In contrast, it exhibited reductive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity toward 5β-androstanes, 5β-pregnanes, 4-pregnenes and bile acids. Additionally, DHRS11 reduced α-dicarbonyls (such as diacetyl and methylglyoxal) and alicyclic ketones (such as 1-indanone and loxoprofen). The enzyme activity was inhibited in a mixed-type manner by flavonoids, and competitively by carbenoxolone, glycyrrhetinic acid, zearalenone, curcumin and flufenamic acid. The expression of DHRS11 mRNA was observed widely in human tissues, most abundantly in testis, small intestine, colon, kidney and cancer cell lines. Thus, DHRS11 represents a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for distinct dehydrogenase and isomerase sites within a single 3. beta. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu-The, V.; Takahashi, Masakazu; de Launoit, Y.; Dumont, M.; Lachance, Y.; Labrie, F. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, Quebec (Canada))


    Complementary DNA encoding human 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (3-{beta}-HSD) has been expressed in transfected GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} with use of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The activity of the expressed protein clearly shows that both dehydrogenase and isomerase enzymatic activities are present within a single protein. However, such findings do not indicate whether the two activities reside within one or two closely related catalytic sites. With use of ({sup 3}H)-5-androstenedione, the intermediate compound in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) transformation into 4-androstenedione by 3{beta}-HSD, the present study shows that 4MA (N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5{alpha}-androstane-17{beta}-carboxamide) and its analogues of 5-androstenedione to 4-androstenedione with an approximately 1,000-fold higher K{sub i} value. The present results thus strongly suggest that dehydrogenase and isomerase activities are present at separate sites on the 3-{beta}-HSD protein. Such data suggest that the irreversible step in the transformation of DHEA to 4-androstenedione is due to a separate site possessing isomerase activity that converts the 5-ene-3-keto to a much more stable 4-ene-3-keto configuration.

  15. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles (United States)

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus


    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (−)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (−)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (−)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (−)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition. PMID:26953347

  16. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles. (United States)

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus


    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (-)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (-)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (-)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (-)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10. (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y


    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  18. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili; Christian Okechukwu Nweke


    .... At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds...

  19. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuko Ueshima


    Full Text Available The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3 were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienylserine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2.

  20. Two different dihydroorotate dehydrogenases from yeast Saccharomyees kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Piskur, Jure


    Genes for two structurally and functionally different dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs, EC, catalyzing the fourth step of pyrimidine biosynthesis, have been previously found in yeast Saccharomyces klujveri. One is closely related to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitochondrial family...... for their biochemical properties and interaction with inhibitors. Benzoates as pyrimidine ring analogs were shown to he selective inhibitors of cytosolic DHODs. This unique property of Saccharomyces DHODHs could appoint DHODH as a species-specific target for novel anti-fungal therapeutics....

  1. Spinal Cord Astrocytoma with Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation. (United States)

    Takai, Keisuke; Tanaka, Shota; Sota, Takashi; Mukasa, Akitake; Komori, Takashi; Taniguchi, Makoto


    In 2016, the World Health Organization updated its classification of tumors, adding genetic profiles to the conventional histopathologic typing. The authors present herein the first case of a 44-year-old female with isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant World Health Organization grade II diffuse spinal astrocytoma diagnosed on the basis of both histopathologic and genetic findings. The present case underscores the significant role of a molecular genetic analysis in the differential diagnosis of intramedullary spinal gliomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H


    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate...... synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle...

  3. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  4. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim


    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  5. Synthesis of brequinar analogue inhibitors of malaria parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Boa, Andrew N; Canavan, Shane P; Hirst, Paul R; Ramsey, Christopher; Stead, Andrew M W; McConkey, Glenn A


    A series of 2-phenyl quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives related to brequinar, an inhibitor of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), has been prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of DHODH from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Brequinar was essentially inactive against PfDHODH (IC(50) 880 microM) whereas several members of the series inhibited PfDHODH. Unexpectedly, replacement of the carboxylic acid required for brequinar to inhibit hDHODH was not essential in the diisopropylamides that inhibited PfDHODH.

  6. Direct Observation of Correlated Interdomain Motion in Alcohol Dehydrogenase (United States)

    Biehl, Ralf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Monkenbusch, Michael; Falus, Peter; Préost, Sylvain; Merkel, Rudolf; Richter, Dieter


    Interdomain motions in proteins are essential to enable or promote biochemical function. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy is used to directly observe the domain dynamics of the protein alcohol dehydrogenase. The collective motion of domains as revealed by their coherent form factor relates to the cleft opening dynamics between the binding and the catalytic domains enabling binding and release of the functional important cofactor. The cleft opening mode hardens as a result of an overall stiffening of the domain complex due to the binding of the cofactor.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase in two digenetic trematodes and their host. (United States)

    Haque, M; Siddiqi, A H; Siddiqui, J


    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the two digenetic trematodes, Gigantocotyle explanatum from the liver and Gastrothylax crumenifer from the rumen of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis revealed the presence of at least six and seven isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), respectively in a partially purified enzyme preparation. The respective host tissues showed five isoenzymes of LDH, which are characteristic to the vertebrates. Both parachloromercuribenzoate and iodoacetate affected the LDH activity of the parasites and host tissues differently. Spectrophotometric analysis also showed different specific activity and susceptibility to the action of thiol inhibitors. The host LDH was quite stable at 57 degrees C for 30 min, but that of the parasites was less stable.

  8. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota. (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Ren, Wenkai; Gao, Wei; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Yinghui; Yao, Kang; Huang, Ruilin; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong


    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

  9. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate increases mineralization and mechanical properties of tibia in turkeys. (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Krupski, Witold; Brodzki, Adam; Pasternak, Kazimierz


    Skeletal disorders in rapidly growing poultry are commonplace. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) administration during the last 7 weeks of life on structural properties, mineralization, and mechanical endurance of skeleton in turkeys at slaughter. Healthy HB Medium Bronze female turkeys were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at the age of 12 weeks. OKG was administered orally to the experimental group (N=17) at the dose of 0.4 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (N=16) received an equal dose of the vehicle. The turkeys were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks and the tibiae were isolated for analysis. The effect of OKG on skeletal system development in turkeys was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Free amino acids concentrations were assessed with the use of ion-exchange chromatography. Significantly increased bone mineral density of the trabecular and the cortical bone of tibia in the turkeys given OKG for the last 7 weeks of production cycle were observed (Ppoultry production.

  10. Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Maria Bayliak


    Full Text Available Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+ but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG.

  11. Isocitrate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix: X-ray structure analysis of a ternary enzyme-substrate complex and thermal stability. (United States)

    Karlström, Mikael; Stokke, Runar; Steen, Ida Helene; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Ladenstein, Rudolf


    Isocitrate dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix (ApIDH) is a homodimeric enzyme that belongs to the beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family and is the most thermostable IDH identified. It catalyzes the NADP+ and metal-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate. We have solved the crystal structures of a native ApIDH at 2.2 A, a pseudo-native ApIDH at 2.1 A, and of ApIDH in complex with NADP+, Ca2+ and d-isocitrate at 2.3 A. The pseudo-native ApIDH is in complex with etheno-NADP+ which was located at the surface instead of in the active site revealing a novel adenine-nucleotide binding site in ApIDH. The native and the pseudo-native ApIDHs were found in an open conformation, whereas one of the subunits of the ternary complex was closed upon substrate binding. The closed subunit showed a domain rotation of 19 degrees compared to the open subunit. The binding of isocitrate in the closed subunit was identical with that of the binary complex of porcine mitochondrial IDH, whereas the binding of NADP+ was similar to that of the ternary complex of IDH from Escherichiacoli. The reaction mechanism is likely to be conserved in the different IDHs. A proton relay chain involving at least five solvent molecules, the 5'-phosphate group of the nicotinamide-ribose and a coupled lysine-tyrosine pair in the active site, is postulated as essential in both the initial and the final steps of the catalytic reaction of IDH. ApIDH was found to be highly homologous to the mesophilic IDHs and was subjected to a comparative analysis in order to find differences that could explain the large difference in thermostability. Mutational studies revealed that a disulfide bond at the N terminus and a seven-membered inter-domain ionic network at the surface are major determinants for the higher thermostability of ApIDH compared to EcIDH. Furthermore, the total number of ion pairs was dramatically higher in ApIDH compared to the mesophilic IDHs if a cutoff of 4.2 A was

  12. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose. (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T


    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  13. In Silico Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

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    Álvaro D. Fernández-Fernández


    Full Text Available NADPH, whose regeneration is critical for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification pathways, is an essential component in cell redox homeostasis. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles with a complex biochemical machinery involved in signaling and stress processes by molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. NADPH is required by several peroxisomal enzymes involved in β-oxidation, NO, and glutathione (GSH generation. Plants have various NADPH-generating dehydrogenases, one of which is 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH. Arabidopsis contains three 6PGDH genes that probably are encoded for cytosolic, chloroplastic/mitochondrial, and peroxisomal isozymes, although their specific functions remain largely unknown. This study focuses on the in silico analysis of the biochemical characteristics and gene expression of peroxisomal 6PGDH (p6PGDH with the aim of understanding its potential function in the peroxisomal NADPH-recycling system. The data show that a group of plant 6PGDHs contains an archetypal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS, while in silico gene expression analysis using affymetrix microarray data suggests that Arabidopsis p6PGDH appears to be mainly involved in xenobiotic response, growth, and developmental processes.

  14. Inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase isoforms and their therapeutic potentials. (United States)

    Granchi, C; Bertini, S; Macchia, M; Minutolo, F


    In many different species, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis, by catalyzing the reduction of pyruvate into lactate. This enzyme has recently received a great deal of attention since it may constitute a valid therapeutic target for diseases so different as malaria and cancer. In fact, the isoform expressed by Plasmodium falciparum (pfLDH) is a key enzyme for energy generation of malarial parasites. These species mostly depend on anaerobic glycolysis for energy production, since they lack a citric acid cycle for ATP formation. Therefore, inhibitors of pfLDH would potentially cause mortality of P. falciparum and, to this purpose, several small organic molecules have been recently designed and developed with the aim of blocking this new potential antimalarial chemotherapeutic target. Moreover, most invasive tumour phenotypes show a metabolic switch (Warburg effect) from oxidative phosphorylation to an increased anaerobic glycolysis, by promoting an upregulation of the human isoform-5 of lactate dehydrogenase (hLDH-5 or LDH-A), which is normally present in muscles and in the liver. Hence, inhibition of hLDH-5 may constitute an efficient way to interfere with tumour growth and invasiveness. This review provides an overview of the LDH inhibitors that have been developed up to now, an analysis of their possible isoform-selectivity, and their therapeutic potentials.

  15. Plasmodium glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: A potential malaria diagnostic target. (United States)

    Krause, Robert G E; Hurdayal, Ramona; Choveaux, David; Przyborski, Jude M; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Goldring, J P Dean


    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P. falciparum and P. yoelii proteins were recombinantly expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherischia coli host cells and affinity purified. Two epitopes (CADGFLLIGEKKVSVFA and CAEKDPSQIPWGKCQV) specific to P. falciparum GAPDH and one common to all mammalian malaria species (CKDDTPIYVMGINH) were identified. Antibodies were raised in chickens against the two recombinant proteins and the three epitopes and affinity purified. The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite cytosolic localization for the native protein. The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA formats, consistent with published proteomic data. PfGAPDH shows interesting potential as a malaria diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression, purification, and characterization of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Zhang, Wangluo; Chen, Shuai; Liao, Yuanping; Wang, Dingli; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Yingming; Ran, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Daru; Zhu, Huaxing


    As a member of zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) can oxidize toxic formaldehyde to less active formate with NAD(+) as a cofactor and exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Most FDHs are well known to be glutathione-dependent in the catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation, but the enzyme from Pseudomonas putida is an exception, which is independent of glutathione. To identify novel glutathione-independent FDHs from other bacterial strains and facilitate the corresponding structural and enzymatic studies, high-level soluble expression and efficient purification of these enzymes need to be achieved. Here, we present molecular cloning, expression, and purification of the FDH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium causing opportunistic human infection. The FDH of P. aeruginosa shows high sequence identity (87.97%) with that of P. putida. Our results indicated that coexpression with molecular chaperones GroES, GroEL, and Tig has significantly attenuated inclusion body formation and improved the solubility of the recombinant FDH in Escherichiacoli cells. A purification protocol including three chromatographic steps was also established to isolate the recombinant FDH to homogeneity with a yield of ∼3.2 mg from 1L of cell culture. The recombinant P. aeruginosa FDH was properly folded and biologically functional, as demonstrated by the mass spectrometric, crystallographic, and enzymatic characterizations of the purified proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility. (United States)

    Johnson, Amy R; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Zeisel, Steven H


    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh(-/-) mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh(-/-) males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh(+/+) and Chdh(-/-) mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh(-/-) males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh(-/-) sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh(-/-) animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility.

  18. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.


    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)+as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD+versusNADP+, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP+cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  19. High-pressure-induced water penetration into 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagae, Takayuki; Kawamura, Takashi [Nagoya University, (Japan); Chavas, Leonard M. G. [High Energy Research Organization (KEK), (Japan); Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi [Nagoya University, (Japan); Kato, Chiaki [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: [Nagoya University, (Japan); Nagoya University, (Japan)


    Structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were determined at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa. Comparison of these structures gives a detailed picture of the swelling of a cavity at the dimer interface and the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface, which are accompanied by water penetration. Hydrostatic pressure induces structural changes in proteins, including denaturation, the mechanism of which has been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. In this study, structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were determined at about 2 Å resolution under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Although most of the protein cavities are monotonically compressed as the pressure increases, the volume of one particular cavity at the dimer interface increases at pressures over 340 MPa. In parallel with this volume increase, water penetration into the cavity could be observed at pressures over 410 MPa. In addition, the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface accompanied by water penetration could also be observed at pressures over 580 MPa. These water-penetration phenomena are considered to be initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process of IPMDH.

  20. Orthodontic Force Application in Correlation with Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity

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    Erik Husin


    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement generate mechanical forces to periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The forces correlate with initial responses of periodontal tissues and involving many metabolic changes. One of the metabolic changes detected in saliva is lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between orthodontic interrupted force application, lactate dehydrogenase activity and the distance of tooth movement. Methods: upper premolar, pre-retraction of upper canine and 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-retraction of upper canine with 100g interrupted orthodontic force. Results: duration of force (F=11.926 p 14 and 28 days post-retraction of canine. The region of retraction correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=7.377 p=0.007. The duration of force correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=66.554 p=0.000. retraction of canine. Conclusion: This study concluded that orthodontic interrupted force application on canine could increase the distance of tooth movement and LDH activity in saliva.

  1. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus. (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat


    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as candidates for tumor markers in patients with pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Kutylowska, Emilia; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej


    Various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the pancreas. Moreover, ADH and ALDH are present in pancreatic cancer cells. The activity of ADH class III isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancerous than in healthy tissues. The expression of these enzymes in cancer cells is reflected by increased enzyme activity in the sera and thus could be helpful for diagnosing pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for pancreatic carcinoma. Serum samples were taken from 165 patients with pancreatic cancer and 166 healthy controls. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric and ALDH activity, ADH I and II by the fluorometric method. There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH III isoenzyme (14.03 mU/l vs 11.45 mU/l; p pancreatic cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH III was 70%, specificity 76%, positive and negative predictive values were 79% and 71% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH III was 0.64. The results suggest a potential role for ADH III as a marker of pancreatic cancer.

  3. The activity of class I, II, III, and IV of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Chrostek, Lech; Szmitkowski, Maciej


    The pancreas can metabolize ethanol via oxidative pathway involving the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as well as the nonoxidative pathway. In this study, we compared the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the pancreatic cancer with the activity in normal tissue. In addition, the differences between enzyme activities of drinkers and nondrinkers were compared. For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, we used the fluorometric methods. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. The samples were taken from 56 pancreatic cancer patients (22 drinkers and 34 nondrinkers) and 56 healthy subjects. The activity of class III ADH was significantly higher in cancer than in healthy tissues. Total activities of ADH and ALDH were not significantly different in cancer and normal cells. The differences between enzymes of drinkers and nondrinkers in both cancer and healthy tissue were not significant. Pancreatic cancer tissue exhibits higher activity of class III ADH isoenzyme than healthy tissue, and we consider that oxidative pathway of ethanol metabolism via ADH and ALDH does not play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  4. The influence of oxygen on radiation-induced structural and functional changes in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase (United States)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Bubinski, Michal; Krokosz, Anita; Puchala, Mieczyslaw


    Proteins are major targets for oxidative damage due to their abundance in cells and high reactivity with free radicals. In the present study we examined the influence of oxygen on radiation-induced inactivation and structural changes of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We chose these two enzymes because they occur at high concentrations and participate in the most important processes in organisms; furthermore, they show considerable similarity in their structure. Protein solutions were irradiated with X-rays in doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy, in air and N2O. The much higher radiation inactivation of GAPDH as compared to LDH is correlated with substantially greater structural changes in this protein, mainly involving the loss of free thiol groups (-SH). Of lesser importance in the differentiation of the radiosensitivity of the studied enzymes are tryptophan residues. Molecular oxygen, present during irradiation, increased to a significantly greater extent the inactivation and structural changes of GAPDH than that of LDH. The results suggest that the greater effect of oxygen on GAPDH is due to the higher efficiency of the superoxide radical, the higher amount of hydroperoxides generated, and the higher degree of unfolding of this protein.

  5. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation. (United States)

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha


    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  6. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.


    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  7. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver. (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert


    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej


    The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed. Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients. The diagnostic sensitivity for total ADH activity was 81.5%, specificity 98.1%, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 97.4% and 92.3% respectively. Area under ROC curve for total ADH activity was 0.848. A potential role of total ADH activity as a marker for bladder cancer, is herein proposed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic potential of alpha-ketoglutarate against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Mehra


    Full Text Available Objective: Alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG is a cellular intermediary metabolite of Krebs cycle, involved in energy metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and nitrogen transport. It is available over-the-counter and marketed as a nutritional supplement. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that dietary α-KG has the potential to maintain cellular redox status and thus can protect various oxidative stress induced disease states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of α-KG in acetaminophen (APAP induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I (Vehicle control: Normal Saline, Group II (APAP: A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.6 g/kg, Group III (APAP + α-KG: APAP as in Group II with α-KG treatment at a dose of 2 g/kg, orally for 5 days. Then the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP with oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: The results indicate that APAP caused significant elevations in ALT, AST, ALP, and MDA levels, while GSH, SOD, and CAT were significantly depleted while co-administration of α-KG showed a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in the severity of these damages. Histologically, the liver showed inflammation and necrosis after APAP treatment, which were significantly restored with co-administration of α-KG. Conclusion: These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of α-KG in protecting liver damage by APAP in rats.

  10. The crystal structure of SDR-type pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase of Mesorhizobium loti. (United States)

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu


    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of pyridoxal to 4-pyridoxolactone and is involved in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine, a vitamin B(6) compound. Its crystal structure was elucidated for the first time. Molecular replacement with (S)-1-phenylthanol dehydrogenase (PDB code 2EW8) was adopted to determine the tertiary structure of the NAD(+)-bound enzyme.

  11. Alternative splicing directs dual localization of Candida albicans 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to cytosol and peroxisomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbis, Karin; van den Burg, Janny; F Visser, Wouter; van den Berg, Marlene; Distel, Ben


    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is the main source of NADPH in the cell and therefore essential for the maintenance of the redox balance and anabolic reactions. NADPH is produced by the two dehydrogenases in the oxidative branch of the PPP: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1) and

  12. Structural basis for the dysfunctioning of human 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.; Kok, de A.


    2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are a ubiquitous family of multienzyme systems that catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of various 2-oxo acid substrates. They play a key role in the primary energy metabolism: in glycolysis (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), the citric acid cycle (2-oxoglutarate

  13. Synthesis of allitol from D-psicose using ribitol dehydrogenase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize allitol from D-psicose by a combination of novel ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) under optimised production conditions. Methods: RDH and FDH genes were cloned and introduced into pET-22b(+) vectors for expression in Escherichia coli to produce the ...

  14. Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: Biochemical-Molecular-Clinical Disease Mechanisms, Redox Regulation, and Functional Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.J.; Pearl, P.L.; Jensen, K.; Snead, O.C.; Malaspina, P.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Gibson, K.M.


    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1, ALDH5A1; E.C.; OMIM 610045, 271980) deficiency is a rare heritable disorder that disrupts the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Identified in conjunction with increased urinary

  15. P450BM3 fused to phosphite dehydrogenase allows phosphite-driven selective oxidations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Nina; Kulig, Justyna K; Bartsch, Anette; Hayes, Martin A; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W


    To facilitate the wider application of the NADPH-dependent P450BM3, we fused the monooxygenase with a phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The resulting monooxygenase-dehydrogenase fusion enzyme acts as a self-sufficient bifunctional catalyst, accepting phosphite as a cheap electron donor for the

  16. Structures of Michaelis and Product Complexes of Plant Cytokinin Dehydrogenase : Implications for Flavoenzyme Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malito, Enrico; Coda, Alessandro; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea


    Cytokinins form a diverse class of compounds that are essential for plant growth. Cytokinin dehydrogenase has a major role in the control of the levels of these plant hormones by catalysing their irreversible oxidation. The crystal structure of Zea mays cytokinin dehydrogenase displays the same

  17. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.


    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  18. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.


    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase

  19. Circadian rhythm in succinate dehydrogenase activity in Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Álvarez Barón


    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa is a widely studied model of circadian rhythmicity. In this fungus, metabolism is controlled by multiple factors which include development, medium characteristics and the circadian clock. The study of the circadian control of metabolism in this fungus could be masked by the use of restrictive media that inhibit growth and development. In this report, the presence of a circadian rhythm in the activity of the enzyme Succinate Dehydrogenase in Neurospora crassa is demonstrated. Rhythmic and arrhythmic Neurospora strains were grown in complete medium without conidiation restriction. A circadian change in the enzymatic activity was found with high values in hours corresponding to the night and a low level during the day. This finding highlights the importance of deeper studies in the circadian control of metabolism in this fungus, given the existence of multiple pathways of regulation of metabolic enzymes and a circadian clock control at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  20. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying (United States)

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi


    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. PMID:24662364

  1. Bilateral cataracts associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. (United States)

    Nair, V; Hasan, S U; Romanchuk, K; Al Awad, E; Mansoor, A; Yusuf, K


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has an essential role in the defense against cellular oxidative injury. In neonates, the most common manifestation of G6PD deficiency is jaundice and hemolysis due to factors causing oxidative stress. Less known are the ocular associations described with G6PD deficiency, including cataracts. Oxidative injury is involved in the pathogenesis of almost all forms of cataracts, causing the lens proteins to undergo modifications, denaturation and form insoluble aggregates resulting in cataracts. Although cataracts in adult males have been reported in several studies, there are few reports of cataracts in infants with G6PD deficiency. We describe a preterm male neonate with G6PD deficiency who developed bilateral cataracts following an episode of neonatal sepsis and severe hemolysis necessitating an exchange blood transfusion.

  2. Mechanistic enzymology of CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, S.W.


    The final steps in acetyl-CoA biosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria are performed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a nickel/iron-sulfur protein. An important achievement was to establish conditions under which acetyl-CoA synthesis by purified enzymes equals the in vivo rate of acetate synthesis. Under these optimized conditions we established that the rate limiting step in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from methyl-H[sub 4]folate, CO and CoA is likely to be the methylation of CODH by the methylated corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein. We then focused on stopped flow studies of this rate limiting transmethylation reaction and established its mechanism. We have studied the carbonylation of CODH by infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy and determined that the [Ni-Fe[sup 3-4]S[sub 4

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra


    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  4. Enzymatic properties of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum. (United States)

    Shoemark, Deborah K; Cliff, Matthew J; Sessions, Richard B; Clarke, Anthony R


    The lactate dehydrogenase enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum (PfLDH) is a target for antimalarial compounds owing to structural and functional differences from the human isozymes. The plasmodial enzyme possesses a five-residue insertion in the substrate-specificity loop and exhibits less marked substrate inhibition than its mammalian counterparts. Here we provide a comprehensive kinetic analysis of the enzyme by steady-state and transient kinetic methods. The mechanism deduced by product inhibition studies proves that PfLDH shares a common mechanism with the human LDHs, that of an ordered sequential bireactant system with coenzyme binding first. Transient kinetic analysis reveals that the major rate-limiting step is the closure of the substrate-specificity loop prior to hydride transfer, in line with other LDHs. The five-residue insertion in this loop markedly increases substrate specificity compared with the human muscle and heart isoforms.

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibition: exploring possible applications beyond cancer treatment. (United States)

    Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Fiume, Luigi


    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition is considered a worthwhile attempt in the development of innovative anticancer strategies. Unfortunately, in spite of the involvement of several research institutions and pharma-companies, the discovery of LDH inhibitors with drug-like properties seems a hardly resolvable challenge. While awaiting new advancements, in the present review we will examine other pathologic conditions characterized by increased glycolysis and LDH activity, which could potentially benefit from LDH inhibition. The rationale for targeting LDH activity in these contexts is the same justifying the LDH-based approach in anticancer therapy: because of the enzyme position at the end of glycolytic pathway, LDH inhibitors are not expected to hinder glucose metabolism of normal cells. Moreover, we will summarize the latest contributions in the discovery of enzyme inhibitors and try to glance over the reasons underlying the complexity of this research.

  6. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.


    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...... stable at pH 6-7 for 24 h and 30degreesC. K-m values for D-xylitol and NAD(+) were 94 mM and 0.14 mM, respectively. Mn2+ at 10 mM increased XDH activity 2-fold and Cu2+ at 10 mM inhibited activity completely....

  7. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis. (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E


    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti.

  8. [Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: an inheritable neurometabolic disease]. (United States)

    Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J; Freudenmann, R W


    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrognase deficiency (SSADHD) is a neurometabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. Although only about 450 cases are known worldwide, SSADHD is a frequent paediatric disorder of the neurotransmitter metabolism. SSADHD is caused by a mutation of the Aldh5a1-gene resulting in a dysfunction of the enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. This is followed by an accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and succinic semialdehyde that is alternatively metabolised via succinic semialdehyde reductase to γ-hydroxybutyric acid. The clinical phenotype is unspecific with pronounced interindividual variability. However, delayed acquisition of motor and language developmental milestones as well as epilepsy, mental retardation, sleep disorder, ataxia, muscle hypotonia, and behavioural disturbances are frequent. First symptoms frequently occur in the first year of life while the general course of the disease is non-progressive. Currently, no causal therapy exists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J


    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  10. SDHAF4 promotes mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and prevents neurodegeneration (United States)

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G.; Bricker, Daniel K.; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P.; Cox, James E.; Thummel, Carl S.; Rutter, Jared


    SUMMARY Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) occupies a central place in cellular energy production, linking the tricarboxylic cycle with the electron transport chain. As a result, a subset of cancers and neuromuscular disorders result from mutations affecting any of the four SDH structural subunits or either of two known SDH assembly factors. Herein we characterize a novel evolutionarily conserved SDH assembly factor designated Sdh8/SDHAF4, using yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. Sdh8 interacts specifically with the catalytic Sdh1 subunit in the mitochondrial matrix, facilitating its association with Sdh2 and the subsequent assembly of the SDH holocomplex. These roles for Sdh8 are critical for preventing motility defects and neurodegeneration in Drosophila as well as the excess ROS generated by free Sdh1. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which SDH is assembled and raise the possibility that some forms of neuromuscular disease may be associated with mutations that affect this SDH assembly factor. PMID:24954416

  11. Alcohol Dehydrogenase of Bacillus strain for Measuring Alcohol Electrochemically (United States)

    Iswantini, D.; Nurhidayat, N.; Ferit, H.


