WorldWideScience

Sample records for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate dhea-s

  1. The association between serum dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate (DHEA-S) level and bone mineral density in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dain; Kim, Hyeonmok; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min

    2015-08-01

    Many lines of evidence indicate that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plays a distinct role in bone metabolism and that its sulphated form (DHEA-S), which is easily measured in blood, may be a potential biomarker of osteoporosis-related phenotypes. However, most previous epidemiologic studies focused on postmenopausal women and reported conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association between the serum DHEA-S level and bone mass in men. This large cross-sectional study included 1089 healthy Korean men who participated in a routine health screening examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total femur, femur neck, and trochanter and serum DHEA-S level were obtained in all subjects. After adjustment for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, testosterone, 25-OH-vitamin D3 and cortisol, higher serum DHEA-S concentrations were associated with higher BMD values at all skeletal sites. Consistently, compared to the subjects in the highest DHEA-S quartile (Q4), those in the lowest DHEA-S quartile (Q1) showed significantly lower BMD values. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratios for the risk of lower BMD (T-score DHEA-S quartiles and the odds for the risk of lower BMD were 2·59-fold higher in Q1 than in Q4. These findings support previous evidences that DHEA-S has favourable effects on bone mass in men and suggest that a low serum DHEA-S level may be a potential risk factor for male osteoporosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and Alzheimer's dementia in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Mario; Massaia, Massimiliano; Zannella, Patrizia; Cappa, Giorgetta; Ferrario, Ermanno; Rainero, Innocenzo; Arvat, Emanuela; Giordano, Roberta; Molaschi, Mario

    2006-11-01

    We investigated the association of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels with dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and impairment in selected cognitive domains (memory, language, attention and working memory) in 158 patients (75.5+/-6.7 years, 46 men) with first-diagnosed probable DAT and in 158 age- and sex-matched controls. As secondary goal, we evaluated whether DHEA-S baseline levels were associated with cumulative 6-year mortality. A negative correlation between DHEA-S levels and age was observed (R=-0.25, pDHEA-S levels between DAT patients and controls. No significant association was found between DHEA-S levels and impairment in selected cognitive domains. Cox regression analysis showed that baseline DHEA-S levels were not associated with cumulative 6-year mortality. In a sample of newly-diagnosed DAT patients, we did not find significant association between presence of DAT or impairment in cognitive domains and DHEA-S levels; baseline DHEA-S levels are not associated with cumulative mortality in patients and controls. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), sex, and age in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N

    2017-07-01

    Among humans, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) declines with age and is hypothesized to be involved in somatic maintenance and healthy aging. Men have significantly higher DHEA-S than women, contradicting longer lifespans in the latter. Declines of DHEA-S with age also are observed in chimpanzees. In both chimpanzees and bonobos, males and females show no differences in DHEA-S production. Based on human and chimpanzee data, gorillas were predicted to show declining DHEA-S with age. Similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, it also was predicted DHEA-S would not be significantly different between males and females. DHEA-S was assayed from serum banked during physical examinations of gorillas housed at three North American zoos (n = 63). Gorillas ranged from 6 to 52 years of age. Differences between males and females were examined using t tests. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship of DHEA-S with age. There was no significant difference in DHEA-S between males and females. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between DHEA-S and age. As predicted, there were no sex-based differences in DHEA-S in gorillas, which is similar to chimpanzees and bonobos but different from modern humans. Unlike chimpanzees and humans, there was no significant relationship between DHEA-S and age in gorillas. The absence of a relationship between age and DHEA-S may be due to the lack of gorillas under age 6 years in this sample as declines in chimpanzees occur prior to age 5 years, more rapid growth and development among gorillas compared with other African hominoids, or a unique pattern of DHEA-S production.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation results in supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels and progesterone assay interference that may impact clinical management in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Thomas, Semara; Ng, Susan; Fano, Maria; Ruiz, Andrew; Scott, Richard T; Forman, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is often prescribed for poor responders in IVF in an effort to improve response to ovarian stimulation. The effect of DHEA supplementation and resultant supraphysiologic DHEA-S serum levels on sex steroid assays has not been evaluated in this population. This study seeks to determine the relationship between DHEA supplementation and progesterone measurements to characterize the degree of interference with particular immunoassays. Characterization was accomplished in two phases. First, DHEA-S standard control reagents with no progesterone present were assayed for both DHEA-S and progesterone levels. Second, serum pools from 60 unique IVF patients' serum were used to create six pooled serum samples: three from patients on DHEA supplementation and three from patients not on DHEA supplementation. The three pools were composed of patients whose serum fell into low, medium, and high progesterone ranges. Baseline DHEA-S and progesterone were measured, and the mean level of DHEA-S in the mid-range progesterone pool was used as the mid-point for addition of DHEA-S standard to the serum pools from patients without DHEA supplementation. Progesterone from these pools was then measured on three commercially available immunoassay systems. The first experiment revealed a linear increase in progesterone when analyzing the DHEA-S standard ranging from 0.5 ng/mL in the blank control (no DHEA-S) to up to 2.0 ng/mL in the high control (DHEA-S >700 μg/mL), indicating that the DHEA-S cross-reacts with the progesterone assays. In the second experiment, patients' serum DHEA-S and progesterone were measured from pooled serum samples of those taking DHEA and those not taking DHEA. Adding DHEA-S to the pooled serum of those not taking DHEA resulted in a linear increase in progesterone levels on two of three commercially available immunoassays (p DHEA-S can interfere with standard progesterone immunoassays used in clinical ART programs, and thus serum

  6. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-01-01

    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  7. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lennartsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S. The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. METHODS: Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40 and a stressed group (n = 41. DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. RESULTS: The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010. There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate: action and mechanism in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Zheng, P

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is synthesised from dehydroepiandrosterone by the enzyme sulphotransferase. DHEAS is one of the most important neurosteroids in the brain. The concentration of DHEAS in the brain is sometimes higher than peripheral system. At the cellular level, DHEAS has been shown to modulate a variety of synaptic transmission, including cholinergic, GABAergic dopaminergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. In addition to the effect on the release of a number of neurotransmitters, DHEAS could also modulate the activity of postsynaptic receptors. DHEAS has been found to have multiple important effects on brain functions, such as memory enhancing, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, and may have relationships with many brain diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus : the role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, C. L.; Hartkamp, A.; Bossema, E. R.; Bijl, M.; Godaert, G. L. R.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a major problem in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the physiological substrate of this fatigue is largely unclear. To examine if low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate DHEAS play a role in SLE fatigue, we compared: 1) DHEAS levels and fatigue between 60 femal

  10. DHEA-S selectively impairs contextual-fear conditioning: support for the antiglucocorticoid hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshner, M; Pugh, C R; Tremblay, D; Rudy, J W

    1997-06-01

    The authors had reported that glucocorticoids play a selective role in fear conditioning. The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to act as a functional antiglucocorticoid. If DHEA has antiglucocorticoid properties, then its effects on fear conditioning might resemble those produced by adrenalectomy. The authors now report that chronic exposure to high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S; converted in vivo to DHEA) produced the same pattern of results as adrenalectomy. Specifically, treatment with DHEA-S impaired contextual fear conditioning 24 hr after conditioning but not immediately after conditioning, and like adrenalectomy, DHEA-S had no effect on auditory-cue fear conditioning. Preexposure to the context before drug treatment eliminated the amnestic effects of DHEA-S, suggesting that, like adrenalectomy, DHEA-S exerted its effect by interfering with the construction of a contextual memory representation. Thus, DHEA appears to act as a functional antiglucocorticoid in the processes that mediate learning and memory.

  11. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  12. [Dehydroepiandrosterone and the cerebral functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

    2006-01-01

    Of all steroidal hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form, DHEAS, are synthesized by the adrenal glands in the biggest quantities. In this review the authors consider the ways of the synthesis of the neurosteroids, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under stressful conditions. The paper presents analysis of experimental and clinical data on the role of DHEAS in the manifestation of different cerebral functions. The authors pay special attention to the results of substitutive therapy with DHEA(S) in patients with such CNS functional disorders, as Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-relative memory and sleep disturbances, etc.

  13. Evaluation of serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in parkinson patients with and without postural instability

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Gültekin; Recep Baydemir; Sevda İsmailoğulları; Fatih Tanrıverdi; Meral Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson\\'s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. During PD many disorders occur in the neuroendocrine mechanism along with autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the values of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in idiopathic PD patients with postural instability (PI) in the medium and advanced stages of the disease. Methods: Three groups were included in this study; patients with PI, patients without PI and c...

  14. A pilot study employing Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, P B; Seligman, T M

    1999-04-01

    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) frequently associate the disease onset with a period of high physical and/or emotional stress. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) function have been demonstrated. Although Cortisol production in patients with CFS has proven to be low, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) production has not been measured. DHEA output may be altered in this population. The purpose of this uncontrolled, prospective, 6 month study of 23 white women, ages 35-55 was to identify CFS patients with suboptimal serum levels of DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S), defined as DHEA-S DHEA. DHEA-S levels were re-measured after 4-6 weeks of oral DHEA therapy (25 mg). If DHEA-S remained DHEA was given. Physical and psychological impairment and disability status were measured by the MHAQII before DHEA intervention and at 3-month intervals. Of initially screened patients with CFS, 76% (116 of 153) were ages 35-55, and 89% (103 of 116) had suboptimal (DHEA-S.Supplementation with DHEA to CFS patients lead to a significant reduction in the symptoms of CFS: pain (improved by 18%, p = 0.035), fatigue (decreased by 21%, p = 0.009)), activities of daily living (improved by 8.5%, p = 0.058), helplessness (decreased by 11%, p = 0.015), anxiety (decreased by 35%, p memory (improved by 17%, p DHEA to this population in a controlled setting.

  15. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhong, Wen; An, Haiyan; Fu, Mingyu; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhenggang; Xiao, Zhongju

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders. We compared salivary cortisol, DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA levels to the TSST tests between 38 individuals with depression and 43 healthy controls aged 18.4-25.9 years. Depression severity was assessed by the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Salivary samples were evaluated at four time points: the baseline (-10 time point), before the TSST started (0 time point), the end of the TSST (+20 time point), and the recovery (+50 time points). No significant differences existed in the basal adrenal hormonal levels between subjects with depressive disorders and controls; however, at the end of TSST, attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response was identified in subjects with depressive disorders compared to that found in healthy subjects. The differences in the DHEA and DHEA-S levels at the +20 time point, as well as the differences in the cortisol/DHEA at the +50 time point, exhibited negative correlations with depression severity. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress was identified in subjects with depressive disorders. These findings help us to discover the bi-directional relationship between depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, hence furthering our understanding of whether altered DHEA and DHEA-S response to psychosocial stress may be a more sensitive method than

  16. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolites alter 5-HT neuronal activity via modulation of GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartside, S E; Griffith, N C; Kaura, V; Ingram, C D

    2010-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolites, DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S) and androsterone, have neurosteroid activity. In this study, we examined whether DHEA, DHEA-S and androsterone, can influence serotonin (5-HT) neuronal firing activity via modulation of γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA(A)) receptors. The firing of presumed 5-HT neurones in a slice preparation containing rat dorsal raphe nucleus was inhibited by the GABA(A) receptor agonists 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridinyl-3-ol (THIP) (25 μM) and GABA (100 μM). DHEA (100 and 300 μM) and DHEA-S (1, 10 and 100 μM) caused a rapid and reversible attenuation of the response to THIP. DHEA (100 μM) and DHEA-S (100 μM) also attenuated the effect of GABA. Androsterone (10 and 30 μM) markedly enhanced the inhibitory response to THIP (25 μM). The effect was apparent during androsterone administration but persisted and even increased in magnitude after drug wash-out. The data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated regulation of 5-HT neuronal firing is sensitive to negative modulation by DHEA and its metabolite DHEA-S is sensitive to positive modulation by the metabolite androsterone. The effects of these neurosteroids on GABA(A) receptor-mediated regulation of 5-HT firing may underlie some of the reported behavioural and psychological effects of endogenous and exogenous DHEA.

  17. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  18. Associations between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, pituitary volume, and social anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cynthia R; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa K; Seal, Marc L; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Whittle, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) in children, has been linked with mental health problems, particularly anxiety. However, little is known about possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. The pituitary gland is a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the activation of which triggers the onset of adrenarche. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which pituitary gland volume mediated the relationship between levels of DHEA/DHEA-S relative to age (i.e., adrenarcheal timing) and symptoms of anxiety in 95 children (50 female, M age 9.50 years, SD 0.34 years). Relatively high DHEA and DHEA-S (DHEA/S) levels were found to be associated with larger pituitary gland volumes. There was no significant direct effect of relative DHEA/S levels on overall symptoms of anxiety. However, results supported an indirect link between relatively high DHEA/S levels and symptoms of social anxiety, mediated by pituitary gland volume. No sex differences were observed for any relationship. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms may be partly responsible for the link between relatively early adrenarche and anxiety symptoms in children. One possible mechanism for this finding is that an enlarged pituitary gland in children experiencing relatively advanced adrenarche might be associated with hyper-activity/reactivity of the HPA axis. Further research is needed to understand the role of stress in the link between adrenarcheal timing and HPA-axis function, especially in relation to the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs.

  20. Serum DHEA-S concentration correlates with clinical symptoms and neurocognitive function in patients with bipolar II disorder: A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Chih-Ching; Chen, Hsing-Ling; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Chu, Chin-Liang; Lu, Ti; Lu, Ru-Band

    2017-03-06

    Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar II disorder (BP-II). The aims of the current study are to determine (a) the differences in DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in patients with BP-II and controls; and (b) the correlation of levels of the above hormones, cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. Patients diagnosed with BP-II and healthy controls were recruited from psychiatric department. Blood samples were collected to measure the levels of DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in all participants, followed by assessment of cognitive function using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BACA). A total of 32 patients BP-II and 30 healthy control subjects were recruited. The BP-II group was found with significantly elder age, fewer years of education, and lower BACA composite scores compared to the healthy controls. The level of DHEA-S was significantly associated with performance in BACA when controlling for age, gender, years of education and having BP-II (P=0.018). The DHEA-S level was significantly correlated with mania score (r=-0.498, P=0.010). Our findings support that serum level of DHEA-S may be a biomarker representing clinical manic symptoms and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  2. Simultaneous determination of pregnenolone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone and allopregnanolone in rat brain areas by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustichelli, Cecilia; Pinetti, Diego; Lucchi, Chiara; Ravazzini, Federica; Puia, Giulia

    2013-07-01

    Neurosteroids (NSs) are well known modulators of neuronal activity and by binding to different neuronal receptors are responsible for a broad spectrum of biological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, a sensitive liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination in rat brain areas of three NSs, i.e. pregnenolone sulphate (PS), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and allopregnanolone (AP). NSs were extracted with methanol-formic acid, purified by Hybrid-SPE cartridges and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without any preliminary derivatization or deconjugation procedure. Quantitation was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode with the internal standard method, using deuterium-labelled analogues of the analyzed NSs. The proposed method provided for the first time a direct quantitative determination of PS without hydrolysis; in particular, PS concentrations were found significantly (pmemory, than in cortical tissue of control rats, suggesting the important role of this NS in the process of memory formation. The developed method could be successfully applied to quantify simultaneously PS, DHEA and AP levels in brain tissue in order to study their changes during various neurodegenerative diseases and to investigate the role of PS in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, C A; Owen, L J; Keevil, B G

    2005-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is a steroid that is increasingly being recognized as a potential drug of abuse in many countries. This is due to its reputation as a hormone that may be able to retard the ageing process. The measurement of DHEAS is useful in the diagnosis of medical conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. Thus, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed to determine DHEAS concentrations in human serum. The chromatography was performed using a Waters 2795 Alliance HT LC system coupled to a Mercury Fusion-RP column fitted with a SecurityGuard column. DHEAS and the internal standard, deuterated DHEAS, both had a retention time of 1.5 min. The transition determined by the Micromass Quattro tandem mass spectrometer for DHEAS was m/z 367.3>4 96.7 and for the internal standard m/z 369.3>96.6. The method was linear up to 20 micromol/L; the lower limit of detection and the lower limit of quantitation were both 1 micromol/L. The intra- and interassay imprecision were Rad Lyphocheck QC. The measurement of DHEAS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is robust and has a simple sample preparation procedure with a rapid cycle time of only 4 min.

  4. The Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate In Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Canpolat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S seem implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders, as natural immunosuppressors. The relationship of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU with circulating concentration of DHEA-S has been reported previously. However, this link and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating DHEA-S concentration in larger patients group suffering from CIU.Materials and Methods: Serum concentration of DHEA-S was measured in 65 patients (34 women, 31 men with CIU and compared with 40 age and sex matched, non atopic healthy volunteers. Disease duration and extent of involvement were recorded.Results: The patients with CIU presented significantly decreased values of DHEA-S levels (102.66±28.95 µg/dl with respect to control group (174.22±39.58 µg/dl (p<0.01. No significant correlation was found between DHEA-S concentration and the duration of the disease, disease activity and gender.Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that DHEA-S may be a cause for the development of CIU, regardless of their gender. For definitive role of DHEA-S in CIU pathogenesis, further studies are needed.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. Methods: The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Results: Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses. PMID:27346998

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses.

  7. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Šagud, Marina; Radoš, Iva

    2016-03-01

    Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. There is accumulating evidence that alterations in DHEA(S) levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The possible effects of DHEA(S) as augmentation therapy in schizophrenia, related to psychological and somatic aspects of this disease, are discussed.

  8. [Neuropsychic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, A S; Pellerin, J

    2001-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) are secreted primarily by the adrenal glands. DHEA could also be a neuroactive steroidal hormone. Because basal levels of DHEA and DHEA-S in humans decrease significantly with age, these hormones have been assumed to be involved in the aging process and in a number of pathologies which develop with aging: immunosenescence, increased mortality, increased incidence of cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, its role is still unknown. In humans, cross sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that DHEA might be associated with global measures of well-being and functioning, but positive effects on measures of memory and attention could not be found. Studies investigating DHEA and DHEA-S levels in dementia have produced controversial results. Short-term experimental studies have not shown significant improvement in global measures of well-being and functioning in healthy subjects but have revealed preliminary evidence for mood enhancing and antidepressant effects of DHEA. There is no evidence that DHEA could induce addiction in human beings.

  9. Serum testosterone, DHEA-S and androstenedione levels in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatwal A

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal serum levels of total testosterone, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA, - S and androstenedione (A4 were measured by radioimmunoassay in 100 patients of acne vulgaris, and in 100 age and sex matched acne free healthy subjects. In males with acne the mean serum testosterone levels were marginally and the DHEAS and A4A levels were significantly higher as compared to controls (p. Females with acne had significantly higher levels of testosterone (p< 0.001, DHEA-S (p< 0.001 and (p < 0.01 than controls. Our data suggest that increased adrenal androgen levels in plasma may be responsible for treatment resistant acne vulgarism

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the aging brain: flipping a coin in the "fountain of youth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racchi, Marco; Balduzzi, Carla; Corsini, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated ester DHEA(S) has been studied for nearly 2 decades and still eludes final clarification. The major interest in DHEA derives from its unique pattern of activity. Its levels exhibit a dramatic age-related decline that supports significant involvement of DHEA(S) in the aging process. Particularly relevant to the aging process is the functional decline that involves memory and cognitive abilities. DHEA is derived mainly from synthesis in the adrenal glands and gonads. It can also be detected in the brain where it is derived from a synthesis that is independent from peripheral steroid sources. For this reason DHEA and other steroid molecules have been named "neurosteroids." Pharmacological studies on animals provided evidence that neurosteroids could be involved in learning and memory processes because they can display memory-enhancing properties in aged rodents. However, human studies have reported contradictory results that so far do not directly support the use of DHEA in aging-related conditions. As such, it is important to remember that plasma levels of DHEA(S) may not reflect levels in the central nervous system (CNS), due to intrinsic ability of the brain to produce neurosteroids. Thus, the importance of neurosteroids in the memory process and in age-related cognitive impairment should not be dismissed. Furthermore, the fact that the compound is sold in most countries as a health food supplement is hampering the rigorous scientific evaluation of its potential. We will describe the effect of neurosteroids, in particular DHEA, on neurochemical mechanism involved in memory and learning. We will focus on a novel effect on a signal transduction mechanism involving a classical "cognitive kinase" such as protein kinase C. The final objective is to provide additional tools to understand the physiological role and therapeutic potentials of neurosteroids in normal and/or pathological aging, such as

  11. Neuroprotective-Neurotrophic Effect of Endogenous Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate During Intense Stress Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    and neurogenesis [20]. Regarding neuroprotection, DHEA(S) is thought to exert pro-survival effects by modulating gamma-ami- nobutyric acid [18...Experimental evidence does suggest that DHEA(S) treatment yields neurogenesis [20] and neuroprotection [18], as well as NGF overproduction in brain cortex [27...J. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the rat, promotes survival of newly formed neurons and prevents

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, O M; Reus, V I; Roberts, E; Manfredi, F; Chan, T; Raum, W J; Ormiston, S; Johnson, R; Canick, J; Brizendine, L; Weingartner, H

    1997-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEA-S, are plentiful adrenal steroid hormones that decrease with aging and may have significant neuropsychiatric effects. In this study, six middle-aged and elderly patients with major depression and low basal plasma DHEA f1p4or DHEA-S levels were openly administered DHEA (30-90 mg/d x 4 weeks) in doses sufficient to achieve circulating plasma levels observed in younger healthy individuals. Depression ratings, as well as aspects of memory performance significantly improved. One treatment-resistant patient received extended treatment with DHEA for 6 months: her depression ratings improved 48-72% and her semantic memory performance improved 63%. These measures returned to baseline after treatment ended. In both studies, improvements in depression ratings and memory performance were directly related to increases in plasma levels of DHEA and DHEA-S and to increases in their ratios with plasma cortisol levels. These preliminary data suggest DHEA may have antidepressant and promemory effects and should encourage double-blind trials in depressed patients.

  13. Bioverfügbarkeit verschiedener Darreichungsformen von clathriertem Dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) gegenüber nativem DHEA bei Frauen mit Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Susann Margot Louise

    2006-01-01

    Bei Patientinnen mit chronischer Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz liegt - neben dem Mangel an Glukokortikoiden und Mineralokortikoiden - ein Defizit an adrenalen Androgenen, nämlich Dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) und seinem Sulfatester DHEA-S vor. Obwohl DHEA und DHEA-S mengenmäßig die bedeutendsten Hormone der menschlichen Nebennierenrinde sind, gehören sie noch nicht zur standardisierten Substitutionstherapie bei Ausfall der Nebennierenrinde. In Untersuchungen der letzten Jahre konnte jedoch wie...

  14. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration is not a predictive factor in IVF outcomes before the first cycle of GnRH agonist administration in women with normal ovarian reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kunicki

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentration and the models incorporating it could help clinicians to predict IVF outcomes in women with normal ovarian reserve undergoing their first long protocol.We performed a retrospective analysis of 459 women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for the first time in a long GnRH agonist protocol.Embryo transfer was performed in 407 women (88.7%. The fertilisation rate was 78.6%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44.8% per started cycle and 50.6% per embryo transfer. Our univariate model revealed that the best predictors of clinical pregnancy were the number of mature oocytes, the number of embryos transferred and the number of good quality embryos, account for the clinical parameters that reflect ovarian reserve the best being AMH level and AFC. DHEAS did not predict clinical pregnancy (OR 1.001, 95% CI, 0.999-1.004. After adjusting for the number of embryos transferred and class of embryos in a multivariate model, the best predictors were age (OR 0.918, 95% CI, 0.867-0.972 and AFC (OR 1.022, 95% CI, 0.992-1.053. Serum DHEAS levels were positively correlated with AFC (r = 0.098, P<0.039 and testosterone levels (r = 0.371, P<0.001, as well as the number of mature oocytes (r = 0.109, P<0.019; serum DHEAS levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.220, P<0.001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, (r = -0.116, P<0.015 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, (r = -0.193, P<0.001.DHEAS concentration (in addition to the known factors of ovarian reserve does not predict clinical pregnancy in women with normal ovarian reserve who are undergoing ICSI.

  15. Walking Training and Cortisol to DHEA-S Ratio in Postmenopause: an Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Izzicupo, Pascal; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Gallina, Sabina; Bucci, Ines; Giuliani, Cesidio; Di Santo, Serena; Di Iorio, Angelo; Ripari, Patrizio; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2017-03-22

    The literature indicates that the plasma cortisol-to-dihydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) ratio is a marker of health status after menopause, when a decline in both estrogens and DHEA-S, and an increase in cortisol occur. An increase in the cortisol-to-DHEA-S ratio has been positively correlated with metabolic syndrome, all-cause mortality, cancer and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a walking program on the plasma cortisol-to-DHEA-S ratio in postmenopausal women. Fifty-one postmenopausal women participated in a 13-week supervised walking program, in the metropolitan area of Pescara (Italy), from June to September 2013. Participants were evaluated in April-May and September-October of the same year. The linear mixed model showed that the variation of the log10Cortisol-to-log10DHEA-S ratio was associated with the volume of exercise (p = .03). Participants having lower adherence to the walking program did not have a significantly modified either log10Cortisol, nor log10DHEA-S, while those having the highest adherence had a significant reduction in log10Cortisol (p = .016), and a nearly significant increase in log10DHEA-S (p = .084). Walking training appeared to reduce the plasma log10Cortisol-to-log10DHEA-S ratio, although a minimum level of training was necessary to achieve this significant reduction.

  16. 唾液皮质醇与硫酸脱氢表雄酮测定在海军长航军事作业应激评估中的应用%Evaluation of performance stress among military submarine soldiers by using salivary cortisol,DHEA-S and cortisol/DHEA-S ratio assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林松; 成祥; 赵名; 倪伟; 陈国柱; 杨征; 于晓妉

    2014-01-01

    目的:对唾液中皮质醇与硫酸脱氢表雄酮( DHEA-S)含量及其比值的变化在长航军事作业应激中的意义进行评估。方法选择海军某部潜艇官兵40名,分别在远航训练数周后归来时及上岸休整9个月后采集唾液标本,同时采集与海军官兵年龄相当的军事医学科学院研究生部34名男性研究生期终考试期间及全部科目考试结束后1周的唾液标本作为对照,酶联免疫吸附法检测唾液中皮质醇及DHEA-S的浓度,并计算二者间的比值。结果长航作业应激不影响唾液中皮质醇的浓度,但导致DHEA-S水平显著降低,皮质醇与DHEA-S比值增高。而短期考试应激对皮质醇及DHEA-S的水平没有影响,也不影响该比值。结论该研究证实慢性军事作业应激可以显著降低唾液DHEA-S的含量,改变皮质醇与DHEA-S的比值,该比值增高可能是评估慢性应激对机体影响的较敏感的应激标志。而采用唾液标本具有采样简单方便、敏感性良好的特性,可用于应激标志物的检测。%Objective To investigate the significance of salivary cortisol , dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol/DHEA-S ratio changes for evaluation of military performance stress .Methods Forty submarine soldiers were selected, whose saliva samples were collected separately at the end of long-term dive training and after nine months of relaxation break.In addition, the saliva samples of thirty-four graduate students were collected the moment they finished a three-hour final examination and one week later .The method of ELISA was used to detect the levels of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S and to count their ratio .Results After long-term dive training , the submarine soldiers showed significantly decreased DHEA-S and an increased cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, but the cortisol level did not change very much .In contrast, the final examination stress did not change the level of cortisol , DHEA-S or

  17. The expression of serum steroid sex hormones and steroidogenic enzymes following intraperitoneal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijie; Tang, Xue; Kong, Yili; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-03-01

    The adrenals of humans and primates could secrete large amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester (DHEA-S) in the circulation, which act as precursors of active steroid hormones in a long series of peripheral target intracrine tissues. The marked decline of serum DHEA and DHEA-S concentrations with age in humans has been incriminated in the development of various pathologies. Therefore, this study aims to provide detailed information on the effects of the intraperitoneal injection of DHEA on circulating steroid hormones and their metabolites and their trade-off relationship over 24 h in male rats. In this study, 100 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, 25 mg kg(-1) DHEA-treated and 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA-treated. The animals were sacrificed at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, and the samples were collected for subsequent analysis. Total cholesterol (TC) markedly decreased 3h after the administration of 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA, but markedly increased 12h after administration. The DHEA-S, progesterone (P), testosterone (T), oestradiol (E(2)), cortisol (Cor) and aldosterone (Ald) concentrations also markedly increased after DHEA administration, with serum DHEA-S, T, E(2) and Cor levels peaking at 1.5 h. Over time, steroid hormone levels were depressed, but serum Cor and Ald levels were markedly elevated relative to the control group at 24 h. Furthermore, DHEA treatment produced a significant increase in P450scc, 17beta-HSDIII, CYP17alpha and 3beta-HSD mRNA expression at 1.5 h, but a decided decrease in P450scc and StAR mRNA expression at 12 and 24 h, and CYP17alpha and 17beta-HSDIII expression at 12 h in the 100 mg kg(-1) DHEA group. In total, the results of the present study indicate that DHEA at high pharmacological doses may affect steroid through an effect on steroidogenic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration in humans: evidence based?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, S.; Uum, S.H.M. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its ester dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are produced by the adrenal glands. These hormones are inactive precursors that are transformed into active sex steroids in peripheral target tissues. After a peak in early adulthood, there is a marked decrease in

  19. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison's Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Adrian H; Walther, Andreas; Davis, Julian R E; Moreno, Gabriela Y C; Kane, John; Livingston, Mark; Fowler, Helen L

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Addison's disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison's disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison's disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the World Health Organization's quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Holmes-Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison's patients (Addison's men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1-10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison's women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0-11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l). Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL) between patients with Addison's disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison's: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7), HADS Depression (Addison's: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4), HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison's group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison's: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8), but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL.