    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was applied to produce alcohol biosensor. The enzyme was collected from cultured Bacillus sp. in solid media. From 6 tested isolates, bacteria from fermented rice grain (TST.A) showed the highest oxidation current which was further applied as the bioreceptor. Various ethanol concentrations was measured based on the increase of maximum oxidation current value. However, a reduction value was happened when the ethanol concentration was higher than 5%. Comparing the result of spectrophotometry measurement, R2 value obtained from the biosensor measurement method was higher. The new proposed method resulted a wider detection range, from 0.1-5% of ethanol concentration. The result showed that biosensor method has big potency to be used as alcohol detector in foods or bevearages.

  12. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.


    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  13. Pharmacophore-based discovery of new human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor. (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Wang, Yubin; Ma, Bo; She, Jinxiong; Zhang, Qi; He, Mingfang; Liu, Ying


    Pharmacophore models of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (HsDHODH) have been developed using Discovery Studio V2.1 with a training set of 27 HsDHODH inhibitors. With one hydrogen bond receptor, two hydrophobic, one ring aromatic and one neg ionizable features, Hypo 1 has a correlation coefficient of 0.948, cost difference of 78.894, and RMSD 0.926. This model was validated by test set and Fischer randomization test. Hypo 1 was employed as a 3D query to identify potent molecules from our lab chemical database. Compound 38-C11 had Hypo 1 estimated IC50 of 489 nM. Then 38-C11 was synthesized and evaluated in HsDHODH inhibition assay. The IC50 of 38-C11 was 136.9 nM suggesting that 38-C11 could be proceeded for further evaluation in future study.

  14. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Shiga


    Full Text Available The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11 was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders.

  15. Genetic variants of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the Indonesian populations. (United States)

    Sofro, A S; Kirk, R L


    Blood samples from 2,091 individuals representing 14 Indonesian populations (11 Austronesian and 3 non-Austronesian speakers) have been tested electrophoretically for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD). Two common alleles, PGDA and PGDC are found in all populations studied, and the phenotype distribution agrees well with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The PGDC gene frequency varies from as low as 3.5% in the Galelarese to 29% in the Asmat. In general, the PGDC allele seems to decrease in frequency towards the west. A low frequency of PGDC in the Galelarese, a non-Austronesian-speaking population, is thought to be the result of admixture of Austronesian genes, which has not led to language change. In addition to the common alleles, a new variant, PGD A-Lombok, is also described.

  16. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen


    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been...... prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered...... hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense...

  17. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from chitosan-treated Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures. (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Beuerle, Till; Mitra, Adinpunya; Beerhues, Ludger


    Cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia respond to the addition of chitosan with the accumulation of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin. The carbon skeleton of this inducible defense compound is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS) from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA. The formation of benzoyl-CoA proceeds via benzaldehyde as an intermediate. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BD), which converts benzaldehyde into benzoic acid, was detected in cell-free extracts from S. aucuparia cell cultures. BD and BIS were induced by chitosan treatment. The preferred substrate for BD was benzaldehyde (K(m)=49 microM). Cinnamaldehyde and various hydroxybenzaldehydes were relatively poor substrates. BD activity was strictly dependent on the presence of NAD(+) as a cofactor (K(m)=67 microM).

  18. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  19. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency, Carney triad and the epigenome. (United States)

    Settas, Nikolaos; Faucz, Fabio R; Stratakis, Constantine A


    In this report, we review the relationship between succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency and the epigenome, especially with regards to two clinical conditions. Carney triad (CT) is a very rare disease with synchronous or metachronous occurrence of at least three different tumor entities; gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), paraganglioma (PGL), and pulmonary chondroma. This condition affects mostly females and it is never inherited. Another disease that shares two of the tumor components of CT, namely GIST and PGL is the Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS) or dyad. CSS affects both genders during childhood and adolescence. We review herein the main clinical features and molecular mechanisms behind those two syndromes that share quite a bit of similarities, but one is non-hereditary (CT) whereas the other shows an autosomal-dominant, with incomplete penetrance, inheritance pattern (CSS). Both CT and CSS are caused by the deficiency of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. The key difference between the two syndromes is the molecular mechanism that causes the SDH deficiency. Most cases of CT show down-regulation of SDH through site-specific hyper-methylation of the SDHC gene, whereas CSS cases carry inactivating germline mutations within one of the genes coding for the SDH subunits A, B, C, or D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD). There is only partial overlap between the two conditions (there are a few patients with CT that have SDH subunit mutations) but both lead to increased methylation of the entire genome in the tumors associated with them. Other tumors (outside CT and CSS) that have SDH deficiency are associated with increased methylation of the entire genome, but only in CT there is site-specific methylation of the SDHC gene. These findings have implications for diagnostics and the treatment of patients with these, often metastatic tumors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase A silencing in IDH mutant gliomas. (United States)

    Chesnelong, Charles; Chaumeil, Myriam M; Blough, Michael D; Al-Najjar, Mohammad; Stechishin, Owen D; Chan, Jennifer A; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M; Weiss, Samuel; Luchman, H Artee; Cairncross, J Gregory


    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gene (IDH1/2) were initially thought to enhance cancer cell survival and proliferation by promoting the Warburg effect. However, recent experimental data have shown that production of 2-hydroxyglutarate by IDH mutant cells promotes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α degradation and, by doing so, may have unexpected metabolic effects. We used human glioma tissues and derived brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) to study the expression of HIF1α target genes in IDH mutant ((mt)) and IDH wild-type ((wt)) tumors. Focusing thereafter on the major glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), we used standard molecular methods and pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation analysis to identify mechanisms by which LDHA expression was regulated in human gliomas. We found that HIF1α-responsive genes, including many essential for glycolysis (SLC2A1, PDK1, LDHA, SLC16A3), were underexpressed in IDH(mt) gliomas and/or derived BTSCs. We then demonstrated that LDHA was silenced in IDH(mt) derived BTSCs, including those that did not retain the mutant IDH1 allele (mIDH(wt)), matched BTSC xenografts, and parental glioma tissues. Silencing of LDHA was associated with increased methylation of the LDHA promoter, as was ectopic expression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes. Furthermore, in a search of The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found low expression and high methylation of LDHA in IDH(mt) glioblastomas. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of downregulation of LDHA in cancer. Although unexpected findings, silencing of LDHA and downregulation of several other glycolysis essential genes raise the intriguing possibility that IDH(mt) gliomas have limited glycolytic capacity, which may contribute to their slow growth and better prognosis.

  1. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra


    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  2. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at:

  3. Dietary supplementation with phytohemagglutinin in combination with alpha-ketoglutarate limits the excretion of nitrogen via urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafał; Wdowiak, Leszek; Harrison, Adrian P


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of both phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) alone, and in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on nitrogen elimination via the urinary tract as opposed to the gastrointestinal tract of rats. In experiment 1, rats were assigned to one of two...... experimental groups, (1) Control and (2) PHA, whilst in experiment 2, rats were assigned to one of three experimental groups, (1) Control, (2) AKG, and (3) AKG+PHA. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. The stock solution of crude PHA in 0.9 % NaCl, was (20 % w...

  4. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M


    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  5. Coupling between d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase drives bacterial l-serine synthesis. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Manman; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yipeng; Ge, Yongsheng; Guo, Shiting; Guo, Xiaoting; Zhou, Zikang; Liu, Qiuyuan; Zhang, Yingxin; Ma, Cuiqing; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping


    l-Serine biosynthesis, a crucial metabolic process in most domains of life, is initiated by d-3-phosphoglycerate (d-3-PG) dehydrogenation, a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction catalyzed by d-3-PG dehydrogenase (SerA). d-2-Hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG) is traditionally viewed as an abnormal metabolite associated with cancer and neurometabolic disorders. Here, we reveal that bacterial anabolism and catabolism of d-2-HG are involved in l-serine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. SerA catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) to d-2-HG, responsible for the major production of d-2-HG in vivo. SerA combines the energetically favorable reaction of d-2-HG production to overcome the thermodynamic barrier of d-3-PG dehydrogenation. We identified a bacterial d-2-HG dehydrogenase (D2HGDH), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme, that converts d-2-HG back to 2-KG. Electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) are also essential in d-2-HG metabolism through their capacity to transfer electrons from D2HGDH. Furthermore, while the mutant with D2HGDH deletion displayed decreased growth, the defect was rescued by adding l-serine, suggesting that the D2HGDH is functionally tied to l-serine synthesis. Substantial flux flows through d-2-HG, being produced by SerA and removed by D2HGDH, ETF, and ETFQO, maintaining d-2-HG homeostasis. Overall, our results uncover that d-2-HG-mediated coupling between SerA and D2HGDH drives bacterial l-serine synthesis.

  6. Improved production of propionic acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via combinational overexpression of glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian


    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Dimerization and enzymatic activity of fungal 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan Katja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily. SDR proteins usually function as dimers or tetramers and 17β-HSDcl is also a homodimer under native conditions. Results We have investigated here which secondary structure elements are involved in the dimerization of 17β-HSDcl and examined the importance of dimerization for the enzyme activity. Sequence similarity with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea indicated that Arg129 and His111 from the αE-helices interact with the Asp121, Glu117 and Asp187 residues from the αE and αF-helices of the neighbouring subunit. The Arg129Asp and His111Leu mutations both rendered 17β-HSDcl monomeric, while the mutant 17β-HSDcl-His111Ala was dimeric. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conservation of the secondary structure in both monomers. The three mutant proteins all bound coenzyme, as shown by fluorescence quenching in the presence of NADP+, but both monomers showed no enzymatic activity. Conclusion We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis and structure/function analysis that 17β-HSDcl dimerization involves the αE and αF helices of both subunits. Neighbouring subunits are connected through hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds and salt bridges involving amino acid residues His111 and Arg129. Since the substitutions of these two amino acid residues lead to inactive monomers with conserved secondary structure, we suggest dimerization is a prerequisite for catalysis. A detailed understanding of this dimerization could lead to the development of compounds that will specifically prevent dimerization, thereby serving as a new type of inhibitor.

  8. Expansion of the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/plant dihydroflavonol reductase superfamily to include a bacterial cholesterol dehydrogenase, a bacterial UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus. (United States)

    Baker, M E; Blasco, R


    Mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and plant dihydroflavonol reductases are descended from a common ancestor. Here we present evidence that Nocardia cholesterol dehydrogenase, E. coli UDP-galactose-4 epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus are homologous to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydroflavonol reductase. Analysis of a multiple alignment of these sequences indicates that viral ORFs are most closely related to the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The ancestral protein of this superfamily is likely to be one that metabolized sugar nucleotides. The sequence similarity between 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the viral ORFs is sufficient to suggest that these ORFs have an activity that is similar to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or cholesterol dehydrogenase, although the putative substrates are not yet known.

  9. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Begüm [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Koçarlı Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktaş, E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan [Biochemistry Department, Ege University, İzmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Chemistry Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)


    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  10. Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Gnd1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Cong-Zhao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG. Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications. Results The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-α helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 μM for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 μM for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution. Conclusion The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not

  11. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase depletion hampers mitochondrial function and osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, J.; Yamaza, H.; Uchiumi, T.; Hoshino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Hirofuji, Y.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Kang, D.; Nonaka, K.


    Mutation of the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) gene is responsible for Miller syndrome, which is characterized by craniofacial malformations with limb abnormalities. We previously demonstrated that DHODH was involved in forming a mitochondrial supercomplex and that mutated DHODH led to protein

  12. Mitochondrial type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases in fungal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedro Gonçalves


    Full Text Available During aerobic respiration, cells produce energy through oxidative phosphorylation, which includes a specialized group of multi-subunit complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the electron transport chain. However, this canonical pathway is branched into single polypeptide alternative routes in some fungi, plants, protists and bacteria. They confer metabolic plasticity, allowing cells to adapt to different environmental conditions and stresses. Type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases (also called alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases are non-proton pumping enzymes that bypass complex I. Recent evidence points to the involvement of fungal alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the process of programmed cell death, in addition to their action as overflow systems upon oxidative stress. Consistent with this, alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases are phylogenetically related to cell death - promoting proteins of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-family.

  13. Immobilisation and characterisation of glucose dehydrogenase immobilised on ReSyn: a proprietary polyethylenimine support matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twala, BV


    Full Text Available Immobilisation of enzymes is of considerable interest due to the advantages over soluble enzymes, including improved stability and recovery. Glucose Dehydrogenase (GDH) is an important biocatalytic enzyme due to is ability to recycle the biological...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... Acylcarnitine (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (2 links) British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group: MCADD Dietary Management Guidelines ( ... Orphanet: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health ( ...

  15. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (United States)


    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  16. Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abboud, Jean; Storey, Kenneth B


    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, plays a crucial role both in sustaining glycolytic ATP production under oxygen-limiting conditions and in facilitating the catabolism of accumulated...

  17. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Physical and Mental Health until Adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C. Mary


      Background To examine the association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with adolescent physical and mental health, as effects of G6PD deficiency on health are rarely reported...

  18. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor expands the SDH-related tumor spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, Nicolasine D.; Papathomas, Thomas G.; Korpershoek, Esther; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Oudijk, Lindsey; Morreau, Hans; Bayley, Jean Pierre; Hes, Frederik J.; Jansen, Jeroen C.; Dinjens, Winand N M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M


    Context: Mutations in genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) can lead to pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma formation. However, SDH mutations have also been linked to nonparaganglionic tumors. Objective: The objective was to investigate which nonparaganglionic tumors belong to the

  19. Ozone: a possible cause of hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (School of Health Sciences, Amherst, MA); Kojola, W.H.; Carnow, B.W.


    A theoretical model is described that predicts that individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may experience acute hemolysis on exposure to ozone at levels reached in certain urban centers.

  20. Stereoselective biotransformation of racemic mandelic acid using immobilized laccase and (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xing; Yang, Chengli; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xuan; Bao, Bingxin; Li, Dali; Shi, Ruofu


    (S)-Mandelate dehydrogenase (SMDH) and laccase were immobilized on chitosan. The bi-enzymatic system with immobilized SMDH and immobilized laccase was taken to catalyze the stereoselective transformation of racemic mandelic acid and (R...

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin


    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  2. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency Caused by a Novel Genomic Deletion c.505_513del of DPYD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B. P.; Meijer, J.; Gokcay, G.; Baykal, T.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Mul, A. N. P. M.; de Die-Smulders, C. E. M.; Weber, P.; Mori, A. Capone; Bierau, J.; Fowler, B.; Macke, K.; Sass, J. O.; Meinsma, R.; Hennermann, J. B.; Miny, P.; Zoetekouw, L.; Roelofsen, J.; Vijzelaar, R.; Nicolai, J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.


    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine degradation pathway. In a patient presenting with convulsions, psychomotor retardation and Reye like syndrome, strongly elevated levels of uracil and thymine were detected in urine. No DPD activity

  3. Characterization and redesign of galactonolactone dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein producing vitamin C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.


    Keywords: aldonolactone oxidoreductases, Arabidopsis thaliana, flavoprotein, galactonolactone dehydrogenase, molecular gatekeeper, oxidase, protein engineering, vanillyl-alcohol oxidase family, vitamin C Redox enzymes are attractive biocatalysts because of their intrinsic (enantio-)selectivity and

  4. Kernicterus by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossio de Gurrola Gladys


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive disease that causes acute or chronic hemolytic anemia and potentially leads to severe jaundice in response to oxidative agents. This deficiency is the most common human innate error of metabolism, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. Case presentation Here, we present the first documented case of kernicterus in Panama, in a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborn clothed in naphthalene-impregnated garments, resulting in reduced psychomotor development, neurosensory hypoacousia, absence of speech and poor reflex of the pupil to light. Conclusion Mutational analysis revealed the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Mediterranean polymorphic variant, which explained the development of kernicterus after exposition of naphthalene. As the use of naphthalene in stored clothes is a common practice, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing in neonatal screening could prevent severe clinical consequences.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 deficiency (United States)

    ... Multiple functions of type 10 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May-Jun;16(4):167-75. ... What are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? ...

  6. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell


    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  7. Cloning, protein sequence clarification, and substrate specificity of a leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus ATCC4525. (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zhu, Dunming; Hyatt, Brooke A; Malik, Fahad M; Biehl, Edward R; Hua, Ling


    Although an X-ray model sequence of a leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus ATCC4525 was reported, the amino acid sequence of this enzyme has not been confirmed. In the current study, this leucine dehydrogenase gene was cloned, sequenced, and over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein sequence has been clarified. This leucine dehydrogenase is not identical with that of B. sphaericus IFO3525 because there are 16 different amino acid residues between these two proteins. Since the information on the catalytic properties of leucine dehydrogenase from B. sphaericus ATCC4525 has been limited, the recombinant enzyme was purified as His-tagged protein and further studied. This enzyme showed activity toward aliphatic substrates for both oxidative deamination and reductive amination and is an effective catalyst for the asymmetric synthesis of alpha-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-ketoacids.

  8. Multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Silva Maria Regina de


    Full Text Available A recent locus duplication hypothesis for sMDH-B* was proposed to explain the complex electrophoretic pattern of six bands detected for the soluble form of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC in 84% of the Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes analyzed (AB1B2 individuals. Klebe's serial dilutions were carried out in skeletal muscle extracts. B1 and B2 subunits had the same visual end-points, reflecting a nondivergent pattern for these B-duplicated genes. Since there is no evidence of polyploidy in the Cichlidae family, MDH-B* loci must have evolved from regional gene duplication. Tissue specificities, thermostability and kinetic tests resulted in similar responses from both B-isoforms, in both sMDH phenotypes, suggesting that these more recently duplicated loci underwent the same regulatory gene action. Similar results obtained with the two sMDH phenotypes did not show any indication of a six-banded specimen adaptive advantage in subtropical regions.

  9. PIK3CA mutant tumors depend on oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Aguirre, Andrew J.; Kory, Nora; Pacold, Michael E.; Singh, Shambhavi; Moody, Susan E.; DeAngelo, Joseph D.; Spardy, Nicole A.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Weir, Barbara A.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Root, David E.; Asara, John M.; Vazquez, Francisca; Widlund, Hans R.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.


    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). To understand the relationship between oncogenic PIK3CA and OGDH function, we interrogated metabolic requirements and found an increased reliance on glucose metabolism to sustain PIK3CA mutant cell proliferation. Functional metabolic studies revealed that OGDH suppression increased levels of the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). We found that this increase in 2OG levels, either by OGDH suppression or exogenous 2OG treatment, resulted in aspartate depletion that was specifically manifested as auxotrophy within PIK3CA mutant cells. Reduced levels of aspartate deregulated the malate–aspartate shuttle, which is important for cytoplasmic NAD+ regeneration that sustains rapid glucose breakdown through glycolysis. Consequently, because PIK3CA mutant cells exhibit a profound reliance on glucose metabolism, malate–aspartate shuttle deregulation leads to a specific proliferative block due to the inability to maintain NAD+/NADH homeostasis. Together these observations define a precise metabolic vulnerability imposed by a recurrently mutated oncogene. PMID:28396387

  10. Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis. (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C; Gardner, Austin B; Murthy, Niren


    Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD(+)/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis.

  11. Membrane-associated quinoprotein formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. (United States)

    Zahn, J A; Bergmann, D J; Boyd, J M; Kunz, R C; DiSpirito, A A


    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 micromol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)(+)-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159-167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351-5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b(559/569) complex as the physiological electron acceptor.

  12. Membrane-Associated Quinoprotein Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (United States)

    Zahn, James A.; Bergmann, David J.; Boyd, Jeffery M.; Kunz, Ryan C.; DiSpirito, Alan A.


    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 μmol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159–167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351–5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b559/569 complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  13. Novel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Orr

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH is a ubiquinone-linked enzyme in the mitochondrial inner membrane best characterized as part of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Despite the widespread expression of mGPDH and the availability of mGPDH-null mice, the physiological role of this enzyme remains poorly defined in many tissues, likely because of compensatory pathways for cytosolic regeneration of NAD⁺ and mechanisms for glycerol phosphate metabolism. Here we describe a novel class of cell-permeant small-molecule inhibitors of mGPDH (iGP discovered through small-molecule screening. Structure-activity analysis identified a core benzimidazole-phenyl-succinamide structure as being essential to inhibition of mGPDH while modifications to the benzimidazole ring system modulated both potency and off-target effects. Live-cell imaging provided evidence that iGPs penetrate cellular membranes. Two compounds (iGP-1 and iGP-5 were characterized further to determine potency and selectivity and found to be mixed inhibitors with IC₅₀ and K(i values between ∼1-15 µM. These novel mGPDH inhibitors are unique tools to investigate the role of glycerol 3-phosphate metabolism in both isolated and intact systems.

  14. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms. (United States)

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki


    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-peptide antibodies differentiate between plasmodial lactate dehydrogenases. (United States)

    Hurdayal, Ramona; Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Choveaux, David; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Dean Goldring, J P


    Malaria lactate dehydrogenase, a glycolytic enzyme, is a malaria diagnostic target in lateral flow immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests. Recombinant Plasmodium yoelii LDH was cloned into the pET-28a vector, expressed and the expressed protein purified from a Ni-NTA affinity matrix. A pan-malarial LDH antibody directed against a common malaria LDH peptide (APGKSDKEWNRDDLL) and two anti-peptide antibodies, each targeting a unique Plasmodium falciparum (LISDAELEAIFDC) and Plasmodium vivax (KITDEEVEGIFDC) LDH peptide were raised in chickens. The antibodies were affinity purified with the appropriate peptide affinity matrix. The affinity purified anti-peptide antibodies detected recombinant P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. yoelii LDH and native P. falciparum and P. yoelii LDH in western blots and immunofluorescence studies. The pan-malarial antibody detected LDH from the three malaria species in western blots. The species-specific anti-peptide antibodies differentiated between P. falciparum and P. vivax LDH. Affinity purified chicken antibodies against recombinant PfLDH, PvLDH and PyLDH proteins each detected the parent and orthologous proteins with similar titers in an ELISA. The study supports an anti-peptide antibody approach to the development of diagnostic reagents. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica (United States)

    Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile


    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3′-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

  17. Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase in patients with pectus excavatum. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Kim, Chi Kyeong; Park, Hyung Joo; Park, Jae Kil; Moon, Seok Whan; Moon, Young Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jung


    Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity and the depression of the anterior chest wall, which compresses the internal organs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pectus excavatum on blood laboratory findings. From March 2011 to December 2011, 71 patients with pectus excavatum who visited Seoul Saint Mary Hospital for Nuss procedure were reviewed and analyzed. The blood samples were routinely taken at the day before surgery and pectus bar removal was usually performed in 2 to 3 years after Nuss procedure. To investigate the effects on blood laboratory findings, preoperative routine blood laboratory data and postoperative changes of abnormal laboratory data were analyzed. Only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), one of 26 separate routine laboratory tests, was abnormal and significantly elevated than normal value (age pectus excavatum. The symmetric subgroup had significantly higher LDH level than the asymmetric subgroup (p pectus excavatum and the compression of the internal organs. Further studies on LDH including isoenzyme studies in patients with pectus excavatum will be needed, and these studies will provide a deeper and wider comprehension of pectus excavatum.

  18. Structure and Function of Lactate Dehydrogenase from Hagfish

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    Mitsumasa Okada


    Full Text Available The lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs in hagfish have been estimated to be the prototype of those in higher vertebrates. The effects of high hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 100 MPa on LDH activities from three hagfishes were examined. The LDH activities of Eptatretus burgeri, living at 45–60 m, were completely lost at 5 MPa. In contrast, LDH-A and -B in Eptatretus okinoseanus maintained 70% of their activities even at 100 MPa. These results show that the deeper the habitat, the higher the tolerance to pressure. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms for adaptation to high pressure, we compared the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of LDHs in these hagfish. There were differences in six amino acids (6, 10, 20, 156, 269, and 341. These amino acidresidues are likely to contribute to the stability of the E. okinoseanus LDH under high-pressure conditions. The amino acids responsible for the pressure tolerance of hagfish are the same in both human and hagfish LDHs, and one substitution that occurred as an adaptation during evolution is coincident with that observed in a human disease. Mutation of these amino acids can cause anomalies that may be implicated in the development of human diseases.

  19. Binding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to lactate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Zaqout, Mazen S K; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Igisu, Hideki; Wilson, Donald; Myojo, Toshihiko; Ueno, Susumu


    Measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, a commonly used marker of lethal cell injury in both in vitro and in vivo screenings, has been used to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), chemical compounds, and environmental factors. We have recently demonstrated that titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles bind to several serum proteins. In the present study we investigated the binding of TiO₂ NPs to LDH. Purified LDH was incubated with TiO₂ NPs at 37°C for 1 h. The particles were then sedimented by centrifugation, and the activity and quantity of LDH in the supernatant and precipitated fraction were analyzed. Incubation with TiO₂ reduced the LDH activity in the supernatant in a dose-dependent manner, while LDH activity in the precipitated fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a TiO₂ dose-dependent reduction in the quantity of LDH protein in the supernatant and an increase of LDH in particulate re-suspensions. These findings, although based on a purified form of LDH, suggest that TiO₂ NPs bind to LDH, and consequently, TiO₂ NP-induced toxicity could be underestimated by the LDH activity assay.

  20. [Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma]. (United States)

    Agaimy, A


    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represents a type II mitochondrial complex related to the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. The complex is composed of four major subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The oncogenic role of this enzyme complex has only recently been recognized and the complex is currently considered an important oncogenic signaling pathway with tumor suppressor properties. In addition to the familial paraganglioma syndromes (types 1-5) as prototypical SDH-related diseases, many other tumors have been defined as SDH-deficient, in particular a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare hypophyseal adenomas, a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recently added) and a variety of other tumor entities, the latter mainly described as rare case reports. As a central core subunit responsible for the integrity of the SDH complex, the expression of SDHB is lost in all SDH-deficient neoplasms irrespective of the specific SDH subunit affected by a genetic mutation in addition to concurrent loss of the subunit specifically affected by genetic alteration. Accordingly, all SDH-deficient neoplasms are by definition SDHB-deficient. The SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has only recently been well-characterized and it is included as a specific subtype of RCC in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2016. In this review, the major clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of this rare disease entity are presented and discussed in the context of the broad differential diagnosis.

  1. Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in pediatric and adult gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. Belinsky


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs in adults are generally driven by somatic gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, and biological therapies targeted to these receptor tyrosine kinases comprise part of the treatment regimen for metastatic and inoperable GISTs. A minority (10-15% of GISTs in adults, along with ~ 85% of pediatric GISTs, lacks oncogenic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. Not surprisingly these wild type (WT GISTs respond poorly to kinase inhibitor therapy. A subset of WT GISTs shares a set of distinguishing clinical and pathological features, and a flurry of recent reports has convincingly demonstrated shared molecular characteristics. These GISTs have a distinct transcriptional profile including over-expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R, and exhibit deficiency in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH enzyme complex. The latter is often but not always linked to bi-allelic inactivation of SDH subunit genes, particularly SDHA. This review will summarize the molecular, pathological and clinical connections that link this group of SDH-deficient neoplasms, and offer a view towards understanding the underlying biology of the disease and the therapeutic challenges implicit to this biology.

  2. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase with a bound inhibitor. (United States)

    Hurt, Darrell E; Widom, Joanne; Clardy, Jon


    Membrane-associated dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an antimalarial therapeutic target without an effective inhibitor. Studies on human DHODH (HsDHODH) led to a structural mechanistic model in which respiratory quinones bind in a tunnel formed by the highly variable N-terminus that leads to the flavin mononucleotide-binding site. The therapeutic agents leflunomide (Arava) and brequinar sodium inhibit HsDHODH by binding in this tunnel. Plasmodium falciparum DHODH (PfDHODH) and HsDHODH have markedly different sensitivities to the two drugs. To understand the structural basis of this differential sensitivity and begin a structure-based drug-design cycle for PfDHODH inhibitors, the three-dimensional structure (2.4 Angstroms, R = 20.1%) of PfDHODH bound to the active metabolite of leflunomide was determined by X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the structures of HsDHODH and PfDHODH reveals a completely different binding mode for the same inhibitor in these two catalytically identical enzymes and explains the previously observed species-specific preferential binding. Because no effective inhibitors have been described for PfDHODH, this structure provides critical insight for the design of potential antimalarials.