  20. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison’s Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Adrian H.; Walther, Andreas; Davis, Julian R. E.; Moreno, Gabriela Y. C.; Kane, John; Livingston, Mark; Fowler, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Addison’s disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison’s disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison’s disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the World Health Organization’s quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Holmes–Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison’s patients (Addison’s men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1–10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison’s women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0–11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l). Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL) between patients with Addison’s disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison’s: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7), HADS Depression (Addison’s: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4), HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison’s group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison’s: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8), but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL. PMID:28553251

  1. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison’s Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Heald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Addison’s disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison’s disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S. There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison’s disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the World Health Organization’s quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF and the Holmes–Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison’s patients (Addison’s men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1–10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison’s women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0–11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l. Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL between patients with Addison’s disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison’s: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7, HADS Depression (Addison’s: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4, HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison’s group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison’s: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8, but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL.

  2. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley Evans, J; Malouf, R; Huppert, F; van Niekerk, J K

    2006-10-18

    In view of the theoretical possibility of beneficial effects of DHEA or DHEAS in retarding age-associated deterioration in cognitive function, we have reviewed studies in this area. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults. Trials were identified from a last updated search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group on 10 October 2005 using the terms dhea*, prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone*. In addition MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched to find trials with volunteers who had no or minor memory complaints. Relevant journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All randomized placebo-controlled trials enrolling people aged over 50 without dementia and to whom DHEA/S in any dosage was administered for more than one day were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (JGE and RM) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. Only three studies provided results from adequate parallel-group data. Barnhart 1999 enrolled perimenopausal women with complaints of decreased well-being and, using three cognitive measures, found no significant effect of DHEA compared with placebo at 3 months. Wolf 1998b enrolled 75 healthy volunteers (37 women and 38 men aged 59-81) in a study of the effect of DHEA supplements on cognitive impairment induced by stress; after two weeks of treatment, placebo group performance deteriorated significantly on a test of selective attention following a psychosocial stressor (pDHEA group (p=0.85). However, when compared with placebo, DHEA was associated with

  4. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in patients with major depressive disorder correlate with remission during treatment with antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tokiko; Senzaki, Koji; Ishihara, Ryoko; Umeda, Kazunori; Iwata, Nakao; Nagai, Taku; Hida, Hirotake; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yukawa, Kazunori; Ozaki, Norio; Noda, Yukihiro

    2014-05-01

    We attempted to investigate whether dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels are associated with remission of major depressive disorder by assessing scores on the 17-Item Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression before and after antidepressant treatment. Plasma DHEA-S levels in 24 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (text revision) before and after antidepressant treatment, and 24 healthy, gender-matched, and age-matched controls were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. Plasma DHEA-S levels in patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. In patients who achieved remission after antidepressant treatment, plasma DHEA-S levels significantly declined compared with the levels before treatment. A significant correlation was observed between changes in DHEA-S levels and Absence of Depressive and Anxious Mood scores, which are calculated from the 2-Item Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression rating as follows: severity of depressive mood and anxiety in patients before and after antidepressant treatment. These findings suggest that plasma DHEA-S levels can be used as a putative indicator of the state of remission in patients with major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Precipitous Dehydroepiandrosterone Declines Reflect Decreased Physical Vitality and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Danielle N; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2017-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form, DHEA-S, peak in young adulthood and then decrease dramatically with age. However, there is extensive variation in this age-related hormone decline, suggesting an early decrement may be associated with lower vitality and be prognostic of poor health in old age. To determine whether DHEA-S and DHEA are correlated with physical indices of vitality, hormone levels were analyzed with respect to clinical health histories, physical functioning including grip strength, gait speed and repetitive standing, and self-reported chronic pain. The participants (N = 1,214) were 35-86 years of age from a nationally representative survey, Midlife Development in the United States. DHEA-S and DHEA below age-expected levels were associated with more chronic illness conditions and self-reported persistent pain and pain sensitivity upon manual palpation. Additionally, lower DHEA-S and DHEA correlated with poorer performance on tests of physical functioning by middle age suggesting a more precipitous decline is already indicative of reduced vigor and physical strength. When considered with respect to age- and gender-typical norms, larger decrements in DHEA-S and DHEA may be causally related to the loss of physical vitality. Conversely, when hormone secretion is sustained in older adults, it conveys reduced risk for the physical weakness and ailments that precede frailty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within...

  7. Dehydroepiandosterone and its sulphate enhance memory retention in day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migues, P V; Johnston, A N B; Rose, S P R

    2002-01-01

    We report the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) in the day-old-chick brain, and their possible role in memory formation. DHEA and DHEA-S were present in the brain at higher concentrations than in the plasma. Radioimmunoassay examination of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 5 or 30 min after training or the lobus parolfactorius 60 or 120 min after training on the passive avoidance task did not show learning-related differences in absolute levels of DHEA or DHEA-S. However, bilateral intracerebral injections of DHEA or DHEA-S before or after training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 h after training. Memory retention was enhanced by administration of DHEA and DHEA-S 15 min before training or 30 and 60 but not 180 min after training. Neurosteroids are present in high concentrations in regions of the chick brain known to be associated with learning and memory for an aversive one-trial task. Our study demonstrates that memory retention for this task is enhanced by administration of the neurosteroids DHEA-S and DHEA. These findings provide additional evidence that these neurosteroids have memory-enhancing properties and, thus, if common to other tasks and species, that DHEA-S and DHEA may constitute potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  8. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol.

  9. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Laura C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws. Typical saliva collection methods include the use of plain cotton swab collection devices (e.g., Salivette® or passive drool. There has been some speculation that the plain saliva cotton collection device may interfere with determination of DHEA-S by enzyme immunoassay (EIA bringing this saliva collection method into question. Because of the increasing popularity of salivary biomarker research, we sought to determine whether the cotton swab interferes with DHEA-S determination through EIA techniques. Findings Fifty-six healthy young adult men and women aged 18-30 years came to the lab in the morning (0800 hrs; 14 men, 14 women or late afternoon (1600 hrs; 14 men, 14 women and provided saliva samples via cotton Salivette and passive drool. Passive drool collection was taken first to minimize particle cross contamination from the cotton swab. Samples were assayed for DHEA-S in duplicate using a commercially available kit (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX. DHEA-S levels collected via Salivette and passive drool were positively correlated (r = + 0.83, p Conclusions Results suggest that DHEA-S can be measured accurately using passive drool or cotton Salivette collection methods. Results also suggest that DHEA-S levels change across the day and that future studies need to take this time of day difference into account when measuring DHEA-S.

  10. A possible link between exercise-training adaptation and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate- an oldest-old female study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Huang, Mu-Tsung Chen, Chin-Lung Fang, Wen-Chih Lee, Sun-Chin Yang, Chia-Hua Kuo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the level of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and the magnitude of adaptation to exercise training in insulin sensitivity for aged females. A group of 16 females, aged 80-93 years old, was divided into 2 groups according to their baseline DHEA-S levels: Lower Halves (N = 8 and Upper Halves (N = 8, and participated in a 4-month exercise intervention trial. Insulin response with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, cholesterol, blood pressure (BP, motor performance, and DHEA-S were determined at baseline and 4 months after the training program. Glucose tolerance and body mass index (BMI remained unchanged with training for both groups. Insulin, fasted cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, reaction time, and locomotive function were significantly lowered by training only in the Upper Halves group. Changes in the area under curve of insulin (IAUC were negatively correlated with the baseline DHEA-S level (R= - 0.60, P < 0.05. The current study provides the first evidence that oldest-old subjects with low DHEA-S level appear to be poor responders to exercise-training adaptations.

  11. Changes in DHEA-s levels during the first year of treatment in patients with clinical burnout are related to health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2016-10-01

    The regenerative hormone DHEA-S was measured in 122 patients with clinical burnout during their first year of treatment. Relations between change of DHEA-S levels and development in health were investigated. About half of the patients exhibited increased DHEA-S levels during the year, while the other half exhibited decreased levels. There was no difference in burnout symptoms or associated health status at baseline between subsequent DHEA-S increasing and DHEA-S decreasing groups. Greater reduction in the burnout symptoms was observed in patients in who DHEA-S levels increased during the year, than in the patients in who DHEA-S levels decreased. Relative change of DHEA-S and direction of the change during the year both predicted burnout symptoms at the end of the year. In addition, patients with increased DHEA-S levels had better self-rated health, vitality and well-being. Our data suggest that changes in DHEA-S are associated with prognosis for the outcome in burnout patients.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone has strong antifibrotic effects and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Valero Jiménez, Ana; Rangel, Claudia; Lozano, Alfredo; Morales, Violeta; Becerril, Carina; Chavira, Roberto; Ruiz, Víctor; Barrera, Lourdes; Montaño, Martha; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an ageing-related lung disorder characterised by expansion of the myofibroblast population and aberrant lung remodelling. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid pro-hormone, decreases with age but an exaggerated decline has been associated with chronic degenerative diseases. We quantified the plasma levels of DHEA and its sulfated form (DHEA-S) in 137 IPF patients and 58 controls and examined the effects of DHEA on human lung fibroblasts. Plasma DHEA/DHEA-S was significantly decreased in male IPF patients (median (range) DHEA: 4.4 (0.2-29.2) versus 6.7 (2.1-15.2) ng · mL(-1), p<0.01; DHEA-S: 47 (15.0-211) versus 85.2 (37.6-247.0) μg · dL(-1), p<0.001), while in females only DHEA-S was significantly decreased (32.6 (15.0-303.0) versus 68.3 (16.4-171) μg · dL(-1), p<0.001). DHEA caused a decrease in fibroblast proliferation and an approximately two-fold increase in fibroblast apoptosis, probably through the intrinsic pathway with activation of caspase-9. This effect was accompanied by upregulation of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor CDNK1A) and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (c-IAP)1 and c-IAP2. DHEA also caused a significant decrease of transforming growth factor-β1-induced collagen production and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, and inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced fibroblast migration. These findings demonstrate a disproportionate decrease of DHEA/DHEA-S in IPF patients and indicate that this molecule has multiple antifibrotic properties.

  13. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Serum Levels of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate Could Reflect Distinct Aspects of Longevity in Japanese Centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Aoki MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length and serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S were assessed in association with nutrition and performance status (PS in Japanese centenarians. Twenty-three centenarians (five men, 18 women were classified according to their PS 1 (nearly fully ambulatory, n = 2, 2 (in bed less than 50% of daytime, n = 10, 3 (in bed greater than 50%, n = 6, and 4 (completely bedridden, n = 5. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by the hybridization protection assay, and the adiponectin and DHEA-S levels were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Among variables of PS, body mass index (BMI, albumin, adiponectin, DHEA-S, and telomere length, there were significant correlations between PS and albumin ( r = −.694, p < .01, between telomere length and BMI ( r = .522, p < .05, between adiponectin and BMI ( r = −.574, p < .01, and between DHEA-S and albumin ( r = .530, p < .01. When excluding two cancer-bearing centenarians with short telomere, telomere length significantly correlated with PS ( r = −.632, p < .01. It was indicated that the short leukocyte telomere was associated with poor PS and cancer development and that the adiponectin or DHEA-S was associated with adiposity or nutritional status. Despite a small number of subjects, these biomarkers seemed to reflect distinct aspects of longevity in Japanese centenarians.

  14. [Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

    2005-01-01

    The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS.

  15. Follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is a credible marker of oocyte maturity and pregnancy outcome in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate if the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s in follicular fluid (FF influences the competence of oocytes to fertilize, develop to the blastocyst stage, and produce a viable pregnancy in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of age-matched, nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women undergoing antagonist stimulation protocol involving conventional insemination and day 5 blastocyst transfer. Materials and Methods: FF levels of DHEA-s and E2 were measured by a radio-immuno-assay method using diagnostic kits. Fertilization rate, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rate were main outcome measures. Cycles were divided into pregnant/nonpregnant groups and also into low/medium/high FF DHEA-s groups. Statistical analysis was done by GraphPad Prism V software. Results: FF DHEA-s levels were significantly higher in pregnant (n = 111 compared to nonpregnant (n = 381 group (1599 ± 77.45 vs. 1372 ± 40.47 ng/ml; P = 0.01. High (n = 134 FF DHEA-s group had significantly higher percentage of metaphase II (MII oocytes (91.5 vs. 85.54 vs. 79.44%, P < 0.0001, fertilization rate (78.86 vs. 74.16 vs. 71.26%, P < 0.0001, cleavage rate (83.67 vs. 69.1 vs. 66.17%, P = 0.0002, blastocyst formation rate (37.15 vs. 33.01 vs. 26.95%, P < 0.0001, and live birth rate (29.85 vs. 22.22 vs. 14.78%, P = 0.017 compared to medium (n = 243 and low (n = 115 FF DHEA-s groups, respectively despite comparable number of oocytes retrieved and number of blastocysts transferred. FF DHEA-s levels correlated significantly with the attainment of MII oocytes (Pearson r = 0.41 and fertilization rates (Pearson r = 0.35. Conclusion: FF DHEA-s level influences the oocyte maturation process and is predictive of fertilization, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rates in non-PCOS women undergoing conventional IVF cycles.

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  17. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hakkak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p < 0.001 than control-fed rats and gained less weight (p < 0.001. DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p < 0.001 in the serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and significantly increased (p < 0.001 serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkak, Reza; Bell, Andrea; Korourian, Soheila

    2017-03-20

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2001-01-01

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  1. WITHDRAWN: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2007-07-18

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  2. Gradient HPLC separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from its metabolites and biological congeners: role of tetrahydrofuran in the chromatographic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szász, György; Veress, Gábor

    2009-08-01

    A three-step gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate ester (DHEA-S), its three C7-oxidized metabolites (7alphaOH-DHEA, 7betaOH-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA), and its biosynthetic congeners (androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, pregnenolone). This new method allows the quantitative characterization of DHEA metabolism and biosynthetic transformation under given physiological, pathological, or therapeutically influenced circumstances. Tetrahydrofuran probably acts as a proton acceptor coadsorbent, while isopropanol behaves as a proton donor during the separation of testosterone, estradiol, and the stereoisomers of 7-OH-DHEA.

  3. Androgen therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvat, Jacques

    2003-11-01

    The physiological role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) is poorly understood. It depends in a large part on their transformation into testosterone and estradiol. The capacity of DHEA as a neurosteroid, the recent discovery of putative specific DHEA receptors on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, the steady decrease of DHEA production from the 40s on, together with certain human epidemiologic data as well as various beneficial effects of DHA supplementation in rodents have suggested the possibility that this steroid is involved in cognitive and memory, metabolic and vascular, immune and sexual functions and in their aging. However, epidemiologic studies are conflicting, and no well-designed clinical trials have definitely substantiated the role of DHEA in these functions in humans, or the utility and safety of DHEA supplementation. However, beneficial effects seem plausible in women with several conditions according to the results of double-blind placebo-controlled trials: the dose of 30 to 50 mg seems beneficial to the mood, sense of well being and sexual desire and activity of women with adrenal insufficiency. The only long-term trial of supplementation devoted to women over 60 reported significant increases in bone mineral density and, in the 70-79-year-old subgroup, in sexual desire, arousal, activity and satisfaction. The dose of 200 mg also proved to decrease disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lastly, high DHEA doses have improved mood in various groups of patients of any age and gender with depressive symptoms. The use of DHEA therapy may also be discussed in women of any age when a trial of androgen supplementation seems justified because of the existence of an inhibited sexual desire or a sexual arousal disorder associated with documented androgen deficiency. The rather weak conversion of DHEA into testosterone protects from the risk of overdosing associated with testosterone preparations. However, it must

  4. The Relationship Between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction - a Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sónia do Vale; Lenka Selinger; João Martin Martins; Ana Coelho Gomes; Manuel Bicho; Isabel do Carmo; Carles Escera

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddba...

  5. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, R S; Kleppinger, A; Brindisi, J; Feinn, R; Burleson, J A; Kenny, A M

    2010-07-01

    this analysis was to investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics. the study was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 99 women (mean 76.6 +/- 6.0 year) with the low DHEA-S level and frailty. participants received 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium (1,000-1,200 mg/day diet) and supplement (combined) and cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Women participated in 90-min twice weekly exercise regimens, either chair aerobics or yoga. assessment of outcome variables included hormone levels (DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides), body composition measured by dual energy absorptiometry, glucose levels and blood pressure (BP). eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months of study; 88% were pre-frail demonstrating 1-2 frailty characteristics and 12% were frail with > or =3 characteristics. There were significant changes in all hormone levels including DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone and a decline in SHBG levels in those taking DHEA supplements. In spite of changes in hormone levels, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profiles, body or abdominal fat, fasting glucose or BP. research to date has not shown consistent effects of DHEA on cardiovascular risk, and this study adds to the literature that short-term therapy with DHEA is safe for older women in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study is novel in that we recruited women with evidence of physical frailty.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induces miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells through estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yun; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Although oncomiR miR-21 is highly expressed in liver and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its regulation is uncharacterized. We examined the effect of physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) on miR-21 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. 10 nM DHEA and DHEA-S increase pri-miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells. Dietary DHEA increased miR-21 in vivo in mouse liver. siRNA and inhibitor studies suggest that DHEA-S requires desulfation for activity and that DHEA-induced pri-miR-21 transcription involves metabolism to androgen and estrogen receptor (AR and ER) ligands. Activation of ERβ and AR by DHEA metabolites androst-5-ene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (3β-Adiol) increased miR-21 transcription. DHEA-induced miR-21 increased cell proliferation and decreased Pdcd4 protein, a bona fide miR-21. Estradiol (E2) inhibited miR-21 expression via ERα. DHEA increased ERβ and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter within the VMP1/TMEM49 gene, with possible significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24845419

  7. No evidence to support the concept that low serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (s) levels are associated with less oocyte production or lower pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, E; Check, J H; Mitchell-Williams, J; Cohen, R

    2012-01-01

    To determine if in a population of women with diminished oocyte reserve as evidenced by day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels > 12 mIU/ml women with lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) levels produce fewer oocytes or have lower pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) compared to women with higher levels. The women were divided into poor responders (producing or = 5 oocytes). Mean DHEA-s levels were compared in poor vs good responders and in the subgroups of those who conceived vs those who did not conceive. The data clearly showed no association with low DHEA-s levels and response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or pregnancy rates. In women with elevated serum FSH low DHEA levels do not suggest that supplementation with DHEA would improve response or pregnancy rate. These data do not preclude the possibility that there is a small subset of women with normal oocyte reserve who also fail to respond to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for some unknown reason and the problem could be remediable by DHEA supplementation.

  8. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (S) levels in medicated patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-04-05

    There is accumulating evidence regarding gender differences in clinical symptoms or response to antidepressants in patients with depression. However, less attention has been given to sex differences in the underlying biological mechanisms of depression. The adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S), play a critical role in controlling affect, mood, and anxiety. Changes in serum adrenal androgen levels have been reported in conditions pertaining to stress as well as in psychiatric disorders. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in serum levels of adrenal androgens in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 90 inpatients with MDD at the psychiatric ward of Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital who were receiving antidepressants. Serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were assessed at the time of admission. Matched controls (based on sex and age) included 128 healthy individuals. First, data from male and female MDD patients and controls were compared. Second, correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients with MDD were assessed by gender. In addition, effects of various factors on adrenal androgens were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Serum DHEA levels were significantly increased in both male and female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA-S in male patients were significantly decreased compared with male controls, whereas no significant differences were seen in female patients and controls. No significant correlations among adrenal androgens were observed in male patients with MDD, whereas significant positive correlations were found in both male and female controls. No significant correlations were seen between adrenal androgens and HAM-D scores in male or female patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that both hormones were affected by the age

  9. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone levels are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brahimaj (Adela); T. Muka (Taulant); M. Kavousi (Maryam); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); A. Dehghan (Abbas); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Previous literature documents controversial results for the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess the associations between serum levels of DHEA and its main derivatives DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, as well as the

  10. Measurements of Serum DHEA and DHEA Sulphate Levels Improve the Accuracy of the Low-Dose Cosyntropin Test in the Diagnosis of Central Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed Kassem, Laure; El Sibai, Katia; Chaiban, Joumana; Abdelmannan, Dima

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency (AI) continues to be challenging, especially when it is partial. We have recently demonstrated the value of measuring serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in establishing the diagnosis of central AI. The current investigation examined the added value of measuring serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels during low-dose (1 μg) cosyntropin (LDC) stimulation in patients suspected to have central AI. Methods: Baseline and LDC-stimulated cortisol, DHEA, and DHEA-S were measured preoperatively in 155 consecutive patients with pituitary masses and 63 healthy subjects. Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) function was normal (NL-HPA) in 97 of the patients and was impaired (impaired HPA) in 58 patients. Patients with NL-HPA underwent surgical removal of the sellar masses and received no glucocorticoids before, during, or after surgery. Results: Baseline and LDC-stimulated serum cortisol, DHEA, and DHEA-S in patients with NL-HPA were similar to those of normal subjects. In contrast, patients with impaired HPA had lower baseline and LDC-stimulated serum cortisol, DHEA, and DHEA-S levels. There were 18 subjects in the latter group whose LDC-stimulated serum cortisol levels were greater than 18.0 μg/dl. In those 18 subjects, baseline and LDC-stimulated DHEA and DHEA-S levels were similar to the whole group of patients with impaired HPA function. The molar ratio of cortisol to DHEA did not change with LDC stimulation in normal subjects and those with NL-HPA. In contrast, patients with impaired HPA had a higher baseline cortisol to DHEA molar ratio that increased further with LDC stimulation. Conclusions: Patients with impaired HPA function have a more severe loss in DHEA secretion than that of glucocorticoids. Measurements of serum DHEA levels during LDC simulation provide additional valuable information that improves the diagnostic accuracy of LDC in patients suspected to have central AI. We

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--a precursor steroid or an active hormone in human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Kang, H Paco; Saad, Farid; Guay, Andre T

    2011-11-01

    The circulation of large amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated derivative (DHEA-S) suggests a physiological role in human physiology. In the central nervous system, DHEA is considered a neurosteroid with a wide range of functions. The goal of this review is to discuss metabolism, biochemical, and physiological mechanism of DHEA action and the potential role of DHEA in aging and in ameliorating a host of pathological conditions, associated with aging. We examined preclinical and clinical data reported in various studies from the available literature concerning the effects of DHEA in normal and pathological conditions. Data reported in the literature were analyzed, reviewed, and discussed. DHEA mediates its action via multiple signaling pathways involving specific membrane receptors and via transformation into androgen and estrogen derivatives (e.g., androgens, estrogens, 7α and 7β DHEA, and 7α and 7β epiandrosterone derivatives) acting through their specific receptors. These pathways include: nitric oxide synthase activation, modulation of γ-amino butyric acid receptors, N-methyl D-aspartate, receptors sigma receptors (Sigma-1), differential expression of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species, among others. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggested that low DHEA levels might be associated with ischemic heart disease, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, bone loss, inflammatory diseases, and sexual dysfunction. Most importantly, no significant adverse or negative side effects of DHEA were reported in clinical studies of men and women. DHEA modulates endothelial function, reduces inflammation, improves insulin sensitivity, blood flow, cellular immunity, body composition, bone metabolism, sexual function, and physical strength in frailty and provides neuroprotection, improves cognitive function, and memory enhancement. DHEA possesses pleiotropic effects and reduced levels of DHEA and DHEA-S may be

  12. Proinflammatory cytokines and DHEA-S in women with fibromyalgia: impact of psychological distress and menopausal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturgeon JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available John A Sturgeon,1 Beth D Darnall,1 Heather L Zwickey,2 Lisa J Wood,3 Douglas A Hanes,2 David T Zava,4 Sean C Mackey1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine, Portland, OR, USA; 3MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA; 4ZRT Laboratories, Beaverton, OR, USA Abstract: Though fibromyalgia is not traditionally considered an inflammatory disorder, evidence for elevated inflammatory processes has been noted in this disorder in multiple studies. Support for inflammatory markers in fibromyalgia has been somewhat equivocal to date, potentially due to inattention to salient patient characteristics that may affect inflammation, such as psychiatric distress and aging milestones like menopause. The current study examined the relationships between proinflammatory cytokines and hormone levels, pain intensity, and psychological distress in a sample of 34 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia. Our results indicated significant relationships between interleukin-8 and ratings of pain catastrophizing (r=0.555, P<0.05, pain anxiety (r=0.559, P<0.05, and depression (r=0.551, P<0.05 for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (r<0.20 in all cases. Consistent with previous studies, ratios of interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 were significantly lower in individuals with greater levels of depressive symptoms (r=−0.239, P<0.05. Contrary to previous research, however, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not correlate with pain intensity or psychological or biological variables. The results of the current study highlight the importance of psychological functioning and milestones of aging in the examination of inflammatory processes in fibromyalgia. Keywords: fibromyalgia, cytokines, psychological distress, inflammation

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents the prostanoid imbalance in mesenteric bed of fructose-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Horacio A; Mayer, Marcos; Faya, Ileana R; Puyó, Ana M; Carranza, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    In previous studies we reported an altered prostanoid (PR) release-pattern in mesenteric vessels in fructose (F)-overloaded rats, an experimental model of insulin resistance and hypertension. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its precursor Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones produced by the adrenal and recent studies in both cells and animals suggest that DHEA may have acute non-genomic actions that mimic both metabolic and vascular actions of insulin. This study was to analyze in F-overloaded rats, the effects of DHEA treatment on arterial blood pressure and the PR production in mesenteric vessels and aorta. Male 6 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided in four groups: a control group (C), a DHEA (30 mg/kg/sc/48 h)-treated group (D), a fructose (10% w/v in drinking water)-fed group (F), and both treatments simultaneously group (FD). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail cuff method and glycemia and triglyderidemia were measured by enzymatic assays. The mesenteric beds of all groups were dissected, and incubated in Krebs solution. The PR released were measured by HPLC. F overload increased SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased the mesenteric vasodilatory PR release. DHEA treatment prevented the increment in SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased vasoconstrictor PR in F-treated rats. DHEA normalize the PGI(2)/TX ratio, diminished in F-overloaded rats, through the decrease in thromboxane (TX) production and this could be one of the mechanisms by which DHEA prevented the slight hypertension in F-animals.

  14. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Matsubara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s. Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees’ mental health.

  15. Monoamines, BDNF, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA-Sulfate, and Childhood Depression—An Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Malkesman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal levels of monoamines and DHEA in four main limbic brain regions were measured in prepubertal Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (a putative animal model of childhood depression. Basal levels of “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF” were also determined in two regions in the hippocampus, compared with Wistar strain controls. In the second phase, we examined the responsiveness of prepubertal WKY rats to different types of chronic antidepressant treatments: Fluoxetine, Desipramine, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS. WKY prepubertal rats exhibited different monoamine levels in the limbic system, reduced DHEA levels in the VTA and lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus CA3 region compared to controls. In prepubertal WKY rats, only treatment with DHEAS produced a statistically significant decrease in immobility, compared to saline-administered controls in the forced swim test. Wistar controls were not affected by any antidepressant. The results imply that DHEA(S and BDNF may be involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of childhood depression.

  16. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  17. Effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training on exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Ottavy, M; Mulliez, J; Millet, C; Ingrand, I; Diaz, V; Dugué, B

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training status on the exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women. Twenty-eight healthy women were assigned to an untrained group (n = 16) or a trained group (n = 12) depending on their training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-). The trained group was composed of OC+ subjects only. All the OC+ subjects were taking the same low-dose oral contraception. Three laboratory sessions were organised in a randomised order: a prolonged exercise test until exhaustion, a short-term exhaustive exercise test, and a control session. Blood specimens were collected before, during and after the exercise tests and at the same time of the day during the control session. Basal circulating testosterone was significantly lower in trained as compared to untrained subjects. In all subjects, the prolonged exhaustive exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone. The short-term exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s in untrained eumenorrheic and in trained OC users only. Menstrual phases in OC- did not influence the responses. It was found that exhaustive physical exercise induced an increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone in young women. Oral contraception may limit short-term exercise-induced changes.