  3. Crystal structure of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Leishmania major. (United States)

    Cordeiro, Artur T; Feliciano, Patricia R; Pinheiro, Matheus P; Nonato, M Cristina


    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is the fourth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and has been exploited as the target for therapy against proliferative and parasitic diseases. In this study, we report the crystal structures of DHODH from Leishmania major, the species of Leishmania associated with zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, in its apo form and in complex with orotate and fumarate molecules. Both orotate and fumarate were found to bind to the same active site and exploit similar interactions, consistent with a ping-pong mechanism described for class 1A DHODHs. Analysis of LmDHODH structures reveals that rearrangements in the conformation of the catalytic loop have direct influence on the dimeric interface. This is the first structural evidence of a relationship between the dimeric form and the catalytic mechanism. According to our analysis, the high sequence and structural similarity observed among trypanosomatid DHODH suggest that a single strategy of structure-based inhibitor design can be used to validate DHODH as a druggable target against multiple neglected tropical diseases such as Leishmaniasis, Sleeping sickness and Chagas' diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.


    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a hidden risk for kernicterus. (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael; Hammerman, Cathy


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, a commonly occurring enzymatic defect, is an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Many of the recently reported cases of kernicterus, even in countries with a low overall incidence of the G-6-PD deficiency such as the United States and Canada, have been found to be enzyme deficient. In many cases the hyperbilirubinemia may be due to acute hemolysis precipitated by exposure to an identifiable chemical trigger, or to infection. In other cases the hemolysis may be mild, the hyperbilirubinemia being due to diminished bilirubin conjugation. An interaction between G-6-PD deficiency and promoter polymorphism for the gene encoding the bilirubin conjugating enzyme, UDP-glucuronosyltranferase 1A1, associated with Gilbert syndrome, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperbilirubinemia. Neonates whose families originated in areas at high risk for G-6-PD deficiency should be vigilantly observed for jaundice. Phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with exchange transfusion being performed in those unresponsive to phototherapy. A high degree of physician awareness is essential in the identification and follow-up of these high-risk neonates.

  6. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Chahma, M’hamed; Appanna, Vasu D., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.


    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  8. Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function

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    Bhubanananda Sahu


    Full Text Available The visual system produces visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal from dietary vitamin A, all-trans-retinol making this vitamin essential for retinal health and function. These metabolic events are mediated by a sequential biochemical process called the visual cycle. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs are responsible for two reactions in the visual cycle performed in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells, photoreceptor cells and Müller cells in the retina. RDHs in the RPE function as 11-cis-RDHs, which oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in vivo. RDHs in rod photoreceptor cells in the retina work as all-trans-RDHs, which reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Dysfunction of RDHs can cause inherited retinal diseases in humans. To facilitate further understanding of human diseases, mouse models of RDHs-related diseases have been carefully examined and have revealed the physiological contribution of specific RDHs to visual cycle function and overall retinal health. Herein we describe the function of RDHs in the RPE and the retina, particularly in rod photoreceptor cells, their regulatory properties for retinoid homeostasis and future therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal diseases.

  9. Enzyme dynamics and hydrogen tunnelling in a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase (United States)

    Kohen, Amnon; Cannio, Raffaele; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Klinman, Judith P.; Klinman, Judith P.


    Biological catalysts (enzymes) speed up reactions by many orders of magnitude using fundamental physical processes to increase chemical reactivity. Hydrogen tunnelling has increasingly been found to contribute to enzyme reactions at room temperature. Tunnelling is the phenomenon by which a particle transfers through a reaction barrier as a result of its wave-like property. In reactions involving small molecules, the relative importance of tunnelling increases as the temperature is reduced. We have now investigated whether hydrogen tunnelling occurs at elevated temperatures in a biological system that functions physiologically under such conditions. Using a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), we find that hydrogen tunnelling makes a significant contribution at 65°C this is analogous to previous findings with mesophilic ADH at 25°C ( ref. 5). Contrary to predictions for tunnelling through a rigid barrier, the tunnelling with the thermophilic ADH decreases at and below room temperature. These findings provide experimental evidence for a role of thermally excited enzyme fluctuations in modulating enzyme-catalysed bond cleavage.

  10. Interaction between lactate dehydrogenase and Tween 80 in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Hillgren, Anna; Evertsson, Hans; Aldén, Maggie


    The weak aqueous interaction between the protein lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 has been investigated, because weak protein-amphiphile interactions are of significant importance in pharmaceutical formulations, but are experimentally hard to determine. The system LDH/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as reference because SDS, by its strong protein binding, denatures LDH completely. Fluorescence spectroscopy with pyrene and 1,3-bis(lphenyl)propane (P3P) as probes, intrinsic protein fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy have been used. The fluorescence probe pyrene monitors a weak Tween-LDH interaction, detectable below the critical micelle concentration of ordinary Tween micelles. The microviscosity probe P3P shows a surfactant-induced denaturation in the case of LDH/SDS but not in the case of LDH/Tween 80. Intrinsic LDH fluorescence verifies this behavior. Pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR was also used to verify the weak LDH-Tween 80 interaction. CONCLUSIONS. A weak interaction between LDH and Tween 80 occurs at hydrophobic zones of the protein, but it is not strong enough to denature LDH. The experimental outline used here provides a useful approach for mapping the very weak protein-amphiphile interactions often present in pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.


    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  12. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faloppi


    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common primary liver tumour (80–90% and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease.

  13. Protein film voltammetry of Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo François; Bernhardt, Paul V; Leimkühler, Silke


    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from the bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the hydroxylation of xanthine to uric acid with NAD(+) as the electron acceptor. R. capsulatus XDH forms an (alphabeta)(2) heterotetramer and is highly homologous to homodimeric eukaryotic XDHs. The crystal structures of bovine XDH and R. capsulatus XDH showed that the two proteins have highly similar folds; however, R.capsulatus XDH is at least 5 times more active than bovine XDH and, unlike mammalian XDH, does not undergo the conversion to the oxidase form. Here we demonstrate electrocatalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli, while immobilized on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite working electrode. Furthermore, we have determined all redox potentials of the four cofactors (Mo(VI/V), Mo(V/IV), FAD/FADH, FADH/FADH(2) and two distinct [2Fe-2S](2+/+) clusters) using a combination of potentiometric and voltammetric methods. A novel feature identified in catalytic voltammetry of XDH concerns the potential for the onset of catalysis (ca. 400 mV), which is at least 600 mV more positive than that of the highest potential cofactor. This unusual observation is explained on the basis of a pterin-associated oxidative switch during voltammetry that precedes catalysis.

  14. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH): episodic evolution of a "neutral" protein. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Trelles, F; Tarrío, R; Ayala, F J


    We investigated the evolution of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) in 34 species from the three multicellular kingdoms, including one plant, two fungi, and three animal phyla, two classes of vertebrates, four orders of mammals, and two orders of insects. We adopted a model-based maximum-likelihood framework of inference. After accounting for among-site rate variation and heterogeneous nucleotide composition of the sequences using the discrete gamma distribution, and using nonhomogeneous nonstationary representations of the substitution process, the rate of amino acid replacement is 30.4 x 10(-10)/site/year when Drosophila species are compared but only approximately 18 x 10(-10)/site/year when comparisons are made between mammal orders, between insect orders, or between different animal phyla and approximately 11 x 10(-10)/site/year when comparisons are made between birds and mammals, between fungi, or between the three multicellular kingdoms. To account for these observations, the rate of amino acid replacement must have been eight or more times higher in some lineages and at some times than in others. Spastic evolution of Xdh appears to be related to the particularities of the genomes in which the locus is embedded.

  15. Xanthine dehydrogenase: An old enzyme with new knowledge and prospects (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Hua; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui


    ABSTRACT Xanthine dehydrogenase (EC, XDH) is a typical and complex molybdenum-containing flavoprotein which has been extensively studied for over 110 years. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of purines, pterin and aldehydes with NAD+ or NADP+ as electron acceptor, and sometimes can be transformed to xanthine oxidase (EC, XOD) capable of utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. XDHs are widely distributed in all eukarya, bacteria and archaea domains, and are proposed to play significant roles in various cellular processes, including purine catabolism and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in both physiological and pathological contexts. The recent applications of XDHs include clinical detections of xanthine and hypoxanthine content in body fluidics, and other diagnostic biomarkers like inorganic phosphorus, 5′-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase. XDHs can also find applications in environmental degradation of pollutants like aldehydes and industrial application in nucleoside drugs like ribavirin. In this commentary, we would outline the latest knowledge on occurrence, structure, biosynthesis, and recent advances of production and applications of XDH, and highlighted the need to develop XDHs with improved performances by gene prospecting and protein engineering, and protocols for efficient production of active XDHs in response to the increasing demands. PMID:27537049

  16. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  17. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters (United States)

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy


    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  18. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on the Baleares. (United States)

    Miguel, A; Ramon, M; Petitpierre, E; Goos, C M; Vermeesch-Markslag, A M; Vermorken, A J


    Two thousand people on the Isles of the Baleares were screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency using a commercially available kit. Among the thousand males tested, five were found deficient; of the thousand women, one had low enzyme activity according to this test. Diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be verified using hair follicle analysis on mailed hair samples. The same technique also allowed heterozygotes to be identified unequivocally.

  19. Isozyme pattern of lactate and malate dehydrogenases of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Amphistomatidae) from different hosts. (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, S; Balasubramanian, M P; Nellaiappan, K; Ramalingam, K


    Isozyme pattern of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of Gastrothylax crumenifer from sheep, goat and buffalo was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. LDH of G. crumenifer from buffalo, goat and sheep consists of four fractions, three fractions and two fractions, respectively. The parasite from buffalo shows two fractions of MDH, whereas those from goats or sheep show only a single fraction. The significance of these results is discussed.

  20. The Rosy Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster: Xanthine Dehydrogenase and Eye Pigments


    Reaume, A. G.; Knecht, D. A.; Chovnick, A.


    The rosy gene in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Mutants that have no enzyme activity are characterized by a brownish eye color phenotype reflecting a deficiency in the red eye pigment. Xanthine dehydrogenase is not synthesized in the eye, but rather is transported there. The present report describes the ultrastructural localization of XDH in the Drosophila eye. Three lines of evidence are presented demonstrating that XDH is sequestered within specif...

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase from Photobacterium phosphoreum shares properties with a mammalian mitochondrial homologue. (United States)

    Pawelek, P D; MacKenzie, R E


    The marine bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum expresses a bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase with dual cofactor specificity. An investigation of the kinetic parameters of the P. phosphoreum enzyme indicate that its utilization of dinucleotide cofactors shares similarities with the human mitochondrial dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase. Both enzymes exhibit dual cofactor specificity and the NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenase activities from both enzymes can be activated by inorganic phosphate. Furthermore, an analysis of multiply aligned dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase sequences from 11 species revealed that bacterial and mitochondrial enzymes are more closely related to each other than to the dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase domains from eukaryotic trifunctional enzymes, and that the bacterial and mitochondrial enzymes share a common point of divergence. Since the NADP+ cofactor is kinetically favoured by a factor of 18 over NAD+, and is therefore likely to be the preferred in vivo cofactor, we propose that the P. phosphoreum enzyme and the human mitochondrial enzyme evolved from a common ancestral dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase with dual cofactor specificity, but that cofactor preference in these two enzymes diverged in response to different metabolic requirements.

  2. Structural Basis for "Flip-Flop" Action of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (United States)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand


    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a component enzyme of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex that plays a major role in directing energy metabolism in the cell. This cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. In alpha(sub 2)beta(sub 2)-tetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, there are two cofactor binding sites, each of them being a center of independently conducted, although highly coordinated enzymatic reactions. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites can now be understood based on the recently determined crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95A resolution. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase was determined using a combination of MAD phasing and molecular replacement followed by rounds of torsion-angles molecular-dynamics simulated-annealing refinement. The final pyruvate dehydrogenase structure included coordinates for all protein amino acids two cofactor molecules, two magnesium and two potassium ions, and 742 water molecules. The structure was refined to R = 0.202 and R(sub free) = 0.244. Our structural analysis of the enzyme folding and domain assembly identified a simple mechanism of this protein motion required for the conduct of catalytic action.

  3. Molecular Basis for Converting (2S-Methylsuccinyl-CoA Dehydrogenase into an Oxidase

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    Simon Burgener


    Full Text Available Although flavoenzymes have been studied in detail, the molecular basis of their dioxygen reactivity is only partially understood. The members of the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase families catalyze similar reactions and share common structural features. However, both enzyme families feature opposing reaction specificities in respect to dioxygen. Dehydrogenases react with electron transfer flavoproteins as terminal electron acceptors and do not show a considerable reactivity with dioxygen, whereas dioxygen serves as a bona fide substrate for oxidases. We recently engineered (2S-methylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase towards oxidase activity by rational mutagenesis. Here we characterized the (2S-methylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase wild-type, as well as the engineered (2S-methylsuccinyl-CoA oxidase, in detail. Using stopped-flow UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS based assays, we explain the molecular base for dioxygen reactivity in the engineered oxidase and show that the increased oxidase function of the engineered enzyme comes at a decreased dehydrogenase activity. Our findings add to the common notion that an increased activity for a specific substrate is achieved at the expense of reaction promiscuity and provide guidelines for rational engineering efforts of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and oxidases.

  4. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition: Reversing the Warburg effect in cancer therapy

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    Hayden Bell


    Full Text Available The poor efficacy of many cancer chemotherapeutics, which are often non-selective and highly toxic, is attributable to the remarkable heterogeneity and adaptability of cancer cells. The Warburg effect describes the up regulation of glycolysis as the main source of adenosine 5’-triphosphate in cancer cells, even under normoxic conditions, and is a unique metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. Mitochondrial suppression is also observed which may be implicated in apoptotic suppression and increased funneling of respiratory substrates to anabolic processes, conferring a survival advantage. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to meticulous regulation, chiefly by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. At the interface between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex functions as a metabolic gatekeeper in determining the fate of glucose, making pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase an attractive candidate in a bid to reverse the Warburg effect in cancer cells. The small pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate has, historically, been used in conditions associated with lactic acidosis but has since gained substantial interest as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic. This review considers the Warburg effect as a unique phenotype of cancer cells in-line with the history of and current approaches to cancer therapies based on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition with particular reference to dichloroacetate and its derivatives.

  5. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in traumatic brain injury and Measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme by dipstick test

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    Sharma Pushpa


    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the role of a mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH on the severity of brain injury, and the effects of pyruvate treatment in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: We examined rats subjected to closed head injury using a fluid percussion device, and treated with sodium pyruvate (antioxidant and substrate for PDH enzyme. At 72 h post injury, blood was analyzed for blood gases, acid-base status, total PDH enzyme using a dipstick test and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as a marker of oxidative stress. Brain homogenates from right hippocampus (injured area were analyzed for PDH content, and immunostained hippocampus sections were used to determine the severity of gliosis and PDH E1-∞ subunit. Results: Our data demonstrate that TBI causes a significant reduction in PDH enzyme, disrupt-acid-base balance and increase oxidative stress in blood. Also, lower PDH enzyme in blood is related to the increased gliosis and loss of its PDH E1-∞ subunit PDH in brain tissue, and these effects of TBI were prevented by pyruvate treatment. Conclusion: Lower PDH enzyme levels in blood are related to the global oxidative stress, increased gliosis in brain, and severity of brain injury following TBI. These effects can be prevented by pyruvate through the protection of PDH enzyme and its subunit E-1.

  6. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. (United States)

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just


    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Targeting aldehyde dehydrogenase: a potential approach for cell labeling

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    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail:; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Storms, Robert W. [Division of Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)


    Introduction: To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods: We developed schemes for the synthesis of two radioiodinated aldehdyes - N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)-at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results: The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis of [{sup 125}I]FMIC and [{sup 125}I]DEIBA were 70{+-}5% and 47{+-}14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion: To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells.

  8. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Solazzi, Moreno; Platano, Daniela; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo


    Impairment of energy metabolism and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seem to play a major role in age-related apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important marker of the mitochondrial capability to provide an adequate amount of ATP. Moreover, because of its unique redox properties, SDH activity contributes to maintain the reduced state of the ubiquinone pool. Recent reports have shown that ketone body intake improves cardiac metabolic efficiency and exerts a cardioprotective antioxidant action, we therefore performed a cytochemical investigation of SDH activity in cardiomyocytes of late-adult (19-month-old) rats fed for 8 weeks with a medium-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet (MCT-KD). Young, age-matched and old animals fed with a standard chow were used as controls. The overall area of the precipitates (PA) from SDH activity and the area of the SDH-positive mitochondria (MA) were measured. The percent ratios PA/MA and MA/total myocardial tissue area (MA/TA) were the parameters taken into account. We found that PA/MA was significantly higher in young control rats and in MCT-KD-fed rats versus late-adult and old control rats and in young control versus MCT-KD-fed rats. MA/TA of MCT-KD-fed rats was significantly higher versus age-matched and old control rats and tended to be higher versus young control rats; this parameter was significantly higher in young versus old control rats. Thus, MCT-KD intake partially recovers age-related decrease of SDH activity and increases the myocardial area occupied by metabolically active mitochondria. These effects might counteract metabolic alterations leading to apoptosis-induced myocardial atrophy and failure during aging.

  9. The expression of succinate dehydrogenase in breast phyllodes tumor. (United States)

    Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, WooHee; Koo, Ja Seung


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, SDHB, and HIF-1α in phyllodes tumors and the association with clinic-pathologic factors. Using tissue microarray (TMA) for 206 phyllodes tumor cases, we performed immunohistochemical stains for SDHA, SDHB, and HIF-1α and analyzed their expression in regard to clinicopathologic parameters of each case. The cases were comprised of 156 benign, 34 borderline, and 16 malignant phyllodes tumors. The expression of stromal SDHA and epithelial- and stromal- SDHB increased as the tumor progressed from benign to malignant (P⟨0.001). There were five stromal SDHA-negative cases and 31 stromal SDHB-negative cases. SDHB negativity was associated with a lower histologic grade (P=0.054) and lower stromal atypia (P=0.048). Univariate analysis revealed that a shorter disease free survival (DFS) was associated with stromal SDHB high-positivity (P=0.013) and a shorter overall survival (OS) was associated with high-positivity of stromal SDHA and SDHB (P⟨0.001 and P⟨0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox analysis with the variables stromal cellularity, stromal atypia, stromal mitosis, stromal overgrowth, tumor margin, stromal SDHA expression, and stromal SDHB expression revealed that stromal overgrowth was associated with a shorter DFS (hazard ratio: 24.78, 95% CI: 3.126-196.5, P=0.002) and a shorter OS (hazard ratio: 176.7, 95% CI: 8.466-3691, P=0.001). In conclusion, Tumor grade is positively correlated with SDHA and SDHB expression in the tumor stroma in phyllodes tumors of the breast. This result may be attributed to the increased metabolic demand in high grade tumors.

  10. Detergent-dependent kinetics of truncated Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Malmquist, Nicholas A; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Phillips, Margaret A


    The survival of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dependent upon the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. P. falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) catalyzes the fourth step in this pathway in an FMN-dependent reaction. The full-length enzyme is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, where ubiquinone (CoQ) serves as the terminal electron acceptor. The lipophilic nature of the co-substrate suggests that electron transfer to CoQ occurs at the two-dimensional lipid-solution interface. Here we show that PfDHODH associates with liposomes even in the absence of the N-terminal transmembrane-spanning domain. The association of a series of ubiquinone substrates with detergent micelles was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, and the data reveal that CoQ analogs with long decyl (CoQ(D)) or geranyl (CoQ(2)) tails partition into detergent micelles, whereas that with a short prenyl tail (CoQ(1)) remains in solution. PfDHODH-catalyzed reduction of CoQ(D) and CoQ(2), but not CoQ(1), is stimulated as detergent concentrations (Tween 80 or Triton X-100) are increased up to their critical micelle concentrations, beyond which activity declines. Steady-state kinetic data acquired for the reaction with CoQ(D) and CoQ(2) in substrate-detergent mixed micelles fit well to a surface dilution kinetic model. In contrast, the data for CoQ(1) as a substrate were well described by solution steady-state kinetics. Our results suggest that the partitioning of lipophilic ubiquinone analogues into detergent micelles needs to be an important consideration in the kinetic analysis of enzymes that utilize these substrates.

  11. Ebselen: Mechanisms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Glutaminase Enzyme Inhibition. (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Yanhong; Zhou, Jie; Ruan, Haoqiang; Zhao, Han; Lu, Shiying; Zhang, Yue; Li, Di; Ji, Xiaoyun; Ruan, Benfang Helen


    Ebselen modulates target proteins through redox reactions with selenocysteine/cysteine residues, or through binding to the zinc finger domains. However, a recent contradiction in ebselen inhibition of kidney type glutaminase (KGA) stimulated our interest in investigating its inhibition mechanism with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), KGA, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and glutathione S-transferase. Fluorescein- or biotin-labeled ebselen derivatives were synthesized for mechanistic analyses. Biomolecular interaction analyses showed that only GDH, KGA, and TrxR proteins can bind to the ebselen derivative, and the binding to GDH and KGA could be competed off by glutamine or glutamate. From the gel shift assays, the fluorescein-labeled ebselen derivative could co-migrate with hexameric GDH and monomeric/dimeric TrxR in a dose-dependent manner; it also co-migrated with KGA but disrupted the tetrameric form of the KGA enzyme at a high compound concentration. Further proteomic analysis demonstrated that the ebselen derivative could cross-link with proteins through a specific cysteine at the active site of GDH and TrxR proteins, but for KGA protein, the binding site is at the N-terminal appendix domain outside of the catalytic domain, which might explain why ebselen is not a potent KGA enzyme inhibitor in functional assays. In conclusion, ebselen could inhibit enzyme activity by binding to the catalytic domain or disruption of the protein complex. In addition, ebselen is a relatively potent selective GDH inhibitor that might provide potential therapeutic opportunities for hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome patients who have the mutational loss of GTP inhibition.

  12. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes. (United States)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S


    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metabolic control analysis of eucaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. (United States)

    Modak, Jayant; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter; Zeng, An-Ping


    Metabolic control analysis (MCA) of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme (PDH) complex of eucaryotic cells has been carried out using both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic models. Flux control coefficients (FCC) for the sensitivity of pyruvate decarboxylation rate to activities of various PDH complex reactions are determined. FCCs are shown to be strong functions of both pyruvate levels and various components of PDH complex. With the in vitro model, FCCs are shown to be sensitive to only the E1 component of the PDH complex at low pyruvate concentrations. At high pyruvate concentrations, the control is shared by all of the components, with E1 having a negative influence while the other three components, E2, X, and K, exert a positive control over the pyruvate decarboxylation rate. An unusual behavior of deactivation of the E1 component leading to higher net PDH activity is shown to be linked to the combined effect of protein X acylation and E1 deactivation. The steady-state analysis of the in vivo model reveals multiple steady state behavior of pyruvate metabolism with two stable and one unstable steady-states branches. FCCs also display multiplicity, showing completely different control distribution exerted by pyruvate and PDH components on three branches. At low pyruvate concentrations, pyruvate supply dominates the decarboxylation rate and PDH components do not exert any significant control. Reverse control distribution is observed at high pyruvate concentration. The effect of dilution due to cell growth on pyruvate metabolism is investigated in detail. While pyruvate dilution effects are shown to be negligible under all conditions, significant PDH complex dilution effects are observed under certain conditions. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo models shows that PDH components exert different degrees of control outside and inside the cells. At high pyruvate levels, PDH components are shown to exert a higher degree of control when reactions are taking place inside

  14. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis

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    Barretto O.C. de O.


    Full Text Available In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 ± 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 ± 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 µM for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 µM were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively. A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  15. Full Enzyme Complex Simulation: Interactions in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex. (United States)

    Hezaveh, Samira; Zeng, An-Ping; Jandt, Uwe


    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a large macromolecular machine consisting of dozens of interacting enzymes that are connected and regulated by highly flexible domains, also called swinging arms. The overall structure and function of these domains and how they organize the complex function have not been elucidated in detail to date. This lack of structural and dynamic understanding is frequently observed in multidomain enzymatic complexes. Here we present the first full and dynamic structural model of full human PDC (hPDC), including binding of the linking arms to the surrounding E1 and E3 enzymes via their binding domains with variable stoichiometries. All of the linking domains were modeled at atomistic and coarse-grained levels, and the latter was parametrized to reproduce the same properties of those from the atomistic model. The radii of gyration of the wild-type full complex and functional trimeric subunits were in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, the E1 and E3 population effect on the overall structure of the full complex was studied. The results indicated that decreasing the number of E1s increases the flexibility of the now nonoccupied arms. Furthermore, their flexibility depends on the presence of other E1s and E3s in the vicinity, even if they are associated with other arms. As one consequence, the radius of gyration decreases with decreasing number of E1s. This effect also provides an indication of the optimal configuration of E1 and E3 on the basis of the assumption that a certain stability of the enymatic cloud is necessary to avoid free metabolic diffusion of intermediates (metabolic channeling). Our approach and results open a window for future enzyme engineering in a more effective way by evaluating the effect of different linker arm lengths, flexibilities, and combinations of mutations on the activity of other complex enzymes that involve flexible domains, including for example processive enzymes.

  16. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

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    Stephen eTechtmann


    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  17. Catalytic Properties and Classification of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from Ascomycetes▿ † (United States)

    Harreither, Wolfgang; Sygmund, Christoph; Augustin, Manfred; Narciso, Melanie; Rabinovich, Mikhail L.; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland


    Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) genes are frequently discovered in various fungi by genome sequencing projects. The expression of CDH, an extracellular flavocytochrome, is well studied in white rot basidiomycetes and is attributed to extracellular lignocellulose degradation. CDH has also been reported for plant-pathogenic or saprotrophic ascomycetes, but the molecular and catalytic properties of these enzymes are currently less investigated. This study links various ascomycetous cdh genes with the molecular and catalytic characteristics of the mature proteins and suggests a differentiation of ascomycete class II CDHs into two subclasses, namely, class IIA and class IIB, in addition to the recently introduced class III of hypothetical ascomycete CDHs. This new classification is based on sequence and biochemical data obtained from sequenced fungal genomes and a screening of 40 ascomycetes. Thirteen strains showed CDH activity when they were grown on cellulose-based media, and Chaetomium atrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were selected for detailed studies. In these strains, one or two cdh-encoding genes were found that stem either from class IIA and contain a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module or from class IIB without such a module. In several strains, both genes were found. Regarding substrate specificity, class IIB CDHs show a less pronounced substrate specificity for cellobiose than class IIA enzymes. A pH-dependent pattern of the intramolecular electron transfer was also observed, and the CDHs were classified into three groups featuring acidic, intermediate, or alkaline pH optima. The pH optimum, however, does not correlate with the CDH subclasses and is most likely a species-dependent adaptation to different habitats. PMID:21216904

  18. Catalytic properties and classification of cellobiose dehydrogenases from ascomycetes. (United States)

    Harreither, Wolfgang; Sygmund, Christoph; Augustin, Manfred; Narciso, Melanie; Rabinovich, Mikhail L; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland


    Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) genes are frequently discovered in various fungi by genome sequencing projects. The expression of CDH, an extracellular flavocytochrome, is well studied in white rot basidiomycetes and is attributed to extracellular lignocellulose degradation. CDH has also been reported for plant-pathogenic or saprotrophic ascomycetes, but the molecular and catalytic properties of these enzymes are currently less investigated. This study links various ascomycetous cdh genes with the molecular and catalytic characteristics of the mature proteins and suggests a differentiation of ascomycete class II CDHs into two subclasses, namely, class IIA and class IIB, in addition to the recently introduced class III of hypothetical ascomycete CDHs. This new classification is based on sequence and biochemical data obtained from sequenced fungal genomes and a screening of 40 ascomycetes. Thirteen strains showed CDH activity when they were grown on cellulose-based media, and Chaetomium atrobrunneum, Corynascus thermophilus, Dichomera saubinetii, Hypoxylon haematostroma, Neurospora crassa, and Stachybotrys bisbyi were selected for detailed studies. In these strains, one or two cdh-encoding genes were found that stem either from class IIA and contain a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module or from class IIB without such a module. In several strains, both genes were found. Regarding substrate specificity, class IIB CDHs show a less pronounced substrate specificity for cellobiose than class IIA enzymes. A pH-dependent pattern of the intramolecular electron transfer was also observed, and the CDHs were classified into three groups featuring acidic, intermediate, or alkaline pH optima. The pH optimum, however, does not correlate with the CDH subclasses and is most likely a species-dependent adaptation to different habitats.

  19. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

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    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Rubach, Jon K.; Brown, Eric N.; Ramaswamy, S. (Iowa)


    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.

  20. Isolation and Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes from Rhizopus oryzae (United States)

    Skory, Christopher D.


    Rhizopus oryzae is used for industrial production of lactic acid, yet little is known about the genetics of this fungus. In this study I cloned two genes, ldhA and ldhB, which code for NAD+-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) (EC, from a lactic acid-producing strain of R. oryzae. These genes are similar to each other and exhibit more than 90% nucleotide sequence identity and they contain no introns. This is the first description of ldh genes in a fungus, and sequence comparisons revealed that these genes are distinct from previously isolated prokaryotic and eukaryotic ldh genes. Protein sequencing of the LDH isolated from R. oryzae during lactic acid production confirmed that ldhA codes for a 36-kDa protein that converts pyruvate to lactate. Production of LdhA was greatest when glucose was the carbon source, followed by xylose and trehalose; all of these sugars could be fermented to lactic acid. Transcripts from ldhB were not detected when R. oryzae was grown on any of these sugars but were present when R. oryzae was grown on glycerol, ethanol, and lactate. I hypothesize that ldhB encodes a second NAD+-dependent LDH that is capable of converting l-lactate to pyruvate and is produced by cultures grown on these nonfermentable substrates. Both ldhA and ldhB restored fermentative growth to Escherichia coli (ldhA pfl) mutants so that they grew anaerobically and produced lactic acid. PMID:10831409

  1. Update on the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH superfamily

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    Jackson Brian


    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH superfamily play an important role in the enzymic detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and in the formation of molecules that are important in cellular processes, like retinoic acid, betaine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. ALDHs exhibit additional, non-enzymic functions, including the capacity to bind to some hormones and other small molecules and to diminish the effects of ultraviolet irradiation in the cornea. Mutations in ALDH genes leading to defective aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and type II hyperprolinaemia. Interestingly, several ALDH enzymes appear to be markers for normal and cancer stem cells. The superfamily is evolutionarily ancient and is represented within Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya taxa. Recent improvements in DNA and protein sequencing have led to the identification of many new ALDH family members. To date, the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Whole-genome sequencing allows for comparison of the entire complement of ALDH family members among organisms. This paper provides an update of ALDH genes in several recently sequenced vertebrates and aims to clarify the associated records found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI gene database. It also highlights where and when likely gene-duplication and gene-loss events have occurred. This information should be useful to future studies that might wish to compare the role of ALDH members among species and how the gene superfamily as a whole has changed throughout evolution.

  2. [Glutamate dehydrogenase. Its diagnostic value in Clostridioides difficile diarrhea]. (United States)

    Vaustat, Daniela; Rollet, Raquel


    Clostridioides difficile is the main etiological agent of diarrhea associated with health care, it produces toxins and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme that is highly conserved in this species. Rapid diagnosis and effective treatment produce prompt improvement of the patient and subsequent control of the microorganism spread. There are several techniques whose results are interpreted in the context of algorithms. However, the optimal diagnostic method is yet unknown. The performance of GDH as a screening test for the diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea was assessed. Six hundred and fifteen stool samples were studied. The presence of GDH and toxins presence was determined by TECHLAB® C. DIFF QUIK-CHEK COMPLETE and the samples were cultured for the search of C. difficile. The values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated with a p value of 0.05 or less. GDH was detected in 266 samples (43.25%), with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.10%, IC95: 84.58-91.42; toxin/s were detected in 218 (35.45%) and C. difficile developed in 235 cultures (38.21%). From 48 samples with positive GDH and negative toxin/s, 15 toxigenic and 2 non-toxigenic isolates were obtained, the remaining 31 samples were negative for C. difficile. All GDH-negative samples were negative for toxins or culture, therefore, GDH NPV was 100%, while PPV was 81.9%. We conclude that GDH is a suitable screening test for the diagnostic algorithm of C. difficile diarrhea. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro biosynthesis of 3-mercaptolactate by lactate dehydrogenases. (United States)

    Andreeßen, Christina; Wolf, Natalie; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander


    3-Mercaptolactate (3ML) is an interesting mercapto compound with special regard to the biosynthesis of new polythioesters (PTEs). Unfortunately, this thioester analog of lactic acid is currently not commercially available. For this reason, we developed an in vitro biosynthesis pathway to convert cysteine to 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MPy), which is then rapidly and efficiently converted to 3ML by suitable lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs). As liver LDH from Rattus norvegicus (LDHRn) was previously described to Exhibit 3MPy reduction activity, in silico studies based on homology to LDHRn were performed and led to the identification of four potentially suitable bacterial LDH candidates from Escherichia coli (LDHEc), Corynebacterium glutamicum (LDHCg), Bacillus cereus (LDHBc) and Gloeobacter violaceus (LDHGv). After heterologous expression in E. coli followed by purification, the enzymes were assessed for their potential to reduce 3MPy to 3ML in comparison to LDHRn. With 3MPy, LDHs from E. coli, C. glutamicum and B. cereus showed no or only very low specific activities of 0.23±0.1U/mg (LDHCg) and 0.08±0.2U/mg (LDHBc), respectively. In contrast, LDHGv exhibited a remarkable specific activity of 63.6±8.1U/mg, being even twice as active as the R. norvegicus LDH. To verify LDH-catalyzed biosynthesis of 3ML we developed and optimized a detection method allowing qualitative analysis and quantification of 3MPy and 3ML by derivatization with Ellman's reagent and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study shows once more the impressive versatility of LDHs and presents a rapid and efficient biosynthesis process for 3ML, a biotechnologically interesting, yet hard-to-obtain, compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Nisler, Jaroslav; Kopečný, David; Končitíková, Radka; Zatloukal, Marek; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, Karel; Zalabák, David; Briozzo, Pierre; Strnad, Miroslav; Spíchal, Lukáš


    Two new TDZ derivatives (HETDZ and 3FMTDZ) are very potent inhibitors of CKX and are promising candidates for in vivo studies. Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. We used in silico modeling to design, synthesize and characterize twenty new TDZ derivatives with improved inhibitory properties. Two compounds, namely 1-[1,2,3]thiadiazol-5-yl-3-(3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)urea (3FMTDZ) and 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (HETDZ), displayed up to 15-fold lower IC 50 values compared with TDZ for AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX4a from Zea mays. Binding modes of 3FMTDZ and HETDZ were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure complexes, solved at 2.0 Å resolution, revealed that HETDZ and 3FMTDZ bound differently in the active site of ZmCKX4a: the thiadiazolyl ring of 3FMTDZ was positioned over the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, whereas that of HETDZ had the opposite orientation, pointing toward the entrance of the active site. The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies.

  5. Phosphorylation of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase in hypoxia. (United States)

    Kayyali, U S; Donaldson, C; Huang, H; Abdelnour, R; Hassoun, P M


    The enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disease processes, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, because of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species. The expression of XO and its precursor xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is regulated at pre- and posttranslational levels by agents such as lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia. Posttranslational modification of the protein, for example through thiol oxidation or proteolysis, has been shown to be important in converting XDH to XO. The possibility of posttranslational modification of XDH/XO through phosphorylation has not been adequately investigated in mammalian cells, and studies have reported conflicting results. The present report demonstrates that XDH/XO is phosphorylated in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMEC) and that phosphorylation is greatly increased ( approximately 50-fold) in response to acute hypoxia (4 h). XDH/XO phosphorylation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by casein kinase II and p38 kinase as inhibitors of these kinases partially prevent XDH/XO phosphorylation. In addition, the results indicate that p38 kinase, a stress-activated kinase, becomes activated in response to hypoxia (an approximately 4-fold increase after 1 h of exposure of RPMEC to hypoxia) further supporting a role for this kinase in hypoxia-stimulated XDH/XO phosphorylation. Finally, hypoxia-induced XDH/XO phosphorylation is accompanied by a 2-fold increase in XDH/XO activity, which is prevented by inhibitors of phosphorylation. In summary, this study shows that XDH/XO is phosphorylated in hypoxic RPMEC through a mechanism involving p38 kinase and casein kinase II and that phosphorylation is necessary for hypoxia-induced enzymatic activation.

  6. Impaired oxygenation and increased hemolysis after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. (United States)

    Gerrah, Rabin; Shargal, Yaron; Elami, Amir


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the damaging effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, ischemia, and reperfusion would be more pronounced in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency undergoing cardiac surgery. Forty-two patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency underwent open heart procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass. This group was matched with a control group of identical size for comparison of operative course and postoperative outcome. The perioperative variables were compared between the two groups using univariate and multivariate analysis. The duration of ventilation after the operation was significantly longer in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient group (13.7 +/- 7.6 hours versus 7.7 +/- 2.8 hours; p < 0.0001). Minimal value of arterial oxygen tension was lower in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (66 +/- 12 mm Hg versus 85 +/- 14 mm Hg; p < 0.0001), and more cases of hypoxia (arterial oxygen tension < 60 mm Hg) were found in this group (11 versus 1; p = 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency had significantly elevated hemolytic indices expressed by bilirubin levels (26 +/- 10 mmol/L versus 17 +/- 6.7 mmol/L; p < 0.0001) and lactic dehydrogenase levels (970 +/- 496 U/L versus 505 +/- 195 U/L; p < 0.0001). They also required significantly more blood transfusion perioperatively (1.9 +/- 1.4 packed cell units/patient versus 0.8 +/- 1.0 packed cell units/patient; p = 0.0001). Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency who are undergoing cardiac surgery may have a more complicated course with a longer ventilation time, more hypoxia, increased hemolysis, and a need for more blood transfusion. Because this difference may be caused by subnormal free radical deactivation, strategies that minimize bypass in general and free radicals specifically may be beneficial.

  7. Alteration in substrate specificity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by an acyclic nicotinamide analog of NAD(+). (United States)

    Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J


    A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

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    Rodrigues Valnês


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1 is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1. There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM. The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4 μM and 134 (± 21, respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs.

  9. Simultaneous immobilization of dehydrogenases on polyvinylidene difluoride resin after separation by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, Youji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Science Section) and Venture Business Laboratory, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama City 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kadota, Mariko [Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan)


    We detected mouse liver malate, sorbitol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by negative staining, analysis of malate and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities using each substrate, and electron transfers including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nitroblue tetrazolium in non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel. Dehydrogenases were also identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) after 2-DE separation and protein detection by negative staining. Spots of dehydrogenases separated by 2-DE were excised, and simultaneously transferred and immobilized on polyvinylidene difuoride (PVDF) resin by electrophoresis. The dehydrogenase activities remained intact after immobilization. In conclusion, resin-immobilized dehydrogenases can be simultaneously obtained after separation by non-denaturing 2-DE, detection by negative staining and transferring to resins.

  10. Comparison of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases and benzaldehyde dehydrogenases from the benzyl alcohol and mandelate pathways in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and from the TOL-plasmid-encoded toluene pathway in Pseudomonas putida. N-terminal amino acid sequences, amino acid compositions and immunological cross-reactions. (United States)

    Chalmers, R M; Keen, J N; Fewson, C A


    1. N-Terminal sequences were determined for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase I and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus N.C.I.B. 8250, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by the TOL plasmid pWW53 in Pseudomonas putida MT53 and yeast K(+)-activated aldehyde dehydrogenase. Comprehensive details of the sequence determinations have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50161 (5 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa. Wetherby. West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1991) 273. 5. The extent of sequence similarity suggests that the benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases are related to each other and also to established members of the family of long-chain Zn2(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter appears to be related to the Pseudomonas TOL-plasmid-encoded benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The yeast K(+)-activated aldehyde dehydrogenase has similarity of sequence with the mammalian liver cytoplasmic class of aldehyde dehydrogenases but not with any of the Acinetobacter or Pseudomonas enzymes. 2. Antisera were raised in rabbits against the three Acinetobacter enzymes and both of the Pseudomonas enzymes, and the extents of the cross-reactions were determined by immunoprecipitation assays with native antigens and by immunoblotting with SDS-denatured antigens. Cross-reactions were detected between the alcohol dehydrogenases and also among the aldehyde dehydrogenases. This confirms the interpretation of the N-terminal sequence comparisons and also indicates that benzaldehyde dehydrogenase I from Acinetobacter may be related to the other two benzaldehyde dehydrogenases. 3. The amino acid compositions of the Acinetobacter and the Pseudomonas enzymes were determined and the numbers of amino acid residues per subunit were calculated to be: benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase

  11. D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases during invertebrate evolution

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    Stillman Jonathon H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L-lactate and D-lactate dehydrogenases, which are involved in the reduction of pyruvate to L(--lactate and D(+-lactate, belong to evolutionarily unrelated enzyme families. The genes encoding L-LDH have been used as a model for gene duplication due to the multiple paralogs found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic studies have suggested that several gene duplication events led to the main isozymes of this gene family in chordates, but little is known about the evolution of L-Ldh in invertebrates. While most invertebrates preferentially oxidize L-lactic acid, several species of mollusks, a few arthropods and polychaetes were found to have exclusively D-LDH enzymatic activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that L-LDH and D-LDH are mutually exclusive. However, recent characterization of putative mammalian D-LDH with significant similarity to yeast proteins showing D-LDH activity suggests that at least mammals have the two naturally occurring forms of LDH specific to L- and D-lactate. This study describes the phylogenetic relationships of invertebrate L-LDH and D-LDH with special emphasis on crustaceans, and discusses gene duplication events during the evolution of L-Ldh. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of L-LDH in vertebrates are consistent with the general view that the main isozymes (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C evolved through a series of gene duplications after the vertebrates diverged from tunicates. We report several gene duplication events in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex, and the leech, Helobdella robusta. Several amino acid sequences with strong similarity to putative mammalian D-LDH and to yeast DLD1 with D-LDH activity were found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Conclusion The presence of both L-Ldh and D-Ldh genes in several chordates and invertebrates suggests that the two enzymatic forms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Although, the evolution of L-Ldh has been punctuated by

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children. (United States)

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C


    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  13. Soil dehydrogenase activity of natural macro aggregates in a toposequence of forest soil

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    Maira Kussainova


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine changes in soil dehydrogenase activity in natural macro aggregates development along a slope in forest soils. This study was carried out in Kocadag, Samsun, Turkey. Four landscape positions i.e., summit, shoulder backslope and footslope, were selected. For each landseape position, soil macro aggregates were separated into six aggregate size classes using a dry sieving method and then dehydrogenase activity was analyzed. In this research, topography influenced the macroaggregate size and dehydrogenase activity within the aggregates. At all landscape positions, the contents of macro aggregates (especially > 6.3 mm and 2.00–4.75 mm in all soil samples were higher than other macro aggregate contents. In footslope position, the soils had generally the higher dehydrogenase activity than the other positions at all landscape positions. In all positions, except for shoulder, dehydrogenase activity was greater macro aggregates of <1 mm than in the other macro aggregate size.

  14. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

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    Koji Sode


    Full Text Available Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3. We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo


    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo


    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  17. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a glucose dehydrogenase from a hay infusion metagenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Basner

    Full Text Available Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate exhibited an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding for a peptide of 328 amino acids. The isolated enzyme showed typical sequence motifs of short-chain-dehydrogenases using NAD(P as a co-factor and had a sequence similarity between 33 and 35% to characterized glucose dehydrogenases from different Bacillus species. The identified glucose dehydrogenase gene was expressed in E. coli, purified and subsequently characterized. The enzyme, belonging to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases, shows a broad substrate range with a high affinity to glucose, xylose and glucose-6-phosphate. Due to its ability to be strongly associated with its cofactor NAD(P, the enzyme is able to directly transfer electrons from glucose oxidation to external electron acceptors by regenerating the cofactor while being still associated to the protein.

  18. [Homology modeling and molecular docking of xylitol dehydrogenase from Aspergillus Oryzae]. (United States)

    Chen, Hongwen; Gou, Yuanbo; Zhang, Ka; Fang, Baishan


    We investigated the structure model and function of xylitol dehydrogenase from Aspergillus oryzae. Xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and sequenced. We constructed four tertiary structure models of XDH by homology modeling with Swiss-MODEL and Modeller and obtained the best quality model by evaluation of PROCHECK and Prosa2003. The dockings of NAD+, Zn2+ and xylitol with XDH were performed by Molsoft program. Structure analysis suggested that XDH was a member of medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) family. This was supported by the presence of the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase signature and a typical alcohol dehydrogenase Rossmann fold pattern composed by NAD+ binding domain present in MDR superfamily. The molecular docking indicated that amino acid residues Asp206, Arg211, Ser255, Ser301 and Arg303 in XDH binding domain had hydrogen bonding with NAD+, His72 and Glu73 in catalytic domain had hydrogen bonding with Zn2+, Ile46, Ile349, Lys350 and Thr351 in catalytic domain had hydrogen bonding with xylitol. These key amino acid residues might play a vital role in the XDH catalytic reaction and can instruct the further directed modification of XDH.

  19. Construction of an integrated enzyme system consisting azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase for dye removal. (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Wei, Buqing; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Jun


    Azo dyes are toxic and carcinogenic and are often present in industrial effluents. In this research, azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase were coupled for both continuous generation of the cofactor NADH and azo dye removal. The results show that 85% maximum relative activity of azoreductase in an integrated enzyme system was obtained at the conditions: 1U azoreductase:10U glucose 1-dehydrogenase, 250mM glucose, 1.0mM NAD(+) and 150μM methyl red. Sensitivity analysis of the factors in the enzyme system affecting dye removal examined by an artificial neural network model shows that the relative importance of enzyme ratio between azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase was 22%, followed by dye concentration (27%), NAD(+) concentration (23%) and glucose concentration (22%), indicating none of the variables could be ignored in the enzyme system. Batch results show that the enzyme system has application potential for dye removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective inhibition of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by a metabolite of hypoglycin. (United States)

    Kean, E A


    Extracts of liver mitochondria from donor rats given hypoglycin, the toxic amino acid from the ackee plant (Blighia sapida) showed drastically reduced levels of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity with butyryl-CoA as substrate. Activity with octanoyl- and palmitoyl-CoA was unaffected. Evidence that the active agent is methylenecyclopropylacetyl-CoA, a hypoglycin metabolite, was obtained by observing effects of the compound on a partially purified enzyme mixture prepared from rabbit liver. At 13 muM concentration, it strongly inhibited butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC with butyryl-CoA as substrate; it was far less effective with palmitoyl-CoA as substrate for the other similar enzymes present in the preparation. Unlike normal substrates of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, the compound itself, and not a reaction product, is inhibitory. The observed effect is consistent with quite general inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation by hypoglycin.

  1. Design and synthesis of potent inhibitors of the malaria parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Heikkilä, Timo; Ramsey, Christopher; Davies, Matthew; Galtier, Christophe; Stead, Andrew M W; Johnson, A Peter; Fishwick, Colin W G; Boa, Andrew N; McConkey, Glenn A


    Pyrimidine biosynthesis presents an attractive drug target in malaria parasites due to the absence of a pyrimidine salvage pathway. A set of compounds designed to inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) was synthesized. PfDHODH-specific inhibitors with low nanomolar binding affinities were identified that bind in the N-terminal hydrophobic channel of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, the presumed site of ubiquinone binding during oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate. These compounds also prevented growth of cultured parasites at low micromolar concentrations. Models that suggest the mode of inhibitor binding is based on shape complementarity, matching hydrophobic regions of inhibitor and enzyme, and interaction of inhibitors with amino acid residues F188, H185, and R265 are supported by mutagenesis data. These results further highlight PfDHODH as a promising new target for chemotherapeutic intervention in prevention of malaria and provide better understanding of the factors that determine specificity over human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

  2. Homology modelling and docking analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus thermopilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir R.


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create a three-dimensional model of L-lactate dehydrogenase from the main yoghurt starter culture - Streptococcus thermopilus, to analyse its structural features and investigate substrate binding in the active site. NCBI BlastP was used against the Protein Data Bank database in order to identify the template for construction of homology models. Multiple sequence alignment was performed using the program MUSCULE within the UGENE 1.11.3 program. Homology models were constructed using the program Modeller v. 9.17. The obtained 3D model was verified by Ramachandran plots. Molecular docking simulations were performed using the program Surflex-Dock. The highest sequence similarity was observed with L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, with 69% identity. Therefore, its structure (PDB ID: 2ZQY:A was selected as a modelling template for homology modelling. Active residues are by sequence similarity predicted: S. thermophilus - HIS181 and S. aureus - HIS179. Binding energy of pyruvate to L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus was - 7.874 kcal/mol. Pyruvate in L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus makes H bonds with catalytic HIS181 (1.9 Å, as well as with THR235 (3.6 Å. Although our results indicate similar position of substrates between L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus and S. aureus, differences in substrate distances and binding energy values could influence the reaction rate. Based on these results, the L-lactate dehydrogenase model proposed here could be used as a guide for further research, such as transition states of the reaction through molecular dynamics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  3. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Production of superoxide/H2O2 by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Brand, Martin D


    Dehydrogenases that use ubiquinone as an electron acceptor, including complex I of the respiratory chain, complex II, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are known to be direct generators of superoxide and/or H2O2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase oxidizes dihydroorotate to orotate and reduces ubiquinone to ubiquinol during pyrimidine metabolism, but it is unclear whether it produces superoxide and/or H2O2 directly or does so only indirectly from other sites in the electron transport chain. Using mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle we establish that dihydroorotate oxidation leads to superoxide/H2O2 production at a fairly high rate of about 300pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) when oxidation of ubiquinol is prevented and complex II is uninhibited. This H2O2 production is abolished by brequinar or leflunomide, known inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Eighty percent of this rate is indirect, originating from site IIF of complex II, because it can be prevented by malonate or atpenin A5, inhibitors of complex II. In the presence of inhibitors of all known sites of superoxide/H2O2 production (rotenone to inhibit sites in complex I (site IQ and, indirectly, site IF), myxothiazol to inhibit site IIIQo in complex III, and malonate plus atpenin A5 to inhibit site IIF in complex II), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase generates superoxide/H2O2, at a small but significant rate (23pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1)), from the ubiquinone-binding site. We conclude that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase can generate superoxide and/or H2O2 directly at low rates and is also capable of indirect production at higher rates from other sites through its ability to reduce the ubiquinone pool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by peptide and protein peroxides generated by singlet oxygen attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    the active-site thiol of the enzyme and the peroxide. A number of low-molecular-mass compounds including thiols and ascorbate, but not Trolox C, can prevent inhibition by removing the initial peroxide, or species derived from it. In contrast, glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase are poorly......Reaction of certain peptides and proteins with singlet oxygen (generated by visible light in the presence of rose bengal dye) yields long-lived peptide and protein peroxides. Incubation of these peroxides with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in the absence of added metal ions, results...

  6. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.


    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...... for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited....

  7. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Øjvind; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism...... previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD. PMID: 17883863 [PubMed - in process]...

  8. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil


    BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....

  9. Brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat strains with high and low ethanol preferences. (United States)

    Inoue, K; Rusi, M; Lindros, K O


    The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase in subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from the AA and ANA rat strains developed respectively for high and low ethanol preferences has been studied. No significant strain or sex differences between naive AA and ANA rats were found. In ethanol-experienced rats some strain and sex differences were found, the most consistent being higher enzyme activity in AA females than in males both with aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde substrates. However, contrary to previous findings no relation between brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and drinking behavior was found in the AA and ANA rat strains.

  10. Differential synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides in stressed yeast cells. (United States)

    Boucherié, H; Bataille, N; Fitch, I T; Perrot, M; Tuite, M F


    Three unlinked genes, TDH1, TDH2 and TDH3, encode the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (triose-phosphate dehydrogenase; TDH) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that the synthesis of the three encoded TDH polypeptides (TDHa, TDHb and TDHc, respectively) is not co-ordinately regulated and that TDHa is only synthesised as cells enter stationary phase, due to glucose starvation, or in heat-shocked cells. Furthermore, the synthesis of TDHb, but not TDHc, is strongly repressed by a heat shock. Hence, the TDHa enzyme may play a cellular role, distinct from glycolysis, that is required by stressed cells.

  11. The oxyanion hole of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase: a novel structural motif for electrostatic stabilization in alcohol dehydrogenase active sites. (United States)

    Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd


    The side chains of Asn191 and Asn300 constitute a characteristic structural motif of the active site of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase that lacks precedent in known alcohol dehydrogenases and resembles the canonical oxyanion binding pocket of serine proteases. We have used steady-state and transient kinetic studies of the effects of varied pH and deuterium isotopic substitutions in substrates and solvent on the enzymatic rates to delineate catalytic consequences resulting from individual and combined replacements of the two asparagine residues by alanine. The rate constants for the overall hydride transfer to and from C-2 of mannitol, which were estimated as approximately 5 x 102 s-1 and approximately 1.5 x 103 s-1 in the wild-type enzyme respectively, were selectively slowed, between 540- and 2700-fold, in single-site mannitol 2-dehydrogenase mutants. These effects were additive in the corresponding doubly mutated enzyme, suggesting independent functioning of the two asparagine residues in catalysis. Partial disruption of the oxyanion hole in single-site mutants caused an upshift, by >or=1.2 pH units, in the kinetic pK of the catalytic acid-base Lys295 in the enzyme-NAD+-mannitol complex. The oxyanion hole of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase is suggested to drive a precatalytic conformational equilibrium at the ternary complex level in which the reactive group of the substrate is 'activated' for chemical conversion through its precise alignment with the unprotonated side chain of Lys295 (mannitol oxidation) and C=O bond polarization by the carboxamide moieties of Asn191 and Asn300 (fructose reduction). In the subsequent hydride transfer step, the two asparagine residues provide approximately 40 kJ/mol of electrostatic stabilization.

  12. Magnetic-Resonance Studies of the Geometry of Bound Substrate, Coenzyme and Activator on Bovine-Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, Alt; de Smet, Marie-José; Robillard, George T.

    ADP and ATP with a spin-label linked to the terminal phosphate are activators of glutamate dehydrogenase and bind to the same site as the activator ADP. There is hardly any interaction with the coenzyme site. Glutamate dehydrogenase can be modified with a ketone spin-label at a site in the active

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3-ketosteroid Delta(1) -dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    3-Ketosteroid Delta(1)-dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in the early steps of steroid degradation by introducing a double bond between the C1 and C2 atoms of the A-ring of its 3-ketosteroid substrates. The 3-ketosteroid Delta(1)-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1, a 56 kDa

  14. Enhancement of the activity of enzyme immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles by rational orientation of formate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Ni, Kefeng; Zhao, Chengcheng; Ren, Yuhong; Wei, Dongzhi


    Immobilization of enzymes onto nanoparticles and retention of their structure and activity, which may be related to the orientation of enzymes on nanoparticles, remain a challenge. Here, we developed a novel enzyme-orientation strategy to enhance the activity of formate dehydrogenase immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles via site-directed mutation. Seven mutants were constructed based on homology modeling of formate dehydrogenase and immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles to investigate the influence of these mutations on immobilization. The immobilized mutant C242A/C275V/C363V/K389C demonstrated the highest immobilization yield and retained 90% of its initial activity, which was about 3-fold higher than that of wild-type formate dehydrogenase. Moreover, co-immobilization of formate dehydrogenase and leucine dehydrogenase was performed for the synthesis of l-tert-leucine. The catalytic efficiency of the co-immobilized mutant C242A/C275V/C363V/K389C and leucine dehydrogenase increased by more than 4-fold compared to that of co-immobilized wild-type formate dehydrogenase and leucine dehydrogenase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the human mitochondrial FAD transporter and its potential role in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.