  18. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): hypes and hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones in humans. In animal studies, their low levels have been associated with age-related involuntary changes, including reduced lifespan. Extrapolation of animal data to humans turned DHEA into a 'superhormone' and an 'anti-aging' panacea. It has been aggressively marketed and sold in large quantities as a dietary supplement. Recent double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies provided evidence to support some of these claims. In the elderly, DHEA exerts an immunomodulatory action, increasing the number of monocytes, T cells expressing T-cell receptor gamma/delta (TCRγδ) and natural killer (NK) cells. It improves physical and psychological well-being, muscle strength and bone density, and reduces body fat and age-related skin atrophy stimulating procollagen/sebum production. In adrenal insufficiency, DHEA restores DHEA/DHEAS and androstenedione levels, reduces total cholesterol, improves well-being, sexual satisfaction and insulin sensitivity, and prevents loss of bone mineral density. Normal levels of CD4+CD25(hi) and FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) are restored. In systemic lupus erythematosus, DHEA is steroid-sparing. In an unblinded study, it induced remission in the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. DHEA modulates cardiovascular signalling pathways and exerts an anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and anti-remodelling effect. Its low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. DHEA/DHEAS appear protective in asthma and allergy. It attenuates T helper 2 allergic inflammation, and reduces eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Low levels of DHEAS accompany adrenal suppression. It could be used to screen for the side effects of steroids. In women, DHEA improves sexual satisfaction, fertility and age-related vaginal atrophy. Many factors are responsible for the inconsistent

  20. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  1. Morphine sulphation in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Choonara, I.; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sorwell, Krystina G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.

    2009-01-01

    In humans the circulating concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) decrease markedly during aging, and have been implicated in age-associated cognitive decline. This has led to the hypothesis that DHEA supplementation during aging may improve memory. In rodents, a cognitive anti-aging effect of DHEA and DHEAS has been observed but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated indirectly through conversion of these steroids to estradiol. Moreover, despite the de...

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone levels and cognitive function in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumari U, Padma K

    2013-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Recent research reports show that DHEA has various beneficial effects including neuro protective effects and that the decline in its production with aging may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and thus cognitive decline.Aim: To assess the cognitive functions and estimate the levels of DHEA in subjects of the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional comparative study of sixty h...

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognition and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K; Herbert, J

    2000-01-01

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS in aging and dementia, we believe it is timely to undertake a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans, in large-scale and properly controlled trials, which would evaluate effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration and side effect profiles. This is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves psychological well-being and/or improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in older adults or in individuals with dementia. All available electronic databases, hand searched journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials of DHEA in well-being and cognition. The total yield from searching was 415 and the detailed breakdown is given in the body of this review. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA or DHEAS were considered for inclusion in the review. Studies where groups are matched, rather than randomised, were also considered. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. Where possible and appropriate, data were pooled and the mean differences estimated. The published DHEA trials fall into 2 categories: 1. four German studies in which DHEA was administered for a period of two weeks or less; 2. a USA study in which DHEA was administered for three months. Well-being was assessed in both sets of studies and a significant

  5. The Relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Working Memory and Distraction – A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level. PMID:25105970

  6. The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, working memory and distraction--a behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia do Vale

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load or 1-back (working memory load task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level.

  7. The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), working memory and distraction--a behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Gomes, Ana Coelho; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) have been reported to have memory enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an anti-cortisol mechanism of action may contribute to that relation. In order to study DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol relations to working memory and distraction, we recorded the electroencephalogram of 23 young women performing a discrimination (no working memory load) or 1-back (working memory load) task in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. We measured salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol both before each task and at 30 and 60 min. Under working memory load, a higher baseline cortisol/DHEA ratio was related to higher distraction as indexed by an enhanced novelty P3. This suggests that cortisol may lead to increased distraction whereas DHEA may hinder distraction by leading to less processing of the distractor. An increased DHEA production with consecutive cognitive tasks was found and higher DHEA responses attributed to working memory load were related to enhanced working memory processing as indexed by an enhanced visual P300. Overall, the results suggest that in women DHEA may oppose cortisol effects reducing distraction and that a higher DHEA response may enhance working memory at the electrophysiological level.

  8. Serum uric acid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and apolipoprotein E genotype in benign vs. progressive multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, GSM; Heersema, DJ; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience gradual progression of disability, either as secondary progressive MS (SPMS) or primary progressive MS (PPMS). A subgroup with relapsing-remitting MS shows a benign course with little or no disease progression and minimal disability de

  9. Serum uric acid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and apolipoprotein E genotype in benign vs. progressive multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, GSM; Heersema, DJ; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience gradual progression of disability, either as secondary progressive MS (SPMS) or primary progressive MS (PPMS). A subgroup with relapsing-remitting MS shows a benign course with little or no disease progression and minimal disability de

  10. Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on some Biochemical Parameters in Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E Helal*, Medhat El- Shafaey**, Hala Rahoma

    2004-01-01

    It has been noticed that there is an increase in the number of women suffering from SLE. Most studies confirmed that serum DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and DHEA sulphate are lower among patients with SLE than among controls even- during phases of inactive disease so we performed this study to detect the level of DHEA-S in the female patients with SLE. The overall results confirm that DHEA treatment was well- tolerated, significantly reduced the number of SLE flares, and improved patient's gl...

  11. Faulty serotonin--DHEA interactions in autism: results of the 5-hydroxytryptophan challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Spaas, Kristien; Wauters, Annick; Verkerk, Robert; Scharpe, Simon; Deboutte, Dirk; Maes, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Autism is accompanied by peripheral and central disorders in the metabolism of serotonin (5-HT). The present study examines plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) and the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio following administration of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the direct precursor of 5-HT, to autistic patients. Plasma DHEA-S levels were determined both before and after administration of 5-HTP or placebo, on two consecutive days in a single blind order in 18 male autistic patients and 22 matched healthy controls. The 5-HTP-induced DHEA-S responses were significantly higher in autistic patients than in controls. In baseline conditions, the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio was significantly higher in autistic patients than in controls. The results suggest that autism is accompanied by a major disequilibrium in the serotonergic system. The increased Cortisol (neurotoxic) versus DHEA-S (neuroprotective) ratio suggests that an increased neurotoxic potential occurs in autism. It is concluded that a disequilibrium in the peripheral and central turnover of serotonin and an increased neurotoxic capacity by glucocorticoids are important pathways in autism.

  12. [Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)and bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA), an adrenal androgen, has attracted much attention as an anti-aging hormone as well as a marker for senescence because of its unique change along with aging. DHEA is reported to have beneficial effects such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-atherosclerosis. It is also shown that DHEA has anti-osteoporosis effects to increase bone mineral density in randomized controlled trials(RCTs). As osteoblasts express aromatase which will convert androgen to estrogen, DHEA may act protectively against osteoporosis through its metabolites. Because there is no report on fracture risk by DHEA administration, further studies are required to clarify DHEA effects on human bone metabolism.

  13. Asthma and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2010-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is considered as an important immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory hormone. Despite the continuing interest in DHEA replacement therapy, our knowledge of its effects upon asthma is very limited. DHEA is able to reverse cytokine imbalances associated with asthma, may prevent and attenuate allergic inflammation in airways, and does not possess the undesirable side effects of glucocorticoids; therefore, it may be potentially applied in the treatment of asthma. The steroid-sparing effect observed with DHEA clinically could appear especially favorable in asthmatic patients receiving oral treatment and those inhaling high doses of glucocorticoids. In addition, DHEA and its analogs might prove useful in reversing relative glucocorticoids insensitivity in patients with corticosteroid-resistant asthma. In this review we have focused specifically on DHEA's role in asthma.

  14. Movement disorder, memory, psychiatric symptoms and serum DHEA levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D S; Wolkowitz, O M; Reus, V I

    2001-04-01

    Reports of low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or its sulphate (DHEA-S) in some schizophrenic patients and in some persons with poorer motoric and cognitive functioning led us to examine clinical correlates of serum DHEA and DHEA-S levels in schizophrenic patients. Ratings of abnormal movements, memory and psychiatric symptoms in 17 medicated chronic schizophrenic or schizoaffective inpatients at a state hospital were correlated with serum DHEA and DHEA-S levels, and their ratios with serum cortisol. Controlling for age, higher DHEA levels and/or higher DHEA/cortisol ratios were significantly correlated with lower symptom ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, better performance on some measures of memory, and lower ratings of parkinsonian symptoms. Relatively low DHEA levels or DHEA/cortisol ratios may identify a particularly impaired subgroup of medicated patients with chronic schizophrenia. Potential implications are discussed.

  15. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on cognition : an electrophysiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Sónia Isabel do Vale, 1973-

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Medicina (Endocrinologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2016 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) physiologic role remain controversial. Central nervous system and behavioral effects have been described. DHEA and DHEAS have been hypothesised to play a role in cortical organization and brain maturation and suggested to have memory, attention and mood enhancement effects in humans. A neuro-stimulatory action and an a...

  16. "Maternal serum Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate levels and successful labor induction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modares Gilani M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the maternal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level as a factor associated with the outcome of labor induction. Venous blood was collected from 45 women at the initiation of labor induction. Pregnancies complicated by maternal corticosteriod use, anterpartum chorioamnionitis, or cesarean delivery for indications other than arrest disorders, were excluded from analysis. In 42 women meeting inclusion criteria, induction followed established protocol. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and correlated with the outcome of each induction attempt. A successful result was defined as progression to active labor. The welch approximate t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Fisher exact test, simple regression, and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis, with P<0.05 considered to be significant. The mean (±standard error dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level was higher in women who progressed to active labor (n=25 than in those with unsuccessful attempts (n=17, (48,63±6.53 µg/dl versus 26.86±5.17 mg/dl, respectively; p= 0.03. Compared with women with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels above 60 µg/dl, women with lower levels had an unsuccessful induction odds ratio (OR of 6.92 (95% confidence interval 1.74, 32.52, p= 0.01. The OR increased as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels decreased. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate may be an important factor in successful labor induction.

  17. Hypoxia and dehydroepiandrosterone in old age: a mouse survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quillard Janine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival remains an issue in pulmonary hypertension, a chronic disorder that often affects aged human adults. In young adult mice and rats, chronic 50% hypoxia (11% FIO2 or 0.5 atm induces pulmonary hypertension without threatening life. In this framework, oral dehydroepiandrosterone was recently shown to prevent and reverse pulmonary hypertension in rats within a few weeks. To evaluate dehydroepiandrosterone therapy more globally, in the long term and in old age, we investigated whether hypoxia decreases lifespan and whether dehydroepiandrosterone improves survival under hypoxia. Methods 240 C57BL/6 mice were treated, from the age of 21 months until death, by normobaric hypoxia (11% FIO2 or normoxia, both with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (25 mg/kg in drinking water (4 groups, N = 60. Survival, pulmonary artery and heart remodeling, weight and blood patterns were assessed. Results In normoxia, control mice reached the median age of 27 months (median survival: 184 days. Hypoxia not only induced cardiopulmonary remodeling and polycythemia in old animals but also induced severe weight loss, trembling behavior and high mortality (p Conclusion Dehydroepiandrosterone globally reduced what may be called an age-related frailty induced by hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. This interestingly recalls an inverse correlation found in the prospective PAQUID epidemiological study, between dehydroepiandrosterone blood levels and mortality in aged human smokers and former smokers.

  18. The novel dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) derivative BNN27 counteracts delay-dependent and scopolamine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Gravanis, Achille

    2017-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are involved in cognition. BNN27 is a novel 17C spiroepoxy-DHEA derivative, which devoid of steroidogenic activity. The neuroprotective effects of BNN27 have been recently reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of BNN27 on recognition memory in rats. For this purpose, the novel object task (NOT), a procedure assessing non-spatial recognition memory and the novel location task (NLT), a procedure evaluating spatial recognition memory were used. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg) antagonized delay-dependent deficits in the NOT in the normal rat, suggesting that this DHEA derivative affected acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. In addition, BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the scopolamine [0.2mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)]-induced non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits. These findings suggest that BNN27 may modulate different aspects of recognition memory, potentially interacting with the cholinergic system, relevant to cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, but not androsterone, enhances the antidepressant effect of cocaine examined in the forced swim test--Possible role of serotonergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzascik, Pawel; Zajda, Malgorzata Elzbieta; Majewska, Maria Dorota

    2015-04-01

    One of the mechanisms of cocaine's actions in the central nervous system is its antidepressant action. This effect might be responsible for increased usage of the drug by individuals with mood disorders. Higher endogenous levels of the excitatory neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were reported to correlate with successful abstinence from cocaine use in addicts, but a clinical trial showed that supplementation with a high dose of DHEA increased cocaine usage instead. Such ambiguous effects of DHEA(S) could potentially be linked to its influence on the antidepressant effect of cocaine. In this study we tested DHEAS and its metabolite, androsterone, for interactions with cocaine in animal model of depression (forced swim test) and examined the effects of both steroids and cocaine on serotoninergic neurotransmission. All substances were also tested for influence on locomotor activity. A cocaine dose of 5mg/kg, which had no significant effect on locomotor activity, was chosen for the forced swim test. Neither DHEAS nor androsterone showed any antidepressant action in this test, while cocaine manifested a clear antidepressant effect. Androsterone slightly reduced the antidepressant influence of cocaine while DHEAS markedly, dose-dependently enhanced it. Such an effect might be caused by the influence of DHEAS on serotonin neurotransmission, as this steroid decreased serotonin concentration and turnover in the striatum. When DHEAS and cocaine were administered together, the levels of serotonin in the striatum and hippocampus remained unchanged. This phenomenon may explain the additive antidepressant action of DHEAS and cocaine and why co-administration of DHEAS and cocaine increases drug use.

  20. Protection of cumulus cells following dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Te; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, San-Nung; Li, Chia-Jung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Tsui, Kuan-Hao

    2017-02-01

    Growing studies have demonstrated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may improve fertility outcomes in poor ovarian responders (PORs). The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and cumulus cell (CC) expression before and after DHEA treatment in PORs undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Six patients with poor ovarian response were enrolled in the study according to Bologna criteria. DHEA was supplied at least 2 months before patients entered into the next IVF cycle. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in CCs was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of CCs was assessed by cell counting kit-8 assay. Metaphase II oocytes, maturation rate, embryos at Day 3, and fertilization rate significantly increased following DHEA treatment. Expression of cytochrome c, caspase 9, and caspase 3 genes in CCs were significantly reduced after DHEA therapy. Additionally, increased mitochondrial activity of CCs was observed following DHEA supplementation. DHEA supplementation may protect CCs via improved mitochondrial activity and decreased apoptosis, leading to better clinical outcomes in PORs.

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone levels and cognitive function in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathna Kumari U, Padma K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Recent research reports show that DHEA has various beneficial effects including neuro protective effects and that the decline in its production with aging may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and thus cognitive decline.Aim: To assess the cognitive functions and estimate the levels of DHEA in subjects of the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional comparative study of sixty healthy male participants between 60 to 70 years of age was done. They did not have other medical disorders likely to affect cognitive function. Their performance in the principal domains of cognition, i.e. memory, attention and concentration, verbal fluency, language and visuospatial functioning was observed.Serum levels of DHEA were estimated for all the participants by ELISA method. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between DHEA level and three domains of cognition viz., visuospatial skills (r = 0.95, verbal fluency (r = 0.49 and short term memory (r = 0.28. No association was found with other domains of cognition. Conclusion: Subjects with low levels of serum DHEA among the same age group showed a significant decline in visuospatial skills, short term memory and verbal fluency.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorwell, Krystina G; Urbanski, Henryk F

    2010-03-01

    In humans the circulating concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) decrease markedly during aging, and have been implicated in age-associated cognitive decline. This has led to the hypothesis that DHEA supplementation during aging may improve memory. In rodents, a cognitive anti-aging effect of DHEA and DHEAS has been observed but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated indirectly through conversion of these steroids to estradiol. Moreover, despite the demonstration of correlations between endogenous DHEA concentrations and cognitive ability in certain human patient populations, such correlations have yet to be convincingly demonstrated during normal human aging. This review highlights important differences between rodents and primates in terms of their circulating DHEA and DHEAS concentrations, and suggests that age-related changes within the human DHEA metabolic pathway may contribute to the relative inefficacy of DHEA replacement therapies in humans. The review also highlights the value of using nonhuman primates as a pragmatic animal model for testing the therapeutic potential of DHEA for age-associate cognitive decline in humans.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) and emotional processing - A behavioral and electrophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2015-07-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may have mood enhancement effects: higher DHEAS concentrations and DHEA/cortisol ratio have been related to lower depression scores and controlled trials of DHEA administration have reported significant antidepressant effects. The balance between DHEAS and DHEA has been suggested to influence brain functioning. We explored DHEAS, DHEA, cortisol, DHEA/cortisol and DHEAS/DHEA ratios relations to the processing of negative emotional stimuli at behavioral and brain levels by recording the electroencephalogram of 21 young women while performing a visual task with implicit neutral or negative emotional content in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. For each condition, salivary DHEA, DHEAS and cortisol were measured before performing the task and at 30 and 60min intervals. DHEA increased after task performance, independent of the implicit emotional content. With implicit negative emotion, higher DHEAS/DHEA and DHEA/cortisol ratios before task performance were related to shorter visual P300 latencies suggesting faster brain processing under a negative emotional context. In addition, higher DHEAS/DHEA ratios were related to reduced visual P300 amplitudes, indicating less processing of the negative emotional stimuli. With this study, we could show that at the electrophysiological level, higher DHEAS/DHEA and DHEA/cortisol ratios were related to shorter stimulus evaluation times suggesting less interference of the implicit negative content of the stimuli with the task. Furthermore, higher DHEAS/DHEA ratios were related to reduced processing of negative emotional stimuli which may eventually constitute a protective mechanism against negative information overload. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  5. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...... of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1245 - Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1245 Dehydroepiandrosterone (free and sulfate) test system. (a)...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review)

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, N. P.; G. V. Katsiya

    2015-01-01

    The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA....

  8. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  9. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate, Insulin Resistance and Ovarian Volume Estimation in Patients With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Christodoulaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the potential association of DHEA-S with metabolic and hormonal alterations and with disorders of ovarian morphology.Materials and methods: The present study was based on women with PCOS that attended the Gynaecological Endocrinology – Paediatric and Adolescence Endocrinology Department of our clinic. Overall, 321 patients who met the Rotterdam ESHRE/ ASRM – Sponsored criteria for the definition of PCOS were included. Women’s personal medical history was recorded, anthropometric parameters were assessed and blood was drawn for analysis of metabolic and hormonal parameters. A gynaecological ultrasound was also performed to evaluate ovarian morphology.Results: Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation of DHEA-S with the mean volume of the right and left ovary and with the maximum volume of the largest ovary. This finding remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI (β ± SE = -0.39 ± 0.17, p = 0.023 in the case of mean ovarian volume and β ± SE = -0.36 ± 0.17, p = 0.032 in the case of the maximum volume of the maximum ovarian volume.Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a clear negative association of DHEA-S with ovarian volume. To date, however, current evidence in this field are restricted to experimental animal models. Future clinical studies are needed in this field to corroborate our findings.

  12. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone levels are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimaj, Adela; Muka, Taulant; Kavousi, Maryam; Laven, Joop S E; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Previous literature documents controversial results for the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess the associations between serum levels of DHEA and its main derivatives DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, as well as the ratio of DHEAS to DHEA, and risk of type 2 diabetes. We used data on serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS and androstenedione from 5189 middle-aged and elderly men and women from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. Type 2 diabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or a non-fasting blood glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l. During a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 643 patients with incident type 2 diabetes were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, cohort, fasting status, fasting glucose and insulin, and BMI, both serum DHEA levels (per 1 unit natural log-transformed, HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67, 0.87) and serum DHEAS levels (per 1 unit natural log-transformed, HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73, 0.92) were inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in the total population. Further adjustment for alcohol, smoking, physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease, serum total cholesterol, use of lipid-lowering medications, systolic BP, treatment for hypertension, C-reactive protein, oestradiol and testosterone did not substantially affect the association between DHEA and incident type 2 diabetes (per 1 unit natural log-transformed, HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 0.99), but abolished the association between DHEAS and type 2 diabetes. Androstenedione was not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, nor was DHEAS to DHEA ratio. DHEA serum levels might be an independent marker of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone improves active avoidance retrieval and induces antidepressant-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, Janko; Hencic, Boris; Jancic, Jasna; Jadzic, Dragana; Djuric, Milos; Obradovic, Dragan I; Svob Strac, Dubravka

    2017-09-08

    Various studies reported beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS), the neurosteroids involved in various brain functions, on synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, memory, learning and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral profile of acute DHEA treatment by using active avoidance (AA) task, primarily predictive of the effects on the retrieval-based learning, and by applying forced swim test (FST), for assessment of antidepressant-like potential. Adult male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DHEA (2, 10, 20mg/kg) or solvent, 30min prior to testing. DHEA, in a manner resembling an inverted U shape, influenced the retrieval imposed to rats in AA paradigm. The significant improvement of the performance in the retention session was observed following 10mg/kg DHEA treatment and it was not due to the changes in the motor activity, as indicated by unaltered locomotor parameters (inter-trial crossing). Moreover, 10mg/kg of DHEA significantly decreased the duration of immobility in FST, demonstrating antidepressant-like effects. The capability of bicuculline (2mg/kg) to antagonize the effects of DHEA has been evaluated simultaneously. The retrieval-facilitating as well as antidepressant-like effects of 10mg/kg DHEA were counteracted by bicuculline, a competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors, suggesting involvement of GABAergic system. These results support administration of DHEA as potential therapeutic strategy for treating depression and related cognitive impairments, but emphasized the importance of adequate dosing, as DHEA levels that are too high or too low may not be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Akt and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) phosphorylation in different tissues of C57BL6, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) male mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Tajima, Kazuki; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) suppresses the activity and mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 reportedly differ between the liver and muscle tissue and the effect of DHEA on insulin signaling has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined DHEA's effect on the liver and muscle tissue of IRS1(-/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD containing 0.2% DHEA for 4 weeks. In a separate experiment, 8-week-old male C57BL6 mice were fed an HFD or an HFD containing 0.2% androstenedione for 4 weeks. In an insulin tolerance test, DHEA administration decreased the initial plasma glucose levels in the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice but did not decrease the ratios to the basal blood glucose level. Although DHEA administration increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver of the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice, androstenedione administration did not increase Akt phosphorylation in the liver of C57BL6 mice. DHEA administration did not increase Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), or IRS2(-/-) mice. However, androstenedione administration increased Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6 mice. These findings suggest that the effect of DHEA on insulin action in the liver is self-mediated by DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in the presence of IRS1, IRS2, or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

  16. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  17. Biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van R.T.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (1) to study the feasibility of using synthesis gas as electron donor and carbon source for biological sulphate reduction and (2) to develop criteria for design and operation of gas- lift bioreactors for sulphate reduction using immobilized biomass.At appeared that

  18. Transport of Sulphate Ions into Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Modrý

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of sulphate ions the cement mortar specimen surface was studied. The sulphate ions diffusion front advances with increasing time, and the content of SO3 in surface layers increases as well. In spite of some experimental problems, electron probe microanalysis seems to be a useful tool for concrete corrosion study.

  19. Ferrous sulphate interacts with captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J P; Tam, Y; Hasinoff, B B; Tawfik, S; Peng, Y; Reimche, L; Campbell, N R C

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine if iron binds strongly to captopril and reduces captopril absorption. Methods A variety of in vitro experiments was conducted to examine iron binding to captopril and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction. Captopril (25 mg) was coingested with either ferrous sulphate (300 mg) or placebo by seven healthy adult volunteers. Subjects were phlebotomized and had blood pressure measured at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h post ingestion. A 1 week washout period was used. Results The coingestion of ferrous sulphate and captopril was associated with a 37% (134 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI 41–228 ng ml−1 h, P=0.03) decrease in area under the curve (AUC) for unconjugated plasma captopril. There were no substantial changes in Cmax (mean difference;–32; 95% CI −124–62 ng ml−1(P=0.57)) or in tmax (mean difference; 0; 95% CI −18–18 min (P=0.65)) for unconjugated captopril when captopril was ingested with iron. There was a statistically insignificant increase in AUC for total plasma captopril of 43% (1312 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI −827–3451 ng ml−1 h P=0.27) when captopril was ingested with iron. The addition of ferric chloride to captopril resulted in the initial rapid formation of a soluble blue complex which rapidly disappeared to be replaced by a white precipitant. The white precipitate was identified as captopril disulphide dimer. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the treatment and placebo groups. Conclusions Co-administration of ferrous sulphate and iron results in decreased unconjugated captopril levels likely due to a chemical interaction between ferric ion and captopril in the gastrointestinal tract. Care is required when coprescribing captopril and iron salts. PMID:9803987

  20. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  1. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oestrone sulphate, adipose tissue, and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R A; Thomson, M L; Killen, E

    1985-01-01

    Oestrone sulphate, the oestrogen in highest concentration in the plasma, may play a role in the induction and growth of breast cancers. By enzymolysis and radioimmunoassay, oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in 3 biological fluids. High concentrations of the conjugate (up to 775 nmol/l) were detected in breast cyst fluids from some premenopausal women, the concentrations in blood plasma (0.91-4.45 nmol/l) being much lower. Concentrations in the plasmas from postmenopausal women with (0.23-4.63 nmol/l) or without (0.18-1.27 nmol/l) breast cancer were still lower. Oestrone sulphate concentration in cow's milk or cream (0.49-0.67 nmol/l) was also low: dietary intake in these fluids is probably of little consequence. The capacity of breast tissues for hydrolysis of oestrone sulphate was examined in two ways: In tissue slices incubated with 85 pM (3H) oestrone sulphate solution at 37 degrees C, cancers (131-412 fmol/g tissue/hr) and adipose tissues (23-132 fmol/g tissue/hr) hydrolysed significantly more sulphate than did benign tissues (1-36 fmol/g tissue/hr). In tissue homogenates incubated with 5-25 microM [3H] oestrone sulphate at 37 degrees much higher capacities for hydrolysis (nmol/g tissue/hr) were demonstrated with a Km of 2-16.5 microM: cancers (34-394) and benign tissues (9-485) had significantly higher sulphatase activities than adipose tissues (9-39). On a protein basis, however, the sulphatase activities in the 3 tissues were comparable. It is concluded that oestrone sulphate is present in breast cysts and blood plasma and that in vitro, the conjugated hormone can be hydrolysed by breast tissues. The biological significance of these findings in vivo remains to be established.

  3. Tardive dyskinesia, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cytochrome P450c17a gene polymorphism in psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, S.A.; Geers, L.M.; Al Hadithy, A.F.Y.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Semke, A.V.; Vyalova, N.M.; Fedorenko, O.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Wilffert, B.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible antipsychoticinduced movement disorder with a prevalence of about 20-30% in psychiatric patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. A wellknown theory states that TD is related to oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Dehydroepiandrosterone

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: orchiectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone therapy in infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Caetano, Luana Naiara; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2008-11-01

    The ability of gonadal hormones to influence and induce diverse immunological functions during the course of a number of parasitic infections has been extensively studied in the latest decades. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate are the most abundant steroid hormones secreted by the human adrenal cortex and are considered potent immune-activators. The effects of orchiectomy on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats, treated and untreated with DHEA were examined, by comparing blood and cardiac parasitism, macrophage numbers, nitric oxide and IFN-gamma levels. Orchiectomy enhanced resistance against infection with elevated numbers of macrophages, enhanced concentrations of NO and IFN-gamma and reduced amastigote burdens in heart when compared to control animals. DHEA replacement exerted a synergistic effect, up-modulating the immune response. Male sex steroids appear to play fundamental role in determining the outcome of disease, through the regulation and modulation of the activity of the immune response.

  5. Photo-DHEA--a functional photoreactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschatko, Gustav; Kojro, Elzbieta; Zahnow, Michael; Gehrig-Burger, Katja

    2011-04-01

    The steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has beneficial effects on vascular function, survival of neurons, and fatty acid metabolism. However, a specific receptor for DHEA has not been identified to date. Here, we describe the synthesis of a photoreactive DHEA derivative (Photo-DHEA). In Photo-DHEA, typical characteristics of DHEA are conserved: (i) a "planar" tetracyclic ring system with a Δ(5) double bond, (ii) a 3β-hydroxyl group, and (iii) a keto group at C17. In cell-based assays, Photo-DHEA showed the same properties as DHEA. We conclude that Photo-DHEA is suitable for radioiodination to yield a tool for the identification of the elusive DHEA receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Functions and mechanisms of dehydroepiandrosterone in nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Sun, Hui-Ying; Gao, Jing; Liao, Hong

    2006-10-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone is the precursor of sex hormone, and can be synthesized in the brain de novo, which means it is a kind of neurosteroid. Animal experiments and clinical researches have proved that DHEA exhibits a variety of functional activities in the nervous system, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective effects and enhancement' of learning and memory, which suggests that it may be useful in preventing and treating some neural diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia, trauma, psychosis and so on. The mechanisms of the effect of DHEA on protection against oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis etc. were found to be through both genomic and nongenomic way. These effects and mechanisms in nervous system were summarized in the present paper.