    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the alpha- or beta-subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Since not all patients have

  16. Solution structures of lipoyl domains of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii : implications for molecular recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.


    The 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are large multienzyme complexes that catalyse the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of a specific 2-oxo acid to the corresponding acyl-CoA derivative. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) converts the product of the glycolysis, pyruvate, to

  17. Crystal structure of quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni - Structural basis for substrate oxidation and electron transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oubrie, A; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Huizinga, EG; Dijkstra, BW; Huizinga, Eric G.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.


    Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are redox enzymes that participate in distinctive catabolic pathways that enable bacteria to grow on various alcohols as the sole source of carbon and energy. The x-ray structure of the quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni has been

  18. Functional and structural characterization of a synthetic peptide representing the N-terminal domain of prokaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Hooven, van den H.W.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Kok, de A.


    A synthetic peptide (Nterm-E1p) is used to characterize the structure and function of the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 4-45) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1p) from the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHC) from Azotobacter vinelandii. Activity and binding studies

  19. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket (United States)

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  20. Analysis of Quaternary Structure of a [LDH-like] Malate Dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum with Oligomeric Mutants (United States)

    L-Malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent for the most severe form of malaria, has shown remarkable similarities to L-lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). PfMDH is more closely related to [LDH-like] MDHs characterized in archea and other prokaryotes. Initial sequence a...

  1. Identification of a magnesium-dependent NAD(P)(H)-binding domain in the nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hektor, HJ; Kloosterman, H; Dijkhuizen, L


    The Bacillus methanolicus methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a decameric nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (family III) with one Zn2+ ion, one or two Mg2+ ions, and a tightly bound cofactor NAD(H) per subunit. The Mg2+ ions are essential for binding of cofactor NAD(H) in MDH. A B. methanolicus

  2. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wax Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Results Our data showed statistical significant differences (p0.05 between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. Conclusion The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  3. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Burdyliuk


    Full Text Available During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15. A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α-dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  4. Comparative Study of Various Delivery Methods for the Supply of Alpha-Ketoglutarate to the Neural Cells for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Vishnoi


    Full Text Available Delivery of growth factors or bioactive molecules plays an important role in tissue engineering, as the duration to which these are supplied can modulate the cell fate. Thus, the delivery method plays an important role, and the same is presented in this work wherein the exogenous supply of alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG gave better results for fast proliferating cells as compared to delivery by microspheres or microspheres incorporated scaffolds which can be used while culturing slow growing cells. All these studies were performed in two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D setups in which chitosan-gelatin-polypyrrole has been used as 3-D scaffolds. Chitosan and gelatin microspheres alone as well as incorporated in the cryogels were characterized. MTT assay done using neuro-2a cell line showed approximately 42% and 70% increment in cellular proliferation when gelatin and chitosan microspheres were added in a 3-D setup, respectively, as compared to the control. Biochemical analysis of ammonia showed 6-fold reductions in ammonia level in a 3-D setup compared to the control. We also studied the synthesis of a neurotransmitter-like glutamate and found that its concentration increased up to 0.25 mg/ml when the microspheres were added exogenously in a 3-D system.

  5. Disruption of the 11-cis-Retinol Dehydrogenase Gene Leads to Accumulation of cis-Retinols and cis-Retinyl Esters


    Driessen, Carola A. G. G.; Winkens, Huub J.; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Kuhlmann, Leonoor D.; Janssen, Bert P. M.; Van Vugt, Anke H. M.; Van Hooser, J. Preston; Wieringa, B. E.; Deutman, August F; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Ruether, Klaus; Janssen, Jacques J. M.


    To elucidate the possible role of 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase in the visual cycle and/or 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis, we generated mice carrying a targeted disruption of the 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene. Homozygous 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase mutants developed normally, including their retinas. There was no appreciable loss of photoreceptors. Recently, mutations in the 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene in humans have been associated with fundus albipunctatus. In 11-cis-retinol deh...

  6. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, H.; Jiskrová, E.; Vojta, P.; Mrízová, K.; Kokáš, F.; Majeská Čudějková, M.; Bergougnoux, V.; Plíhal, O.; Klimešová, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, L.; Frébort, I.; Galuszka, P.


    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 692-705 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ROOT-GROWTH * OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE GENES * BETA-GLUCOSIDASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  7. [Isocitrate dehydrogenases of trematodes parasitizing cattle and the feasibility of inhibiting them using anthelmintic preparations]. (United States)

    Burenina, E A


    Activities and properties of NADF-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases in cytosol and mitochondrial fractions from trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai were examined. Cytosol and mitochondrial enzymes were activated by ions Mn2+ and Mg2+ and inhibited by ions of heavy metals and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The effect of anthelmintic preparations on activity of enzymes was investigated.

  8. Coupled reactions by coupled enzymes : alcohol to lactone cascade with alcohol dehydrogenase-cyclohexanone monooxygenase fusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Friso S; Fraaije, Marco W


    The combination of redox enzymes for redox-neutral cascade reactions has received increasing appreciation. An example is the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with a cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO). The ADH can use NADP(+) to oxidize cyclohexanol to form cyclohexanone and NADPH. Both

  9. Glutamate dehydrogenase contributes to leucine sensing in the regulation of autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorin, Séverine; Tol, Marc J.; Bauvy, Chantal; Strijland, Anneke; Poüs, Christian; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Codogno, Patrice; Meijer, Alfred J.


    Amino acids, leucine in particular, are known to inhibit autophagy, at least in part by their ability to stimulate MTOR-mediated signaling. Evidence is presented showing that glutamate dehydrogenase, the central enzyme in amino acid catabolism, contributes to leucine sensing in the regulation of

  10. Alcohol dehydrogenase, SDR and MDR structural stages, present update and altered era. (United States)

    Jörnvall, Hans; Landreh, Michael; Östberg, Linus J


    It is now about half a century since molecular research on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) started. During this time, at least four stages of research can be distinguished, which led to many ADH, SDR and MDR structures from which their origins could be traced. An introductory summary of these stages is given, followed by a current update on the now known structures, including the present pattern of mammalian MDR-ADH enzymes into six classes and their evolutionary relationships. In spite of the wide spread in evolutionary changes from the "constant" class III to the more "variable" other classes, the change in class V (only confirmed as a transcript in humans) and class VI (absent in humans) are also restricted. Such spread in variability is visible also in other dehydrogenases, but not always so restricted in other co-evolving proteins we have studied. Finally, the shift in era of present ADH research is highlighted, as well as levels of likely future continuation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The concentration of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) varies strongly between different organs and between different regions within organs. To permit further studies on the regulation of GDH expression, we isolated and characterized the rat gene encoding the GDH protein. This gene contains 13 exons and

  12. Crystallization of quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni : crystals with unique optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oubrie, Arthur; Huizinga, Eric G.; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Kalk, Kor H.; Jong, Govardus A.H. de; Duine, Johannis A.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.


    Quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni is a functional electron-transfer protein containing both a haem c and a pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor. The enzyme has been crystallized at 277 K using polyethylene glycol 6000 as precipitant. The crystals belong to space group

  13. Novel approaches for using dehydrogenases and ene-reductases for organic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargiulo, S.


    Oxidation of alcohols is a reaction of major interest for organic chemistry. However, the most common chemical routes developed so far involve the use of toxic or hazardous reagents or catalysts that often lack good chemoselectivity. In this respect, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) represent a very

  14. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R


    OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care...

  15. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  16. Structural studies on dihydrolipoyl transacetylase : the core component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Azotobacter vinelandii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanemaaijer, J.R.O.


    The studies described in this thesis deal with the structure of the Azotobactervinelandii dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, the core component (E 2 ) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. in all organisms

  17. Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 in patients with seminoma stage I followed with surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Madsen, Ebbe Lindegaard; Blaabjerg, Ole


    Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme I catalytic concentration (S-LD-1) was measured in patients with testicular seminoma clinical stage I followed with surveillance after orchiectomy. The serum samples were obtained before orchiectomy in 110 patients (group A) and soon after orchiectomy in 55 p...

  18. Fuel utilization in patients with very long-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ØRngreen, Mette C; Nørgaard, Mette; Sacchetti, Massimo


    Fuel utilization in two adult patients with the myopathic form of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and five healthy subjects was investigated with stable isotopes during exercise at 50% of VO2max. The findings indicate that residual VLCAD activity in the patients...

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase as a selection criterion for ipilimumab treatment in metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelderman, Sander; Heemskerk, Bianca; van Tinteren, Harm


    OS was 7.5 months, and OS at 1 year was 37.8 % and at 2 years was 22.9 %. In a multivariate model, baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was demonstrated to be the strongest predictive factor for OS. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 64 patients from the UK. In both...

  20. Self-assembled monolayers with biospecific affinity for lactate dehydrogenase for the electroenzymatic oxidation of lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, Daniela D.; Kooyman, R.P.H.


    Surface modified gold electrodes with high biospecific affinity for NAD(H)-dependent lactate dehydrogenase have been prepared by covalent attachment of several traizine dyes to stepwise functionalized mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. The biospecific affinity of such ligand-anchored

  1. Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 in patients with seminoma stage I followed with surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Madsen, Ebbe Lindegaard; Blaabjerg, Ole


    Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme I catalytic concentration (S-LD-1) was measured in patients with testicular seminoma clinical stage I followed with surveillance after orchiectomy. The serum samples were obtained before orchiectomy in 110 patients (group A) and soon after orchiectomy in 55...

  2. The clinical value of lactate dehydrogenase in serum: a quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, H. J.; Sanders, G. T.; Koster, R. W.; Vreeken, J.; Bossuyt, P. M.


    The aim of this article is to describe guidelines for rational use of lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes, in the diagnostic processes and during follow-up, based on a systematic review of relevant literature. Sources of data for this study were English-language scientific publications,

  3. Characterization of immunoglobulin A kappa autoantibodies to human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, R. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.; Mulder, J.; Kruijswijk, H.


    We have purified with a cumulative recovery of 48% from the serum of a patient the immunoglobulin A kappa subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase-immunoglobulin A kappa (LD-IgA kappa) complex. It appears that the pI range of the complex is 5.4-5.8. The Ig part of the complex showed a monoclonal

  4. Kinetic formulations for the oxidation and the reduction of glyoxylate by lactate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Lluis, C; Bozal, J


    Chicken liver lactate dehydrogenase (L-lactate : NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC irreversibly catalyses the oxidation of glyoxylate (hydrated form) (I) to oxalate (pH = 9.6) and the reduction of (non-hydrated form) (II) to glycolate (pH = 7.4). (I) attaches to the enzyme in the pyruvate binding site and (II) attaches to the enzyme at the L-lactate binding site. The oxidation of (I) (pH = 9.6) is adapted to the following mechanism: (see book). The abortive complexes, E-NADH-I and E-NAD+-II, are responsible for the inhibition by excess substrate in the reduction and oxidation systems, respectively. When lactate dehydrogenase and NAD+ are preincubated, E-NAD+- NAD+ appears and causes inhibition by excess NAD+ in the glyoxylate-lactate dehydrogenase-NAD+ and L-lactate-lactate dehydrogenase-NAD+ systems; the second NAD+ molecule attaches to the enzyme at the L-lactate binding site.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The crystal structure of the complex between the quinoprotein methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and the type I blue copper protein amicyanin, both from Paracoccus denitrificans, has been determined at 2.5-angstrom resolution using molecular replacement. The search model was MADH from Thiobacillus

  6. A new dawn for plant mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.


    The expression of complex I and two homologues of bacterial and yeast NADH dehydrogenases, NDA and NDB, have been studied in potato leaf mitochondria. The mRNA level of NDA is completely light dependent and shows a diurnal rhythm with a sharp maximum just after dawn. NDA protein quantity and inte...

  7. Application of NAD(P)H oxidase for cofactor regeneration in dehydrogenase catalyzed oxidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Gustav; Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Woodley, John


    alcohol dehydrogenases. However, their effective use requires an effective regeneration of the oxidized nicotinamide cofactor (NAD(P)+), which is critical for the economic feasibility of the process. NAD(P)H oxidase is an enzyme class of particular interest for this cofactor regeneration since it enables...

  8. Regulation of the activity of lactate dehydrogenases from four lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman-Salit, A.; Hering, S.; Messiha, H.L.; Veith, N.; Cojocaru, V.; Sieg, A.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Kreikemeyer, B.; Wade, R.C.; Fiedler, T.


    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the

  9. Equine biochemical multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) as a cause of rhabdomyolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C. M.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; van der Kolk, J. H.; Berger, R.; Wijnberg, I. D.; Koeman, J. P.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Lenstra, J. A.; Testerink, N.; Vaandrager, A. B.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Acquaviva-Bourdain, C.; Dorland, L.


    Two horses (a 7-year-old Groninger warmblood gelding and a six-month-old Trakehner mare) with pathologically confirmed rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed as suffering from multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). This disorder has not been recognised in animals before. Clinical signs of both

  10. Succinate Dehydrogenase (Sdh) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is Closely Related to Mitochondrial Sdh


    Westenberg, David J.; Guerinot, Mary Lou


    The sdhCDAB operon, encoding succinate dehydrogenase, was cloned from the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Sdh from B. japonicum is phylogenetically related to Sdh from mitochondria. This is the first example of a mitochondrion-like Sdh functionally expressed in Escherichia coli.

  11. Clinical aspects of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldegem, Bianca T.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Wijburg, Frits A.


    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. SCADD is biochemically characterized by increased C4-carnitine in plasma and ethylmalonic acid in urine. The diagnosis of SCADD is confirmed by DNA analysis showing

  12. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez


    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  13. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 in tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Frank G.; French, Pim J.; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.


    Heterozygous hotspot mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) IDH1 or IDH2 are frequently observed in specific types of cartilaginous tumors, gliomas, and leukemias. Mutant IDH enzyme loses its normal activity to convert isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (αKG) and instead acquires the ability to

  14. Selective inactivation of various acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA. (United States)

    Ikeda, Y; Tanaka, K


    Inactivation of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA (MCPA-CoA), the toxic metabolite of hypoglycin from unripe ackee fruit, was investigated using purified enzyme preparations. Short-chain acyl-CoA (SCADH), medium-chain acyl-CoA (MCADH) and isovaleryl-CoA (IVDH) dehydrogenases were severely and irreversibly inactivated by MCPA-CoA, while 2-methyl-branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (2-meBCADH) was only slowly and mildly inactivated. Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCADH) was not significantly inactivated, even after prolonged incubation with MCPA-CoA. Inactivation of SCADH, MCADH and IVDH was effectively prevented by the addition of substrate. This mode of inactivation by MCPA-CoA explains the urinary metabolite profile in hypoglycin treated-rats, which includes large amounts of metabolites from fatty acids and leucine, and relatively small amounts of those from valine and isoleucine. Spectrophotometric titration of SCADH and MCADH with MCPA-CoA, together with the protective effects of substrate, indicates that MCPA-CoA is acted upon by, and exerts in turn irreversible inactivation of, SCADH and MCADH, confirming that MCPA-CoA is a suicide inhibitor (Wenz et al. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9809-9812). Spectrophotometric titration data of LCADH and MCPA-CoA is typical of non-reacting CoA ester.

  15. Clinical variability in 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensenauer, Regina; Niederhoff, Helmut; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Schwab, K. Otfried; Brandis, Matthias; Lehnert, Willy


    We report the identification of two new 7-year-old patients with 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, a recently described inborn error of isoleucine metabolism. The defect is localized one step above 3-ketothiolase, resulting in a urinary metabolite pattern similar to that seen

  16. Myopathy in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholte, H R; Van Coster, R N; de Jonge, P C


    A 30-year-old man suffered since the age of 13 years from exercise induced episodes of intense generalised muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria. Fasting ketogenesis was low, while blood glucose remained normal. Muscle mitochondria failed to oxidise palmitoylcarnitine. Palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase...

  17. Enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols at a quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, W.A.C.; Stigter, E.C.A.; Hartingsveldt, W. van; Lugt, J.P. van der


    Quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Comamonas testosteroni was co-immobilized with a redox polymer (a poly(vinylpyridine) complex functionalized with osmium bis(bipyridine) chloride) on an electrode. The enzyme electrode readily oxidizes primary alcohols and secondary alcohols with maximum

  18. Checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition sensitises transformed cells to dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibition


    Arnould, Stéphanie; Rodier, Geneviève; Matar, Gisèle; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Delorme, Yoann; Berthet, Charlène; Buscail, Yoan; Noël, Jean Yohan; Lachambre, Simon; Jarlier, Marta; Bernex, Florence; Delpech, Hélène; Vidalain, Pierre Olivier; Janin, Yves L.


    Reduction in nucleotide pools through the inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been demonstrated to effectively reduce cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. The current study sought to investigate whether this antiproliferative effect could be enhanced by combining Chk1 kinase inhibition. The pharmacological activity of DHODH inhibitor teriflunomide was more selective towards transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts than their primary or immortalis...

  19. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.


    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control

  20. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence studies on pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes and their small molecular weight constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grande, H.J.


    The articles presented in this thesis do not describe at first glance one well-defined subject. They are, however, in fact connected by one central theme: the study of large enzyme aggregates by molecular physical methods. Chosen was the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) because of its

  1. Glycerol dehydrogenase, encoded by gldB is essential to osmotolerance in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.; Flitter, S.J.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Chaveroche, M.K.; Fontaine, T.; Fillinger, S.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Enfert, d' C.; Visser, J.


    We have characterized the Aspergillus nidulans gldB gene encoding a NADP(+) -dependent glycerol dehydrogenase. A basal expression level was observed for gldB , which increased significantly under conditions of hyper-osmotic shock (1 M NaCl). Growth of strains in which gldB was disrupted was severely

  2. Tissue carnitine homeostasis in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Tokunaga, Chonan; Wendel, Udo; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Vaz, Frederic M.; van Vlies, Naomi; Overmars, Henk; Duran, Marinus; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Strauss, Arnold W.


    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation defect and presents with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines and deficiency of free carnitine have often been proposed to play an important

  3. Epilepsy in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, a disorder of GABA metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearl, P.L.; Shukla, L.; Theodore, W.H.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Gibson, K.M.


    Objectives: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) degradative defect. Epilepsy affects half of patients. The murine model is associated with a transition from absence to convulsive seizures in the third week, with fatal status epilepticus.

  4. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and fatal valproate toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njolstad, PR; Skjeldal, OH; Agsteribbe, E; Huckriede, A; Wannag, E; Sovik, O; Waaler, PE

    A boy with delayed psychomotor development, attention deficit disorder, and therapy-resistant epilepsy was treated with valproate. The patient died of liver failure after 4 months of valproate treatment. Postmortem investigation of cultured fibroblasts suggested medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

  5. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili


    Full Text Available The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibited dehydrogenase activities. Generally, phenol is less toxic than substituted phenols. Estimations of the degree of inhibition/stimulation of dehydrogenase activities showed significant dose-dependent responses that are describable by logistic functions. The toxicity thresholds varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the bacterial strains and phenolic compounds. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s ranged from 4.118 ± 0.097 mg.L-1 for 4-nitrophenol against Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 1407.997 ± 7.091 mg.L-1 for phenol against Bacillus sp. DISK1. This study suggested that the organisms have moderate sensitivity to phenols and have the potential to be used as indicators for assessment of chemical toxicity. They could also be used as catalysts for degradation of phenols in effluents.

  6. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.


    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  7. Galactonolactone Dehydrogenase Requires a Redox-Sensitive Thiol for Optimal Production of Vitamin C1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.; Duijn, van E.; Barendregt, A.; Heck, A.J.R.; Berkel, van W.J.H.


    The mitochondrial flavoenzyme L-galactono--lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH) catalyzes the ultimate step of vitamin C biosynthesis in plants. We found that recombinant GALDH from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is inactivated by hydrogen peroxide due to selective oxidation of cysteine (Cys)-340,

  8. Identification of a Gatekeeper Residue That Prevents Dehydrogenases from Acting as Oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Schaap, Peter J.; Mattevi, Andrea; van Berkel, Willem J. H.


    The oxygen reactivity of flavoproteins is poorly understood. Here we show that a single Ala to Gly substitution in L-galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH) turns the enzyme into a catalytically competent oxidase. GALDH is an aldonolactone oxidoreductase with a vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO)

  9. Identification of a gatekeeper residue that prevents dehydrogenases from acting as oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Joosten, H.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Mattevi, A.; Berkel, van W.J.H.


    The oxygen reactivity of flavoproteins is poorly understood. Here we show that a single Ala to Gly substitution in L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH) turns the enzyme into a catalytically competent oxidase. GALDH is an aldonolactone oxidoreductase with a vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO)

  10. Control of Glycolysis by Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The decreased response of the energy metabolism of lactose-starved Streptococcus cremoris upon readdition of lactose is caused by a decrease of the glycolytic activity. The decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and

  11. Purification and characterization of an alcohol dehydrogenase from 1,2-propanediol-grown Desulfovibriostrain HDv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Jansen, Michael; Nienhuis-Kuiper, Manny E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Breemen, Jan F.L. van; Hansen, Theo A.


    The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio strain HDv (DSM 6830) grew faster on (S)- and on (R, S)-1,2-propanediol (µmax 0.053 h–1) than on (R)-propanediol (0.017 h–1) and ethanol (0.027 h–1). From (R, S)-1,2-propanediol-grown cells, an alcohol dehydrogenase was purified. The enzyme was

  12. Determination of the Subunit Molecular Mass and Composition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by SDS-PAGE (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.


    SDS-PAGE is a simple, rapid technique that has many uses in biochemistry and is readily adaptable to the undergraduate laboratory. It is, however, a technique prone to several types of procedural pitfalls. This article describes the use of SDS-PAGE to determine the subunit molecular mass and composition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase employing…

  13. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon. (United States)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  14. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Kinetics Laboratory: Enhanced Data Analysis and Student-Designed Mini-Projects (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.


    A highly instructive, wide-ranging laboratory project in which students study the effects of various parameters on the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase has been adapted for the upper-division biochemistry and physical biochemistry laboratory. Our two main goals were to provide enhanced data analysis, featuring nonlinear regression, and…

  15. Biochemical and cytochemical evaluation of heterozygote individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Aksu, Tevfik Aslan; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.


    The aim of this study was to diagnose heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient females by an inexpensive cytochemical G6PD staining method that is easy to perform, allowing diagnosis of G6PD deficiency without cumbersome genetic analysis. Three subject groups were included in

  16. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  17. Assessing the stereoselectivity of Serratia marcescens CECT 977 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medici, R.; Stammes, J.K.; Otten, L.G.; Hanefeld, U.; Kwakernaak, Stender


    α-Hydroxy ketones and vicinal diols constitute well-known building blocks in organic synthesis. Here we describe one enzyme that enables the enantioselective synthesis of both building blocks starting from diketones. The enzyme 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BudC) from S. marcescens CECT 977 belongs

  18. A Novel Caffeine Dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas sp. Strain CBB1 Oxidizes Caffeine to Trimethyluric Acid▿ (United States)

    Yu, Chi Li; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Louie, Tai Man; Subramanian, Mani


    A unique heterotrimeric caffeine dehydrogenase was purified from Pseudomonas sp. strain CBB1. This enzyme oxidized caffeine to trimethyluric acid stoichiometrically and hydrolytically, without producing hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme was not NAD(P)+ dependent; coenzyme Q0 was the preferred electron acceptor. The enzyme was specific for caffeine and theobromine and showed no activity with xanthine. PMID:17981969

  19. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: Biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression (United States)

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in meristems isolated from field-g...

  20. Subcellular Localization and Biochemical Comparison of Cytosolic and Secreted Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Enzymes from Maize (United States)

    Cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC degrades cytokinin hormones in plants. There are several differently targeted isoforms of CKX in cells of each plant. While most CKX enzymes appear to be localized in the apoplast or vacuoles, there is generally only one CKX per plant genome that lacks a t...

  1. Kinetic and chemical analyses of the cytokinin dehydrogenase-catalysed reaction : correlations with the crystal structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popelková, Hana; Fraaije, Marco W.; Novák, Ondřej; Frébortová, Jitka; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Frébort, Ivo


    CKX (cytokinin dehydrogenase) is a flavoprotein that cleaves cytokinins to adenine and the corresponding side-chain aldehyde using a quinone-type electron acceptor. In the present study, reactions of maize (Zea mays) CKX with five different substrates (N6-isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, kinetin,

  2. Catalytic reaction of cytokinin dehydrogenase : preference for quinones as electron acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Fraaije, Marco W.; Galuszka, Petr; Šebela, Marek; Peč, Pavel; Hrbáč, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; English, James T.; Frébort, Ivo; Sebela, M.; Pec, P.; Hrbac, J.; Frebort, [No Value


    The catalytic reaction of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (EC was studied in detail using the recombinant flavoenzyme from maize. Determination of the redox potential of the covalently linked flavin cofactor revealed a relatively high potential dictating the type of electron acceptor that

  3. New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Stroomer, Alida E. M.; van Lenthe, Henk; Abeling, Nico G. G. M.; van Gennip, Albert H.


    DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolized to beta-alanine and file R-enantiomer of beta-AIB (beta-aminoisobutyric acid) respectively. The S-enantiomer of beta-AIB is

  4. Mechanism of flavin reduction in the class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Rebecca L; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Björnberg, Olof


    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) oxidize dihydroorotate (DHO) to orotate (OA) using the FMN prosthetic group to abstract a hydride equivalent from C6 and a protein residue (cysteine for class 1A DHODs) to deprotonate C5. The fundamental question of whether the scission of the two DHO C-H bonds...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (United States)


    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device... ultraviolet kinetics. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60616, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  6. Alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) and the risk of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B. van; Houwelingen, K.P. van; Witjes, J.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.


    OBJECTIVES: The polymorphic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyses the conversion of ethanol into the carcinogenic metabolite acetaldehyde which is partly excreted into the urine. Objectives of this pilot study are to determine whether this polymorphism may be related to bladder cancer and

  7. In vitro effects of metals and pesticides on dehydrogenase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on cowpea (Vigna unquiculata) rhizoplane microbial community were assessed in vitro via dehydrogenase activity. The microbial community was exposed to various concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides in a nutrient broth-glucose-2,3,5-triphenyl chloride (TTC) medium.

  8. Proline dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus does not discriminate between FAD and FMN as cofactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, Mieke M.E.; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Westphal, Adrie H.; Delgado-Arciniega, Estela; Medina, Milagros; Berkel, Van Willem J.H.


    Flavoenzymes are versatile biocatalysts containing either FAD or FMN as cofactor. FAD often binds to a Rossmann fold, while FMN prefers a TIM-barrel or flavodoxin-like fold. Proline dehydrogenase is denoted as an exception: it possesses a TIM barrel-like fold while binding FAD. Using a riboflavin

  9. l-Galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana, a flavoprotein involved in vitamin C biosynthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.


    l-Galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH; ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase; EC is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) in plants. In the present study, we report on the biochemical properties of recombinant

  10. Electron transfer between a quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase and an electrode via a redox polymer network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, E.C.A.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A.; Lugt, J.P. van der; Somers, W.A.C.


    A quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (QH-EDH) from Comamonas testosteroni was immobilized on an electrode in a redox polymer network consisting of a polyvinylpyridine partially N-complexed with osmiumbis-(bipyridine)chloride. The enzyme effectively transfers electrons to the electrode via the

  11. Relevance of expanded neonatal screening of medium-chain acyl co-a dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couce, M L; Castiñeiras, D E; Moure, J D


    Neonatal screening of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is of major importance due to the significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. MCADD screening has been performed routinely in Galicia since July 2000, and until now 199,943 newborns have been screened. We...