  7. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--structure, clinical importance and the role in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Ciszko, B

    2001-01-01

    DHEA and DHEA-S are hormones synthetized primarily by the adrenal cortex. The levels oh this hormones are systematically decreased, beginning from the fourth life decade. The levels of this hormones are also abberrated as a consequence of divorce systematical diseases like cardiovascular diseases, skeletal diseases, diabetes mellitus or obesity. This hormones, probably, have antiaheromatic facilities. There are also data suggesting their influence on stimulation of immunological system. It is already confirmed that the levels of this hormones are modified in congenital function disorders that are present in different diseases, like Alzheimer diseases, and oral administration of DHEA can improves the memory. Presumably DHEA-S have also anticarcinogenic facilities. The levels of this hormones can be also a marker monitoring the course of pregnancy. There are still a lot of discrepancies between results of different studies and it is very difficult to describe their role in human body. Because their levels are decreased with ageing process, this observation makes the researchers call them as the "youth hormones".

  9. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kušnierová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the „stabilizate“ (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, which forms the substantial component of „stabilizate“, as the source of sulphate for sulphate-reducing bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide in the process of bacterial reduction of sulphates. They also showed the possibility of recycling the desulphurisation agent – limestone, as well as the realistic alternative of using „stabilizate“ in the production of elemental sulphur which still represents an important raw material needed in chemical, paper or other industries.

  10. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases resistance to experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Domingues; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Santello, Fabrícia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2008-05-31

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. In a previous study, we reported that administration of DHEA significantly decreased the numbers of blood parasites in Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of DHEA in reducing the severity of acute phase T. cruzi infection of male and female Wistar rats. Animals were treated subcutaneously with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was determined in spleen peritoneal cavity. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined in the sera of uninfected and infected animals. DHEA treatment augments NO production for both sexes after in vitro LPS treatment for uninfected animals. Infection triggered enhanced NO levels although not significant. IL-2 and IFN-gamma were detectable in higher concentrations in treated and infected rats of both genders when compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that DHEA may have a potent immunoregulatory function that can affect the course of T. cruzi infection.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2002-01-01

    The adrenal steroidal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been studied as a potential pharmacological agent in the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both the endocrine effects (the ability to be converted peripherally to androgenic and oestrogenic sex steroids) and the immunomodulatory effects of DHEA (the production of the Th(1) cytokines, such as IL-2) suggest that this hormone could be of benefit for patients with SLE. During the past decade, five controlled clinical trials and a number of additional observational studies have been performed investigating these possibilities. The results from these studies suggest that 200 mg/day of DHEA for 7 - 12 months decreases corticosteroid requirement for the patients, the frequency of disease flares, has an anti-osteoporotic effect and has an overall beneficial effect on SLE disease activity in female patients. A small study suggested benefits for cognitive function in such patients. The side effects acne and hirsutism were seen relatively frequently (30 - 40% and 10 - 12% of patients, respectively) but in most instances were deemed mild. DHEA treatment resulted in changes in lipid profile and may have endocrine effects, the consequences of which will need to be ascertained through longer-term follow-up studies.

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Barad, David H

    2011-05-17

    With infertility populations in the developed world rapidly aging, treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) assumes increasing clinical importance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve pregnancy chances with DOR, and is now utilized by approximately one third of all IVF centers world-wide. Increasing DHEA utilization and publication of a first prospectively randomized trial now warrants a systematic review. PubMed, Cochrane and Ovid Medline were searched between 1995 and 2010 under the following strategy: [DHEA or androgens or testosterone > and ]. Bibliographies of relevant publications were further explored for additional relevant citations. Since only one randomized study has been published, publications, independent of evidence levels and quality assessment, were reviewed. Current best available evidence suggests that DHEA improves ovarian function, increases pregnancy chances and, by reducing aneuploidy, lowers miscarriage rates. DHEA over time also appears to objectively improve ovarian reserve. Recent animal data support androgens in promoting preantral follicle growth and reduction in follicle atresia. Improvement of oocyte/embryo quality with DHEA supplementation potentially suggests a new concept of ovarian aging, where ovarian environments, but not oocytes themselves, age. DHEA may, thus, represent a first agent beneficially affecting aging ovarian environments. Others can be expected to follow.

  14. Behavioral effects of dehydroepiandrosterone in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Sapronov, Nikolay

    2004-09-01

    It is well-documented that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exhibits various behavioral effects in rodents, at least one of which is modulation of learning/memory processes in several test paradigms. However, little is known about the influence of DHEA on cognitive performance in the adult rodents. This work was designed to determine whether chronic DHEA administration during 10 days in the high (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.) or low (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) doses has any effect on learning/memory abilities and behavior in the adult male rats (5- to 6-month old). Effect of DHEA was estimated in active and passive avoidance tasks, behavior was registered in the elevated "plus" maze and the "open field" test. DHEA in the high dose significantly (pDHEA in the low dose significantly (pDHEA in the high dose did not significantly modify behavior in intact rats as compared with control group. Results of the ANOVA on passive avoidance performance revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups receiving DHEA in the high or low doses as compared to the control. However, DHEA in the low dose significantly (pDHEA, the active avoidance performance did not differ significantly from the control. Thus, chronic DHEA administration has a modulatory action on the learning and behavior of the adult male rats.

  15. Impact of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate on Newborn Leukocyte Telomere Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Zhou, Guangdi; Chen, Qian; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Little, Julian; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The newborn setting of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) likely has important implications for telomere dynamics over the lifespan. However, its determinants are poorly understood. Hormones play an important role during pregnancy and delivery. We hypothesized that exposure to hormones may impact the fetal telomere biology system. To test this hypothesis, cortisol, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in cord blood of 821 newborns from a prospective study. After accounting for the effects of potential determinants of newborn LTL, a 10-fold increase in DHEAS concentration was associated with a 0.021 increase in T/S ratio of newborn LTL (95% confidence interval: 0.009–0.034, P = 0.0008). For newborns who fell in the lowest quartile of DHEAS level, the mean newborn LTL was estimated to be approximately 2.0% shorter than the newborns in the highest DHEAS concentration quartile (P = 0.0014). However, no association was found between newborn LTL and cortisol or estradiol. As expected, newborns with higher ROS level (ROS > 260 mol/L) had lower LTL compared to that with lower ROS level (ROS ≤ 260 mol/L) (P = 0.007). There was also an inverse relationship between DHEAS and ROS (P programming” effect on the newborn telomere biology system. PMID:28186106

  16. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone could improve somatic cell reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Javad

    2011-10-01

    Expression of four major reprogramming transgenes, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc, in somatic cells enables them to have pluripotency. These cells are iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) that currently show the greatest potential for differentiation into cells of the three germ lineages. One of the issues facing the successful reprogramming and clinical translation of iPSC technology is the high rate of apoptosis after the reprogramming process. Reprogramming is a stressful process, and the p53 apoptotic pathway plays a negative role in cell growth and self-renewal. Apoptosis via the p53 pathway serves as a major barrier in nuclear somatic cell reprogramming during iPSC generation. DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is an abundant steroid that is produced at high levels in the adrenal cells, and withdrawal of DHEA increases the levels of p53 in the epithelial and stromal cells, resulting in increased levels of apoptotic cells; meanwhile, DHEA decreases cellular apoptosis. DHEA could improve the efficacy of reprogramming yield due to a decrease in apoptosis via the p53 pathway and an increase in cell viability.

  17. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.; Dominguez, A. B.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in Y-Ba-Cu-O related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. e57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat. % e57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  18. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr‑1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  19. Energy transfer phenomena in lead sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that lead sulphate, PbSO4, shows Pb2+ emission with a large Stokes shift. Energy transfer has been observed from the Pb2+ ions to several luminescent centres, viz., tungstate, molybdate, vanadate and rare earths. No transfer occurs to the Pr3+ ion.

  20. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  1. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012).

  2. Simultaneous measurement of endogenous cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in nails by use of UPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Tegethoff, Marion; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Jamey, Carole; Ludes, Bertrand; Raul, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations are mostly determined by using different body fluids as matrices and applying immunoassay techniques. However, usability of these approaches may be restricted for several reasons, including ethical barriers to invasive sampling. Therefore, we developed an ultra-performance LC-MS-MS method for high-throughput determination of concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) in small quantities of human nails. The method was validated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery, intra and interassay precision, accuracy, and matrix effect. Samples from 10 adult women were analyzed to provide proof-of-principle for the method's applicability. Calibration curves were linear (r(2) > 0.999) in the ranges 10-5000 pg mg(-1) for cortisol, cortisone, and DHEAS, and 50-5000 pg mg(-1) for DHEA. Limits of quantification were 10 pg mg(-1) for cortisol, cortisone, and DHEAS, and 50 pg mg(-1) for DHEA. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were good, and there was no interference with the analytes. Mean recovery of cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, and DHEAS was 90.5%, 94.1%, 84.9%, and 95.9%, respectively, with good precision (coefficient of variation cortisone, DHEA, and DHEAS, respectively. This method enables measurement of cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, and DHEAS in small quantities of human nails, leading to the development of applications in endocrinology and beyond.

  3. Should dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy be provided with glucocorticoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinzon, B; Cutolo, M

    1999-06-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) induces the concomitant secretion of glucocorticoids (GC) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the adrenal cortex. Whereas GC are catabolic, DHEA is anabolic. Long-term GC administration may result in some deleterious side-effects, such as muscular weakness, atrophy and necrosis, diabetes, fattiness, osteopenia, osteoporosis and avascular necrosis and susceptibility to infections. DHEA ameliorates some deleterious effects of GC, such as diabetes, amino acid deamination, fattiness, hypertension and susceptibility to viraemia. By its anabolic effects in muscles, bones and endothelium, DHEA may diminish the severity of GC-induced myopathy, osteopenia, osteoporosis and avascular necrosis. The natural concomitant secretion of DHEA with GC probably enables the latter to protect the body from ill-effects of stress without exerting their deleterious potency. DHEA secretion diminishes during aging and severe or chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of GC and androgens, including DHEA, are now well established. On the other hand, administration of GC inhibits ACTH secretion, involutes the adrenal cortex and results in further DHEA deficiency, particularly harmful in chronic autoimmune diseases (i.e. RA, SLE). Therefore, the deleterious side-effects of chronic administration of GC emerges from both their direct catabolic activity and the suppression of DHEA production. Whereas, in males, most androgens come from the testes, in females, under GC supplementation, DHEA deficiency leads to nullification of the androgen-dependent anabolism, leaving them exposed to the GC-catabolic effects to a larger extent. The viewpoint presented here claims that under chronic GC supplementation, DHEA replacement therapy may reduce damage caused by GC administration.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  6. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...

  7. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : II. Clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC

  8. Bovine liverslices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Groot, M.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite,

  9. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : I. Endocrine effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Study design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  10. Feasibility of a liver transcriptomics approach to assess bovine treatment with the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Hende, van J.; Groot, M.J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Within the European Union the use of growth promoting agents in animal production is prohibited. Illegal use of natural prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is hard to prove since prohormones are strongly metabolized in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility

  11. A prospective study on cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cognitive function in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, S; Launer, LJ; Stolk, RP; de Jong, FH; Pols, HAP; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between the peripheral concentrations of the adrenal steroid hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cognitive impairment and decline. A prospective study design was used. The setting was a suburb of Rotterdam, The

  12. The transport of sulphate and sulphite in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, M; Palmieri, F; Capano, M; Quagliariello, E

    1974-07-01

    1. The mechanism of sulphite and sulphate permeation into rat liver mitochondria was investigated. 2. Extramitochondrial sulphite and sulphate elicit efflux of intramitochondrial phosphate, malate, succinate and malonate. The sulphate-dependent effluxes and the sulphite-dependent efflux of dicarboxylate anions are inhibited by butylmalonate, phenylsuccinate and mersalyl. Inhibition of the phosphate efflux produced by sulphite is caused by mersalyl alone and by N-ethylmaleimide and butylmalonate when present together. 3. External sulphite and sulphate cause efflux of intramitochondrial sulphate, and this is inhibited by butylmalonate, phenylsuccinate and mersalyl. 4. External sulphite and sulphate do not cause efflux of oxoglutarate or citrate. 5. Mitochondria swell when suspended in an iso-osmotic solution of ammonium sulphite; this is not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide or mersalyl. 6. Low concentrations of sulphite, but not sulphate, produce mitochondrial swelling in iso-osmotic solutions of ammonium malate, succinate, malonate, sulphate, or phosphate in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide. 7. It is concluded that both sulphite and sulphate may be transported by the dicarboxylate carrier of rat liver mitochondria and also that sulphite may permeate by an additional mechanism; the latter may involve the permeation of sulphurous acid or SO(2) or an exchange of the sulphite anion for hydroxyl ion(s).

  13. Low marine sulphate and protracted oxygenation of the Proterozoic biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Linda C; Lyons, Timothy W; Frank, Tracy D

    2004-10-14

    Progressive oxygenation of the Earth's early biosphere is thought to have resulted in increased sulphide oxidation during continental weathering, leading to a corresponding increase in marine sulphate concentration. Accurate reconstruction of marine sulphate reservoir size is therefore important for interpreting the oxygenation history of early Earth environments. Few data, however, specifically constrain how sulphate concentrations may have changed during the Proterozoic era (2.5-0.54 Gyr ago). Prior to 2.2 Gyr ago, when oxygen began to accumulate in the Earth's atmosphere, sulphate concentrations are inferred to have been oxygen and thus sulphate levels may have risen significantly. Here we report large stratigraphic variations in the sulphur isotope composition of marine carbonate-associated sulphate, and use a rate-dependent model for sulphur isotope change that allows us to track changes in marine sulphate concentrations throughout the Proterozoic. Our calculations indicate sulphate levels between 1.5 and 4.5 mM, or 5-15 per cent of modern values, for more than 1 Gyr after initial oxygenation of the Earth's biosphere. Persistence of low oceanic sulphate demonstrates the protracted nature of Earth's oxygenation. It links biospheric evolution to temporal patterns in the depositional behaviour of marine iron- and sulphur-bearing minerals, biological cycling of redox-sensitive elements and availability of trace metals essential to eukaryotic development.

  14. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  15. Novel mechanisms for DHEA action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prough, Russell A; Clark, Barbara J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (3β-hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one, DHEA), secreted by the adrenal cortex, gastrointestinal tract, gonads, and brain, and its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S are the most abundant endogeneous circulating steroid hormones...

  16. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a seri

  17. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  18. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna C. F. Teles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin (1a; 4′-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin (1b; 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin (2a; 4′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine (2b and 3′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin (3b along with the known flavonoids 7,4′-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4, acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4′-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (1H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  19. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Yanna C F; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Siheri, Weam; Boyd, Marie; Igoli, John O; Gray, Alexander I; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2015-11-09

    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin) (1a); 4'-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin) (1b); 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin) (2a); 4'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine) (2b) and 3'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin) (3b) along with the known flavonoids 7,4'-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4), acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (¹H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY) and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin+apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a+2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Activity of Sulphate-modified V O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    physicochemical techniques, such as EDX, BET-SA, XRD, FT-IR, TGA and 51V NMR spectroscopy. A simple, effective ... oxidation and ammoxidation of various hydrocarbons and for ... In the present paper, we discuss the applicability of sulphate- modified ... sulphate-doped samples were determined using EDX analysis.

  1. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a

  2. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  3. Sulphate release from building rubble of WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekiffer, Beate; Wessolek, Gerd; Vogeler, Iris; Brettholle, Mareike

    2010-05-01

    Sulphate concentration in the upper aquifer of Berlin, Germany is increasing continuously since 40 years. In downtown Berlin they particular exceed the precaution values of drinking water ordinance. We assume that the main source of sulphate in the groundwater is technogenic material, which is part of building rubble from WW II bombing. Nearly 115 Mio t of this material have been deposited in Berlin. Our aim is, ­ to identify rubble components which contain S and to quantify the S-pool of this material ­ to identify factors, influencing the release of SO4 and ­ to predict sulphate release from building rubble of WW II We analyzed total and water soluble S of various components and the fine earth fraction of the soils containing the rubble. We investigated the influence of physical and chemical parameters on the release of SO4 using unsaturated column experiments (With an automatic percolation system). Thereby, the particle size, the flow rate and the pH of the solution has been varied. Among the components, slag shows the highest total S-contents of up to 0,7% . Lignite Coal-ashes from Lusatia, Germany are also rich in SO4. The total S of brick varies between 0,01% and 0,3%. Mortar shows S-Values between 0,08 and 0,12%. In 75% of all samples show total S of less than 0,14%. There was no significant correlation between total S-amount and water-soluble SO4, which is caused by different chemical compounds in the samples. In the percolation experiments technogenic components with grain size <2mm cause a higher density, resulting in a lower percolation velocity. The concentration of ions in the according leachate is higher than in the leachate of coarse fraction (2 - 20mm). Gypsum-rich material (10%) released constant SO4 -concentration over the whole experiment. Slag-rich material released high initial SO4-concentrations which then fastly decreased. We concluded, that the kind of technogenic component and its grain size strongly influences the release of SO4 to the

  4. Effects of 7-keto Dehydroepiandrosterone on Voluntary Ethanol Intake in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Worrel, Mary E.; Gurkovskaya, Olga V.; Leonard, Stuart T.; Lewis, Peter B.; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid that can negatively modulate the GABAA receptor, has been shown to decrease voluntary intake of ethanol in rats. In vivo, DHEA can be metabolized to a variety of metabolites, including 7-keto DHEA, a metabolite without the prohormonal effects of DHEA. This study compared the effectiveness of 7-keto DHEA to DHEA for reducing ethanol intake in the same group of rats. The subjects, previously trained to drink ethanol using a sacchar...

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Hakkak; Andrea Bell; Soheila Korourian

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver ...

  6. Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Enhances Visual-Spatial Performance in Post-Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The current paper examines the effect of administering Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on visual-spatial performance in post-menopausal women (N=24, ages 55-80). The concurrent reduction of serum DHEA levels and visual-spatial performance in this population, coupled with the documented effects of DHEA’s androgenic metabolites on visual-spatial performance, suggest that DHEA administration may enhance visual-spatial performance. The current experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled cross...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intravaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

  8. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  9. Thermodynamic study of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol (2,4,6 and 8% by weight of propylene glycol at 303.15 K with the help of density measurements. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volumes was also analysed for these salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol. Results obtained have been analysed by Masson’s equation and the experimental values of slopes and partial molar volumes of these transition metals sulphates have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. Limiting molar expansibilities ( have also been determined which is interpreted in terms of structure making or breaking capacities of transition metal sulphates. The transition metal sulphates have been found as structure promoter in water and binary aqueous mixture of propylene glycol.

  10. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate therapy given to women in threatened preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth and its sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (last searched 31 January 2014). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium sulphate as the only tocolytic, administered by any route, compared with either placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytic therapy (not magnesium sulphate) to women considered to be in preterm labour. At least two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. The 37 included trials (total of 3571 women and over 3600 babies) were generally of moderate to high risk of bias. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was compared with either placebo, no treatment, or a range of alternative tocolytic agents.For the primary outcome of giving birth within 48 hours after trial entry, no significant differences were seen between women who received magnesium sulphate and women who did not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, or human chorionic gonadotropin) (19 trials, 1913 women). Similarly for the primary outcome of serious infant outcome, there were no significant differences between the infants exposed to magnesium sulphate and those not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, human chorionic gonadotropin or various tocolytic drugs) (18 trials; 2187 babies). No trials reported the outcome of extremely preterm birth. In the seven trials that reported serious maternal outcomes, no events were recorded.In the group treated with magnesium sulphate compared with women receiving

  11. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  12. Dermatan sulphate as an antithrombotic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenci, Giuseppe G

    2002-01-01

    Dermatan sulphate (DS) is a glycosaminoglycan which selectively catalyzes the inactivation of thrombin by Heparin Cofactor II without interacting with Antithrombin III. DS does not interact with other coagulation factors and, unlike heparin, is able to inactivate thrombin bound to fibrin or to the surface of an injured vessel. Efficacy and safety of DS have been validated in studies on thromboprophylaxis and on the anticoagulation for hemodialysis. Studies on thromboprophylaxis have been performed in "medical" patients as well as in general, orthopedic and oncological surgery. In this last setting, DS proved to be more efficacious than heparin, in the absence of excess bleeding. No statistically significant differences were observed between DS and heparin in hemodialysis. A low-molecular-weight DS,which shows a higher bioavailability after s.c. administration, has been tested in pilot studies on the treatment of venous thromboembolism with encouraging results. Two DS-containing compounds, sulodexide and, particularly, mesoglycan, have been clinically studied in a number of trials and found to be effective in the treatment of venous and arterial leg diseases.

  13. MODELLING OF BACTERIAL SULPHATE REDUCTION IN ANAEROBIC PONDS : KINETIC INVESTIGATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harerimana, Casimir; Vasel, Jean-Luc; Jupsin, Hugues; Ouali, Amira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was first to develop a simple and practical model of anaerobic digestion including sulphate-reduction in anaerobic ponds. The basic microbiology of our model consists of three steps, namely, acidogenesis, methanogenesis, and sulphate reduction. This model includes multiple reaction stoichiometry and substrate utilization kinetics. The second aim was to determine some kinetic parameters associated with this model. The values of these parameters for sulfidogenic bacteria ar...

  14. Sulphate behaviour from dissolution of gypsum in organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, M.K.; Gogoi, P.C.; Kotoky, P. [NNS College, Titabar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-01-01

    The solubility of gypsum in organic acids namely acetic, oxalic, tartaric and succinic acids at low temperature (30{degree}C) was studied. The results show that sulphate sulphur content increases with increasing acid concentration from 0.1 to 0.25 M and decreases again at higher concentration. It is suggested that different behaviour of the acids beyond 0.25 M solution could be due to incorporation of sulphate into the co-ordination sphere of calcium-organic complexes. It is suggested that the occurrence of free and fixed sulphate in the solution is highly pH dependent. The nature of incorporation of sulphate in a system containing calcium species and natural organic matter has also been studied. Humic acids, extracted from forest and tea-garden soils, were treated with a solution of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) at room temperature and the infrared spectra of the gypsum treated samples reveal that sulphate has been incorporated into the calcium complex as a monodentate ligand. Further an inorganic-sulphur free high-sulphur coal when treated with the gypsum solution, incorporated sulphate as bidentate ligand. It is concluded that the nature of the organic matter plays an important role for the occurrence of various fixed sulphates either as monodentate or bidentate ligand in natural systems. This work is a novel breakthrough for the occurrence of varying sulphate content in some of the natural environments and has considerable environmental and geochemical interest. Short communication. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Differential effect of dehydroepiandrosterone and its steroid precursor pregnenolone against the behavioural deficits in CO-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, T; Phan, V; Sandillon, F; Urani, A

    2000-02-25

    The neuroactive steroids pregnenolone (3beta-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 3alpha-hydroxy-5-androstene-17-one) are negative allosteric modulators of the GABA(A) receptors and positive modulators of acetylcholine, NMDA and sigma(1) receptors. Pregnenolone was recently shown to potentiate the neuronal damage induced by excessive glutamate in cell culture models, whereas dehydroepiandrosterone was reported to present some neuroprotective activity. The in vivo relevance of these effects was investigated in mice submitted to an hypoxic insult, the repeated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas, a model that leads to neurodegeneration in the CA(1) hippocampal area and learning deficits. Recording spontaneous alternation behaviour in the Y-maze assessed short-term memory and long-term memory was examined using a passive avoidance task. After exposure to CO, mice showed a progressive deterioration of their learning ability, reaching significance after 3 days and being maximal after 7 days. Pregnenolone administered before CO significantly facilitated the hypoxia-related deficits, which could be measured 1 day after CO and appeared maximal after 3 days. Dizocilpine blocked the deficits in vehicle- and pregnenolone-treated CO-exposed animals, showing that pregnenolone selectively facilitated the NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity. Dehydroepiandrosterone blocked the appearance of the CO-induced deficits, even after 7 days. Interestingly, the sigma(1) receptor antagonist N, N-dipropyl-2-(4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl)ethylamine (NE-100) failed to affect the dehydroepiandrosterone-induced protection, showing the lack of involvement of sigma(1) receptors. Cresyl violet-stained sections of the mouse hippocampal formation showed that the neurodegeneration observed in the CA(1) area after exposure to CO was augmented by pregnenolone and blocked by dehydroepiandrosterone. These results show that pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, although

  16. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  17. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...... lower (pDHEA...

  18. [Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and dizocilpine on memory trace extinction in aggressive and submissive mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovina, N I; Tomilenko, R A; Obut, T A

    2006-01-01

    It was shown that injections of NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine and neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and sequential injections of these substances had different effects on learning and extinction of passive avoidance in aggressive and submissive mice. In aggressive mice, dizocilpine impaired and DHEAS did not change learning and retention. However, being injected after dizocilpine, DHEAS blocked the defect of memory trace retrieval induced by dizocilpine. In submissive mice, dizocilpine impaired learning and prolonged extinction of the learned habit. Injection of DHEAS prolonged the extinction in a similar way. Under conditions of sequential injections, DHEAS did not change the suppressive effect of dizocilpine on learning and was not effective in prolongation of extinction.

  19. 6-Sulphated chondroitins have a positive influence on axonal regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lin

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1 is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO, we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury.

  20. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone benzimidazolyl derivatives as 5α-reductase isozymes inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Segura, Tania; Mendoza, Maria Eugenia; Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Medina, Yesica; Heuze, Yvonne; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    5α-R isozymes (types 1 and 2) play an important role in prostate gland development because they are responsible for intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels when the physiological serum testosterone (T) concentration is low. In this study, we synthesized seven novel dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives with benzimidazol moiety at C-17, and determined their effect on the activity of 5α-reductase types 1 and 2. The derivatives with an aliphatic ester at C-3 of the dehydroepiandrosterone scaffold induced specific inhibition of 5α-R1 activity, whereas those with a cycloaliphatic ester (cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or cyclopentyl ring) or an alcohol group at C-3 inhibited the activity of both isozymes. Derivatives with a cyclohexyl or cycloheptyl ester at C-3 showed no inhibitory activity. In pharmacological experiments, derivatives with esters having an alcohol or the aliphatic group or one of the three smaller cycloaliphatic rings at C-3 decreased the diameter of male hamster flank organs, with the cyclobutyl and cyclopentyl esters exhibiting higher effect. With exception of the cyclobutyl and cyclopentyl esters, these compounds reduced the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicles.

  1. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-15

    Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii (PEPS) and exopolysaccharides from Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST1275 EPS) were sulphated, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated and crude polysaccharides were determined. Degree of sulphonation of PEPS and ST1275 EPS was 0.69 and 0.31, respectively. Characteristic bands in FT-IR spectra indicated that the sulphate group was at the C6 position of the galactose skeleton. Antioxidant activities of PEPS and ST1275 EPS were significantly (P<0.05) improved after sulphonation. For tested crude and sulphated polysaccharides, sulphated PEPS had the largest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003 while sulphated ST1275 EPS had the largest inhibition zone against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54001. Furthermore, sulphated PEPS had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli ATCC 25922, and both sulphated PEPS and sulphated ST1275 EPS had the lowest MICs on S. aureus CMCC 26003 and L. monocytogenes CMCC 54001.

  3. Chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate sulphation motifs and their proteoglycans are involved in articular cartilage formation during human foetal knee joint development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, James; Isaacs, Marc D; Smith, Susan M; Hughes, Clare E; Little, Christopher B; Caterson, Bruce; Hayes, Anthony J

    2012-09-01

    Novel sulphation motifs within the glycosaminoglycan chain structure of chondroitin sulphate (CS) containing proteoglycans (PGs) are associated with sites of growth, differentiation and repair in many biological systems and there is compelling evidence that they function as molecular recognition sites that are involved in the binding, sequestration or presentation of soluble signalling molecules (e.g. morphogens, growth factors and cytokines). Here, using monoclonal antibodies 3B3(-), 4C3 and 7D4, we examine the distribution of native CS sulphation motifs within the developing connective tissues of the human foetal knee joint, both during and after joint cavitation. We show that the CS motifs have broad, overlapping distributions within the differentiating connective tissues before the joint has fully cavitated; however, after cavitation, they all localise very specifically to the presumptive articular cartilage tissue. Comparisons with the labelling patterns of heparan sulphate (HS), HS-PGs (perlecan, syndecan-4 and glypican-6) and FGF-2, molecules with known signalling roles in development, indicate that these also become localised to the future articular cartilage tissue after joint cavitation. Furthermore, they display interesting, overlapping distributions with the CS motifs, reflective of early tissue zonation. The overlapping expression patterns of these molecules at this site suggests they are involved, or co-participate, in early morphogenetic events underlying articular cartilage formation; thus having potential clinical relevance to mechanisms involved in its repair/regeneration. We propose that these CS sulphation motifs are involved in modulating the signalling gradients responsible for the cellular behaviours (proliferation, differentiation, matrix turnover) that shape the zonal tissue architecture present in mature articular cartilage.