  12. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Dekker, M. J. H. J.; Osterthun, W.; Kwakkel, J.; Anink, J. J.; Boelen, A.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Koper, J. W.; Lamberts, S. W. J.; Stewart, P. M.; Swaab, D. F.; Fliers, E.


    The hypothalamus is a major target for glucocorticoids and a key structure for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis setpoint regulation. The enzyme 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) modulates glucocorticoid signalling in various tissues at the prereceptor level by converting

  13. Identification of a Dehydrogenase Required for Lactose Metabolism in Caulobacter crescentus▿ †‡ (United States)

    Arellano, Benjamin H.; Ortiz, Janett D.; Manzano, Janet; Chen, Joseph C.


    Caulobacter crescentus, which thrives in freshwater environments with low nutrient levels, serves as a model system for studying bacterial cell cycle regulation and organelle development. We examined its ability to utilize lactose (i) to gain insight into the metabolic capacities of oligotrophic bacteria and (ii) to obtain an additional genetic tool for studying this model organism, aiming to eliminate the basal enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Using a previously isolated transposon mutant, we identified a gene, lacA, that is required for growth on lactose as the sole carbon source and for turning colonies blue in the presence of X-gal. LacA, which contains a glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase domain, has homology to the flavin subunit of Pectobacterium cypripedii's gluconate dehydrogenase. Sequence comparisons indicated that two genes near lacA, lacB and lacC, encode the other subunits of the membrane-bound dehydrogenase. In addition to lactose, all three lac genes are involved in the catabolism of three other β-galactosides (lactulose, lactitol, and methyl-β-d-galactoside) and two glucosides (salicin and trehalose). Dehydrogenase assays confirmed that the lac gene products oxidize lactose, salicin, and trehalose. This enzymatic activity is inducible, and increased lac expression in the presence of lactose and salicin likely contributes to the induction. Expression of lacA also depends on the presence of the lac genes, implying that the dehydrogenase participates in induction. The involvement of a dehydrogenase suggests that degradation of lactose and other sugars in C. crescentus may resemble a proposed pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PMID:20190087

  14. Identification of a dehydrogenase required for lactose metabolism in Caulobacter crescentus. (United States)

    Arellano, Benjamin H; Ortiz, Janett D; Manzano, Janet; Chen, Joseph C


    Caulobacter crescentus, which thrives in freshwater environments with low nutrient levels, serves as a model system for studying bacterial cell cycle regulation and organelle development. We examined its ability to utilize lactose (i) to gain insight into the metabolic capacities of oligotrophic bacteria and (ii) to obtain an additional genetic tool for studying this model organism, aiming to eliminate the basal enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Using a previously isolated transposon mutant, we identified a gene, lacA, that is required for growth on lactose as the sole carbon source and for turning colonies blue in the presence of X-gal. LacA, which contains a glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase domain, has homology to the flavin subunit of Pectobacterium cypripedii's gluconate dehydrogenase. Sequence comparisons indicated that two genes near lacA, lacB and lacC, encode the other subunits of the membrane-bound dehydrogenase. In addition to lactose, all three lac genes are involved in the catabolism of three other beta-galactosides (lactulose, lactitol, and methyl-beta-d-galactoside) and two glucosides (salicin and trehalose). Dehydrogenase assays confirmed that the lac gene products oxidize lactose, salicin, and trehalose. This enzymatic activity is inducible, and increased lac expression in the presence of lactose and salicin likely contributes to the induction. Expression of lacA also depends on the presence of the lac genes, implying that the dehydrogenase participates in induction. The involvement of a dehydrogenase suggests that degradation of lactose and other sugars in C. crescentus may resemble a proposed pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadah Khriesat


    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

  16. Relation between Neonatal Icter and Gilbert Syndrome in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Subjects. (United States)

    Zahedpasha, Yadollah; Ahmadpour, Mousa; Niaki, Haleh Akhavan; Alaee, Ehsan


    The pathogenesis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia hasn't been completely defined in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient newborns. The aim of this study was to detect the relationship between Gilbert's syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates. This case-control study was conducted in Amirkola pediatrics teaching hospital, Babol, Iran. A total number of one hundred four infants were included in the study (51 infants with neonatal jaundice and Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted to phototherapy or transfusion were selected as the case group and 53 infants with Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted for other reasons than jaundice were selected as the control group). Exclusion criteria were ABO or Rh incompatibility or other reasons that made Coombs test positive, sepsis, hepatosplenomegaly, metabolic diseases, medical treatment and phototherapy. The promoter and coding regions of Uridine diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) of genomic DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) isolated from leukocytes. We used chi-square test and t-test to compare cases and controls. Distribution of Gilbert genome was not significantly different between the two groups; among cases, 33.3% were homozygote, 35.3% heterozygote, and 31.4% normal. Among controls, 22.6% were homozygote, 34% heterozygote, and 43.4% normal (p-value=xxx). Hyperbilirubinemia family history didn't differ significantly between these two groups. We showed that in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates, there was no significant association between Gilbert's syndrome (promoter polymorphism) and hyperbilirubinemia.

  17. L-lactate dehydrogenase from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. : I. Identification and partial characterization. (United States)

    Betsche, T; Bosbach, K; Gerhardt, B


    By ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration an enzyme preparation which catalyzed NAD(+)-dependent L-lactate oxidation (10(-4) kat kg(-1) protein), as well as NADH-dependent pyruvate reduction (10(-3) kat kg(-1) protein), was obtained from leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris. This lactate dehydrogenase activity was not due to an unspecific activity of either glycolate oxidase, glycolate dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, or a malate oxidizing enzyme. These enzymes could be separated from the protein displaying lactate dehydrogenase activity by gel filtration and electrophoresis and distinguished from it by their known properties. The enzyme under consideration does not oxidize D-lactate, and reduces pyruvate to L-lactate (the configuration of which was determined using highly specific animal L-lactate dehydrogenase). Based on these results the studied Capsella leaf enzyme is classified as L-lactate dehydrogenase (EC It has a Km value of 0.25 mmol l(-1) (pH 7.0, 0.3 mmol l(-1) NADH) for pyruvate and of 13 mmol l(-1) (pH 7.8, 3 mmol l(-1) NAD(+)) for L-lactate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also detected in the leaves of several other plants.

  18. Incorporation of alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid as a Fixed Bed Scrubber Media for the Neutralization of Hydrazine Family Hypergolic Fuels (United States)

    DeVor, R. W.; Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Parkerson, J. K.


    A candidate scrubber media, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (aKGA) adsorbed onto a silica-based substrate was examined as a potential alternative to the hydrazine-family hypergolic fuel neutralization techniques currently utilized at NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helvenson et. al. has indicated that aKGA will react with hydrazines to produce non-hazardous, possibly biodegradable products. Furthermore, the authors have previously tested and demonstrated the use of aKGA aqueous solutions as a replacement neutralizing agent for citric acid, which is currently used as a scrubbing agent in liquid scrubbers at KSC. Specific properties examined include reaction efficiency, the loading capacity of aKGA onto various silica substrates, and the comparison of aKGA media performance to that of the citric acid vapor scrubber systems at KSC and a commercial vapor scrubber media. Preliminary investigations showed hydrophobic aerogel particles to be an ideal substrate for the deposition of the aKGA. Current studies have shown that the laboratory produced aKGA-Aerogel absorbent media are more efficient and cost effective than a commercially available fixed bed scrubber media, although much less cost effective than liquid-based citric acid scrubbers (although possibly safer and less labor intensive). A comparison of all three alternative scrubber technologies (liquid aKGA, solid-phase aKGA, and commercially available sorbent materials) is given considering both hypergolic neutralization capabilities and relative costs (as compared to the current citric acid scrubbing technology in use at NASA/KSC).

  19. Serum concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac isoenzymes in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. (United States)

    Roti, E; Bandini, P; Robuschi, G; Emanuele, R; Bolognesi, R; Ciarlini, E; Buzzonetti, P; Gnudi, A


    Serum concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured in 33 euthyroid, 21 hyperthyroid and 15 hypothyroid subjects. The results showed that myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were increased and decreased in the hypo- and hyperthyroid states, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely related to both the thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations. To study the origin of the increased muscle protein values observed in hypothyroidism, the cardiac isoenzyme fractions were measured; the results obtained support the view that the muscle enzymes are mainly derived from skeletal muscles.

  20. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.


    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  1. Purification and Characterization of a Novel NAD(P+-Farnesol Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ain-Shahajar Ahmad-Sohdi

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones have attracted attention as safe and selective targets for the design and development of environmentally friendly and biorational insecticides. In the juvenile hormone III biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme farnesol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of farnesol to farnesal. In this study, farnesol dehydrogenase was extracted from Polygonum minus leaves and purified 204-fold to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Toyopearl, SP-Toyopearl, and Super-Q Toyopearl, followed by three successive purifications by gel filtration chromatography on a TSK-gel GS3000SW. The enzyme is a heterodimer comprised of subunits with molecular masses of 65 kDa and 70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and pH 9.5, respectively. Activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, metal-chelating agents and heavy metal ions. The enzyme utilized both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes with Km values of 0.74 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Trans, trans-farnesol was the preferred substrate for the P. minus farnesol dehydrogenase. Geometrical isomers of trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol were also oxidized by the enzyme with lower activity. The Km values for trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol appeared to be 0.17 mM, 0.33 mM and 0.42 mM, respectively. The amino acid sequences of 4 tryptic peptides of the enzyme were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectrometry, and showed no significant similarity to those of previously reported farnesol dehydrogenases. These results suggest that the purified enzyme is a novel NAD(P+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase. The purification and characterization established in the current study will serve as a basis to provide new information for recombinant production of the enzyme. Therefore, recombinant farnesol dehydrogenase may provide a useful molecular tool in manipulating juvenile hormone biosynthesis to generate transgenic plants for pest

  2. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency]. (United States)

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P


    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  3. In search for function of two human orphan SDR enzymes: hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 (HSDL2) and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase-orphan (SDR-O). (United States)

    Kowalik, Dorota; Haller, Ferdinand; Adamski, Jerzy; Moeller, Gabriele


    The protein superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) today comprises over 20,000 members found in pro- and eukaryotes. Despite low amino acid sequence identity (only 15-30%), they share several similar characteristics in conformational structures, the N-terminal cofactor (NAD(P)/NAD(P)H) binding region being the most conserved. The enzymes catalyze oxido-reductive reactions and have a broad spectrum of substrates. Not all recently identified SDRs have been analyzed in detail yet, and we therefore characterized two rudimentarily annotated human SDR candidates: an orphan SDR (SDR-O) and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 (HSDL2). We analyzed the amino acid sequence for cofactor preference, performed subcellular localization studies, and a screening for substrates of the enzymes, including steroid hormones and retinoids. None of both tested proteins showed a significant conversion of steroid hormones. However, the peroxisomal localization of human HSDL2 may suggest an involvement in fatty acid metabolism. For SDR-O a weak conversion of retinal into retinol was detectable in the presence of the cofactor NADH.

  4. Production of optically pure L-phenyllactic acid by using engineered Escherichia coli coexpressing L-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhao, Mingyue; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Ouyang, Jia


    L-Phenyllactic acid (L-PLA) is a novel antiseptic agent with broad and effective antimicrobial activity. In addition, L-PLA has been used for synthesis of poly(phenyllactic acid)s, which exhibits better mechanical properties than poly(lactic acid)s. However, the concentration and optical purity of L-PLA produced by native microbes was rather low. An NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-nLDH) from Bacillus coagulans NL01 was confirmed to have a good ability to produce L-PLA from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). In the present study, l-nLDH gene and formate dehydrogenase gene were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli. Through two coupled reactions, 79.6mM l-PLA was produced from 82.8mM PPA in 40min and the enantiomeric excess value of L-PLA was high (>99%). Therefore, this process suggested a promising alternative for the production of chiral l-PLA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comparing Antibody Responses in Chickens Against Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase with Freund's and Pheroid® Adjuvants. (United States)

    Krause, Robert G E; Grobler, Anne F; Goldring, J P Dean


    Pheroid® technology was assessed as an alternative to Freund's adjuvant to raise antibodies in experimental animals. Chickens were immunized with two recombinantly expressed Plasmodium falciparum proteins, lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PfGAPDH), alone or in combination with Freund's adjuvant or Pheroid®. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) were isolated and compared for specificity, sensitivity and yield. Freund's adjuvant and Pheroid® stimulated prolonged antibody responses in chickens against both antigens. Affinity purified antibodies had specificity for the recombinant and the native proteins on Western blots. Antibodies generated in the presence of Freund's adjuvant had high sensitivity for both antigens. Pheroid® generated antibodies that detected the lowest concentration of recombinant PfLDH. Freund's adjuvant and Pheroid® both improved chicken IgY yields, with Pheroid® showing a 2-fold increase relative to controls. Pheroid® was well-tolerated in chickens and has potential for development as a safe adjuvant for testing alternative stimulatory factors to improve adjuvant formulations.

  6. Efficient production of (R-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid by using a coupled reconstructed D-lactate dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Sheng

    Full Text Available (R-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory.The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA. The mutant D-nLDHY52L/F299Y was then coexpressed with formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 to construct a novel biocatalyst E. coli DF. Thus, a novel bio-reduction process utilizing whole cells of E. coli DF as the biocatalyst and formate as the co-substrate for cofactor regeneration was developed for the production of (R-HPBA from OPBA. The biocatalysis conditions were then optimized.Under the optimum conditions, 73.4 mM OPBA was reduced to 71.8 mM (R-HPBA in 90 min. Given its high product enantiomeric excess (>99% and productivity (47.9 mM h(-1, the constructed coupling biocatalysis system is a promising alternative for (R-HPBA production.

  7. Efficient screening for new amino acid dehydrogenase activity: directed evolution of Bacillus sphaericus phenylalanine dehydrogenase towards activity with an unsaturated non-natural amino acid. (United States)

    Chen, Sihong; Engel, Paul C


    Mutants of phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) from Bacillus sphaericus with improved activity and specificity towards an unsaturated non-natural amino acid of commercial interest, propargylglycine, have been obtained by directed evolution after screening 10,000 colonies. An effective high-throughput screening assay for the detection of amino acid dehydrogenase activity using spectrophotometric measurement of formazan colour has been developed and explored. Parallel over-expression of the target protein library in 96-well plates was optimized by using auto-induction medium. Using these methodologies and medium/high mutation frequency error-prone polymerase chain reaction, combinations of mutations and multi-site saturation mutagenesis targeting two "hot-spots" close to the active site of the enzyme, one mutant was obtained with 7.4-fold improved catalytic efficiency with the target substrate together with 612-fold improvement of selectivity between the target substrate and the natural one. In the high mutation frequency epPCR and saturation mutagenesis, a robotic colony picker and automation workstation were employed for the high-throughput screening.

  8. Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom, enhances glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase and reduces xanthine dehydrogenase in major organs of aged rats. (United States)

    Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran


    Aging is now considered to be associated with an elevation in oxidative damage to macromolecules and enhanced levels of inflammation. Therefore, inhibition of age-related oxidative stress by natural supplement is an important study. To investigate whether the treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr) Kumm, (Pleurotaceae) can ameliorate oxidative damage in aged rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each: group 1, normal young rats; group 2, normal aged untreated rats; group 3, normal aged rats treated with P. ostreatus (200 mg/kg body wt administered intraperitoneally for 21 days). On the 22nd day, rats were sacrificed by decapitation; the liver, kidneys, heart and brain were removed from each rat for the biochemical and isozyme analyses of the antioxidant enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), ascorbate peroxidase (Apx) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). An elevated activity of XDH was observed in the liver (G2:13.72 ± 4.1 versus G1: 7.57 ± 1.15; p XDH and increased G6PDH and Apx activities in liver, kidneys, heart and brain. Interestingly, analyses of isozyme pattern of these enzymes are support the results obtained from the spectrophotometric determinations. These results suggest that an extract of P. ostreatus can protect the age-related oxidative damage in major organs of Wistar rats by enhancing the antioxidant enzymes G6PDH and Apx and by reducing XDH.

  9. SDR-type human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases involved in steroid hormone activation. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lukacik, Petra; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo


    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of hydroxyl and oxo-functions at distinct positions of steroid hormones. This reversible reaction constitutes an important pre-receptor control mechanism for nuclear receptor ligands of the androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid classes, since the conversion "switches" between receptor ligands and their inactive metabolites. The major reversible activities found in mammals acting on steroid hormones comprise 3alpha-, 11beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and for each group several distinct isozymes have been described. The enzymes differ in their expression pattern, nucleotide cofactor preference, steroid substrate specificity and subcellular localization, and thus constitute a complex system ensuring cell-specific adaptation and regulation of steroid hormone levels. Several isoforms constitute promising drug targets, of particular importance in cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration and immunity.

  10. Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase from Perilla can form citral and perillaldehyde. (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Ito, Michiho


    Studies on the biosynthesis of oil compounds in Perilla will help in understanding regulatory systems of secondary metabolites and in elucidating reaction mechanisms for natural product synthesis. In this study, two types of alcohol dehydrogenases, an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) and a geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH), which are thought to participate in the biosynthesis of perilla essential oil components, such as citral and perillaldehyde, were isolated from three pure lines of perilla. These enzymes shared high amino acid sequence identity within the genus Perilla, and were expressed regardless of oil type. The overall reaction from geranyl diphosphate to citral was performed in vitro using geraniol synthase and GeDH to form a large proportion of citral and relatively little geraniol as reaction products. The biosynthetic pathway from geranyl diphosphate to citral, the main compound of citral-type perilla essential oil, was established in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F


    The presence of lactate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle mitochondria was investigated to clarify whether lactate is a possible substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were prepared from 100 mg samples of human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle. All fractions from the preparation...... procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit approximately 0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated...... as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore...

  12. Epidemiological Study of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Scheduled Caste Population of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Rai


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the glucose-6-phostphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in scheduled caste (SC population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. After taking clearance certificate from the Institutional Ethics Committee, blood samples were collected from total 200 healthy individuals belonging to scheduled caste. G6PD deficiency analysis was done by methemoglobin test according to the method of Brewer et al. (1962. Out of 200 samples, 20 individuals were glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and 22 samples were heterozygous that is, carriers. The percentage of G6PD deficient (Gd+/+ and G6PD carrier (Gd+/Gd− phenotypes were 10% and 11%, respectively. The frequency of mutant allele (Gd− was observed 0.172. Early detection and prevention is the key strategy for successful management and control of this genetic disease.

  13. A α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase is present in Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Concepcion


    Full Text Available α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPDH-EC. has been considered absent in Trypanosoma cruzi in contradiction with all other studied trypanosomatids. After observing that the sole malate dehydrogenase can not maintain the intraglycosomal redox balance, GPDH activity was looked for and found, although in very variable levels, in epimastigotes extracts. GPDH was shown to be exclusively located in the glycosome of T. cruzi by digitonin treatment and isopycnic centrifugation. Antibody against T. brucei GPDH showed that this enzyme seemed to be present in an essentially inactive form at the beginning of the epimastigotes growth. GPDH is apparently linked to a salicylhydroxmic-sensitive glycerophosphate reoxidizing system and plays an essential role in the glycosome redox balance.

  14. Structural organization of the human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, M J; Andresen, B S; Bross, P


    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) is a homotetrameric mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the initial reaction in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. Defects in the SCAD enzyme are associated with failure to thrive, often with neuromuscular dysfunction and elevated urinary excreti....... The evolutionary relationship between SCAD and five other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family was investigated by two independent approaches that gave similar phylogenetic trees....... shown to be associated with ethylmalonic aciduria. From analysis of 18 unrelated Danish families, we show that the four SCAD gene polymorphisms constitute five allelic variants of the SCAD gene, and that the 625A variant together with the less frequent variant form of the three other polymorphisms (321C...

  15. Active succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and lack of SDHD mutations in sporadic paragangliomas. (United States)

    Braun, Simone; Riemann, Kathrin; Kupka, Susan; Leistenschneider, Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Schmid, Heide; Blin, Nikolaus


    Paragangliomas are benign, slow-growing tumours of the head and neck region. The candidate gene for familial and some sporadic paragangliomas, SDHD (succinate dehydrogenase, subunit D), has been mapped to the PGL1 locus in 11q23.3. Normal and tumour DNA of 17 patients with sporadic paragangliomas were analysed by sequencing (SDHD, SDHB and SDHC genes), fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). In addition, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme activity assays were performed. Only two patients from our collective showed SDH gene mutations, one in SDHD and one in SDHB, respectively. Moreover, SDH activity detected in 5/8 patients confirmed the fact that SDH inactivation is not a major event in sporadic paragangliomas. LOH and FISH analysis demonstrated a frequent loss of regions within chromosome 11, indicating that additional genes in 11q may play a role in tumour genesis of sporadic paragangliomas.

  16. Ozone: a possible cause of hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (School of Health Sciences, Amherst, MA); Kojola, W.H.; Carnow, B.W.


    A series of recently reported experiments have indicated that inhaled ozone may induce several physical and biochemical changes affecting the membrane stability of red blood cells of normal human individuals. These biochemical modifications are similar to those that occur in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficient individuals who experience acute hemolysis several days after exposure to ''oxidant stress'' in the form of various drugs, including the antimalarials, sulfur drugs, analgesics, antibacterials, and numerous miscellaneous types. The paper indicates the possibility of atmospheric ozone exposure as a causative agent of acute hemolysis in G-6-PD deficient individuals. A theoretical model is described that predicts that individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may experience acute hemolysis on exposure to ozone at levels reached in certain urban centers. (MU)

  17. Expression, Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Studies of Histamine Dehydrogenase From Nocardioides Simplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.M.; Hirakawa, H.; Mure, M.; Scott, E.E.; Limburg, J.


    Histamine dehydrogenase (HADH) from Nocardioides simplex catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine to produce imidazole acetaldehyde and an ammonium ion. HADH is functionally related to trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH), but HADH has strict substrate specificity towards histamine. HADH is a homodimer, with each 76 kDa subunit containing two redox cofactors: a [4Fe-4S] cluster and an unusual covalently bound flavin mononucleotide, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN. In order to understand the substrate specificity of HADH, it was sought to determine its structure by X-ray crystallography. This enzyme has been expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and successfully crystallized in two forms. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution at the SSRL synchrotron with 99.7% completeness. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 101.14, b = 107.03, c = 153.35 {angstrom}.

  18. A novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that regulates reproductive development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wollam

    Full Text Available Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepe, Jan, E-mail:; Niefind, Karsten; Chatterjee, Shivani; Schomburg, Dietmar [Institute for Biochemistry, University of Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 47, Köln, NRW 50974 (Germany)


    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum is presented. The shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum has been cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, overexpressed and purified. Native crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the centred monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.77, b = 63.17, c = 35.67 Å, β = 92.26° (at 100 K), and diffract to 1.64 Å on a synchrotron X-ray source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, corresponding to a packing density of 2.08 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 41%.

  20. Plasma membrane nadh dehydrogenase and Ca2+-dependent potassium transport in erythrocytes of several animal species. (United States)

    Miner, C; López-Burillo, S; García-Sancho, J; Herreros, B


    Ca2+-dependent K+ transport and plasma membrane NADH dehydrogenase activities have been studied in several 'high-K+' (human, rabbit and guinea pig) and 'low-K+' (dog, cat and sheep) erythrocytes. All the species except sheep showed Ca2+-dependent K+ transport. NADH-ferricyanide reductase was detected in all the species and showed positive correlation with the flavin contents of the membranes. NADH-cytochrome c reductase was very low or absent in dog, sheep and guinea pig membranes. No correlation was found between NADH dehydrogenase and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel activities in the species studied. Nor were any of the above activities correlated with (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity.

  1. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie


    B), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce...... ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  2. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.


    The plant respiratory chain contains a complex setup of non-energy conserving NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, the physiological consequences of which are highly unclear. An expression construct for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) ndb1 gene, a homologue of bacterial and fungal type II NAD(P)H...... dehydrogenases, was introduced into Nicotiana sylvestris. Transgenic lines with high transcript and protein levels for St-NDB1 had up to threefold increased activity of external NADPH dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria as compared to the wild type (WT). In two lines, the external NADPH dehydrogenase activity...... for NADPH and dependent on calcium for activity. Transgenic lines overexpressing St-ndb1 had specifically increased protein levels for alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein, as compared to the WT and one co-suppressing line. This indicates cross-talk in the expressional control, or metabolic conditions...

  3. Cytophotometric analysis of reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver, heart muscle and tracheal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.


    Reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in cryostat sections of rat liver, tracheal epithelium and heart muscle were monitored by continuous measurement of formazan formation by cytophotometry at room temperature. Incubation media contained polyvinyl alcohol as tissue

  4. Changes in the zonation of lactate dehydrogenase activity in lobules of rat liver after experimentally induced colon carcinoma metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Freitas, I.; Vigorelli, E.; van Noorden, C. J.


    Visualization of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity with Neotetrazolium as final electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions and an incubation medium containing polyvinyl alcohol showed that under normal physiological conditions a zonal distribution of LDH activity is present in the liver lobule

  5. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W


    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis....

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A


    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  7. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804


    Valentina Grazioli; Bruno Rossaro; Paolo Parenti; Roberto Giacchini; Valeria Lencioni


    The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h) experiments were carried out: exposure to (1) progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation) and (2) anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation). In (1), Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxyg...

  8. DNA Sequence Polymorphism of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Genefrom Iranian Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Isolates




    Background: Parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is extensively employed as malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Moreover, it is a well-known drug target candidate. However, the genetic diversity of this gene might influence performance of RDT kits and its drug target candidacy. This study aimed to determine polymorphism of pLDH gene from Iranian isolates of P. vivax and P. falciparum. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of microscopically confirmed P. vivax and P. falcipar...

  9. Structural basis for discriminatory recognition of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase by a DNA aptamer. (United States)

    Cheung, Yee-Wai; Kwok, Jane; Law, Alan W L; Watt, Rory M; Kotaka, Masayo; Tanner, Julian A


    DNA aptamers have significant potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, but the paucity of DNA aptamer-target structures limits understanding of their molecular binding mechanisms. Here, we report a distorted hairpin structure of a DNA aptamer in complex with an important diagnostic target for malaria: Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). Aptamers selected from a DNA library were highly specific and discriminatory for Plasmodium as opposed to human lactate dehydrogenase because of a counterselection strategy used during selection. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed aptamer binding to PfLDH with a dissociation constant of 42 nM and 2:1 protein:aptamer molar stoichiometry. Dissociation constants derived from electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments were consistent. The aptamer:protein complex crystal structure was solved at 2.1-Å resolution, revealing two aptamers bind per PfLDH tetramer. The aptamers showed a unique distorted hairpin structure in complex with PfLDH, displaying a Watson-Crick base-paired stem together with two distinct loops each with one base flipped out by specific interactions with PfLDH. Aptamer binding specificity is dictated by extensive interactions of one of the aptamer loops with a PfLDH loop that is absent in human lactate dehydrogenase. We conjugated the aptamer to gold nanoparticles and demonstrated specificity of colorimetric detection of PfLDH over human lactate dehydrogenase. This unique distorted hairpin aptamer complex provides a perspective on aptamer-mediated molecular recognition and may guide rational design of better aptamers for malaria diagnostics.

  10. Glutamate dehydrogenase of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus : Substrate-induced conformational transition. (United States)

    Shatilov, V R; Sund, H


    The coenzyme-non-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (EC from Scenedesmus acutus in inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate only in the deamination reaction. From this result and from its stability in the presence of urea it is concluded that this enzyme exhibits and equilibrium between three conformations: aminating and deaminating conformations induced by NADH-2-oxoglutarate and NAD(+)-glutamate, respectively, and the "native" conformation in the absence of substrates.

  11. Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase lowers leaf respiration and alters photorespiration and plant growth in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Tomaz, Tiago; Bagard, Matthieu; Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Lindén, Pernilla; Lee, Chun Pong; Carroll, Adam J; Ströher, Elke; Smith, Steven M; Gardeström, Per; Millar, A Harvey


    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) catalyzes a reversible NAD(+)-dependent-dehydrogenase reaction involved in central metabolism and redox homeostasis between organelle compartments. To explore the role of mitochondrial MDH (mMDH) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), knockout single and double mutants for the highly expressed mMDH1 and lower expressed mMDH2 isoforms were constructed and analyzed. A mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has no detectable mMDH activity but is viable, albeit small and slow growing. Quantitative proteome analysis of mitochondria shows changes in other mitochondrial NAD-linked dehydrogenases, indicating a reorganization of such enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix. The slow-growing mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has elevated leaf respiration rate in the dark and light, without loss of photosynthetic capacity, suggesting that mMDH normally uses NADH to reduce oxaloacetate to malate, which is then exported to the cytosol, rather than to drive mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiratory rate in leaves can account in part for the low net CO(2) assimilation and slow growth rate of mmdh1mmdh2. Loss of mMDH also affects photorespiration, as evidenced by a lower postillumination burst, alterations in CO(2) assimilation/intercellular CO(2) curves at low CO(2), and the light-dependent elevated concentration of photorespiratory metabolites. Complementation of mmdh1mmdh2 with an mMDH cDNA recovered mMDH activity, suppressed respiratory rate, ameliorated changes to photorespiration, and increased plant growth. A previously established inverse correlation between mMDH and ascorbate content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has been consolidated in Arabidopsis and may potentially be linked to decreased galactonolactone dehydrogenase content in mitochondria in the mutant. Overall, a central yet complex role for mMDH emerges in the partitioning of carbon and energy in leaves, providing new directions for bioengineering of plant growth rate and a new insight into the molecular mechanisms

  12. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)


    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Qihui; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing


    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH...

  13. Isolation and characterization of glyoxylate dehydrogenase from the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. (United States)

    Balmforth, A J; Thomson, A


    Glyoxylate dehydrogenase (glyoxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase) was purified 600-fold in three steps from crude extracts of the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Corticium rolfsii Curzi). Two of the purification steps involved dye-affinity chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer of Mr 250 000, with identical subunits of Mr 57 000. Inhibition studies suggest that there is one essential thiol group per active site. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6712607

  14. Preparation and some properties of L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain mitochondria. (United States)

    Dawson, A P; Thorne, C J


    1. A method is described for extraction and partial purification of mitochondrial l-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain. 2. By the criteria that have so far been applied, the extraction and purification procedures do not modify the activity of the enzyme towards artificial electron acceptors. 3. The amounts of acid-liberatable flavine and iron in the preparation were measured. 4. A study was made of the effects of various analogues of l-3-glycerophosphate on the activity of the enzyme.

  15. Characterization and Targeting of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Subpopulation in Ovarian Cancer (United States)


    intraperitoneal, and 4) mammary fat pad. After attempts in 23 patients, these respective sites have yielded take rates (defined as at least one tumor...Obstetrics and Gynecology, UVA, 9/2014 o “Targeting Mediators of the Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer.” Grand Rounds, Department of Pathology , UVA, 10...dehydrogenase as a marker for stem cells. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2008;3:237–46. 11. Balicki D. Moving forward in human mammary stem cell biology and breast

  16. Distribution of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in deep subseafloor sediments. (United States)

    Hoshino, T; Inagaki, F


    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of CO is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic CO dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment-core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308 and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively. Our results show the occurrence of diverse cooS genes from the seafloor down to about 390 m below the seafloor, suggesting that microbial communities have metabolic functions to utilize CO in anoxic microbial ecosystems beneath the ocean floor, and that the microbial community potentially responsible for anaerobic CO oxidation differs in accordance with possible energy-yielding metabolic reactions in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. Little is known about the microbial community associated with carbon monoxide (CO) in the deep subseafloor. This study is the first survey of a functional gene encoding anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). The widespread occurrence of previously undiscovered CO dehydrogenase genes (cooS) suggests that diverse micro-organisms are capable of anaerobic oxidation of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors, a novel approach for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (United States)

    Leban, Johann; Vitt, Daniel


    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a novel and recently discovered enzyme, is involved in the biosynthesis of uridine. Leflunomide (CAS 75706-12-6), a drug approved for the treatment of treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was identified as an inhibitor of DHODH. Structure based drug design using the leflunomide/DHODH X-ray structure yielded novel inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. Such drug candidates are in clinical trials against various autoimmune diseases.

  18. Fluorine Modulates Species Selectivity in the Triazolopyrimidine Class of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors


    Deng, Xiaoyi; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; El Mazouni, Farah; White, John; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Kaminsky, Werner; Charman, Susan A.; Matthews, David; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Phillips, Margaret A.


    Malaria is one of the most serious global infectious diseases. The pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) is an important target for antimalarial chemotherapy. We describe a detailed analysis of protein?ligand interactions between DHODH and a triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor series to explore the effects of fluorine on affinity and species selectivity. We show that increasing fluorination dramatically increases binding to mammalian DHODHs...

  19. Structural insight into the calcium ion modulated interdomain electron transfer in cellobiose dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kádek, Alan; Kavan, Daniel; Felice, A.K.G.; Ludwig, R.; Halada, Petr; Man, Petr


    Roč. 589, č. 11 (2015), s. 1194-1199 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0503; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Hydrogen/deuterium exchange * Cellobiose dehydrogenase * Calcium effect Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.519, year: 2015

  20. In vitro effects of metals and pesticides on dehydrogenase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 4, 2007 ... medium. At 0.2 mM, iron and cadmium stimulated the dehydrogenase activity of the microbial community. For all the metal ions, there was progressive inhibition with each successive increase in the concentration of metal ion, reaching near 100% at 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 0.12 and 12 mM for cobalt, cadmium,.

  1. Equine biochemical multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) as a cause of rhabdomyolysis. (United States)

    Westermann, C M; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; van der Kolk, J H; Berger, R; Wijnberg, I D; Koeman, J P; Wanders, R J A; Lenstra, J A; Testerink, N; Vaandrager, A B; Vianey-Saban, C; Acquaviva-Bourdain, C; Dorland, L


    Two horses (a 7-year-old Groninger warmblood gelding and a six-month-old Trakehner mare) with pathologically confirmed rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed as suffering from multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). This disorder has not been recognised in animals before. Clinical signs of both horses were a stiff, insecure gait, myoglobinuria, and finally recumbency. Urine, plasma, and muscle tissues were investigated. Analysis of plasma showed hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia, increased activity of muscle enzymes (ASAT, LDH, CK), and impaired kidney function (increased urea and creatinine). The most remarkable findings of organic acids in urine of both horses were increased lactic acid, ethylmalonic acid (EMA), 2-methylsuccinic acid, butyrylglycine (iso)valerylglycine, and hexanoylglycine. EMA was also increased in plasma of both animals. Furthermore, the profile of acylcarnitines in plasma from both animals showed a substantial elevation of C4-, C5-, C6-, C8-, and C5-DC-carnitine. Concentrations of acylcarnitines in urine of both animals revealed increased excretions of C2-, C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C5-OH-, C8-, C10:1-, C10-, and C5-DC-carnitine. In addition, concentrations of free carnitine were also increased. Quantitative biochemical measurement of enzyme activities in muscle tissue showed deficiencies of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) also indicating MADD. Histology revealed extensive rhabdomyolysis with microvesicular lipidosis predominantly in type 1 muscle fibers and mitochondrial damage. However, the ETF and ETF-QO activities were within normal limits indicating the metabolic disorder to be acquired rather than inherited. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of biochemical MADD reported in equine medicine.

  2. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Essam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for the detection of known mutations has facilitated detecting specific red blood cell (RBC enzyme deficiencies. We carried out a study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficient subjects in Jeddah to evaluate the molecular characteristics of this enzyme deficiency and the frequency of nucleotide1311 and IVS-XI-93 polymorphisms in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Results A total of 1584 unrelated Saudis (984 neonates and 600 adults were screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was 6.9% (n = 110. G6PD Mediterranean mutation was observed in 98 (89.1% cases, G6PD Aures in 11 (10.0% cases, and G6PD Chatham in 1 (0.9% case. None of the samples showed G6PD A‾ mutation. Samples from 29 deficient subjects (25 males and 4 females were examined for polymorphism. The association of two polymorphisms of exon/intron 11 (c.1311T/IVS-XI-93C was observed in 14 (42.4% of 33 chromosomes studied. This association was found in 9 (31.0% carriers of G6PD Mediterranean and in 4 (13.8% carriers of G6PD Aures. Conclusions The majority of mutations were G6PD Mediterranean, followed by G6PD Aures and G6PD Chatham. We conclude that 1311T is a frequent polymorphism in subjects with G6PD Mediterranean and Aures variants in Jeddah.

  3. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.


    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  4. Marked and variable inhibition by chemical fixation of cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in single motoneurons (United States)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Edgerton, V. R.


    The effect of tissue fixation on succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activity in single motoneurons of the rat was demonstrated using a computer image processing system. Inhibition of enzyme activity by chemical fixation was variable, with some motoneurons being affected more than others. It was concluded that quantification of enzymatic activity in chemically fixed tissue provides an imprecise estimate of enzyme activities found in fresh-frozen tissues.

  5. Characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase activity of Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea)


    Abidi, S. M. A.; Khan, P.; Saifullah, M. K.


    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) (EC is a ubiquitous enzyme, which is present at the protein and carbohydrate metabolism crossroads. The enzyme activity was investigated in biliary and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer, respectively, infecting the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The enzyme activity was consistently higher in G. explanatum as compared to G. crumenifer, where NAD(H) was utilized as coenzyme and the pH optima was recorded at 8. ...

  6. Role of xanthine dehydrogenase and aging on the innate immune response of Drosophila


    Kim, Young Shin; Nam, Hyuck Jin; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk; Ryu, Ji Hwan; Lee, Won Jae; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi Ae


    It has been proposed that uric acid is an important scavenger of deleterious oxygen species and peroxynitrite in biological systems. The cellular sources responsible for the generation of damage-causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widespread. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) / oxidase (XOD) catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. The rosy (ry) gene encodes XDH/XOD in Drosophila melanogaster. XDH codes for uric acid which is a ROS scavenger. XOD however is an enzyme system implicat...

  7. Isolation and characterization of the Xanthine dehydrogenase gene of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.


    Pitts, R J; Zwiebel, L J


    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is a member of the molybdenum hydroxylase family of enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. The enzyme is also required for the production of one of the major Drosophila eye pigments, drosopterin. The XDH gene has been isolated in many species representing a broad cross section of the major groups of living organisms, including the cDNA encoding XDH from the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (CcXDH) described here. CcXD...

  8. Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria.


    Ichida, K; Amaya, Y; Kamatani, N; Nishino, T; Hosoya, T; Sakai, O


    Hereditary xanthinuria is classified into three categories. Classical xanthinuria type I lacks only xanthine dehydrogenase activity, while type II and molybdenum cofactor deficiency also lack one or two additional enzyme activities. In the present study, we examined four individuals with classical xanthinuria to discover the cause of the enzyme deficiency at the molecular level. One subject had a C to T base substitution at nucleotide 682 that should cause a CGA (Arg) to TGA (Ter) nonsense su...

  9. A case of xanthinuria type I with a novel mutation in xanthine dehydrogenase


    Iguchi, Akira; Sato, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Mihoko; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Yasushi; Iino, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Narita, Ichiei


    Hereditary hypouricemia is generally caused by renal hypouricemia, an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by impaired renal tubular uric acid transport, or by xanthinuria, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; xanthinuria type I) or by a deficiency of both XDH and aldehyde oxidase (xanthinuria type II). In contrast to renal hypouricemia, which sometimes leads to exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI), xanthinuria has no...

  10. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.


    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  11. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice. (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan


    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  12. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1 (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan


    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  13. NADP-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Archaeon Pyrobaculum sp.1860: Structural and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Bezsudnova


    Full Text Available We present the functional and structural characterization of the first archaeal thermostable NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase AlDHPyr1147. In vitro, AlDHPyr1147 catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of short aliphatic aldehydes at 60–85°С, and the affinity of AlDHPyr1147 to the NADP+ at 60°С is comparable to that for mesophilic analogues at 25°С. We determined the structures of the apo form of AlDHPyr1147 (3.04 Å resolution, three binary complexes with the coenzyme (1.90, 2.06, and 2.19 Å, and the ternary complex with the coenzyme and isobutyraldehyde as a substrate (2.66 Å. The nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme is disordered in two binary complexes, while it is ordered in the ternary complex, as well as in the binary complex obtained after additional soaking with the substrate. AlDHPyr1147 structures demonstrate the strengthening of the dimeric contact (as compared with the analogues and the concerted conformational flexibility of catalytic Cys287 and Glu253, as well as Leu254 and the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme. A comparison of the active sites of AlDHPyr1147 and dehydrogenases characterized earlier suggests that proton relay systems, which were previously proposed for dehydrogenases of this family, are blocked in AlDHPyr1147, and the proton release in the latter can occur through the substrate channel.

  14. Relationship between fibrosis and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the experimental hypertrophic heart of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Cameron, A.J.V.


    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting either thyroxine or isoprenaline or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern and an increase in fibrosis (as measured by hydroxyproline concentrations). Isoprenaline treatment led to a moderate increase in heart weight, a marked decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase, and a marked increase in hydroxyproline. Thyroxine treatment led to a small increase in both heart weight and hydroxyproline and a small decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio. Coarctation of the aorta, in contrast, caused a marked increase in heart weight, a moderate decrease in heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio, and a moderate increase in hydroxyproline. These results suggest that the decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase in the experimental hypertrophic heart reflects the extent of myocardial fibrosis, rather than changes within the hypertrophied myocardial cells.

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase a expression is necessary to sustain rapid angiogenesis of pulmonary microvascular endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Parra-Bonilla

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a fundamental property of endothelium, yet not all endothelial cells display equivalent angiogenic responses; pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells undergo rapid angiogenesis when compared to endothelial cells isolated from conduit vessels. At present it is not clear how pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells fulfill the bioenergetic demands that are necessary to sustain such rapid blood vessel formation. We have previously established that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells utilize aerobic glycolysis to generate ATP during growth, a process that requires the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A to convert pyruvate to lactate. Here, we test the hypothesis that lactate dehydrogenase A is required for pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells to sustain rapid angiogenesis. To test this hypothesis, Tet-On and Tet-Off conditional expression systems were developed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, where doxycycline is utilized to induce lactate dehydrogenase A shRNA expression. Expression of LDH-A shRNA induced a time-dependent decrease in LDH-A protein, which corresponded with a decrease in glucose consumption from the media, lactate production and cell growth; re-expression of LDH-A rescued each of these parameters. LDH-A silencing greatly reduced network formation on Matrigel in vitro, and decreased blood vessel formation in Matrigel in vivo. These findings demonstrate that LDH-A is critically important for sustaining the rapid angiogenesis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

  16. Enzyme inhibition assay for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: Clinical utility for the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (United States)

    Omagari, Katsuhisa; Hazama, Hiroaki; Kohno, Shigeru


    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is usually diagnosed by the presence of characteristic histopathological features of the liver and/or antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in the serum traditionally detected by immunofluorescence. Recently, new and more accurate serological assays for the detection of AMA, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and enzyme inhibition assay, have been developed. Of these, the enzyme inhibition assay for the detection of anti- pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) antibodies offers certain advantages such as objectivity, rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. Since this assay has almost 100% specificity, it may have particular applicability in screening the at-risk segment of the population in developing countries. Moreover, this assay could be also used for monitoring the disease course in PBC. Almost all sera of PBC-suspected patients can be confirmed for PBC or non-PBC by the combination results of immunoblotting and enzyme inhibition assay without histopathological examination. For the development of a “complete” or "gold standard" diagnostic assay for PBC, similar assays of the enzyme inhibition for anti-2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) and anti-branched chain oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (BCOADC) antibodies will be needed in future. PMID:16425376

  17. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase activity helps support glycolysis in actively proliferating cells and cancer. (United States)

    Hanse, E A; Ruan, C; Kachman, M; Wang, D; Lowman, X H; Kelekar, A


    Increased glucose consumption is a hallmark of cancer cells. The increased consumption and subsequent metabolism of glucose during proliferation creates the need for a constant supply of NAD, a co-factor in glycolysis. Regeneration of the NAD required to support enhanced glycolysis has been attributed to the terminal glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, loss of glucose carbons to biosynthetic pathways early in glycolysis reduces the carbon supply to LDH. Thus, alternative routes for NAD regeneration must exist to support the increased glycolytic rate while allowing for the diversion of glucose to generate biomass and support proliferation. Here we demonstrate, using a variety of cancer cell lines as well as activated primary T cells, that cytosolic malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) is an alternative to LDH as a supplier of NAD. Moreover, our results indicate that MDH1 generates malate with carbons derived from glutamine, thus enabling utilization of glucose carbons for glycolysis and for biomass. Amplification of MDH1 occurs at an impressive frequency in human tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. Together, our findings suggest that proliferating cells rely on both MDH1 and LDH to replenish cytosolic NAD, and that therapies designed at targeting glycolysis must consider both dehydrogenases.

  18. Radiation-induced damage to mitochondrial D-. beta. -hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, O.; Nakazawa, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Miyahara, M.; Shiraishi, N. (Kochi Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Medical Biology)


    Radiation-induced damage to the reconstituted system of membrane-bound enzyme, D-..beta.. hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase obtained from rat liver mitochondria, was investigated in relation to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. The D-..beta.. hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in fresh mitochondria was very low in general and not affected by irradiation because of little incorporation of substrates into mitochondria. Enzyme activity in one-day-aged mitochondria or submitochondrial particles was five times higher than that of fresh mitochondria and decreased with increasing radiation dose accompanying the increase in peroxidation of membrane lipids. D-..beta..-hydroxyl-butyrate dehydrogenase activity in the reconstituted system of the purified enzyme with irradiated liver microsomes or irradiated liposomes was decreased considerably in comparison with either unirradiated control or irradiated enzyme. Radiation-induced decrease in the enzyme activity was thought to be caused mainly by peroxidation of membrane lipids and not due to direct damage by radiation to the enzyme molecule itself. Irradiation of microsomes caused decreases in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content and an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine content. Arachidonic acid contents in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine were also markedly decreased with increasing radiation dose. These results are discussed in terms of a mechanism involving radiation-induced damage to membrane function and structures.

  19. XoxF Is Required for Expression of Methanol Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 ▿ (United States)

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Palmer, Alexander D.; Rountree, Austin M.; Good, Nathan M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.


    In Gram-negative methylotrophic bacteria, the first step in methylotrophic growth is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in the periplasm by methanol dehydrogenase. In most organisms studied to date, this enzyme consists of the MxaF and MxaI proteins, which make up the large and small subunits of this heterotetrameric enzyme. The Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 genome contains two homologs of MxaF, XoxF1 and XoxF2, which are ∼50% identical to MxaF and ∼90% identical to each other. It was previously reported that xoxF is not required for methanol growth in M. extorquens AM1, but here we show that when both xoxF homologs are absent, strains are unable to grow in methanol medium and lack methanol dehydrogenase activity. We demonstrate that these defects result from the loss of gene expression from the mxa promoter and suggest that XoxF is part of a complex regulatory cascade involving the 2-component systems MxcQE and MxbDM, which are required for the expression of the methanol dehydrogenase genes. PMID:21873495

  20. Dehydrogenase genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum: A role for Ald1 in mycorrhizal symbiosis. (United States)

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Voit, Annekatrin; Kothe, Erika; Krause, Katrin


    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is important for forest ecosystem functioning with tree-fungal cooperation increasing performance and countering stress conditions. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are key enzymes for detoxification and thus may play a role in stress response of the symbiotic association. With this focus, eight dehydrogenases, Ald1 through Ald7 and TyrA, of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum were characterized and phylogenetically investigated. Functional analysis was performed through differential expression analysis by feeding different, environmentally important substances. A strong effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified, linking mycorrhiza formation and auxin signaling between the symbiosis partners. We investigated ald1 overexpressing strains for performance in mycorrhiza with the host tree spruce (Picea abies) and observed an increased width of the apoplast, accommodating the Hartig' net hyphae of the T. vaccinum over-expressing transformants. The results support a role for Ald1 in ectomycorrhiza formation and underline functional differentiation within fungal aldehyde dehydrogenases in the family 1 of ALDHs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. (United States)

    Ichida, K; Amaya, Y; Kamatani, N; Nishino, T; Hosoya, T; Sakai, O


    Hereditary xanthinuria is classified into three categories. Classical xanthinuria type I lacks only xanthine dehydrogenase activity, while type II and molybdenum cofactor deficiency also lack one or two additional enzyme activities. In the present study, we examined four individuals with classical xanthinuria to discover the cause of the enzyme deficiency at the molecular level. One subject had a C to T base substitution at nucleotide 682 that should cause a CGA (Arg) to TGA (Ter) nonsense substitution at codon 228. The duodenal mucosa from the subject had no xanthine dehydrogenase protein while the mRNA level was not reduced. The two subjects who were siblings with type I xanthinuria were homozygous concerning this mutation, while another subject was found to contain the same mutation in a heterozygous state. The last subject who was also with type I xanthinuria had a deletion of C at nucleotide 2567 in cDNA that should generate a termination codon from nucleotide 2783. This subject was homozygous for the mutation and the level of mRNA in the duodenal mucosa from the subject was not reduced. Thus, in three subjects with type I xanthinuria, the primary genetic defects were confirmed to be in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene.

  2. Antimalarial activity of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn.-an in vitro Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibition assay


    Neeraj Sethiya; Priyadarshan Keluskar; Sanjay Ingle; Shrihari Mishra


    Objective: To investigate the effect of standardized methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoids Linn. (E. alsinoids) on Plasmodium falciparum specific lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) enzyme inhibition. Methods: To carry out enzyme inhibition studies, lactate dehydrogenase was cloned from Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain using expression vector pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Protein purification was carried out by Ni-affinity chromatography. This protein was ...

  3. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.


    The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA...... indicate that the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of beta-lactann production in industrial strains of P. chrysogenum....

  4. Inhibitor binding in a class 2 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase causes variations in the membrane-associated N-terminal domain


    Hansen, Majbritt; Le Nours, Jérôme; Johansson, Eva; Antal, Torben; Ullrich, Alexandra; Löffler, Monika; Larsen, Sine


    The flavin enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD; EC catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis of UMP. The enzyme is a promising target for drug design in different biological and clinical applications for cancer and arthritis. The first crystal structure of the class 2 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from rat has been determined in complex with its two inhibitors brequinar and atovaquone. These inhibitors have sho...

  5. Cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli of the genes encoding NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from two Sulfolobus species. (United States)

    Cannio, R; Fiorentino, G; Carpinelli, P; Rossi, M; Bartolucci, S


    The gene adh encoding a NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from the novel strain RC3 of Sulfolobus sp. was cloned and sequenced. Both the adh gene from Sulfolobus sp. strain RC3 and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Sulfolobus solfataricus (DSM 1617) were expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized, and compared. Only a few amino acid replacements were responsible for the different kinetic and physicochemical features investigated. PMID:8550434

  6. Gene silencing in Phlebotomine sand flies: xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA micro-injections (United States)

    Sant’ Anna, Mauricio R V; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A; Dillon, Rod J


    Lutzomyia longipalpis are vectors of medically important visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Bloodfed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate. Large amounts of heme are also released during digestion with potentially damaging consequences, as heme can generate oxygen radicals that damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. However, urate is an anti-oxidant that may prevent such oxidative damage produced by heme. We investigated xanthine dehydrogenase by developing the RNAi technique for sand flies and used this technique to knock down the Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase gene to evaluate its role in survival of adult females after blood feeding. The gene sequence of Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase is described together with expression in different life cycle stages and RNAi knock down. Semi quantitative RT-PCR of xanthine dehydrogenase expression showed a significant increase in expression after bloodmeal ingestion. Micro-injection of dsRNA via the thorax of 1 day old adult female sand flies resulted in approximately 40% reduction of xanthine dehydrogenase gene expression in comparison to flies injected with a control dsRNA. A significant reduction of urate in the whole body and excretions of Lu. longipalpis was observed after dsRNA xanthine dehydrogenase microinjection and feeding 96h later on rabbit blood. Sand flies injected with XDH dsRNA also exhibit significantly reduced life span in comparison with the mock-injected group when fed on sucrose or when rabbit blood fed, showing that urate could be indeed an important free radical scavenger in Lu. Longipalpis. The demonstration of xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjection, low mortality of micro-injected insects and the successful bloodfeeding of injected insects demonstrated the utility of RNAi as a tool for functional analysis of genes in

  7. Enantioselective Synthesis of Vicinal (R,R)-Diols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Butanediol Dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Calam, Eduard; González-Roca, Eva; Fernández, M Rosario; Dequin, Sylvie; Parés, Xavier; Virgili, Albert; Biosca, Josep A


    Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the superfamily of the medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases and converts reversibly R-acetoin and S-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, respectively. It is specific for NAD(H) as a coenzyme, and it is the main enzyme involved in the last metabolic step leading to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol in yeast. In this study, we have used the activity of Bdh1p in different forms-purified enzyme, yeast extracts, permeabilized yeast cells, and as a fusion protein (with yeast formate dehydrogenase, Fdh1p)-to transform several vicinal diketones to the corresponding diols. We have also developed a new variant of the delitto perfetto methodology to place BDH1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter, resulting in a yeast strain that overexpresses butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in the presence of galactose and regenerates NADH in the presence of formate. While the use of purified Bdh1p allows the synthesis of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, and (3R,4R)-3,4-hexanediol, the use of the engineered strain (as an extract or as permeabilized cells) yields mixtures of the diols. The production of pure diol stereoisomers has also been achieved by means of a chimeric fusion protein combining Fdh1p and Bdh1p. Finally, we have determined the selectivity of Bdh1p toward the oxidation/reduction of the hydroxyl/ketone groups from (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol/2,3-pentanedione and (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol/2,3-hexanedione. In conclusion, Bdh1p is an enzyme with biotechnological interest that can be used to synthesize chiral building blocks. A scheme of the favored pathway with the corresponding intermediates is proposed for the Bdh1p reaction. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Comparative evolutionary genomics of the HADH2 gene encoding Aβ-binding alcohol dehydrogenase/17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (ABAD/HSD10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Pedro A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aβ-binding alcohol dehydrogenase/17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (ABAD/HSD10 is an enzyme involved in pivotal metabolic processes and in the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in the Alzheimer's disease. Here we use comparative genomic analyses to study the evolution of the HADH2 gene encoding ABAD/HSD10 across several eukaryotic species. Results Both vertebrate and nematode HADH2 genes showed a six-exon/five-intron organization while those of the insects had a reduced and varied number of exons (two to three. Eutherian mammal HADH2 genes revealed some highly conserved noncoding regions, which may indicate the presence of functional elements, namely in the upstream region about 1 kb of the transcription start site and in the first part of intron 1. These regions were also conserved between Tetraodon and Fugu fishes. We identified a conserved alternative splicing event between human and dog, which have a nine amino acid deletion, causing the removal of the strand βF. This strand is one of the seven strands that compose the core β-sheet of the Rossman fold dinucleotide-binding motif characteristic of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family members. However, the fact that the substrate binding cleft residues are retained and the existence of a shared variant between human and dog suggest that it might be functional. Molecular adaptation analyses across eutherian mammal orthologues revealed the existence of sites under positive selection, some of which being localized in the substrate-binding cleft and in the insertion 1 region on loop D (an important region for the Aβ-binding to the enzyme. Interestingly, a higher than expected number of nonsynonymous substitutions were observed between human/chimpanzee and orangutan, with six out of the seven amino acid replacements being under molecular adaptation (including three in loop D and one in the substrate binding loop. Conclusion Our study revealed that HADH

  9. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-dependent metabolism of 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir G Nashev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 in the regulation of energy metabolism and immune system by locally reactivating glucocorticoids has been extensively studied. Experiments determining initial rates of enzyme activity revealed that 11beta-HSD1 can catalyze both the reductase and the dehydrogenase reaction in cell lysates, whereas it predominantly catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol in intact cells that also express hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH, which provides cofactor NADPH. Besides its role in glucocorticoid metabolism, there is evidence that 11beta-HSD1 is involved in the metabolism of 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-steroids; however the impact of H6PDH on this alternative function of 11beta-HSD1 has not been assessed. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the 11beta-HSD1-dependent metabolism of the neurosteroids 7-keto-, 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-pregnenolone, respectively, in the absence or presence of H6PDH in intact cells. 3D-structural modeling was applied to study the binding of ligands in 11beta-HSD1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that 11beta-HSD1 functions in a reversible way and efficiently catalyzed the interconversion of these 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids in intact cells. In the presence of H6PDH, 11beta-HSD1 predominantly converted 7-keto-DHEA and 7-ketopregnenolone into their corresponding 7beta-hydroxy metabolites, indicating a role for H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in the local generation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. 3D-structural modeling offered an explanation for the preferred formation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Our results from experiments determining the steady state concentrations of glucocorticoids or 7-oxygenated neurosteroids suggested that the equilibrium between cortisone and cortisol and between 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids is regulated by 11beta-HSD1 and greatly

  10. Overlapping substrate specificities of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (the xylC gene product) and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (the xylG gene product) encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida. (United States)

    Inoue, J; Shaw, J P; Rekik, M; Harayama, S


    Two aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the degradation of toluene and xylenes, namely, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, are encoded by the xylC and xylG genes, respectively, on TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida. The nucleotide sequence of xylC was determined in this study. A protein exhibiting benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activity had been purified from cells of P. putida (pWW0) (J. P. Shaw and S. Harayama, Eur. J. Biochem. 191:705-714, 1990); however, the amino-terminal sequence of this protein does not correspond to that predicted from the xylC sequence but does correspond to that predicted from the xylG sequence. The protein purified in the earlier work was therefore 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (the xylG gene product). This conclusion was confirmed by the fact that this protein oxidized 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (kcat/Km = 1.6 x 10(6) s-1 M-1) more efficiently than benzaldehyde (kcat/Km = 3.2 x 10(4) s-1 M-1). The xylC product, the genuine benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, was purified from extracts of P. putida (pWW0-161 delta rylG) which does not synthesize 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The amino-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to the amino-terminal sequence deduced from the xylC sequence. This enzyme efficiently oxidized benzaldehyde (kcat/Km = 1.7 x 10(7) s-1 M-1) and its analogs but did not oxidize 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde or its analogs.