  4. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of tetanus in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, P J; Samra, T; Wig, J

    2010-01-01

    There are reports that suggest that magnesium sulphate alone may control muscle spasms thereby avoiding sedation and mechanical ventilation in tetanus, but this has not been confirmed. We examined the efficacy and safety of intravenous magnesium sulphate for control of rigidity and spasms in adults with tetanus. A prospective clinical study of intravenous magnesium sulphate was carried out over a period of two years in a tertiary care teaching hospital. In addition to human tetanus immunoglobulin and parenteral antibiotics, patients with tetanus received magnesium sulphate 70 mg/kg intravenously followed by infusion. The infusion was increased by 0.5 g/hour every six hours until cessation of spasms or abolishment of patellar tendon jerk. The primary outcome measure was efficacy determined by control of spasms. Secondary outcomes included frequency of autonomic instability, duration of ventilatory support, hospital stay and mortality. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. At presentation, the incidence of severity of tetanus was as follows: Grade I: 5 (15%), Grade II: 13 (39%), Grade III: 14 (42%) and Grade IV: 1 (3%). Rigidity and mild spasms were controlled with magnesium therapy alone in six patients; all were Grades I or II. Additional sedatives were required in severe forms of tetanus. The average duration of ventilatory support was 18.3 +/- 16.0 days and the overall mortality was 22.9%. Asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was a universal finding. Magnesium sulphate therapy alone may not be efficacious for the treatment of severe tetanus.

  5. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-09-20

    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  6. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on fatigue and well-being in women with quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.; Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L. R.; Bijl, M.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.

    Objective Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve fatigue and reduced well-being. Both are major problems in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), even with quiescent disease. Low serum DHEA levels are common in SLE. The present work investigates the effects of DHEA

  7. Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate increases NR1 and NR2 subunits of NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.DARTOIS; W.PINOTEAU; M.VINCENS

    2004-01-01

    Neurosteroids are present in the central nervous system (CNS) and can be allosteric modulators of neurotransmitter receptors. One of them, the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been shown to modulate the NMDA receptor, a subtype of glutamate receptor. These NMDA receptors are known to be involved in long-term potentiation and in learning and memory (Tsien 2000). Moreover, DHEAS has been reported

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Juel; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Sørensen, Keld E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female adrenal insufficiency implicates reduced production of the adrenal androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and low androgen levels. Oral DHEA restores androgen deficit but the clinical implications and safety of substitution therapy is uncertain. A putative DHEA receptor...... androgen levels using 6 months of DHEA replacement in this pilot study did not affect cardiovascular parameters and endothelial function in female adrenal insufficiency...

  9. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boot Annemieke M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children.

  10. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Abacavir Sulphate in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Appala Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods (A and B have been developed for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The method A and B are based on the formation of chloroform extractable complex of abacavir sulphate with bromophenol blue (method A and bromocresol green (method B, which shows absorbance maxima at 460 nm and 469 nm respectively. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the range of 1-10 mcg/mL for method A and B respectively. Results of analysis for all the methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The proposed methods are economical and sensitive for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in bulk drug and in its tablet dosage form.

  11. Age-dependent increase in serum levels of indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate is not related to their precursors: Tryptophan and tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Giebultowicz, Joanna; Wroczynski, Piotr; Paczek, Leszek

    2017-06-01

    Retention of indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate is associated with many diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine serum levels of indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate, the dynamics of their changes according to age, and their precursors. The study included 180 healthy individuals aged 20-90 years (n = 180), divided into subgroups by decade (n = 30 in each subgroup) and into subgroups of ≥65 years (n = 42) or p-cresol sulphate, tryptophan, and tyrosine were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 70-90 years age group had higher indoxyl sulphate than the 50-59 years age group (P = 0.033). The 70-90 years age group had higher p-cresol sulphate than the 20-29 years (P P P = 0.007) and 50-59 years (P = 0.001) age groups; the 60-69 years age group had higher p-cresol sulphate than the 20-29 years (P = 0.043) and 30-39 years (P = 0.011) age groups. Indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate serum levels were higher in those aged ≥65 years. Indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate serum levels correlated positively with age, but not with tryptophan and tyrosine, respectively. Healthy aging is associated with indoxyl sulphate and p-cresol sulphate serum level increases, which are not linked to tryptophan and tyrosine serum levels. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1022-1026. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  13. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies...

  14. Comparison between sucrose, ethanol and methanol as carbon and energy sources for biological sulphate reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate was reduced via sulphide to sulphur when operating a single-stage completely mixed reactor configuration feeding synthetic feed. The aim of this study was to determine the volumetric and specific sulphate reduction rates using sugar...

  15. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available on the sulphate reduction rates. The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction. In all...

  16. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  17. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... of heavy metals. Mining and industrial drainage con- ... and sulphate-rich waste water, reducing sulphate to sulphide to ..... European Federation of Corrosion (15), Portugal.

  18. oleifera seed extract on copper sulphate induced injury in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    oleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. ... ministered aqueous extract of Moringa seed (200mg/kg body weight) and copper sulphate ... Human Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,. 2002).

  19. Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone with Macrophomina phaseolina and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of transformed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, M Iqbal; Zafar, Salman; Khan, Naik Tameen; Ahmad, Saeed; Noreen, Shagufta; Marasini, Bishnu P; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2012-06-01

    The biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (1) with Macrophomina phaseolina was investigated. A total of eight metabolites were obtained which were characterized as androstane-3,17-dione (2), androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (3), androst-4-ene-17β-ol-3-one (4), androst-4,6-diene-17β-ol-3-one (5), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (6), androst-4-ene-3β-ol-6,17-dione (7), androst-4-ene-3β,7β,17β-triol (8), and androst-5-ene-3β,7α,17β-triol (9). All the transformed products were screened for enzyme inhibition, among which four were found to inhibit the β-glucuronidase enzyme, while none inhibited the α-chymotrypsin enzyme.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and immune response during the chronic phase of the experimental Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2009-07-07

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has long been considered as a precursor for many steroid hormones. It also enhances the immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. The aims of this work were to evaluate the influences of exogenous DHEA treatment on Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute and its influence on the chronic phase of infection. Animals were subcutaneous treated with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. DHEA treatment promoted increased lymphoproliferative responses as well as enhanced concentrations of NO and IL-12. So, we point in the direction that our results validate the utility of the use of DHEA as an alternative therapy candidate against T. cruzi.

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the spontaneous release of superoxide radical by alveolar macrophages in vitro in asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rom, W.N.; Harkin, T. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Asbestosis is characterized by an alveolar macrophage alveolitis with injury and fibrosis of the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage spontaneously release exaggerated amounts of oxidants including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that may mediate alveolar epithelial cell injury. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a normally occurring adrenal androgen that inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the pentose phosphate shunt necessary for NADPH generation and superoxide anion formation. In this regard, the authors hypothesized that DHEA may reduce asbestos-induced oxidant release. DHEA added in vitro to alveolar macrophages lavaged from 11 nonsmoking asbestos workers significantly reduced superoxide anion release. DHEA is an antioxidant and potential anticarcinogenic agent that may have a therapeutic role in reducing the increased oxidant burden in asbestos-induced alveolitis of the lower respiratory tract.

  2. Influence of acute and subchronic oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on nociceptive threshold in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsińska, Emilia; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Sar, Monika; Makulska-Nowak, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid, is known to be the most abundant hormone in the human body. Its role in the central nervous system has not been well defined. Previous studies indicate that DHEA is synthesized in the spinal cord and plays an important role in pain modulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on pain threshold in rats after both acute and subchronic treatment. Rats were orally administered with DHEA at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily and the pain threshold was measured with mechanical and thermal stimuli. After acute treatment, DHEA exhibited pronociceptive effects which lasted up to 150 min. After subchronic administration, DHEA showed an opposite effect by elevating the pain threshold. The results suggest that DHEA could be indicated as a drug to improve treatment of chronic pain disorders.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Edward P; Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Han, Dong-Ho; Holloszy, John O

    2011-05-01

    Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases ~80% between ages 25 and 75 yr. In a preliminary study, we found that 6 mo of DHEA replacement improved insulin action in elderly individuals. The purpose of the present larger, randomized double-blind study was to determine whether a longer period of DHEA replacement improves glucose tolerance. Fifty-seven men and 68 women aged 65 to 75 yr were randomly assigned to 50 mg DHEA or placebo once daily. Year one was a randomized, double blind trial. Year 2 was an open label continuation. DHEA replacement improved glucose tolerance in participants who had abnormal GT initially, reduced plasma triglycerides, and the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNFα.

  4. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on recognition memory decision processes and discrimination in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, Elliot; Wells, Ellen; Wierman, Margaret E; Anderson, Benjamin; Butler, Andrew; Senholzi, Meredith; Fisher, Julia

    2003-03-01

    In this article, the theoretical distinction between recognition memory decision and discrimination processes is used to explore the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in postmenopausal women. DHEA is an adrenal steroid that diminishes with aging. It has enhanced memory in laboratory animals. An 8-week placebo-controlled, double-blind experiment in which 30 women (ages 39-70) received a 50-mg/day oral dose of DHEA for 4 weeks demonstrated that DHEA made subjects more conservative (i.e., less likely to call test items "old") in their recognition memory decisions and enhanced recognition memory discrimination for items presented briefly. The former result may reflect an empirical regularity (Hirshman, 1995) in which recent strong memory experiences make participants more conservative. The latter result may reflect the effect of DHEA on visual perception, with consequent effects on memory. These results suggest the methodological importance of focusing on decision processes when examining the effects of hormones on memory.

  5. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and progesterone on spatial learning and memory in young and aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Karin J; Stone, Ivan J; Ghiraldi, Loraina L

    2008-07-01

    Young (2-4 months) and aged (14-16 months) male Swiss-Webster albino mice (n = 7 per group) were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg/kg/day dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone (P), DHEAS + P, or vehicle control and trained over a 5-day period in a Morris water maze. The subjects were tested 48 hr after training for memory recall as measured by latencies to locate the hidden platform, and trunk blood was collected immediately thereafter. As expected, latency to platform decreased for all groups over the 6 testing days, with aged mice taking longer to reach platform than did young mice. However, results did not support the hypotheses that DHEAS-treated mice would exhibit shorter latencies and that P-treated mice would show longer latencies to platform in comparison with age-matched controls. These results raise doubts about the effectiveness of commercially available supplements claiming to promote enhanced memory in humans.

  6. Peptidomimetics Based On Dehydroepiandrosterone Scaffold: Synthesis, Antiproliferation Activity, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Su, Haihuan; Wang, Wenda; Chen, Changshui; Cao, Xiufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel peptidomimetics bearing dehydroepiandrosterone moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition activities against cell proliferation. According to the preliminary studies on inhibitory activities, some of the newly prepared compounds indicated significantly inhibition activities against human hepatoma cancer (HepG2), human lung cancer (A549), human melanoma (A875) cell lines compared with the control 5-fluorouracil. Especially, compounds Ii (IC50 IC50 < 13 μM) exhibited obvious inhibition activities against all tested cell lines. The highly potential compound Ik induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the apoptotic effects of compound Ik were further evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining assay, which revealed these highly potential compounds induced cell death in HepG2 cells at least partly by apoptosis.

  7. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  9. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  10. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  11. Occurrence of sulphate reducing bacteria in the human intestinal flora and in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclerc, H.; Oger, C.; Beerens, H.; Mossel, D.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of sulphate reducing bacteria at high levels in various types of water suggests their faecal origin. This prompted an examination of faecal specimens for sulphate reducing bacteria. In a random choice of the same samples E. coli was also enumerated. Sulphate reducing bacteria were fo

  12. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxysulpahte green rust GR2(SO{4/2-}) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO{4/2-}) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO{4/2-}) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO{4/2-}) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  13. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans in glia and in the normal and injured CNS: expression of sulphotransferases and changes in sulphation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Properzi, F.; Lin, R.; Kwok, J.; Naidu, M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Dam, G.B. ten; Camargo, L.M.; Raha-Chowdhury, R.; Furukawa, Y.; Mikami, T.; Sugahara, K.; Fawcett, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have multiple functions relevant to the control of the CNS injury response, particularly in modulating the effects of growth factors and localizing molecules that affect axon growth. We examined the pattern of expression and glycanation of HSPGs in the normal a

  14. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kamarul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  15. DHEA and mortality: what is the nature of the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Tivesten, Asa

    2015-01-01

    Although very little is known about the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in human physiology and pathophysiology, emerging observations imply pivotal roles of DHEA/-S. One such observation is the association between serum DHEA/-S levels and mortality risk. In this review, we focus on the literature addressing DHEA/-S and mortality with the aim to describe and discuss patterns and potential underlying mechanisms. Although the literature reports somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude that several larger population-based studies support an association between low DHEA/-S and risk of death, at least in elderly men. In women, the association may not be present; alternatively, there may be a U-shaped association. In men, most available evidence suggests an association with cardiovascular (CV) mortality rather than cancer mortality. Further, there are biologically plausible mechanisms for an effect of DHEA/-S on the development of CV disease. On the other hand, there is also strong evidence supporting that any disease may lower DHEA/-S. Thus, the cause-effect relation of this association is less clear. Future studies may employ a mendelian randomization approach using genetic determinants of DHEA-S levels as predictors of clinical outcomes, to delineate the true nature of the association between DHEA/-S and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  17. Comparison of serum oestrogen concentrations in post-menopausal women taking oestrone sulphate and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A B; Sklovsky, E; Sayers, L; Steele, P A; Turnbull, A C

    1978-01-21

    Mean serum concentrations of oestradiol-17beta, oestrone, and oestrone sulphate in postmenopausal women were the same when measured up to six hours after treatment with either piperazine oestrone sulphate 1.5 mg or oestradiol valerate 2 mg. Maximum concentrations of oestradiol were less than those of oestrone, but oestrone sulphate reached concentrations about 30 times higher than those of oestrone. The rapid conversion of oestradiol valerate to oestrone and oestrone sulphate does not support the suggestion that in menopausal women oestradiol is less likely to be associated with a risk of endometrial carcinoma than oestrone sulphate, since the two preparations appear to become identical after ingestion.

  18. Genetic linkage mapping of the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (STD) gene on the chromosome 19q13.3 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, F.; Morissette, J.; Dufort, I.; Simard, J.; Luu-The, V. [Laval Univ. Quebec (Canada)

    1995-10-10

    In the human liver and adrenal, there is a single hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase, which catalyzes the transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, the most abundantly circulating steroid in humans, and also catalyzes the sulfation of a series of other 3{beta}-hydroxysteroids as well as cholesterol. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate serves as precursor for the formation of active androgens and estrogens in several peripheral tissues, indicating that hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase plays a pivotal role in controlling the hormonal action of sex steroids by regulating their bioavailability. We recently elucidated the structure of the gene encoding hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (STD), also designated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase, which spans 17 kb and contains six exons. The STD gene was preliminarily assigned to chromosome 19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA from a panel of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. To locate the STD gene, the novel biallelic polymorphism found in intron 2 was genotyped in eight CEPH reference families by direct sequencing of PCR products. Two-point linkage analysis was first performed between the latter polymorphism and chromosome 19 markers from Genethon and NIH/CEPH. The closest linkage was observed with D19S412 (Z{sub max} = 9.23; {theta}{sub max} 0.038) and HRC (Z{sub max} =5.95; {theta}{sub max}0.036), located on the 19q13.3 region. A framework map including six Genethon markers flanking the polymorphic STD gene was created by multipoint linkage analysis. Thereafter, a high-resolution genetic map of the region was constructed, yielding to the following order: qter-D19S414-D19S224-D19S420-D19S217-(APOC2-D19S412)-(STD-HRC)-KLK-D19S22-D19S180-PRKCG-D19S418-tel. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibition of monocyte binding by vascular endothelium is associated with sialylation of neural cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatola, Anna-Maria; Huang, Kui; Naftolin, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium is necessary for atheroma formation. This adhesion requires binding of endothelial neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to monocyte NCAM. NCAM:NCAM binding is blocked by sialylation of NCAM (polysialylated NCAM; PSA-NCAM). Since estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced PSA-NCAM and decreased monocyte adhesion, in consideration of possible clinical applications we tested whether their prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has similar effects. (1) DHEA was administered to cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) from men and women. Monocyte binding was assessed using fluorescence-labeled monocytes. (2) HCEACs were incubated with E2, DHT, DHEA alone, or with trilostane, fulvestrant or flutamide. Expression of PSA-NCAM was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited monocyte adhesion to HCAECs by ≥50% (P DHEA's inhibition of monocyte binding appeared to be gender dependent. The DHEA-induced expression of PSA-NCAM was completely blocked by trilostane. In these preliminary in vitro studies, DHEA increased PSA-NCAM expression and inhibited monocyte binding in an estrogen- and androgen receptor-dependent manner. Dehydroepiandrosteroneappears to act via its end metabolites, E2 and DHT. Dehydroepiandrosterone could furnish clinical prevention against atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis.

  1. Response of sulphur dynamics in European catchments to decreasing sulphate deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prechtel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the decline in sulphur deposition in Europe, sulphate dynamics of catchments and the reversibility of anthropogenic acidification of soils and freshwaters became of major interest. Long-term trends in sulphate concentrations and fluxes in precipitation/throughfall and freshwaters of 20 European catchments were analysed to evaluate catchment response to decreasing sulphate deposition. Sulphate deposition in the catchments studied declined by 38-82% during the last decade. Sulphate concentrations in all freshwaters decreased significantly, but acidification reversal was clearly delayed in the German streams. In Scandinavian streams and Czech/Slovakian lakes sulphate concentrations responded quickly to decreased input. Sulphate fluxes in run-off showed no clear trend in Germany and Italy but decreased in Scandinavia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The decrease, however, was less than the decline in input fluxes. While long-term sulphate output fluxes from catchments were generally correlated to input fluxes, most catchments started a net release of sulphate during the early 1990s. Release of stored sulphate leads to a delay of acidification reversal and can be caused by four major processes. Desorption and excess mineralisation were regarded as the most important for the catchments investigated, while oxidation and weathering were of lesser importance for the long-term release of sulphate. Input from weathering has to be considered for the Italian catchments. Sulphate fluxes in German catchments, with deeply weathered soils and high soil storage capacity, responded more slowly to decreased deposition than catchments in Scandinavia and the Czech Republic/Slovakia, which have thin soils and relatively small sulphate storage. For predictions of acidification reversal, soil characteristics, sulphur pools and their dynamics have to be evaluated in future research. Keywords: acidification reversal, sulphur, sulphate release, Europe

  2. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Verma; M K Singh; V K Wadhawan; C H Suresh

    2000-06-01

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out these calculations. A special procedure is adopted for computing the cohesive energy of a slice of the structure parallel to any rational crystallographic plane. For estimating the cohesive energies, formal charges on the experimentally determined atomic positions in the molecules of ZTS are calculated by ab initio molecular-orbital computations, with wave functions obtained by the Hartree–Fock procedure. Fairly good agreement with the observed crystal morphology is obtained for a model of growth mechanism in which ZTS is assumed to exist in solution as zinc tris(thiourea) ions and sulphate ions.

  3. EQUIVALENT MODEL OF EXPANSION OF CEMENT MORTAR UNDER SULPHATE EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue Zhu; Minqiang Jiaug; Jiankang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The expansion property of cement mortar under the attack of sulfate ions is studied by experimental and theoretical methods.First,cement mortars are fabricated with the ratio of water to cement of 0.4,0.6,and 0.8.Secondly,the expansion of specimen immerged in sulphate solution is measured at different times.Thirdly,a theoretical model of expansion of cement mortar under sulphate erosion is suggested by virtue of represent volume element method.In this model, the damage evolution due to the interaction between delayed ettringite and cement mortar is taken into account.Finally,the numerical calculation is performed.The numerical and experimental results indicate that the model perfectly describes the expansion of the cement mortar.

  4. Experimental study on performance of imitative RPC for sulphate leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-guang Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a manufacturing process to make an imitative RPC material. The blend was regularly composed of cement, silica fume, and certain content of rubber powder. The granular size distribution of dry blend was optimized to reduce the porosity of set material and the imitative RPC material was characterized by high silica fume content and with very low water to binder ratio. Furthermore, fine crushed aggregate and local natural medium crude sand were used to form mineral skeleton. Properties of various reference concrete series were investigated by conducting multiple tests, including permeability and mechanical strength test, the salt solution absorption test, the accelerated sulphate attack test, etc. The results show that the imitative RPC is an environmental-friendly civil engineering material which owns favorable mechanical strength, high impermeability and qualified excellent durability in sulphate contained environment.

  5. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisz Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011. Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types. The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015 could be accepted for this purpose.

  6. Chitosan Hydrogels for Chondroitin Sulphate Controlled Release: An Analytical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bianchera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analytical characterization of chitosan scaffolds obtained by freeze-gelation toward the uptake and the controlled release of chondroitin sulphate (CS, as cartilage repair agent, under different pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and liquid chromatography-UV spectrophotometry (LC-UV techniques were exploited to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of polymer and drug behaviour in the biomaterial. As for morphology, SEM analysis allowed the evaluation of scaffold porosity in terms of pore size and distribution both at the surface (Feret diameter 58±19 μm and on the cross section (Feret diameter 106±51 μm. LC and ATR-FTIR evidenced a pH-dependent CS loading and release behaviour, strongly highlighting the role of electrostatic forces on chitosan/chondroitin sulphate interactions.

  7. EFFECT OF SULPHATE ON LOW-TEMPERATURE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhraig eMadden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behaviour in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO42- removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD:SO42- influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO42- ratio was 1:2. . Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB, methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO42- addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO42--influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisations (FISH, qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulphidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulphate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO42-. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulphidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulphidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulphate reduction and sulphide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.

  8. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of triglycine sulphate revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajul Ranjan Choudhury; R Chitra

    2008-11-01

    In order to get the exact hydrogen-bonding scheme in triglycine sulphate (TGS), which is an important hydrogen bonded ferroelectric, a single crystal neutron diffraction study was undertaken. The structure was refined to an -factor of [2] = 0.034. Earlier neutron structure of TGS was reported with a very limited data set and large standard deviations. The differences between the present and the earlier reported neutron structure of TGS are discussed.

  9. Ammonium sulphate precipitation overestimates titres of anti-peptide antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Barkas, T

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation by 50% final saturation of ammonium sulphate, a method commonly used to estimate titres and affinity constants of antibodies, was found consistently to overestimate the titre of anti-peptide antisera when compared with other antibody precipitants. The effect could not be attributed to non-IgG fractions, and similar overestimations were found when pure IgG was used. We suggest that the lower values represent a more physiologically relevant estimation.

  10. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole...... or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton....

  11. The precipitation of potassium aluminium sulphate from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. W.; Žáček, S.

    1981-06-01

    A precipitation study has been made with potassium aluminium sulphate (potash alum) produced by mixing aqueous solutions of its constituent salts. Rates of nucleation, as indicated by the induction period, were measured for both agitated and non-agitated solutions over the temperature range 15-35°C. Nucleation rates increase with increases in agitation, temperature and supersaturation, but the latter has the dominant effect, as predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependence of the interfacial tension is evaluated.

  12. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  13. Damage model of fresh concrete in sulphate environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬书; 张银华; 冯立平; 金德保; 汪朝成; 董庆友

    2015-01-01

    A model of damage to fresh concrete in a corrosive sulphate environment was formulated to investigate how and why the strength of corroded concrete changes over time. First, a corroded concrete block was divided into three regions:an expanded and dense region;a crack-development region;and a noncorroded region. Second, based on the thickness of the surface corrosion layer and the rate of loss of compressive strength of the corroding region, a computational model of the concrete blocks’ corrosion-resistance coefficient of compressive strength in a sulphate environment was generated. Third, experimental tests of the corrosion of concrete were conducted by immersing specimens in a corrosive medium for 270 d. A comparison of the experimental results with the computational formulae shows that the calculation results and test results are in good agreement. A parameter analysis reveals that the corrosion reaction plays a major role in the corrosion of fresh concrete containing ordinary Portland cement, but the diffusion of the corrosion medium plays a major role in the corrosion of concrete mixtures containing fly ash and sulphate-resistant cement. Fresh concrete with a high water-to-cement ratio shows high performance during the whole experiment process whereas fresh concrete with a low water-to-cement ratio shows poor performance during the late experiment period.

  14. Simultaneous measurements of glutathione and activated sulphate (PAPS) synthesis rates and the effects of selective inhibition of glutathione conjugation or sulphation of acetaminophen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the hepatotoxic drug acetaminophen (AA) on the synthesis rates of glutathione (GSH), activated sulphate (PAPS; adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate) and the AA metabolites AA-GSH and AA-sulphate after selective inhibition of GSH bios...

  15. Dysregulation of Neurosteroids in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bigos, KL; Folan, MM; Jones, Van; Haas, GL; Kroboth, FJ; Kroboth, PD

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in hormone concentrations, including adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol have been reported in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated metabolite, DHEA-S, have not been assessed in patients with OCD. We report 24-hour serum DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol concentrations in a young man with OCD and 15 healthy young men. Circadian patterns of DHEA and cortisol were markedly different in the subject w...

  16. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  17. Quantitative analysis of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content of Malaysian sea cucumber Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masre, Siti Fathiah; Yip, George W; Sirajudeen, K N S; Ghazali, Farid Che

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus are sea cucumber species from the Stichopodidae family within the coastal waters of Malaysia. The integument of these invertebrates is hypothesised to contain abundant glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are divided into non-sulphated and sulphated GAGs. Sulphated GAGs have various chemico-biological functions that are beneficial to humans. This study quantitatively analysed N-, O-sulphated and total sulphated GAG content from three different anatomical regions (integument, internal organs and coelomic fluid) of S. hermanni and S. vastus. The integument revealed the highest content of total, O- and N-sulphated GAGs, followed by the internal organs and the coelomic fluid for both species of sea cucumbers. The percentage division of O- and N-sulphated GAGs suggested that anatomical parts of both species showed higher levels of O-sulphated GAGs compared to N-sulphated GAGs. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the integument body wall of S. hermanni and S. vastus is a rich source of sulphated GAGs.

  18. Sulphate aerosol size distributions at Mumbai, India, during the INDOEX-FFP (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Sinha, Prashant; Bammi, Sachin

    Sulphate size distributions were measured at the coastal station of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) through 1998, during the Indian ocean experiment (INDOEX) first field phase (FFP), to fill current gaps in size-resolved aerosol chemical composition data. The paper examines meteorological, seasonal and source-contribution effects on sulphate aerosol and discusses potential effects of sulphate on regional climate. Sulphate size-distributions were largely trimodal with a condensation mode (mass median aerodynamic diameter or MMAD 0.6 μm), a droplet mode (MMAD 1.9-2.4 μm) and a coarse mode (MMAD 5 μm). Condensation mode sulphate mass-fractions were highest in winter, consistent with the high meteorological potential for gas-to-particle conversion along with low relative humidity (RH). The droplet mode concentrations and MMADs were larger in the pre-monsoon and winter than in monsoon, implying sulphate predominance in larger sized particles within this mode. In these seasons the high RH, and consequently greater aerosol water in the droplet mode, would favour aerosol-phase partitioning and reactions of SO 2. Coarse mode sulphate concentrations were lowest in the monsoon, when continental contribution to sulphate was low and washout was efficient. In winter and pre-monsoon, coarse mode sulphate concentrations were somewhat higher, likely from SO 2 gas-to-particle conversion. Low daytime sulphate concentrations with a large coarse fraction, along with largely onshore winds, indicated marine aerosol predominance. High nighttime sulphate concentrations and a coincident large fine fraction indicated contributions from anthropogenic/industrial sources or from gas-to-particle conversion. Monthly mean sulphate concentrations increased with increasing SO 2 concentrations, RH and easterly wind direction, indicating the importance of gas-to-particle conversion and industrial sources located to the east. Atmospheric chemistry effects on sulphate size distributions in Mumbai, indicated

  19. BARIUM SULPHATE ABSORPTION AND THE SERUM DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-02-01

    The so-called syphilitic antibodies can be removed from a serum by means of absorption with barium sulphate. The removal is due either to an adsorption or a mechanical absorption. The activity of the syphilitic antibodies is thereby unimpaired. The readiness with which the absorption is accomplished with barium sulphate varies considerably with different syphilitic sera. That barium sulphate exerts the same absorbing effect upon non-syphilitic serum components is made evident by the interfering property which the latter manifest in the absorption experiment of the syphilitic antibodies. The selective removal of the serum components, other than the syphilitic antibodies, by means of barium sulphate absorption is, therefore, impossible. On the other hand, a partial removal of these components, with but little removal of the syphilitic antibodies, may be effected when the content of a given serum is poor in syphilitic antibodies and comparatively rich in the indifferent serum components. But this is impossible if the conditions are reversed. The main reasons why some negative syphilitic sera may be so modified by the barium sulphate treatment as to give positive reactions, are explained below, but these apply only to those methods in which inactivated serum is employed. The inactivation reduces the antibody content to about one-fourth to one-fifth of the original. When the serum is very rich in antibodies, this does not affect the result of the fixation test. But when the amount of the antibodies is small, the process of inactivation creates conditions quite unexpected. It may produce such a condition that a given amount of the serum contains, after inactivation, only one or two antibody units, while the other serum components remain undiminished. Here one must not lose sight of the vital fact that these apparently indifferent serum constituents are not at all indifferent in the fixation processes. They may possess affinities which are similar to those of complement

  20. Nanoscale UO{sub 2} and novel complex U(IV)-sulphate phase formation from electrolytically reduced uranyl sulphate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, D.; Malmbeck, R.; Spino, J.; Fanghaenel, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dinnebier, R. [Max Planck Inst. for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Three different processes have been explored to determine the ranges of U-concentration and acidity (pH-value) for nanocrystalline U{sub 2+x} precipitation from electrolytically reduced uranyl sulphate solutions. Precipitation of U{sub 2+x} nanoparticles aggregates was found to occur only in the narrow range of pH {proportional_to} 4.5 to 5 and for U-concentrations of {proportional_to} 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} M. The solid phase crystallized with the typical UO{sub 2}-fcc structure and with a crystallite size {<=} 3 nm. The average aggregate size was mostly {<=} 80 nm. At higher U-concentrations, ranging from [U] {proportional_to} 10{sup -1} M at pH {proportional_to} 1.5 to [U] {proportional_to} 5 x 10{sup -4} M at pH {proportional_to} 4.9, formation of microscale precipitates of a novel complex U(IV)-sulphate phase occurred, which was characterized by SEM/EDX-WDX, ICP-OES and XRD-powder diffraction. The crystal structure was identified with an orthorhombic cell (space group Cmca), with the following lattice parameters: a = 1.974(0)(2) nm, b = 1.3336(2) nm and c = 2.0643(2) nm. Further composition analyses indicated a basic sulphate hydrate of the type Na{sub 3}U(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH).nH{sub 2}O. (orig.)

  1. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone modulate resting-state amygdala connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Welsh, Robert C; Marx, Christine E; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-07-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are integral components of the stress response and exert positive modulatory effects on emotion in both human and animal studies. Although these antidepressant and anxiolytic effects have been well established, to date, little research has examined their neural correlates, and no research has been conducted into the effects of neurosteroids on large-scale networks at rest. To investigate the neurosteroid impact on intrinsic connectivity networks, participants were administered 400 mg of pregnenolone (N = 16), 400 mg of DHEA (N = 14), or placebo (N = 15) and underwent 3T fMRI. Resting-state brain connectivity was measured using amygdala as a seed region. When compared with placebo, pregnenolone administration reduced connectivity between amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, between amygdala and precuneus, and between amygdala and hippocampus. DHEA reduced connectivity between amygdala and periamygdala and between amygdala and insula. Reductions in amygdala to precuneus connectivity were associated with less self-reported negative affect. These results demonstrate that neurosteroids modulate amygdala functional connectivity during resting state and may be a target for pharmacological intervention. Additionally, allopregnanolone and DHEA may shift the balance between salience network and default network, a finding that could provide insight into the neurocircuitry of anxiety psychopathology.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone and metyrapone partially restore the adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, Bárbara; Maglioco, Andrea; Machuca, Damián; Greco, Daiana Martire; Landoni, Verónica I; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Meiss, Roberto; Fernández, Gabriela C; Isturiz, Martín A

    2014-08-01

    Prior exposure to endotoxins renders the host temporarily refractory to subsequent endotoxin challenge (endotoxin tolerance). Clinically, this state has also been pointed out as the initial cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. We recently demonstrated the restoration of immune response with mifepristone (RU486), a receptor antagonist of glucocorticoids. Here we report the treatment with other modulators of glucocorticoids, i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone with anti-glucocorticoid properties, or metyrapone (MET) an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis. These drugs were able to partially, but significantly, restore the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. A significant recovery of proliferative responsiveness was also observed when splenocytes were obtained from DHEA- or MET-treated immunosuppressed mice. In addition, these treatments restored the hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Finally, although neither DHEA nor MET improved the reduced CD4 lymphocyte count in spleen from immunosuppressed mice, both treatments promoted spleen architecture reorganization, partially restoring the distinct cellular components and their localization in the spleen. The results from this study indicate that DHEA and MET could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS-immunosuppressed mice, reinforcing the concept of a central involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids on this phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  4. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances visual-spatial performance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    The current article examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on visual-spatial performance in postmenopausal women (N = 24, ages 55-80). The concurrent reduction of serum DHEA levels and visual-spatial performance in this population, coupled with the documented effects of DHEA's androgenic metabolites on visual-spatial performance, suggests that DHEA administration may enhance visual-spatial performance. The current experiment used a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design in which 50 mg of oral DHEA was administered daily in the drug condition to explore this hypothesis. Performance on the Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, Same-Different Judgment, and Visual Search tasks and serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, estrone, and cortisol were measured in the DHEA and placebo conditions. In contrast to prior experiments using the current methodology that did not demonstrate effects of DHEA administration on episodic and short-term memory tasks, the current experiment demonstrated large beneficial effects of DHEA administration on Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, and Same-Different Judgment. Moreover, DHEA administration enhanced serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, and estrone, and regression analyses demonstrated that levels of DHEA and its metabolites were positively related to cognitive performance on the visual-spatial tasks in the DHEA condition.

  5. Effect of competitional stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol in female handballists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in male athletes, but there are few studies in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of competition stress on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and cortisol in female handballists. Materials and Method: Ten female handballists of Islamic Azad University (Sari Branch (age 21.5±2.5 years participated in this study. Salivary samples were collected 30 min and 5 min before competition, between two half times and immediately after four competitions. The salivary DHEA and cortisol concentrations were measured by ELISA method. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA with repeated measures have shown a significant (p=0.001 increases for DHEA concentration after four competitions, however, cortisol and DHEA/cortisol ratio did not show any changes after four competition (p>0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that salivary DHEA is more sensitive to competition situations than cortisol concentration. We suggested that androgens maybe more affected by competition

  6. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and lactate on glucose uptake in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Danielle Kaiser; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos Rios

    2012-01-17

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents brain aging, enhances the cerebral metabolism and interacts with energy substrates. The interaction between lactate and DHEA on glucose uptake and lactate oxidation by various nervous structures was investigated and results demonstrate that the 2-(14)C-deoxiglucose (2-(14)C-Dglucose) uptake was stimulated by 10mM lactate in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, inhibited in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and unaffected in the hippocampus. We also show that, in both the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, (14)C-lactate oxidation was higher than (14)C-glucose oxidation (p≤0.001), demonstrating a relevant role for lactate as energy substrate. The interaction of lactate and 10(-8)M DHEA was tested and, although DHEA had no significant effect on uptake in the cerebellum, hippocampus, or hypothalamus, 10(-8)M DHEA increased the 2-(14)C-Dglucose uptake in the cerebral cortex in the presence of lactate (p≤0.001), and in the olfactory bulb in the absence of lactate (pDHEA had no significant effect on (14)C-lactate oxidation. We suggest that DHEA improves glucose uptake in specific conditions. Thus, DHEA may affect CNS metabolism and interact with lactate, which is the most important neuronal energy substrate, on glucose uptake. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Enhances Visual-Spatial Performance in Post-Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The current paper examines the effect of administering Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on visual-spatial performance in post-menopausal women (N=24, ages 55-80). The concurrent reduction of serum DHEA levels and visual-spatial performance in this population, coupled with the documented effects of DHEA’s androgenic metabolites on visual-spatial performance, suggest that DHEA administration may enhance visual-spatial performance. The current experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design in which 50 mg of oral DHEA was administered daily in the drug condition to explore this hypothesis. Performance on the Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, Same-Different Judgment, and Visual Search tasks and serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, estrone and cortisol were measured in the DHEA and placebo conditions. In contrast to prior experiments using the current methodology that did not demonstrate effects of DHEA administration on episodic and short-term memory tasks, the current experiment demonstrated large beneficial effects of DHEA administration on Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification and Same-Different Judgment. Moreover, DHEA administration enhanced serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone, and regression analyses demonstrated that levels of DHEA and its metabolites were positively related to cognitive performance on the visual-spatial tasks in the DHEA condition PMID:21942436

  8. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dismukes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) improves pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas de La Roque, Eric; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Metivier, Anne-Cécile; Billes, Marc-Alain; Kraemer, Jean-Philippe; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Jougon, Jacques; Marthan, Roger; Moore, Nicholas; Fayon, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Émile; Dromer, Claire

    2012-02-01

    It was previously shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reverses chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats, but whether DHEA can improve the clinical and hemodynamic status of patients with PH associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PH-COPD) has not been studied whereas it is a very severe poorly treated disease. Eight patients with PH-COPD were treated with DHEA (200mg daily orally) for 3 months. The primary end-point was the change in the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) distance. Secondary end-points included pulmonary hemodynamics, lung function tests and tolerance of treatment. The 6-MWT increased in all cases, from 333m (median [IQR]) (257; 378) to 390m (362; 440) (PDHEA treatment did not change respiratory parameters of gas exchange and the 200mg per day of DHEA used was perfectly tolerated with no side effect reported. DHEA treatment significantly improves 6-MWT distance, pulmonary hemodynamics and DLCO of patients with PH-COPD, without worsening gas exchange, as do other pharmacological treatments of PH (trial registration NCT00581087). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hanan F; Metwally, Fateheya M; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2011-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer's disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer's disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl(3) (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Relationship between salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in saliva and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Mudrika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 20 subjects, with clinical examinations including oral hygiene index, sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann and Son and probing depth was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software package (version 7.0, and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to see the correlation between the groups. Results: In cortisol and DHEA the mean and standard deviation of periodontitis group were (2.6 ± 0.37 and (66.7 ± 8.7 respectively. Conclusion: This shows there is an increase in the mean value of cortisol and DHEA in periodontitis than the control group. Salivary cortisol and DHEA level were found to be increased in concordance with disease severity. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reduces embryo aneuploidy: direct evidence from preimplantation genetic screening (PGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Barad, David H

    2010-11-10

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve pregnancy chances in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and to reduce miscarriage rates by 50-80%. Such an effect is mathematically inconceivable without beneficial effects on embryo ploidy. This study, therefore, assesses effects of DHEA on embryo aneuploidy. In a 1:2, matched case control study 22 consecutive women with DOR, supplemented with DHEA, underwent preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Each was matched by patient age and time period of IVF with two control IVF cycles without DHEA supplementation (n = 44). PGS was performed for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22, and involved determination of numbers and percentages of aneuploid embryos. DHEA supplementation to a significant degree reduced number (P = 0.029) and percentages (P DHEA effects on DOR patients, at least partially, are the likely consequence of lower embryo aneuploidy. DHEA supplementation also deserves investigation in older fertile women, attempting to conceive, where a similar effect, potentially, could positively affect public health.

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects hippocampal cells from oxidative stress-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianetto, S; Ramassamy, C; Poirier, J; Quirion, R

    1999-03-20

    It has been postulated that decreases in plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may contribute to the development of some age-related disorders. Along with neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects, DHEA has been shown to display antioxidant properties. Moreover, oxidative stress is known to cause lipid peroxidation and degenerative changes in the hippocampus, an area involved in memory processes and especially afflicted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, we investigated the antioxidant effects of DHEA in models of oxidative stress using rat primary hippocampal cells and human hippocampal tissue from AD patients and age-matched controls. A pre-treatment of rat primary mixed hippocampal cell cultures with DHEA (10-100 microM) protected against the toxicity induced by H2O2 and sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, DHEA (10-100 microM) was also able to prevent H2O2/FeSO4-stimulated lipid oxidation in both control and AD hippocampal tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that DHEA may be useful in treating age-related central nervous system diseases based on its protective effects in the hippocampus. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases synaptosomal glutamate release and improves the performance in inhibitory avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhullier, F L R; Nicolaidis, R; Riera, N G; Cipriani, F; Junqueira, D; Dahm, K C S; Brusque, A M; Souza, D O

    2004-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exerts multiple effects in the rodent central nervous system (CNS), mediated through its nongenomic actions on several neurotransmitter systems, increasing neuronal excitability, modulating neuronal plasticity and presenting neuroprotective properties. It has been demonstrated that DHEA is a potent modulator of GABA(A), NMDA and Sigma receptors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on (i) basal- and K(+)-stimulated l-[(3)H]glutamate release from synaptosomes (both in vitro and ex vivo), (ii) synaptosomal l-[(3)H]glutamate uptake (in vitro), and (iii) an inhibitory avoidance task (in vivo). The results indicated that DHEA in vitro increased glutamate release by 57%, and its intracerebroventricular infusion increased the basal-[(3)H]glutamate release by 15%. After 30 min of intraperitoneal administration, DHEA levels in the serum or CSF increased 33 and 21 times, respectively. Additionally, DHEA, intraperitoneally administrated 30 min before training, improved memory for inhibitory avoidance task. Concluding, DHEA could improve memory on an inhibitory avoidance task, perhaps due to its ability to physiologically strength the glutamatergic tonus by increasing glutamate release.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M J; Huang, H M; Chen, H L; Kuo, J S; Jeng, K C

    2001-05-01

    Levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated derivative (DHEAS) decline during aging and reach even lower levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DHEA is known to exhibit a variety of functional activities in the CNS, including an increase of memory and learning, neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, and the reduction of risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the influence of DHEA on the immune functions of glial cells is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on activated glia. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia, as a model of glial activation. The results showed that DHEA but not DHEAS significantly inhibited the production of nitrite in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cell cultures. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with DHEA reduced the LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. The LPS-induced iNOS activity in BV-2 cells was decreased by the exposure of 100 microM DHEA. Moreover, DHEA suppressed iNOS gene expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells did not require de novo synthesis of new proteins or destabilize of iNOS mRNA. Since DHEA is biosynthesized by astrocytes and neurons, our findings suggest that it might have an important regulatory function on microglia.

  16. Association of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognition in older adults: sex steroid, inflammatory, and metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Kerry L; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Jankowski, Catherine M; Grigsby, Jim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2013-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels and cognitive function decline with age, and a role for DHEAS in supporting cognition has been proposed. Higher DHEAS levels may be associated with better cognitive performance, although potential mechanisms for this relationship are not well established. We performed a cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum DHEAS and three aspects of cognition--executive function, working memory, and processing speed--in 49 men and 54 women, aged 60-88 years, with low serum DHEAS levels. We examined three potential mechanisms of DHEAS action--sex hormone sufficiency, inflammatory status, and glucose regulation. After adjustment for multiple covariates, higher serum DHEAS levels were associated with better working memory (standardized beta coefficient 0.50, p memory in the combined population (standardized beta coefficient -0.22, p DHEAS and cognition is complex and differs by sex and cognitive domain. This study supports the need for further investigations of the sex-specific effects of DHEAS on cognition and its underlying mechanisms of action.

  17. Selective conversion by microglia of dehydroepiandrosterone to 5-androstenediol-A steroid with inherent estrogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinck, Peter H; Kaufmann, Martin; Gottfried-Blackmore, Andres; McEwen, Bruce S; Jones, Glenville; Bulloch, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The well-established neuroprotective effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been attributed to its metabolism in the brain to provide estrogens known to be neuroprotective and to enhance memory and learning in humans and animals. However, our previous work showed that the conversion of DHEA to 4-androstenedione (AD), the precursor of estrone (E(1)) and estradiol (E(2)), is very low in several different types of neural cells, and that the main product is 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA (7alpha-OH-DHEA). In this study, we found that microglia are an exception and produce mainly 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol (Delta(5)-Adiol), a C(19) steroid with estrogen-like activity from DHEA. Virtually, no other products, including testosterone (T) were detected by TLC or HPLC in incubations of (3)H-labeled DHEA with the BV2 microglial cell line. Microglia are important brain cells that are thought to play a house-keeping role during the steady state, and that are crucial to the brain's immune reaction to injury and the healing process. Our findings suggest that the microglia-produced Delta(5)-Adiol might have a role in modulating estrogen-sensitive neuroplastic events in the brain, in the absence of adequate local synthesis of estrone and estradiol.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of a novel dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase-like protein in Drosophila neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-An; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2008-02-29

    Sulfotransferase (ST)-catalyzed sulfation plays an important role in various neuronal functions such as homeostasis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and hormones. Drosophila is a popular model for the study of memory and behavioral manifestations because it is able to mimic the intricate neuroregulation and recognition in humans. However, there has been no evidence indicating that cytosolic ST(s) is(are) present in Drosophila. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not cytosolic ST(s) is(are) expressed in the Drosophila nervous system. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ST-like protein in Drosophila brain and a sensitive fluorometric assay revealed its sulfating activity toward DHEA. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated this DHEA ST-like protein to be abundant in specific neurons as well as in several bundles of nerve fibers in Drosophila. Clarification of a possible link between ST and a neurotransmitter-mediated effect may eventually aid in designing approaches for alleviating neuronal disorders in humans.

  19. Elevation of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan H; Gallagher, Peter; Porter, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Elevated basal cortisol levels are a feature of depressive illness and cause deficits in learning and memory. The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has antiglucocorticoid properties that may offer protection against the deleterious effects of cortisol. The authors examined the ratio of cortisol to DHEA in drug-free depressed patients and a matched comparison group. Cortisol and DHEA were measured in saliva samples from 39 patients with unipolar depression who had been medication free for at least 6 weeks and 41 healthy comparison subjects. The molar cortisol-DHEA ratio was significantly higher in the depressed patients than in the healthy comparison subjects. Cortisol-DHEA ratios from saliva samples taken at 8:00 p.m. correlated positively with length of current depressive episode. Elevated cortisol-DHEA ratios may be a state marker of depressive illness and may contribute to the associated deficits in learning and memory. Administration of DHEA or other antiglucocorticoid treatments may reduce neurocognitive deficits in major depression.

  20. Na+ K(+)-ATPase activity in response to exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone administration in aging rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Asia; Mishra, Monika; Baquer, N Z; Sharma, Deepak

    2008-12-01

    Influence of exogenously administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the activity of Na+ K+ ATPase was investigated in synaptosomal fraction from cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and medulla regions of brain of 12 and 22 months old rats. DHEA was administered daily at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body wt, intraperitonially (ip) in both the age groups of rats for 1 month. Results showed that Na+ K+ ATPase activity, increased in DHEA treated rats in both the age groups. In terms of per cent increase, 22 months old animals showed significant increase in Na+ K+ ATPase activity in the synaptosomal fraction of all the four brain regions than in 12 months old DHEA-treated rats. This showed that exogenous DHEA modulated the activity of Na+ K+ ATPase and also protected the age-related loss of membrane integrity and functions. It was concluded that exogenous DHEA might be beneficial in terms of neuroprotection against age-related loss of Na+ K+ ATPase mediated brain functions like learning and memory.

  1. Temporal effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on memory formation in day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkovic, E; Mileusnic, R; Fry, J P; Rose, S P R

    2007-08-24

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been shown to enhance memory retention in different animal models and in various learning paradigms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of peripherally administered DHEAS on the acquisition, consolidation and retention of memory using a weak version of the one-trial passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Intraperitoneally administered DHEAS (20 mg/kg) either 30 min before or 30 min and 4.5 h after training on the weakly aversive stimulus, enhanced recall at 24 h following training, suggesting a potentiation of not only the acquisition but also the early and late phases of memory consolidation. In contrast, when DHEAS was administered at 30 min prior to the 24 h retention test there was no memory enhancement, indicating a lack of effect on memory retrieval. Memory recall was unaltered when DHEAS was administered at 30 min before training in a control group trained on a strongly aversive stimulus, confirming memory-specific effects. Interestingly, the memory enhancement appeared to be sex-specific as male chicks showed higher recall than females. These findings provide further evidence that DHEAS enhances memory and may be involved in the temporal cascade of long-term memory formation.

  2. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  3. Determination of Cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone Levels in Saliva for Screening of Periodontitis in Older Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ansai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent reports have found a positive relationship between periodontitis and the hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. We investigated the associations between those levels and periodontitis in never-smokers and smokers of elderly subjects. Subjects and Methods. Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 171 subjects (85 males, 86 females, with clinical examinations including probing depth (PD and clinical attachment loss (CAL also performed. Results. Smoking had effects on cortisol and DHEA levels, and those were significantly associated with severe PD and CAL in never-smokers. According to ROC analysis, the cutoff values of cortisol and DHEA to obtain the optimal sensitivity and specificity for detecting severe periodontitis were 2.06 ng/mL and 60.24 pg/mL, respectively, for PD, and 2.12 ng/mL and 61.78 pg/mL, respectively, for CAL. Conclusions. Assessment of hormone levels may be a useful screening method for periodontitis, though limited to never-smokers.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone Inhibited the Bone Resorption through the Upregulation of OPG/RANKL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudong Wang; Ling Wang; Dajin Li; Wenjun Wang

    2006-01-01

    The plasma level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is decreases gradually along with aging. The beneficial effects of DHEA as an anti-aging steroid, such as the stimulatory effect on immune system, anti-diabetes mellitus,anti-atherosclerosis, anti-dementia, anti-obesity and anti-osteoporosis have been demonstrated in experiment both in vitro and in vivo. It is important to investigate the effective mechanism of DHEA in therapeutics for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Having isolated and cultured osteoblasts (Obs) and osteoclasts (Ocs), we analysed the effect of DHEA on osteoblastic viability, regulation of DHEA on the expression of osteoprotegerin(OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in Obs, and then observed the action of DHEA on bone resorption of Ocs in the presence or absence of Obs. The results showed that DHEA improved viability of Obs within the concentration range of 10-8-10-6 M, especially at the concentration of 10-7 M. DHEA could apparently increase the ratio of OPG/RANKL mRNA in Obs. In the presence of Obs, DHEA could decrease the number and area of absorption lacuna of specula. We concluded, therefore, only in the presence of Obs, DHEA could inhibit the bone resorption of Ocs, which may be mediated by OPG/RANKL of Obs.

  5. Evaluation of testosterone metabolites/dehydroepiandrosterone as the indicators of testosterone administration in horse doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Racing Association, Kyonggi (Korea); Kyong, J.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, M.H.; Chung, B.C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    The metabolism of testosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one) was confirmed in horse after a single intramuscular administration of testosterone cypionate (750 mg). Solvent extracts of urine obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis and methanolysis were analyzed by GC/MS after oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl (oxime-TBDMS) derivatization. the structures of four urinary metabolite after testosterone administration in horse were determined based on EI mass spectra and 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol and 5a-androstane-3{beta}-ol--17one as major was confirmed with authentic standard. Also the concentrations of 5{alpha}--androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol, 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}-ol-17-one and testosterone were determined in the urine of normal subjects and the urine after administration. The recovery and detection limit in the most drugs were 86.3{approx}94.7% and 1{approx}3 ppb, respectively. Correlation coefficients for calibration were in the range of 0.984{approx}0.999. Excretion profile of testosterone presents the rapid and large increasement up to maximum values as days 5 after administration and the slow regression. The relative ratios of testosterone, its metabolites over DHEA were determined for indication of testosterone administration in horse doping. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone decreases while cortisol increases in vitro growth and viability of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Julio C; Cervantes, Claudia; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Saavedra, Emma; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Laclette, Juan P

    2006-02-01

    In vitro exposure of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to the sex steroids 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, and dehydrotestosterone had little effect on parasite viability or proliferation. However, treatment with the adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) markedly inhibited parasite proliferation, adherence and motility, and at a certain dose it induced trophozoite lysis. The opposite effect on proliferation was found when the trophozoites were exposed to cortisol. Moreover, DHEA decreased while cortisol increased the parasite's DNA synthesis determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Trophozoite lysis by DHEA appeared to be caused by a necrotic rather than an apoptotic process, as observed in propidium iodide and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling assays. A possible mechanisms of action was derived from experiments demonstrating that the activity of a putative 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase detected in trophozoite extracts was inhibited in the presence of DHEA. Contrary to its in vitro inhibitory effect, in vivo administration of DHEA to infected hamsters resulted in exacerbation of the amebic liver abscesses. These results demonstrated that androgen steroids act directly upon E. histolytica growth and viability, and may shed new light on some age and gender differences in disease progression, as well as finding application in the drug treatment of human amebiasis.

  7. Analysis of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone in rodent brain: cholesterol autoxidation is the key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Eychenne, Bernard; Cambourg, Annie; Bodin, Karl; Griffiths, William; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Sjövall, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and their respective sulfated forms PREGS and DHEAS, were among the first steroids to be identified in rodent brain. However, unreliable steroid isolation and solvolysis procedures resulted in errors, particularly in the case of brain steroid sulfates analyzed by radioimmunology or GC-MS of liberated free steroids. By using a solid-phase extraction recycling/elution procedure, allowing the strict separation of sulfated, free, and fatty acid esters of PREG and DHEA, PREGS and DHEAS, unlike free PREG, were not detected in rat and mouse brain and plasma. Conversely, considerable amounts of PREG and DHEA were released from unknown precursor(s) present in the lipoidal fraction, distinct from fatty acid ester conjugates. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of the nature of the precursor(s) showed that autoxidation of brain cholesterol (CHOL) was responsible for the release of PREG and DHEA from the lipoidal fraction. When inappropriate protocols were used, CHOL was also the precursor of PREG and DHEA obtained from the fraction assumed to contain sulfated steroids. In contrast, free PREG was definitely confirmed as an endogenous steroid in rat brain. Our study shows that an early removal of CHOL from brain extracts coupled to well-validated extraction and fractionation procedures are prerequisites for reliable measurements of free and conjugated PREG and DHEA by GC-MS or other indirect methods. PMID:19506304

  8. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukioka, Masao; Komatsubara, Yoshio; Yukioka, Kazuhiko; Toyosaki-Maeda, Tomoko; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Ochi, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    To assess adrenal function with respect to the presence or absence of steroid therapy, we investigated differences in the blood levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in relation to steroid (prednisolone) administration in 123 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Levels of ACTH and DHEAS were significantly lower in the steroid-treated group than in the non-treated group (ACTH: 11.79 pg/ml vs 27.92 pg/ml) (DHEAS: 418.12 ng/ml vs 883.91 ng/ml) (P<0.0001). We observed no steroid dose-related differences in ACTH levels. However, DHEAS levels showed a slight decrease at a prednisolone dose of 2.5 mg/day, with a significant decrease being observed at a dose of 5 mg/day when statistical adjustments were made for age and sex (P<0.0001). At doses of 7.5 mg/day or greater, DHEAS levels were significantly lower than those for 5 mg/day (P<0.0006). These results suggest that low-dose prednisolone reduces adrenal function in patients with RA. We recommend that doses of prednisolone should be limited to 5 mg/day or less in consideration of adrenal function when treating RA patients. The measurement of ACTH and DHEAS may be useful for evaluating adrenal function in patients with RA.

  9. Influence of the dissolution medium on the release of dehydroepiandrosterone from lipophilic suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasperek1 Regina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suppositories with cocoa butter containing dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA without and with the addition of Span 80 and Tween 80 as surfactants with low and high HLB values were prepared. The physical properties and the drug content of all prepared suppositories were in accordance with the pharmacopoeial requirements. The release study tests in three dissolution media such as water, lactic acid solution at pH 4.2 and phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were carried out. In acidic and alkalic media only about 10% and 27% of DHEA were released, respectively. The addition of Span 80 to the suppository mass did not improve the release process, but the addition of Tween 80 caused the increase in the amount of DHEA released in the acidic medium to about 35%. The data showed that rectal administration of suppositories with DHEA based on cocoa butter caused about 30% availability and after vaginal administration, only topical activity can be expected. By the addition of Tween 80 to the suppository mass availability of DHEA of about 35% from vaginal suppositories can be achieved.

  10. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  11. Serum and urinary oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery measured by a direct radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, Hideo; Kitawaki, Jo; Itoh, Masafumi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Yamamoto, Takara; Yamamoto, Takao; Okada, Hiroji; Ohkubo, Tadashi; Nambara, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Serum and urinary levels of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery were measured by a direct radioimmunoassay without hydrolysis. the serum and urinary oestrone sulphate increased as pregnancy progressed. the mean level of serum oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 494 pmol/ml at the 35th gestational week and then decreased. The mean level of urinary oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 1.28 ..mu..mol/l at the 34th gestational week and the decreased. At vaginal deliveries, the mean level of maternal peripheral serum oestrone sulphate increased hourly at as high a level as 979 pmol/ml. The mean serum level of oestrone sulphate was 204 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and 145 pmol/ml in the umbilical vein. At Caesarean section, on the other hand, the maternal peripheral serum level of oestrone sulphate averaged 362 pmol/ml. The mean serum levels of oestrone sulphate wre 90.7 pmol/ml and 171 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and umbilical vein, respectively. These results suggest a maternal origin of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy, with fluctuations in the levels being of interest in relation to labour pain.