  11. Kinetic Behaviour of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in Different Tissues of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Exposed to Non-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Hisar


    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd on the enzymatic activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD were investigated in the gill, liver and kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three test groups of fish were subjected to increasing concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/l of cadmium (Cd in vivo, respectively. The G6PD and 6PGD activities in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of each group of fish were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. G6PD and 6PGD enzyme activities, measured in gill, liver and kidney homogenates, were stimulated by various concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg/l of cadmium. Although the dose-response pattern of G6PD enzyme activities in liver and kidney tissue was very similar, that in gill was different from both other tissues. The enzyme activity of G6PD enzyme was significantly stimulated after three days (Day 3 in liver and kidney tissues at a dose of 1 mg/l Cd (p p p p p p < 0.05 in liver and kidney tissues at the doses of 3 and 1 mg/l Cd. The stimulation effect of cadmium on the three tissues studied was also calculated; for both of the enzymes (G6PD and 6PGD, the enzyme activity levels were stimulated by approximately 60% and 38% in gills, 68% and 44% in liver, and 67% and 41% in kidneys, respectively, over the base-line enzyme activity of the control groups during the sevenday experimental period. These findings indicate that tissue G6PD and 6PGD enzymes function to protect against cadmium toxicity.

  12. Structure of NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli - reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Michael A.; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R. [Trinity; (FCT/UNL); (UC-Dublin)


    Glutamate dehydrogenases catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, using NAD+ and/or NADP+ as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding domain I followed by a nucleotide-binding domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the GDH family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5-Å resolution. Modelling of NADP+ in domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond with the 2'-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP+ recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD+-dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution to the coordination of the 2'-ribose phosphate of NADP+. These studies clarify the sequence–structure relationships in bacterial GDHs, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual-specificity GDHs of animals.

  13. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaspina Patrizia


    Full Text Available Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22 occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2, represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH or γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2. A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE. Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue.

  14. Expression of catalase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in rot grains upon fungicide use on maize hybrids grown at different spacings. (United States)

    Kluge, E R; Mendes, M C; Faria, M V; Santos, H O; Santos, L A; Sandini, I E


    In this study, we evaluated the fungicide effect on the incidence of rot grains and expression of catalase (CAT), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzymes in commercial maize hybrids grown with conventional and reduced spacing in Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. The experiment was designed in random blocks with a 3 × 8-factorial scheme, totaling 24 treatments. The first factor constituted three levels, the first with foliar fungicide application [150.0 g/L trifloxystrobin (15.0%, w/v) + 175.0 g/L prothioconazole (17.5%, w/v)] at a dose of 0.4 L/ha at V8-stage eight expanded leaves and the second with an application of 0.5 L/ha at VT-tasseling and check (no fungicide application) stage. The second factor comprised eight maize hybrids that were divided into two groups, complex (AG 9045PRO, AG 8041PRO, DKB245PRO2, and 2B707PW) and susceptible (P 32R48H, DKB390PRO, P 30F53H, and P 30R50H), according to their reaction to the causative fungus, totaling 72 plots at each site in the crop of 2013/2014. The percentage of rot grains and the expression of CAT, ADH, and MDH were evaluated for each hybrid. The percentage of rot grains was influenced by the hybrid and fungicide used. The (trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole) reduced the incidence of rot grains, with relatively higher reduction in the hybrids considered susceptible. The higher expression of CAT enzyme was related to the higher incidence of rot grains because of grain deterioration, depending on the hybrids evaluated. A higher expression of ADH and MDH enzymes was observed in the maize hybrids belonging to the group considered tolerant.

  15. Biochemical properties of human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7. (United States)

    Stambergova, Hana; Skarydova, Lucie; Dunford, James E; Wsol, Vladimir


    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7, retSDR4, SDR34C1) is a previously uncharacterized member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. While human SDR members are known to play an important role in various (patho)biochemical pathways including intermediary metabolism and biotransformation of xenobiotics, only 20% of them are considered to be well characterized. Based on phylogenetic tree and SDR sequence clusters analysis DHRS7 is a close relative to well-known SDR member 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) that participates in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substances with carbonyl group. The aim of present study is to determine the basic biochemical properties of DHRS7 and its possible involvement in metabolism of substrates with carbonyl group. For the first time the computational predictions of this membrane protein and membrane topology were experimentally confirmed. DHRS7 has been demonstrated to be an integral protein facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum with lack of posttranscriptional glycosylation modification. Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). In addition to 11β-HSD1, DHRS7 is another enzyme from SDR superfamily that have been proved, at least in vitro, to contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics with carbonyl group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Purification and properties of an NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). (United States)

    Stirling, D I; Dalton, H


    Crude soluble extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath, grown on methane, were found to contain NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Activity in the extract was lost on dialysis against phosphate buffer, but could be restored by supplementing with inactive, heat-treated extract (70 degrees C for 12 min). The non-dialysable, heat-sensitive component was isolated and purified, and has a molecular weight of about 115000. Sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis of the protein suggested there were two equal subunits with molecular weights of 57000. The heat-stable fraction, which was necessary for activity of the heat-sensitive protein, was trypsin-sensitive and presumed to be a low molecular weight protein or peptide. A number of thiol compounds and other common cofactors could not replace the component present in the heat-treated soluble extract. The purified formaldehyde dehydrogenase oxidized three other aldehydes with the following Km values: 0.68 mM (formaldehyde); 0.075 mM (glyoxal); 7.0 mM (glycolaldehyde); and 2.0 mM (DL-glyceraldehyde). NAD+ or NADP+ was required for activity, with Km values of 0.063 and 0.155 mM respectively, and could not be replaced by any of the artificial electron acceptors tested. The enzyme was heat-stable at 45 degrees C for at least 10 min and had temperature and pH optima of 45 degrees C and pH 7.2 respectively. A number of metal-binding agents and substrate analogues were not inhibitory. Thiol reagents gave varying degrees of inhibition, the most potent being p-hydroxymercuribenzoate which at 1 mM gave 100% inhibition. The importance of possessing an NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase, with respect to M. capsulatus, is discussed.

  17. Distribution of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2 in Indonesian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi


    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH plays a pivotal role in the alcohol metabolism. Decreased activity of ALDH enzyme has more influence on the hypersensitivity to alcohol than of alcohol dehydrogenase. ALDH enzyme exists in several isozymes. Among these isozymes, ALDH2 is a major isozyme that has a very high affinity for acetaldehyde. Recent studies suggested that the deficiency of ALDH2 may be inherited. Functional polymorphism of ALDH2 gene has been observed in a nucleotide of the 487th codon. In the atypical gene, this codon consists of AAA nucleotides for lysine, instead of GAA for glutamic acid in the wild type gene. In this study, we have analyzed the genetic polymorphism of ALDH2 gene among 100 Indonesian students using genomic DNA extracted from hair roots. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods were performed for this purpose. Three oligonucleotide primers were designed for two steps PCR. The reverse primer R was intentionally constructed not to be 100% complementary to the template strand, to generate a restriction site for Eco RI within the variable nucleotide in the PCR product of ALDH2 gene. This study indicates that 70 subjects (70% have wild type, 29 (29% atypical heterozygote and only 1 (1% atypical homozygote ALDH2 alleles. Conclusively, the atypical ALDH2 allele frequency in Indonesians (31/200 is higher than in Caucasoids (only about 5-10%, but less than in Mongoloids (40-50%. This may be due to the diverse ethnics of Indonesian population. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 135-42 Keywords: alcohol hypersensitivity, genetic polymorphism, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2 gene

  18. Optimization of production, purification and lyophilisation of cellobiose dehydrogenase by Sclerotium rolfsii. (United States)

    Fischer, Christin; Krause, Annett; Kleinschmidt, Thomas


    The enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) can be used to oxidize lactose to lactobionic acid. As Sclerotium rolfsii is known to be a good producer of CDH, the aim of this paper was to simplify its production and secondly to systematically study its purification aiming for a high yield. Two preservation methods (freezing and freeze-drying) and the influence of several protectants were investigated. Production of cellobiose dehydrogenase was optimized leading to a more simplified medium composition. Purification of the enzyme was evaluated by determining breakthrough profiles on different ion exchange (IEX) and hydrophobic interaction (HIC) materials with regard to buffer composition. Highest purification with an acceptable loss during the capture step using IEX was obtained with a Q Sepharose XL medium and a 100 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.5. Subsequent purification using hydrophobic interaction chromatography was done at 1.1 M ammonium sulfate concentration. Purification was moderate, yielding a specific activity of 11.9 U/mg (56% yield). However, as could be shown in a preliminary experiment, purity of the obtained enzyme solution was sufficient for its intended use to oxidize lactose to lactobionic acid. Various sugars and sugar alcohols were investigated to study their protective effect during lyophilisation and freezing at -20 °C. Glucose and lactulose could be identified to have a high lyoprotective effect while loss of enzyme activity was high (77%) when using no additives. By simplifying the cultivation medium of Sclerotium rolfsii, the costs of cellobiose dehydrogenase production could be reduced. Simultaneously, CDH production was increased by 21%. The production of lactobionic acid from lactose is possible using partially purified and unpurified enzyme. Storage at -20 °C using 50% (w/v) glycerol was considered to be most suited for preservation of the enzyme.

  19. Recent developments in the medicinal chemistry and therapeutic potential of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors. (United States)

    Vyas, V K; Ghate, M


    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes fourth reaction of pyrimidine de-novo synthesis. Pyrimidine bases are essential for cellular metabolism and cell growth, and are considered as important precursors used in DNA (thymine and cytosine), RNA (uracil and cytosine), glycoproteins and phospholipids biosynthesis. The significance of pyrimidines biosynthesis in DNA and RNA makes them ideal targets for pharmacological intervention. Inhibitors of DHODH have proven efficacy for the treatment of malaria, autoimmune diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) represents an important target for the treatment of malaria. Many of the clinically relevant anti-tumor and immunosuppressive drugs target human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH), and the two most promising drugs of such kinds are brequinar (antitumor and immunosuppressive) and leflunomide (immunosuppressive). X-ray crystal structures of DHODH in complex with inhibitors reveal common binding region shared by each inhibitor. A number of compounds are identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries and structure-based computational approaches as selective DHODH inhibitors. Based upon the understanding of molecular interaction of DHODH inhibitors with binding site, some of the common structural features are identified like ability of compounds to interact with ubiquinone (CoQ) binding site and substituents linked to a variety of heterocyclic and heteroaromatic rings responsible for H-bonding with binding site. These findings provide new approaches to design DHODH inhibitors and highlights DHODH as a target for chemotherapeutics. This review is mainly focused on the recent developments in the medicinal chemistry and therapeutic potential of DHODH inhibitors as a target for drug discovery.

  20. Biochemical characterization of an L-tryptophan dehydrogenase from the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. (United States)

    Ogura, Ryutaro; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa


    An NAD(+)-dependent l-tryptophan dehydrogenase from Nostoc punctiforme NIES-2108 (NpTrpDH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant NpTrpDH with a C-terminal His6-tag was purified to homogeneity using a Ni-NTA agarose column, and was found to be a homodimer with a molecular mass of 76.1kDa. The enzyme required NAD(+) and NADH as cofactors for oxidative deamination and reductive amination, respectively, but not NADP(+) or NADPH. l-Trp was the preferred substrate for deamination, though l-Phe was deaminated at a much lower rate. The enzyme exclusively aminated 3-indolepyruvate; phenylpyruvate was inert. The pH optima for the deamination of l-Trp and amination of 3-indolpyruvate were 11.0 and 7.5, respectively. For deamination of l-Trp, maximum enzymatic activity was observed at 45°C. NpTrpDH retained more than 80% of its activity after incubation for 30min at pHs ranging from 5.0 to 11.5 or incubation for 10min at temperatures up to 40°C. Unlike l-Trp dehydrogenases from higher plants, NpTrpDH activity was not activated by metal ions. Typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed for NAD(+) and l-Trp for oxidative deamination, but with reductive amination there was marked substrate inhibition by 3-indolepyruvate. NMR analysis of the hydrogen transfer from the C4 position of the nicotinamide moiety of NADH showed that NpTrpDH has a pro-S (B-type) stereospecificity similar to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenase family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystal structure of novel dye-linked L-proline dehydrogenase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. (United States)

    Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Kim, Kwang; Hara, Yusuke; Yoneda, Kazunari; Ohshima, Toshihisa


    Two types of dye-linked L-proline dehydrogenase (PDH1, α4β4-type hetero-octamer, and PDH2, αβγδ-type heterotetramer) have been identified so far in hyperthermophilic archaea. Here, we report the crystal structure of a third type of L-proline dehydrogenase, found in the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, whose structure (homodimer) is much simpler than those of previously studied L-proline dehydrogenases. The structure was determined at a resolution of 1.92 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one subunit, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. The overall fold of the subunit showed similarity to that of the PDH1 β-subunit, which is responsible for catalyzing L-proline dehydrogenation. However, the situation at the subunit-subunit interface of the A. pernix enzyme was totally different from that in PDH1. The presence of additional surface elements in the A. pernix enzyme contributes to a unique dimer association. Moreover, the C-terminal Leu(428), which is provided by a tail extending from the FAD-binding domain, shielded the active site, and an L-proline molecule was entrapped within the active site cavity. The K(m) value of a Leu(428) deletion mutant for L-proline was about 800 times larger than the K(m) value of the wild-type enzyme, although the k(cat) values did not differ much between the two enzymes. This suggests the C-terminal Leu(428) is not directly involved in catalysis, but it is essential for maintaining a high affinity for the substrate. This is the first description of an LPDH structure with L-proline bound, and it provides new insight into the substrate binding of LPDH.

  2. Crystal Structure of Novel Dye-linked l-Proline Dehydrogenase from Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix* (United States)

    Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Kim, Kwang; Hara, Yusuke; Yoneda, Kazunari; Ohshima, Toshihisa


    Two types of dye-linked l-proline dehydrogenase (PDH1, α4β4-type hetero-octamer, and PDH2, αβγδ-type heterotetramer) have been identified so far in hyperthermophilic archaea. Here, we report the crystal structure of a third type of l-proline dehydrogenase, found in the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, whose structure (homodimer) is much simpler than those of previously studied l-proline dehydrogenases. The structure was determined at a resolution of 1.92 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one subunit, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. The overall fold of the subunit showed similarity to that of the PDH1 β-subunit, which is responsible for catalyzing l-proline dehydrogenation. However, the situation at the subunit-subunit interface of the A. pernix enzyme was totally different from that in PDH1. The presence of additional surface elements in the A. pernix enzyme contributes to a unique dimer association. Moreover, the C-terminal Leu428, which is provided by a tail extending from the FAD-binding domain, shielded the active site, and an l-proline molecule was entrapped within the active site cavity. The Km value of a Leu428 deletion mutant for l-proline was about 800 times larger than the Km value of the wild-type enzyme, although the kcat values did not differ much between the two enzymes. This suggests the C-terminal Leu428 is not directly involved in catalysis, but it is essential for maintaining a high affinity for the substrate. This is the first description of an LPDH structure with l-proline bound, and it provides new insight into the substrate binding of LPDH. PMID:22511758

  3. Isolation and characterization of full-length putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from polygonum minus (United States)

    Hamid, Nur Athirah Abd; Ismail, Ismanizan


    Polygonum minus, locally named as Kesum is an aromatic herb which is high in secondary metabolite content. Alcohol dehydrogenase is an important enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohol and aldehyde with the presence of NAD(P)(H) as co-factor. The main focus of this research is to identify the gene of ADH. The total RNA was extracted from leaves of P. minus which was treated with 150 μM Jasmonic acid. Full-length cDNA sequence of ADH was isolated via rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE). Subsequently, in silico analysis was conducted on the full-length cDNA sequence and PCR was done on genomic DNA to determine the exon and intron organization. Two sequences of ADH, designated as PmADH1 and PmADH2 were successfully isolated. Both sequences have ORF of 801 bp which encode 266 aa residues. Nucleotide sequence comparison of PmADH1 and PmADH2 indicated that both sequences are highly similar at the ORF region but divergent in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR). The amino acid is differ at the 107 residue; PmADH1 contains Gly (G) residue while PmADH2 contains Cys (C) residue. The intron-exon organization pattern of both sequences are also same, with 3 introns and 4 exons. Based on in silico analysis, both sequences contain "classical" short chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases ((c) SDRs) conserved domain. The results suggest that both sequences are the members of short chain alcohol dehydrogenase family.

  4. Characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase 3 of the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. (United States)

    Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Oh-Cheol; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho; Rhee, Sang Ki; Kang, Hyun Ah; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut; Kwon, Ohsuk


    In this study, we identified and characterized mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase 3 from the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HpADH3). The amino acid sequence of HpADH3 shares over 70% of its identity with the alcohol dehydrogenases of other yeasts and exhibits the highest similarity of 91% with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1 of H. polymorpha. However, unlike the cytosolic HpADH1, HpADH3 appears to be a mitochondrial enzyme, as a mitochondrial targeting extension exists at its N terminus. The recombinant HpADH3 overexpressed in Escherichia coli showed similar catalytic efficiencies for ethanol oxidation and acetaldehyde reduction. The HpADH3 displayed substrate specificities with clear preferences for medium chain length primary alcohols and acetaldehyde for an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction, respectively. Although the H. polymorpha ADH3 gene was induced by ethanol in the culture medium, both an ADH isozyme pattern analysis and an ADH activity assay indicated that HpADH3 is not the major ADH in H. polymorpha DL-1. Moreover, HpADH3 deletion did not affect the cell growth on different carbon sources. However, when the HpADH3 mutant was complemented by an HpADH3 expression cassette fused to a strong constitutive promoter, the resulting strain produced a significantly increased amount of ethanol compared to the wild-type strain in a glucose medium. In contrast, in a xylose medium, the ethanol production was dramatically reduced in an HpADH3 overproduction strain compared to that in the wild-type strain. Taken together, our results suggest that the expression of HpADH3 would be an ideal engineering target to develop H. polymorpha as a substrate specific bioethanol production strain.

  5. Treatment of pediatric burn patient having glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Y Bhatia


    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common red cell enzymopathy found in humans. It clearly has an X-linked recessive inheritance with its prevalence varying from 0% to 27% in a different caste, ethnic, and linguistic groups. This deficiency may result in hemolytic anemia during stress, infection, and use of certain drugs. The use of topical silver sulfadiazine can produce hemolysis in patients having G6PD deficiency. Here, we describe one case successfully treated of pediatric burn of 25% of body surface area who was a known case of G6PD deficiency.

  6. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, E H; Rashed, M S; Vianey-Saban, C


    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased lo...... chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence....

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SDR-type pyridoxal dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti. (United States)

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Yoshikane, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu


    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant selenomethionine-substituted enzyme was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals grew in the presence of 0.45 mM NAD(+). The crystals diffracted to 2.9 A resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 86.20, b = 51.11, c = 91.73 A, beta = 89.36 degrees. The calculated V(M) values suggested that the asymmetric unit contained four molecules.

  8. Disparate sequence characteristics of the Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.K.; Justesen, A.F.; Giese, H.


    The Erysiphe graminis f.sp.. hordei (Egh) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene was isolated and characterized. It contains typical promoter elements and has three introns, one of which is positioned in the 5' untranslated region of the gene. The deduced aminoacid sequence has 87% s...... and plant genes in sequence mixtures. The Egh gpd promoter appears to be superior to that of the Egh beta-tubulin gene (tub2) for driving the E. coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in transformation experiments....

  9. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies


    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine


    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ∼90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docki...

  10. [Nervous regulation of glycogen concentration and the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme spectrum in the diaphragm of rats]. (United States)

    Iakovlev, V F


    Content of glycogen, activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzyme spectrum were studied in two cases of partial diaphragm denervation as well as in electro-stimulation of separate phrenic nerve branches. Dissimilar postdenervational alterations were observed in the content of glycogen and in the isozyme spectrum of LDH, which depended on the type of partial denervation. Stimulation of individual branches of the phrenic nerve showed that they separately affected the synthesis and consumption of glycogen. The data obtained suggest the nervous regulation of glycogensynthetic processes in muscle tissue.

  11. Metabolic pathways of ammoniogenesis in the shrimp Crangon crangon L.: possible role of glutamate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Batrel, Y; Regnault, M


    The oxidative deamination of glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was determined in crude homogenates of the shrimp Crangon crangon. The GDH activity of whole shrimps (1.192 +/- 0.164 UI/g wet wt and 0.032 +/- 0.004 UI mg protein) (+/- SD) is probably sufficient to account for all the ammonia excretion of this species. Starvation markedly influenced GDH activity. A 50% decrease of GDH activity was observed following 7 days of fasting but subsequently no further decrease in GDH activity was noticed during starvation up to a maximum of 17 days.

  12. New Host-Vector System for Thermus spp. Based on the Malate Dehydrogenase Gene (United States)

    Kayser, Kevin J.; Kilbane, John J.


    A Thermus thermophilus HB27 strain was constructed in which the malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene was deleted. The Δmdh colonies are recognized by a small-colony phenotype. Wild-type phenotype is restored by transformation with Thermus plasmids or integration vector containing an intact mdh gene. The wild-type phenotype provides a positive selection tool for the introduction of plasmid DNA into Thermus spp., and because mdh levels can be readily quantified, this host-vector system is a convenient tool for monitoring gene expression. PMID:11160114

  13. Possible Association between Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and the Development of Preeclampsia


    Omid R. Zekavat; Maryam Eskandary; Behia Namavar Jahromi; Athar Rasekh; Sara Barzegar; Nasrin Ized Panahy; Mehran Karimi


    Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is acommon enzyme deficiency in the world. It's Prevalence inIran is about 12% in male & about 1% in female. The presentstudy did examine the relation between the development ofpreeclampsia and G6PD deficiency. It was investigatedwhether or not the risk of preeclampsia in G6PD deficientwomen is higher than that in normal pregnant women.A total of 400 pregnant patients with an age range of 20-34years were selected in the cities of Shiraz and ...

  14. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of the Bacillus subtilis succinate dehydrogenase operon.


    Melin, L; Rutberg, L; Von Gabain, A.


    The amount of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in Bacillus subtilis varies with growth conditions. In this work we studied the steady-state level and the rate of decay of B. subtilis sdh mRNA under different growth conditions. In exponentially growing cells, the steady-state level of sdh mRNA was severalfold lower when glucose was present compared with growth without glucose, whereas the rate of decay of sdh mRNA was the same with and without glucose. Thus, glucose repression seems to act by dec...

  15. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  16. Novel Type II and Monomeric NAD+ Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenases: Phylogenetic Affinity, Enzymatic Characterization, and Evolutionary Implication


    Wang, Peng; Lv, Changqi; Zhu, Guoping


    NAD+ use is an ancestral trait of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and the NADP+ phenotype arose through evolution as an ancient adaptation event. However, no NAD+-specific IDHs have been found among type II IDHs and monomeric IDHs. In this study, novel type II homodimeric NAD-IDHs from Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 IDH (OlIDH) and Micromonas sp. RCC299 (MiIDH), and novel monomeric NAD-IDHs from Campylobacter sp. FOBRC14 IDH (CaIDH) and Campylobacter curvus (CcIDH) were reported for the fir...

  17. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase has no control over glycolytic flux in Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal


    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has previously been suggested to have almost absolute control over the glycolytic flux in Lactococcus lactis (B. Poolman, B. Bosman, J. Kiers, and W. N. Konings, J. Bacteriol. 169:5887-5890, 1987). Those studies were based on inhibitor titrations....... These data show that GAPDH activity has no control over the glycolytic flux (flux control coefficient = 0.0) at the wild-type enzyme level and that the enzyme is present in excess capacity by a factor of 3 to 4. The early experiments by Poolman and coworkers were performed with cells resuspended in buffer, i...

  18. Identification of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and its deficiency in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tien V; Andresen, Brage S; Corydon, Thomas J


    The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of related enzymes that catalyze the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters. Two homologues active in branched chain amino acid metabolism have previously been identified. We have used expression in Escherichia coli to produce a previously...... cells. This encodes an Arg302Gln substitution in the full-length protein (position 280 in the mature protein), a position predicted by molecular modeling to be important in subunit interactions. The mutant enzyme was stable but inactive when expressed in E. coli. It was also stable and appropriately...

  19. Interconvertible geometric isomers of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors exhibit multiple binding modes. (United States)

    McConkey, Glenn A; Bedingfield, Paul T P; Burrell, David R; Chambers, Nicholas C; Cunningham, Fraser; Prior, Timothy J; Fishwick, Colin W G; Boa, Andrew N


    Two new tricyclic β-aminoacrylate derivatives (2e and 3e) have been found to be inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) with Ki 0.037 and 0.15μM respectively. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data show that these compounds undergo ready cis-trans isomerisation at room temperature in polar solvents. In silico docking studies indicate that for both molecules there is neither conformation nor double bond configuration which bind preferentially to PfDHODH. This flexibility is favourable for inhibitors of this channel that require extensive positioning to reach their binding site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of WO2013076170: the use of a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor for the treatment of psoriasis. (United States)

    Norman, Peter


    Inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) modulates pyrimidine biosynthesis. Effective inhibitors are immunomodulatory drugs clinically useful in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and multiple sclerosis. There is limited evidence of their potential utility in treating psoriasis. This patent application claims topical formulations of the non-hepatotoxic DHODH inhibitor 2-[(3,5-difluoro-3'-methoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl)amino]nicotinic acid for use in the treatment of psoriasis. This inhibitor had previously been claimed to be useful in treating various autoimmune disease.