  12. Biogenic Sulphate, Sulphur Dioxide and Methanesulphonic Acid Ratios over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, A.; Norman, A.; Wadleigh, M.; Siauw, A.; Eaton, S.

    2006-12-01

    Methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and sulphate are the end products of two different oxidation pathways of atmospheric dimethylsulphide (DMS). Sulphate aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei that affect incoming solar radiation and thus climate. The branching ratio cannot be measured using sulphate concentrations alone due to anthropogenic sulphate contributions. Stable isotope techniques, however, can be used to define continental and biogenic emissions, determine the origin of sulphate in aerosol samples and provide insight into DMS oxidation. Size segregated aerosol filters, sulphur dioxide and atmospheric DMS were collected during the summer 2003 Canadian Surface Ocean Lower Atmospheric Study (C-SOLAS) over the North Atlantic. Isotope values along with sulphate, MSA and cation concentrations were analysed. Non-sea salt (NSS) sulphate concentrations where as high as 11000 ng/m3. Biogenic sulphate concentrations ranged between 100 and 800 ng/m3 while biogenic sulphur dioxide concentrations ranged between 20 and 4000 ng/m3. Polluted air masses see an increase in biogenic sulphur dioxide indicating an influence of human activity on the oxidation pathways of DMS. MSA and biogenic sulphur dioxide concentrations are compared to the biogenic sulphate to explore the branching ratio.

  13. Sodium sulphate crystallization influence on intergranular destruction of Thassos marble

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Ružička; Tatiana Durmeková; Miroslav Hain; Mária Čaplovičová; Ľubomír Bágeľ; Peter Bačík; Marián Putiš

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with sodium sulphate crystallization in pore spaces of Thassos marble and presents the 3D visualization of intergranular fractures causing a deterioration of the specimen by the salt crystallization. Cylindrical marble specimen with diameter 20 mm and length 50 mm has been submitted to 15 cycles of the dipping in 14 % solution of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10 H2O) according to the STN EN 12370 standard methodical test. Using electron methods (polarization microscopy, SEM – Scanning el...

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits voltage-gated T-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, M; Gilbert, G; Lory, P; Marthan, R; Quignard, J F; Savineau, J P

    2012-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the mammalian blood flow. DHEA may have beneficial effects in various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases or deterioration of the sense of well-being. However to date, the cellular mechanism underlying DHEA action remains elusive and may involve ion channel modulation. In this study, we have characterized the effect of DHEA on T-type voltage-activated calcium channels (T-channels), which are involved in several cardiovascular and neuronal diseases. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate that DHEA inhibits the three recombinant T-channels (Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2 and Ca(V)3.3) expressed in NG108-15 cell line, as well as native T-channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. This effect of DHEA is both concentration (IC(50) between 2 and 7μM) and voltage-dependent and results in a significant shift of the steady-state inactivation curves toward hyperpolarized potentials. Consequently, DHEA reduces window T-current and inhibits membrane potential oscillations induced by Ca(V)3 channels. DHEA inhibition is not dependent on the activation of nuclear androgen or estrogen receptors and implicates a PTX-sensitive Gi protein pathway. Functionally, DHEA and the T-type inhibitor NNC 55-0396 inhibited KCl-induced contraction of pulmonary artery rings and their effect was not cumulative. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that DHEA inhibits T-channels by a Gi protein dependent pathway. DHEA-induced alteration in T-channel activity could thus account for its therapeutic action and/or physiological effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement in older adults: effects on central adiposity, glucose metabolism, and blood lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) therapy on changes in central adiposity, insulin action, and blood lipids. Many of the actions of DHEA in humans are thought to be mediated through its conversion to sex hormones, which are modulators of adiposity, muscularity, and insulin sensitivity. The effects of DHEA replacement on regional tissue composition, glucose metabolism, and blood lipid profile in older adults have been inconsistent. Design a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention was oral DHEA 50 mg/d or placebo for 12 months. Participants 58 women and 61 men, aged 60–88 yr, with low serum DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) levels at study entry. Measurements Computed tomography measures of abdominal fat areas, thigh muscle and fat areas, DXA-derived trunk fat mass, serum glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge, and fasted serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were assessed before and after the intervention. Results There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the DHEA and placebo groups in the changes in regional tissue composition or glucose metabolism. HDL-cholesterol (P =0.01) and fasted triglycerides (P =0.02) decreased in women and men taking DHEA. Conclusion Restoring serum DHEAS levels in older adults to young adult levels for 1 year does not appear to reduce central adiposity or improve insulin action. The benefit of DHEA on decreasing serum triglycerides must be weighed against the HDL-lowering effect. PMID:21521341

  16. Role of androgen and estrogen receptors for the action of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Cecilia; Lagerquist, Marie K; Stubelius, Alexandra; Andersson, Annica; Studer, Erik; Ohlsson, Claes; Westberg, Lars; Carlsten, Hans; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2014-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant steroid hormone, and its mechanism of action is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the importance of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs) for DHEA function. Orchidectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with DHEA, DHT, 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E2), or vehicle. Orchidectomized AR-deficient (ARKO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with DHEA or vehicle for 2.5 weeks. At termination, bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated, thymus and seminal vesicles were weighted, and submandibular glands (SMGs) were histologically examined. To evaluate the in vivo ER activation of the classical estrogen signaling pathway, estrogen response element reporter mice were treated with DHEA, DHT, E2, or vehicle, and a reporter gene was investigated in different sex steroid-sensitive organs after 24 hours. DHEA treatment increased trabecular BMD and thymic atrophy in both WT and ARKO mice. In WT mice, DHEA induced enlargement of glands in the SMGs, whereas this effect was absent in ARKO mice. Furthermore, DHEA was able to induce activation of classical estrogen signaling in bone, thymus, and seminal vesicles but not in the SMGs. In summary, the DHEA effects on trabecular BMD and thymus do not require signaling via AR and DHEA can activate the classical estrogen signaling in these organs. In contrast, DHEA induction of gland size in the SMGs is dependent on AR and does not involve classical estrogen signaling. Thus, both ERs and ARs are involved in mediating the effects of DHEA in an organ-dependent manner.

  17. Nongenomic bronchodilating action elicited by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a guinea pig asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Julia; Montaño, Luis M; Perusquía, Mercedes

    2013-11-01

    Primates secrete large amounts of the precursor steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); in humans, its levels are low during childhood and start declining after the fourth decade. It has been postulated that the progressive decline in DHEA levels may be related with the severity of asthma associated with age. To determine whether DHEA may regulate the airway smooth muscle (ASM) activity, isolated tracheal rings with and without epithelium from male guinea pigs were isometrically recorded to characterize the response of ASM to DHEA at different concentrations on KCl- and carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction as well as on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced contraction in sensitized guinea pigs. Additionally, we used barometric plethysmography in sensitized guinea pigs in order to compare changes of the lung resistance increased by the antigen challenge to OVA in the absence and presence of different doses of DHEA. DHEA concentration-dependently abolished the contraction to KCl, CCh and OVA, and no differences were found in preparations with and without epithelium. DHEA-induced relaxation was not modified by the suppression of protein synthesis or transcription, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, nor by antagonist of β2-adrenergic receptors or an inhibitor of the 3β-HSD enzyme. Likewise, Ca(2+)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free depolarized tissues was antagonized by DHEA, and the contraction to the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel activator (Bay K 8644) was inhibited by DHEA. Furthermore, DHEA prevented OVA-induced increases in lung resistance. These results indicate that DHEA-induced relaxation in ASM is a nongenomic (membrane) action and is not produced after its bioconversion. The data suggest that DHEA-induced relaxation is an epithelium- and NO-independent mechanism that involves a blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels and possible non-selective cation channels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress-mediated brain dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA formation in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geogres eRammouz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. The biosynthesis of most neurosteroids is mediated by proteins and enzymes similar to those identified in the steroidogenic pathway of adrenal and gonadal cells. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is a major neurosteroid identified in the brain. Over the years we have reported that, unlike other neurosteroids, DHEA biosynthesis in rat, bovine, and human brain is mediated by an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism, independent of the cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 enzyme activity found in the periphery. This alternative pathway is induced by pro-oxidant agents, such as Fe2+ and b-amyloid peptide. Neurosteroids are involved in many aspects of brain function, and as such, are involved in various neuropathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. AD is a progressive, yet irreversible neurodegenerative disease for which there are limited means for ante-mortem diagnosis. Using brain tissue specimens from control and AD patients, we provided evidence that DHEA is formed in the AD brain by the oxidative stress-mediated metabolism of an unidentified precursor, thus depleting levels of the precursor in the blood stream. We tested for the presence of this DHEA precursor in human serum using a Fe2+-based reaction and determined the amounts of DHEA formed. Fe2+ treatment of the serum resulted in a dramatic increase in DHEA levels in control patients, whereas only a moderate or no increase was observed in AD patients. The DHEA variation after oxidation correlated with the patients’ cognitive and mental status. In this review, we present the cumulative evidence for oxidative stress as a natural regulator of DHEA formation and the use of this concept to develop a blood-based diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases linked to oxidative stress, such as AD.

  19. Lack of effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) on the endometrium in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Bouchard, Céline; Cusan, Leonello; Girard, Ginette; Ayotte, Normand; Koltun, William; Blouin, François; Young, Douglas; Wade, Anthony; Martel, Céline; Dubé, Robert

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) on the endometrium in postmenopausal women. Intravaginal DHEA (6.5 mg) was administered daily for 52 weeks to 422 women who had endometrial biopsy at baseline and end of study, whereas 15 women were similarly treated for 26 to 52 weeks. Participants in three other studies received 3.25 mg (n = 126), 6.5 mg (n = 129), or 13 mg (n = 30) of DHEA for 12 weeks; women similarly had baseline and end-of-study biopsies. Endometrial biopsy samples were available for 668 women at baseline and end of study, with sufficient material for analysis. Endometrial atrophy or inactive endometrium (668 women) was found in all women treated with intravaginal DHEA. Similar atrophy was observed in 119 of 121 participants with sufficient material for analysis who received placebo. After cessation of estradiol secretion by the ovaries at menopause, the estrogens made by mechanisms of intracrinology are inactivated intracellularly at their site of formation and action, thus maintaining serum estradiol at biologically inactive concentrations to avoid stimulation of the endometrium. The absence of enzymes that are able to transform DHEA into estrogens in the endometrium explains the typical endometrial atrophy in all normal postmenopausal women in the presence of variable concentrations of circulating endogenous DHEA. According to these mechanisms, the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA administered intravaginally acts exclusively in the vagina, whereas all serum sex steroids remain well within the biologically inactive postmenopausal reference range, thus avoiding any stimulation of the already atrophic endometrium.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) restrains intestinal inflammation by rendering leukocytes hyporesponsive and balancing colitogenic inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angélica; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone that plays an important role in the modulation of inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms that link the actions of this androgen with protection or susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain uknown. Here we showed that low dose DHEA inhibited proliferation of spleen cells and IFN-у production. The hormone was not toxic to myeloid lineage cells, although it caused necrosis of spleen cells at the intermediate and highest doses in vitro (50 and 100μM). The treatment of C57BL/6 mice with DHEA during colitis induction by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) led to a reduction in weight loss and clinical signs of disease. There were decreased peripheral blood monocytes on day 6 of DSS exposure and treatment, besides increase in circulating neutrophils in the tissue repair phase. DHEA also led to reduced lamina propria cellularity and restoration of normal colon length. These results were accompanied by decreased expression of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA, while IL-13 was augmented in the colon on day 6, which was probably related to attenuation of inflammation. There was retention of CD4(+) cells in the spleen after use of DHEA, along with augmented frequency of CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells, decreased CD4(+)IFN-ɣ(+) in spleen and constrained CD4(+)IL-17(+) population in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, splenocytes of mice treated with DHEA became hyporesponsive, as observed by reduced proliferation after re-stimulation ex-vivo. In conclusion, DHEA modifyies leukocyte activity and balances the exacerbated immune responses which drive local and systemic damages in IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hua; Li, Juan; Xu, Gong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yin, Ye-Lin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2010-12-12

    Microbial transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) using Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling has been investigated. Neither fungi had been examined previously for steroid biotransformation. One novel metabolic product of DHEA (1) transformed with P. griseopurpureum Smith, 15α-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), was reported for the first time. The steroid products were assigned by interpretation of their spectral data such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and HR-MS spectroscopy. P. griseopurpureum Smith was proven to be remarkably efficient in oxidation of the DHEA (1) into androst-4-en-3,17-dione (2). The strain was also observed to yield different monooxygenases to introduce hydroxyl groups at C-7α, -14α, and -15α positions of steroids. Preference for Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to lactonize D ring and oxidation of the 3β-alcohol to the 3-ketone were observed in both incubations. The strain of P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling catalyzed the steroid 1 to generate both testololactone 3, and d-lactone product with 3β-hydroxy-5-en moiety 8. In addition, the strain promoted hydrogenation of the C-5 and C-6 positions, leading to the formation of 3β-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-5α-androstan-3,17-dione (9). The biotransformation pathways of DHEA (1) with P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling and P. griseopurpureum Smith have been investigated, respectively. Possible metabolic pathways of DHEA (1) were proposed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Androgenic action of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on nerve density in the ovariectomized rat vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges; Ouellet, Johanne; Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand

    2013-08-01

    We have recently reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases the density of nerve fibers in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat vagina. To better define the mechanism of action of DHEA, we have examined the effect of DHEA, conjugated estrogens (premarin) and the potent blocker of estrogen action acolbifene on the innervation in the lamina propria in the OVX rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (10-12 weeks old) were used. Innervation of the vagina was examined 9 months after OVX and was compared to that of OVX animals treated daily with DHEA (80 mg/kg) by topical application on the skin, premarin (0.5 mg/kg) orally as well as acolbifene (2.5 mg/kg) orally administrated alone or in combination with DHEA or premarin. Four histological sections from each vagina (5 animals/group) were immunostained using antibodies to the panneuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). The areas were measured by stereological analysis. OVX reduced the area of the lamina propria to 44% of the intact value, an effect which was reversed to 69% and 84% of the intact value by DHEA and premarin, respectively, at the doses used. When acolbifene was used, no inhibition of the stimulatory effect of DHEA was observed, while the action of premarin was completely blocked. Evaluation of the PGP 9.5 fiber density revealed that DHEA treatment increased the density of fibers by 60% compared to OVX animals, while a further 27% increase was observed when acolbifene was combined with DHEA. Premarin, on the other hand, had no effect on the density of PGP 9.5 fibers. Considering that the antiestrogen acolbifene had no inhibitory effect on the effect of DHEA in rat vagina while blocking the stimulatory effect of premarin, the present data indicate that DHEA exerts its stimulatory effect on the fiber density through an androgenic action. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration in patients with poor ovarian response according to the Bologna criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is now widely used as an adjuvant to IVF treatment protocols in poor responders. However, clinical evidence for DHEA on improvement of ovarian response and IVF outcome is still limited, the validity of the results of the earlier studies, especially the varied inclusion criteria, is a subject of debate. Recently, the ESHRE Working Group developed a new definition, the Bologna criteria. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential effect of DHEA treatment on in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome of poor ovarian responders that fulfill the Bologna criteria. METHODS: This study investigated 386 poor ovarian responders that fulfill the Bologna criteria. Patients underwent IVF-ET treatment with the GnRH antagonist protocol. The study group contained 189 patients, who received 75 mg of DHEA daily (25 mg three times daily before the IVF cycle. The control group was composed of 197 patients who received infertility treatment, but did not receive DHEA. The IVF outcome parameters in each group were compared. RESULTS: The study and control groups did not show statistically significant differences in terms of patient demographics characteristics, mean numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, or embryo availability. While the DHEA group demonstrated significantly higher implantation rates (18.7% vs. 10.1%; P<0.01 and ongoing PRs (26.7% vs. 15.8%; P<0.05 as compared with the control. CONCLUSIONS: DHEA pre-treatment does not significantly increase oocyte yield. However, the ongoing PRs in this subgroup of women are significantly higher after DHEA administration, suggesting that DHEA may increase IVF results by improving oocyte and embryo quality.

  4. Effects of ovariectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on vaginal wall thickness and innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges; Ouellet, Johanne; Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand

    2012-10-01

    One mechanism by which low sexual steroid activity observed after menopause could cause sexual dysfunction is by deficient vaginal innervation. Recently, it has been shown that intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) could produce beneficial effects on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. The goal of this study was to determine if DHEA could modify innervation in the rat vagina. The area occupied by the nerve fibers immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a panneuronal marker or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a sympathetic nerve fiber marker, in the lamina propria and muscular layers, respectively, as well as the total area of each of these 2 layers were measured by stereological analysis. The innervation of the rat vagina was examined 9 months after ovariectomy (OVX) compared to intact animals and treatment of OVX animals with DHEA (80 mg/kg). Four sections from each vagina (5 animals/groups) were immunostained. In OVX animals, the lamina propria area was decreased to 44%, an effect which was reversed by DHEA to 69% of the intact value. OVX also caused a 59% decrease in the area of PGP 9.5 fibers, an effect which was prevented by DHEA, thus showing a 68% stimulatory effect of DHEA on the density of PGP 9.5 fibers in the lamina propria compared to OVX animals. Following OVX, the muscular layer area was decreased by 61%. DHEA treatment induced 118% and 71% increases in TH fiber area compared to OVX and intact animals, respectively. The density of TH fibers was 182% increased over intact controls by DHEA treatment of OVX animals. The relatively potent stimulatory effect of DHEA on intravaginal nerve fiber density provides a possible explanation for the beneficial effects of intravaginal DHEA on sexual dysfunction observed in postmenopausal women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N. (Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Harrington, G.W. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Hart, R.W. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b{sub 5}. DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of ({sup 14}C)NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 {mu}Ci/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O{sup 6}-methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from ({sup 14}C)NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage.

  6. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on renal function and metabolism in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Jacob, Maria Helena Vianna Metello; da Rocha Janner, Daiane; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos

    2011-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid hormone involved in a number of biological actions in humans and rodents, but its effects on renal tissue have not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of DHEA treatment on diabetic rats, mainly in relation to renal function and metabolism. Diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of a 10mg/kg dose of DHEA diluted in oil. Plasma glucose and creatinine, in addition to urine creatinine, were quantified espectophotometrically. Glucose uptake and oxidation were quantified using radioactive glucose, the urinary Transforming Growth Factor β(1) (TGF-β(1)) was assessed by enzyme immunoassay, and the total glutathione in the renal tissue was also measured. The diabetic rats displayed higher levels of glycemia, and DHEA treatment reduced hyperglycemia. Plasmatic creatinine levels were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, while creatinine clearance was lower. Glucose uptake and oxidation were lower in the renal medulla of the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, and urinary TGF-β(1), as well as total gluthatione levels, were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA. DHEA treatment was not beneficial to renal tissue, since it reduced the glomerular filtration rate and renal medulla metabolism, while increasing the urinary excretion of TGF-β(1) and the compensatory response by the glutathione system, probably due to a mechanism involving a pro-oxidant action or a pro-fibrotic effect of this androgen or its derivatives. In conclusion, this study reports that DHEA treatment may be harmful to renal tissue, but the mechanisms of this action have not yet been fully understood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on follicular dynamics in a diminished ovarian reserve in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Hikmet; Aydin, Yunus; Ozatik, Orhan; Erol, Kevser; Ozatik, Yasemin

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in primary, primordial, and growing follicles after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration in rats that have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) due to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) application, and to examine the mechanism of the probable effect of DHEA on folliculogenesis. Two groups of Wistar rats were used. In Group A unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 15 days. In Group B unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration for 15 days followed by DHEA (60 mg/kg body weight) daily for 45 days. Primordial, primary, and growing (secondary+antral) follicles were counted in 1,664 sections from 32 ovaries. In all three types of follicles (primordial, primary, and growing), the number of follicles significantly decreased in the study ovaries compared to the control ovaries in both Group A and Group B. In Group B, atresia rates were significantly lower in the study ovary compared to the control ovary in all of the follicular groups: primordial (p=0.02), primary (p=0.01), and growing (p=.027). To demonstrate the probable effects of DHEA on follicular dynamics, we also compared the study ovaries in both groups; the primordial (p=0.027), primary (p=0.031), and growing (p=0.04) number of follicles were significantly higher in Group B compared to Group A. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DHEA administration in DOR rats due to VCD results in a larger follicular pool. Decreased atresia may be one of the possible effects of DHEA in DOR cases. Whatever the mechanism, DHEA treatment potentially may be useful clinically as a means to increase the number of gonadotropin-responsive follicles for ovarian stimulation.

  8. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohalmy, Krisztina; Tamási, Viola; Kóbori, László; Sárváry, Eniko; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Porrogi, Pálma; Rozman, Damjana; Prough, Russell A; Meyer, Urs A; Monostory, Katalin

    2007-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the major precursor of androgens and estrogens, has several beneficial effects on the immune system, on memory function, and in modulating the effects of diabetes, obesity, and chemical carcinogenesis. Treatment of rats with DHEA influences expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)- and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated induction of CYP4As and CYP3A23, and suppression of CYP2C11. DHEA treatment elevated the expression and activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Induction of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes was consistent with studies in rats, but induction of CYP2Cs was unexpected. The role of PXR in this response was studied in transient transfection assays. DHEA activated hPXR in a concentration-dependent manner. Because CYP2B6 induction by DHEA in human hepatocytes might involve either PXR or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation, we performed experiments in primary hepatocytes from CAR knockout mice and observed that CAR was required for maximal induction of Cyp2b10 by DHEA. Furthermore, CAR-mediated Cyp2b10 induction by DHEA was inhibited by the inverse agonist of CAR, androstanol (5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha-ol). Further evidence for CAR activation was provided by cytoplasmic/nuclear transfer of CAR upon DHEA treatment. Elucidation of CAR activation and subsequent induction of CYP2B6 by DHEA presented an additional mechanism by which the sterol can modify the expression of P450s. The effect of DHEA on the activation of the xenosensors PPAR alpha, PXR, and CAR, and the consequent potential for adverse drug/toxicant interactions should be considered in humans treated with this nutriceutical agent.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration improves memory deficits following transient brain ischemia through sigma-1 receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yasushi; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Izumi, Hisanao; Ikuno, Tatuya; Shioda, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2015-10-05

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant neurosteroid synthesized de novo in the central nervous system. Oral DHEA administration elicits neuroprotection and cognitive improvement, but mechanisms underlying these functions in cerebral ischemia have remained unclear. Since DHEA is the endogenous ligand for the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), we determined whether oral DHEA administration prevents neuronal cell death and improves cognition via σ1R stimulation in brain ischemia using a 20-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. Twenty-four hours after BCCAO ischemia, mice were administered DHEA (15 or 30mg/kg p.o.) daily for 11 consecutive days. Memory deficits following brain ischemia were improved by DHEA administration dose-dependently. Accordingly, DHEA administration significantly prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region in BCCAO mice. Interestingly, DHEA administration rescued decreases in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) in the CA1 region. Moreover, DHEA administration significantly ameliorated decreases in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels and decreased σ1R expression levels in CA1 following BCCAO ischemia. Finally, co-treatment of mice with the σ1R antagonist NE-100 (1mg/kg, p.o.) blocked DHEA effects on memory improvement and neuroprotection in ischemic mice. Taken together, DHEA prevents neuronal cell death and activates CaMKII via σ1R stimulation, thereby improving cognitive deficits following brain ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate esters on learning and memory in cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, M; Mayo, W; Le Moal, M

    2001-11-01

    Aging is a general process of functional decline which involves in particular a decline of cognitive abilities. However, the severity of this decline differs from one subject to another and inter-individual differences have been reported in humans and animals. These differences are of great interest especially as concerns investigation of the neurobiological factors involved in cognitive aging. Intensive pharmacological studies suggest that neurosteroids, which are steroids synthesized in the brain in an independent manner from peripheral steroid sources, could be involved in learning and memory processes. This review summarizes data in animals and humans in favor of a role of neurosteroids in cognitive aging. Studies in animals demonstrated that the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), as sulfate derivatives (PREGS and DHEAS, respectively), display memory-enhancing properties in aged rodents. Moreover, it was recently shown that memory performance was correlated with PREGS levels in the hippocampus of 24-month-old rats. Human studies, however, have reported contradictory results. First, improvement of learning and memory dysfunction was found after DHEA administration to individuals with low DHEAS levels, but other studies failed to detect significant cognitive effects after DHEA administration. Second, cognitive dysfunctions have been associated with low DHEAS levels, high DHEAS levels, or high DHEA levels; while in other studies, no relationship was found. As future research perspectives, we propose the use of new methods of quantification of neurosteroids as a useful tool for understanding their respective role in improving learning and memory impairments associated with normal aging and/or with pathological aging, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  12. A novel dehydroepiandrosterone analog improves functional recovery in a rat traumatic brain injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir S; Narayan, Raj K; Wendling, Woodrow W; Cole, Russell W; Pashko, Laura L; Schwartz, Arthur G; Strauss, Kenneth I

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel steroid, fluasterone (DHEF, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analog), at improving functional recovery in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The lateral cortical impact model was utilized in two studies of efficacy and therapeutic window. DHEF was given (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at the initial time point and once a day for 2 more days. Study A included four groups: sham injury, vehicle treated (n = 22); injured, vehicle treated (n = 30); injured, pretreated (5-10 min prior to injury, n = 24); and injured, posttreated (initial dose 30 min postinjury, n = 15). Study B (therapeutic window) included five groups: sham injury, vehicle treated (n = 17); injured, vehicle treated (n = 26); and three posttreatment groups: initial dose at 30 min (n = 18), 2 h (n = 23), or 12 h (n = 16) postinjury. Three criteria were used to grade functional recovery. In study A, DHEF improved beam walk performance both with pretreatment (79%) and 30-min posttreatment group (54%; p memory (Morris water maze) and neurological reflexes both revealed significant improvements in all DHEF treatment groups. In cultured rat mesangial cells, DHEF (and DHEA) potently inhibited interleukin-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA and prostaglandin (PGE2) production. In contrast, DHEF treatment did not alter injury-induced COX2 mRNA levels in the cortex or hippocampus. However, DHEF (and DHEA) relaxed ex vivo bovine middle cerebral artery preparations by about 30%, with an IC(50) approximately 40 microM. This was a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle, independent of the endothelial cell layer. Fluasterone (DHEF) treatments improved functional recovery in a rat TBI model. Possible mechanisms of action for this novel DHEA analog are discussed. These findings suggest an exciting potential use for this agent in the clinical treatment of traumatic brain injury.

  13. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainic, Josipa; Samardzic, Janko; Erhardt, Julija; Krsnik, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration. DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes. DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results failed to demonstrate significant effects of single- and long-term DHEAS treatment on the convulsive susceptibility in both adult and aged mice of both sexes. However, small but significant changes regarding sex differences in the susceptibility to seizures were observed following DHEAS administration to mice. Although our findings suggest that DHEAS treatment might be safe for various potential therapeutic applications in adult as well as in old age, they also support subtle interaction of DHEAS with male and female hormonal status, which may underline observed sex

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone indirectly inhibits human osteoclastic resorption via activating osteoblastic viability by the MAPK pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-dong; TAO Min-fang; CHENG Wei-wei; LIU Xiao-hua; WAN Xiao-ping; KeMi Cui

    2012-01-01

    Background Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely known for its beneficial effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis,although the underlying mechanisms remain mainly unclear.In this study,we tried to determine the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways during DHEA treatment and the indirect role of osteoblasts (OBs) on osteoclasts under the DHEA treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.@@Methods Primary human OBs and osteoclast-like cells were cultured and,we pretreated OBs with or without U0126 (a highly selective inhibitor of both MEK1 and MEK2).The OBs were treated with DHEA.We then tested the effects of DHEA on human osteoblastic viability,osteoprotegerin production and the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase).In the presence or absence of OBs,the function of osteoclastic resorption upon DHEA treatment was calculated.@@Results DHEA promoted the human osteoblastic proliferation and inhibited the osteoblastic apoptosis within the concentration range of 108-10-6 mol/L (P <0.05,P <0.01,respectively).Within the effective concentration range,the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 and osteoprotegerin was increased by DHEA and blocked by U0126.In the presence of OBs,DHEA could significantly decrease the number and the area of bone resorption lacuna (P <0.05 and P <0.01,respectively).Without OBs,however,the effects of DHEA on the bone resorption lacuna were almost completely abolished.@@Conclusions DHEA could indirectly inhibit the human osteoclastic resorption through promoting the osteoblastic viability and osteoprotegerin production,which is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathway involving the phosphor-ERK1/2.

  15. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone interacts with nerve growth factor (NGF receptors, preventing neuronal apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakovos Lazaridis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, produced by neurons and glia, affects multiple processes in the brain, including neuronal survival and neurogenesis during development and in aging. We provide evidence that DHEA interacts with pro-survival TrkA and pro-death p75(NTR membrane receptors of neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF, acting as a neurotrophic factor: (1 the anti-apoptotic effects of DHEA were reversed by siRNA against TrkA or by a specific TrkA inhibitor; (2 [(3H]-DHEA binding assays showed that it bound to membranes isolated from HEK293 cells transfected with the cDNAs of TrkA and p75(NTR receptors (K(D: 7.4 ± 1.75 nM and 5.6 ± 0.55 nM, respectively; (3 immobilized DHEA pulled down recombinant and naturally expressed TrkA and p75(NTR receptors; (4 DHEA induced TrkA phosphorylation and NGF receptor-mediated signaling; Shc, Akt, and ERK1/2 kinases down-stream to TrkA receptors and TRAF6, RIP2, and RhoGDI interactors of p75(NTR receptors; and (5 DHEA rescued from apoptosis TrkA receptor positive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia in NGF null embryos and compensated NGF in rescuing from apoptosis NGF receptor positive sympathetic neurons of embryonic superior cervical ganglia. Phylogenetic findings on the evolution of neurotrophins, their receptors, and CYP17, the enzyme responsible for DHEA biosynthesis, combined with our data support the hypothesis that DHEA served as a phylogenetically ancient neurotrophic factor.

  16. Androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in serum of mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone: relationship to antihyperglycemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, E H; Beamer, W G; Coleman, D L; Longcope, C

    1987-09-01

    The steroid prehormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has potent antihyperglycemic effects when fed in the diet of genetically diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze changes in sex steroid levels in serum of mice fed DHEA, and to compare the antihyperglycemic potencies of the various metabolites in order to clarify the mechanism of DHEA action. Steroid radioimmunoassays showed that dietary DHEA entered the blood in high concentrations and was actively metabolized to both androgens (testosterone, T; dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and estrogens (estrone, E1; 17 beta-estradiol, E2). This metabolism did not require intact adrenal glands or gonads. In C57BL/KsJ normal (+/+) males, conversion of DHEA to androgens was the prominent feature; in db/db males, DHEA feeding not only increased serum T and DHT, but also serum E1 and E2 levels. The db/db mice had increased amounts of adipose tissue that sequestered more intravenously injected 3H-E2; this additional body fat could account for increased aromatization of DHEA-derived estrogen precursors. Comparisons of the relative antihyperglycemic potencies of androgenic and estrogenic steroid metabolites of DHEA in db/db mice showed that the estrogens and metabolites with estrogenic properties (androstenediol) or those convertible to estrogens (DHEA sulfate) were the most potent. Although 17 beta-E2 was effective by injection or per os, DHEA was effective only when administered per os, implicating alimentary tract conversion of DHEA to more biologically active reactants. Based on the pivotal position of DHEA as a prehormone for androgens, estrogens, and etiocholanolones, an explanation of the seemingly paradoxical effects exerted by this compound in blocking autoimmune disease, hyperglycemia, obesity, and neoplasia was proposed.

  17. The effect of sulphate on methanol conversion in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Chi, T.M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Mesophilic (30 °C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors were fed with an influent containing sulphate (2 g l-1) and methanol (1.33 g l-1). More than 90% of the methanol was mineralised to methane, while only ˜5–10% of the methanol was used for sulphate reduction. This pattern was independent of

  18. Volcanic lake systems as terrestrial analogue for sulphate-rich terrains on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Remote-sensing observations and rover missions have documented the abundant presence of sulphate-rich mineral associations on the surface of Mars. Together with widespread occurrences of silica and frequent enrichments of chlorine and bromine in soils and rocks, the sulphate associations are fingerp

  19. Complete sulphate removal from neutralised acidic mine drainage with barium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -barium-calcium) Desalination process which uses barium salts to further reduce the sulphate concentration to acceptable levels with the added advantage that sulphate removal can be controlled due to the low solubility of BaSO4. This paper reports on the results...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index EtAS were survived.

  1. The effect of ferrous sulphate and sucralfate on the bioavailability of oral gemifloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A; Bygate, E; Faessel, H; Isaac, L; Lewis, A

    2000-08-01

    Sucralfate is a cytoprotectant with antacid properties and ferrous sulphate is commonly prescribed for iron-deficiency anaemia. This open, randomized, single-dose, five-way crossover study investigated the effect of sucralfate and ferrous sulphate on the bioavailability of gemifloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone antimicrobial. Twenty-seven healthy male volunteers received gemifloxacin, 320 mg p.o., alone, 3 h after sucralfate (2 g) or ferrous sulphate (325 mg), or 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate. Each subject received all five dosing regimens in random order with at least 6 days between regimens. Plasma samples collected up to 48 h after dosing with gemifloxacin, were assayed for gemifloxacin to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after sucralfate produced a marked decrease of 53% in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-infinity), and a decrease of 69% in the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax). Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after ferrous sulphate resulted in only a modest reduction of 11% in AUC0-infinity and of 20% in Cmax, which was not considered to be clinically significant. In contrast, at the doses used neither sucralfate nor ferrous sulphate altered gemifloxacin bioavailability when it was administered 2 h before either of these agents. Gemifloxacin was well tolerated in all the regimens. The results of this study support the dosing recommendation that gemifloxacin can be safely administered at least 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate, or at least 3 h after ferrous sulphate.

  2. Sulphate reduction and calcite precipitation in relation to internal eutrophication of groundwater fed alkaline fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirkel, D.G.; Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Witte, J.P.M.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although in Europe atmospheric deposition of sulphur has decreased considerably over the last decades, groundwater pollution by sulphate may still continue due to pyrite oxidation in the soil as a result of excessive fertilisation. Inflowing groundwater rich in sulphate can change biogeochemical cyc

  3. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter meas

  4. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  5. Coagulation effect and floc properties of polyferric silicate sulphate and polyferric sulphate in the Yellow River water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Two inorganic polymer coagulants,polyferric silicate sulphate(PFSS) and polyferric sulphate(PFS),were comparatively evaluated in the Yellow River water treatment.The removal efficiency of turbidity and UV254 were investigated,and the zeta potential was measured.An online laser scatter instrument was used to determine the size distribution of flocs formed in the coagulation processes.Compared with PFS,PFSS forms flocs with higher growth rates and larger sizes.The formed flocs were exposed to a series of shear forces,and the floc strength was measured from the relationship between the applied shear speed and the resulting floc size.The flocs formed by PFSS had a higher strength.The floc breakage(expressed as breakage factor,Bf) and re-growth ability(expressed as breakage factor,Rf) under different shear forces and different shear periods were investigated,and it was found that larger Bf and Rf appeared after exposure to stronger shear force and longer shear period.Under the same shear condition,the flocs formed by PFSS showed a larger Bf while the flocs formed by PFS had better re-growth ability.

  6. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) substitution treatment for severe fatigue in DHEA-deficient patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkki, Liisa M; Porola, Pauliina; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Valtysdottir, Sigridur; Solovieva, Svetlana A; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2010-01-15

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by fatigue and low levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA/DHEAS). Our aim was to study whether SS patients with severe fatigue and low serum DHEAS values benefit from DHEA substitution (50 mg/day). A multicenter, investigator-based, powered, randomized controlled clinical trial (crossover, washout design) using fatigue as the primary outcome measure was performed on patients with primary SS (n = 107) who had a general fatigue score > or =14 on the 20-item Multiple Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), combined with age- and sex-adjusted serum DHEAS values below the mean. Fatigue was assessed using MFI-20 subscales, i.e., general fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, reduced motivation, and activity (scale 4-20), and with a visual analog scale (VAS; scale 0-100). In an intent-to-treat analysis, a 50-mg DHEA substitution dose and placebo similarly improved fatigue. All of the MFI-20 subscales and the fatigue VAS improved from the baseline levels as a result of treatment (P DHEA in DHEA-deficient and severely tired primary SS patients does not help against fatigue better than placebo. This may relate to the prohormone nature of DHEA and its recently described defective intracrine tissue-specific conversion to active sex steroids in SS.

  8. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  9. Variants in SULT2A1 affect the dhea sulphate to dhea ratio in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome but not the hyperandrogenic phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); F.H. de Jong (Frank); N.A.A. van Herwaarden (Nathalie); L. Stolk (Lisette); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: Because of the elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the heritability of DHEAS serum levels, genes encoding the enzymes that control the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to DHEAS and vice versa are obvious

  10. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  11. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  12. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  13. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors.

  14. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on fatigue, well-being, and functioning in women with primary Sjogren syndrome : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.; Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L. R.; Bootsma, H.; Kruize, A. A.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.

    Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration has been reported to improve fatigue, psychological distress, and physical disability. These are common features of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS). We investigated the effects of DHEA administration on fatigue, well-being, and functioning in

  15. Severity of murine collagen-induced arthritis correlates with increased CYP7B activity : enhancement of dehydroepiandrosterone metabolism by interleukin-1 beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulos, J; Verbraak, E; Bagchus, WM; Boots, AMH; Kaptein, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The endogenous steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to play a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DHEA is metabolized by the P450 enzyme CYP7B into 7alpha-OH-DHEA, which has immunostimulating properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the putative role of CYP7B

  16. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on fatigue, well-being, and functioning in women with primary Sjogren syndrome : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.; Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L. R.; Bootsma, H.; Kruize, A. A.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration has been reported to improve fatigue, psychological distress, and physical disability. These are common features of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS). We investigated the effects of DHEA administration on fatigue, well-being, and functioning in wo

  17. Prognostic value of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and other parameters of adrenal function in acute ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine A Blum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stroke has a high morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the predictive value of adrenal function testing in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In a cohort of 231 acute ischemic stroke patients, we measured dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, DHEA-Sulfate (DHEAS, cortisol at baseline and 30 minutes after stimulation with 1 ug ACTH. Delta cortisol, the amount of rise in the 1 ug ACTH-test, was calculated. Primary endpoint was poor functional outcome defined as modified Rankin scale 3-6 after 1 year. Secondary endpoint was nonsurvival after 1 year. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that DHEAS (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.49, but not DHEA (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.04, was predictive for adverse functional outcome. Neither DHEA (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.03 nor DHEAS (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.82-1.44 were associated with mortality. Baseline and stimulated cortisol were predictive for mortality (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.20-1.71; 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.60, but only basal cortisol for functional outcome (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04-1.38. Delta cortisol was not predictive for functional outcome (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.05 or mortality (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.17. The ratios cortisol/DHEA and cortisol/DHEAS discriminated between favorable outcome and nonsurvival (both p<0.0001 and between unfavorable outcome and nonsurvival (p = 0.0071 and 0.0029, but are not independent predictors for functional outcome or mortality in multivariate analysis (adjusted OR for functional outcome for both 1.0 (95% CI 0.99-1.0, adjusted OR for mortality for both 1.0 (95% CI 0.99-1.0 and 1.0-1.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: DHEAS and the cortisol/DHEAS ratio predicts functional outcome 1 year after stroke whereas cortisol levels predict functional outcome and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390962 (Retrospective analysis of this cohort.

  18. Feasibility of a liver transcriptomics approach to assess bovine treatment with the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Van Hende, Johan M; Groot, Maria J; Nielen, Michel W F

    2010-09-16

    Within the European Union the use of growth promoting agents in animal production is prohibited. Illegal use of natural prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is hard to prove since prohormones are strongly metabolized in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of a novel effect-based approach for monitoring abuse of DHEA. Changes in gene expression profiles were studied in livers of bull calves treated orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM) with 1000 mg DHEA versus two control groups, using bovine 44K DNA microarrays. In contrast to controlled genomics studies, this work involved bovines purchased at the local market on three different occasions with ages ranging from 6 to 14 months, thereby reflecting the real life inter-animal variability due to differences in age, individual physiology, season and diet. As determined by principal component analysis (PCA), large differences in liver gene expression profiles were observed between treated and control animals as well as between the two control groups. When comparing the gene expression profiles of PO and IM treated animals to that of all control animals, the number of significantly regulated genes (p-value 1.5) was 23 and 37 respectively. For IM and PO treated calves, gene sets were generated of genes that were significantly regulated compared to one control group and validated versus the other control group using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). This cross validation, showed that 6 out of the 8 gene sets were significantly enriched in DHEA treated animals when compared to an 'independent' control group. This study showed that identification and application of genomic biomarkers for screening of (pro)hormone abuse in livestock production is substantially hampered by biological variation. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that comparison of pre-defined gene sets versus the whole genome expression profile of an animal allows to distinguish DHEA treatment effects from variations in

  19. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, W; Haas, J; Callies, F; Reincke, M; Hübler, D; Oettel, M; Ernst, M; Schulte, H M; Allolio, B

    1999-06-01

    The most abundant human steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester DHEAS, may have a multitude of beneficial effects, but decline with age. DHEA possibly prevents immunosenescence, and as a neuroactive steroid it may influence processes of cognition and memory. Epidemiological studies revealed an inverse correlation between DHEAS levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in men, but not in women. To define a suitable dose for DHEA substitution in elderly men we studied pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of orally administered DHEA in 14 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 58.8 +/- 5.1 yr; mean body mass index, 25.5 +/- 1.5 kg/m2) with serum DHEAS concentrations below 4.1 micromol/L (1500 ng/mL). Diurnal blood sampling was performed on 3 occasions in a single dose, randomized, cross-over design (oral administration of placebo, 50 mg DHEA, or 100 mg DHEA). The intake of 50 mg DHEA led to an increase in serum DHEAS to mean levels of young adult men, whereas 100 mg DHEA induced supraphysiological concentrations [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; area under the curve (AUC) 0-12 h (mean +/- SD) for DHEA, 108 +/- 22 vs. 252 +/- 45 vs. 349 +/- 72 nmol/L x h; AUC 0-12 h for DHEAS, 33 +/- 9 vs. 114 +/- 19 vs. 164 +/- 36 micromol/L x h]. Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P DHEA seems to be a suitable substitution dose in elderly men, as it leads to serum DHEAS concentrations usually measured in young healthy adults. The DHEA-induced increase in circulating estrogens may contribute to beneficial effects of DHEA in men.

  20. Detection of dehydroepiandrosterone misuse by means of gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareck, Ute; Geyer, Hans; Flenker, Ulrich; Piper, Thomas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    According to World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) rules (WADA Technical Document-TD2004EAAS) urine samples containing dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations greater than 100 ng ML(-1) shall be submitted to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis. The threshold concentration is based on the equivalent to the glucuronide, and the DHEA concentrations have to be adjusted for a specific gravity value of 1.020. In 2006, 11,012 doping control urine samples from national and international federations were analyzed in the Cologne doping control laboratory, 100 (0.9%) of them yielding concentrations of DHEA greater than 100 ng mL(-1). Sixty-eight percent of the specimens showed specific gravity values higher than 1.020, 52% originated from soccer players, 95% were taken in competition, 85% were male urines, 99% of the IRMS results did not indicate an application of testosterone or related prohormones. Only one urine sample was reported as an adverse analytical finding having 319 ng mL(-1) DHEA (screening result), more than 10,000 ng mL(-1) androsterone and depleted carbon isotope ratio values for the testosterone metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone. Statistical evaluation showed significantly different DHEA concentrations between specimens taken in- and out-of- competition, whereas females showed smaller DHEA values than males for both types of control. Also a strong influence of the DHEA excretion on different sport disciplines was detectable. The highest DHEA values were detected for game sports (soccer, basketball, handball, ice hockey), followed by boxing and wrestling. In 2007, 6622 doping control urine samples were analyzed for 3alpha,5-cyclo-5alpha-androstan-6beta-ol-17-one (3alpha,5-cyclo), a DHEA metabolite which was described as a useful gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening marker for DHEA abuse. Nineteen urine specimens showed concentrations higher than the suggested threshold of 140 ng mL(-1), six urine samples yielded

  1. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  2. Sulphate Geoengineering in the UT/LS: Some Relevant Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, A. F.; Donaldson, D. J.; Hitchman, M. H.; Richard, E. C.; Tervahattu, H.; Vaida, V.; Wilson, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    We consider the potential effects of meteorological dynamics, the physics and chemistry of aerosols and the photodissociation of sulphuric acid upon the posited maintenance of a 'parasol' of geoengineered sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere. Specific observational and experimental results include the spread of tungsten-185 from the Hardtack series of nuclear weapon tests in 1958, satellite observations of the spread of volcanic eruptions, tracer and water profiles in the tropical UT/LS, the organic coating of surfactants on aerosols, the observed distributions of aerosols and the overtone driven photodissociation of sulphuric acid in the stratosphere. A few implications for the logistics of any possible future geoengineering injection are considered briefly. The uncertainties arising from the analysis subtract significantly from the predictability of any supposed amelioration of the effects of global warming from continued increases in carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion.

  3. Bioactivity and applications of sulphated polysaccharides from marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; Bernardo de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda

    2013-01-23

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya R. K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prime object of present study was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate by non aqueous granulation of polymers HPMC K-4M (Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose and Chitosan in different ratios (1:1. 1:2 & 2:1. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness, drug content uniformity, mucoadhesion and swelling index. Swelling index of batches containing more HPMC K-4M was greater than that of containing less HPMC K-4M. In vitro bioadhesive strength studies showed that tablets containing more HPMC K-4M were excellent in bioadhesive nature. The in-vitro drug release was studied in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8. And all batches were subjected to release kinetics model fitting.

  5. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy studies on triglycine sulphate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, A.; Mohamed Asath, R.; Premkumar, R.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of triglycine sulphate (TGS) on silver (Ag) surface were investigated based on density functional theory calculations and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The single crystals of TGS were grown by slow evaporation method. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method and characterized. The calculated and observed structural parameters of TGS molecule were compared. Raman and SERS spectra for TGS single crystal were studied experimentally and validated theoretically. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis was carried out for TGS and TGS adsorbed on Ag surface. The second harmonic generation measurements confirm the nonlinear optical (NLO) activity of the TGS molecule. SERS spectral analysis reveals that the TGS adsorbed as tilted orientation on the silver surface. The theoretical and experimental results evidence the suitability of the grown TGS single crystal for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode in Sodium Sulphate Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Cofan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and chronoamperometry (CA were used to detect and determine acetylsalicylic acid (ASA at a mildly oxidized boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode in a neutral sodium sulphate solution as supporting electrolyte. ASA determination in unbuffered medium was achieved using neutralized standard and real samples. Over the concentration range of 0.01 mM–0.1 mM, linear calibration plots of anodic current peaks in DPV and anodic currents in CA experiments versus concentration were obtained with very high correlation coefficients and good sensitivity values. The limits of detection were situated around 1 μM. The association of DPV and CA techniques with standard addition method represented a suitable option for the determination of ASA in real samples such as pharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  8. Impact of sulphate geoengineering on rice yield in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Pei; Zhu, Wenquan; Zheng, Zhoutao; Zhang, Donghai; Li, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Sulphate geoengineering is one of the mostly discussed mitigation methods against global warming for its feasibility and inexpensiveness. With SO2 consistently injected into the stratosphere to balance the radiative force caused by anthropogenic emission, sulphate engineering will significantly influence the climate over the planet and moreover, affect agriculture productivity. In our study, BNU-ESM model was used to simulate the impact of sulphate engineering on climate and ORYZA(v3) model was used to simulate the impact of climate change on rice yield/production in China. Firstly, the ORYZA(v3) model was evaluated and calibrated using daily climate data, management data and county-level yield record during 1981-2010 in 19 provinces in China. Then climate anomalies of sulphate geoengineering simulated by BNU-ESM model was used to perturb the observed climate data over 318 stations evenly distribute in China during 1981-2010. In our study, a 30-year climate record of anomalies were extracted from BNU-ESM model to match the observed climate data, which consisted of a 15-year geoengineering record and a 15-year post-geoengineering record. Lastly, the perturbed climate data was used in calibrated-ORYZA(v3) model to simulate the rice yield over the 318 stations, which were later averaged into corresponding provincial yield. The results showed that (1) geoengineering would balance solar radiation for approximate 140 W ṡ m-2 per year (about 0.9 K per year in temperature), which would meet the pre-concerted goal of geoengineering but it would take only about 3 years for temperature to recover after the termination of geoengineering. In spite of this, there would be a declining of vapour pressure for about 0.12 KPa per year during geoengineering period, and it would take about 15 years to recover during post-geoengineering period. The simulation showed that geoengineering would have a little declining impact on average precipitation and would not have much impact on wind

  9. IR spectroscopy of sulphates in clinkers and cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrared spectroscopy is a very useful technique in Cement Chemistry. This work is devoted to the study of a large number of sulphates that should have an incidence in false set phenomena, and they are qualitative and semi-quantitatlvely studied when they are in some degree in the clinker or in the portland cement.

    La espectroscopía infrarroja es una técnica de gran utilidad en la Química del Cemento. En el presente trabajo se aplica al estudio de numerosos sulfatos que pueden tener incidencia en el fenómeno de falso fraguado, y se estudian cualitativa y semicuantitativamente cuando forman parte del clinker o cemento portland.

  10. Sulphate clastic injectites at Sinus Meridiani on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Forese Carlo; Baioni, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Based on stratigraphic sections, the 1500 m-thick sulphate-based “Sinus Meridiani complex” appears to be composed of a superposition of three lithologically similar stratigraphic units, each ending with a residual mesa caprock associated with planation surfaces. The three exposed plains display polygonal fault networks, nodular anydrite/gypsum dykes located along subvertical polygonal fractures, and presumed pipe-like fluid flow structures. Such vertically intrusive fluidized bodies are interpreted as indicative of subsurface evaporite remobilization and injection, which probably occurred near actively rising evaporite diapirs originating from an autochthonous “mother” layer situated underneath the Meridiani region. Renewal of diapirism is inferred to have caused repeated post-depositional cycles of uplift and erosional exhumation during relatively recent times.

  11. Calculation and optimization of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate production process in a fluidized bed dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate (also known as a Blue vitriol or Bluestone production was analyzed. Copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is one of the most important copper salts which has been known since the ancient Egyptians. In the nineteenth century its application as a fungicide was discovered which provoked wide industrial production. Molecule of the copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is a crystalohydrate with five water molecules linked by chemical bonds to a molecule of the copper (II sulphate. Copper (II sulphate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydratation. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate (CuSO4•5H2O, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. In order to obtain copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate four water molecules need to be removed. To determine the optimum temperature and time required for the removal of four water molecules from a molecule of pentahydrate in this work thermogravimetric (TGA analysis was performed. Thermogravimetric (TGA analysis - dehydration of copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is done using simultaneous TG-DSC thermal analyzer DTG-Q600 SDT from TA Instruments. Analyzes was carried out for two type of samples, the sample containing particles of the average diameter equal to 0.17 mm and the particles of the average diameter 0.5 mm. In addition, fluidization and drying curve was determined using a semi-industrial fluidization column. On top, the industrial fluidization column aimed to produce 300 tones per month of copper (II sulphate monohydrate was designed. Material and energy calculations were performed using software packages Simprosys 3.0 and SuperPro Designer 5.1. Simprosys 3.0 is a software package designed for the modeling and simulation of a drying process as well as for 20 different unit operations. Super

  12. In rats, oral oleoyl-DHEA is rapidly hydrolysed and converted to DHEA-sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marta; Grasa, Maria del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) released by adrenal glands may be converted to androgens and estrogens mainly in the gonadal, adipose, mammary, hepatic and nervous tissue. DHEA is also a key neurosteroid and has antiglucocorticoid activity. DHEA has been used for the treatment of a number of diseases, including obesity; its pharmacological effects depend on large oral doses, which effect rapidly wanes in part because of its short half-life in plasma. Since steroid hormone esters cir...

  13. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-12-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported.

  14. Recovery of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in sulphate and chloride solutions using synergistic solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yong Cheng; Keith R. Barnard; Wensheng Zhang; Zhaowu Zhu; Yoko Pranolo

    2016-01-01

    A number of synergistic solvent extraction (SSX) systems have been developed to recover nickel, cobalt, zinc and copper from sulphuric and chloride leach solutions by the solvent extraction team of CSIRO, Australia. These in-clude (1) Versatic 10/CLX50 system for the separation of Ni from Ca in sulphate solutions, (2) Versatic 10/4PC system for the separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (3) Cyanex 471X/HRJ-4277 system for the separation of Zn from Cd in sulphate solutions, (4) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (5) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system for separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (6) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of cobalt from nickel in sulphate solutions by difference in kinetics, (7) Cyanex 272/LIX84 system for the separation of Cu/Fe/Zn from Ni/Co in sulphate solutions, (8) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system to recover Cu/Ni from strong chloride solutions, and (9) Versatic 10/LIX63 system to separate Cu from Fe in strong chloride solutions. The synergistic effect on metal separation and efficiency is presented and possible industrial applications are demonstrated. The chemical stability of selected SSX systems is also reported.

  15. Formation of ammonium sulphate in water droplets exposed to gaseous sulphur dioxide and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Heuvel, A.P.; Mason, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    The rate of formation of ammonium sulphate in water drops exposed to air containing known concentrations of gaseous sulphur dioxide and ammonia has been measured. The mass of sulphate formed is proportional to the product of the surface area of the drops and the time of exposure. Extrapolation of the laboratory results to the atmosphere suggests that the large condensation nuclei 0.2 micronsulphate, are formed by the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ in cloud and fog droplets.

  16. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Doroftei, Elena; Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by ...

  17. VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswarudu.M.M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Salbutamol sulphate in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Salbutamol sulphate shows ʎ max at 292 nm. The drug follows the beer’s lambert’s law in the concentration range of 20-100µ ml. the method was validated by following the analytical performance parameters as suggested by the international conference on harmonization which included accuracy, precision, linearity. All validation parameters were with in the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Salbutamol sulphate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  18. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena DOROFTEI; Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by ...

  19. Adult and paediatric patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome show no major alterations in glomerular expression of sulphated heparan sulphate domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Tessa J M; Geelen, Joyce M; Bakker, Marinka; Lensen, Joost F M; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Kramer, Andrea B; Navis, Gerjan; van den Hoven, Mabel J W; van der Vlag, Johan; Berden, Jo H M; Wetzels, Jack F M; van den Heuvel, Lambert P W J; Monnens, Leo A H; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2007-10-01

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most frequent form of nephrotic syndrome in childhood. In the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of adult patients with MCNS, a reduced expression of a specific heparan sulphate (HS) domain has been reported. In children with MCNS, urinary activity of the HS-degrading enzyme heparanase was increased. It is, therefore, possible that a decreased GBM HS expression is associated with the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with MCNS. In this study, HS in glomeruli of five adult and six paediatric patients with MCNS were analysed by immunofluorescence staining using four different antibodies, each defining a specific sulphated HS domain. The pediatric patients were subdivided into three groups depending on the presence or absence of podocyte foot process effacement, the level of proteinuria and prednisone administration at the time of the biopsy. In addition, kidneys of rats with adriamycin nephropathy (ADRN), a model for MCNS, were included in the study. Expression of sulphated HS domains was not aberrant in adult or paediatric patients compared with control subjects. Children with and without proteinuria had the same HS content. In contrast, rats with ADRN showed a decreased glomerular expression of sulphated HS domains. These results suggest that in patients with MCNS proteinuria is not associated with major changes in glomerular expression of sulphated HS domains.

  20. The acute effect of dexamethasone on plasma leptin concentrations and the relationships between fasting leptin, the IGF-I/IGFBP system, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone in an elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Huizenga, NATM; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Pols, HAP; de Jong, FH; Attanasio, AMF; Blum, WF; Lamberts, SWJ

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the acute effect of dexamethasone administration on serum leptin levels and the relationships between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone and the IGF-I/IGFBP system and leptin levels in healthy elderly humans. METHODS In 209 healthy elderly

  1. Oxidative metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and biologically active oxygenated metabolites of DHEA and epiandrosterone (EpiA)--recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kihel, Laïla

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a multifunctional steroid with a broad range of biological effects in humans and animals. DHEA can be converted to multiple oxygenated metabolites in the brain and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms by which DHEA exerts its effects are not well understood. However, evidence that the effects of DHEA are mediated by its oxygenated metabolites has accumulated. This paper will review the panel of oxygenated DHEA metabolites (7, 16 and 17-hydroxylated derivatives) including a number of 5α-androstane derivatives, such as epiandrosterone (EpiA) metabolites. The most important aspects of the oxidative metabolism of DHEA in the liver, intestine and brain are described. Then, this article reviews the reported biological effects of oxygenated DHEA metabolites from recent findings with a specific focus on cancer, inflammatory and immune processes, osteoporosis, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, the cardiovascular system, the brain and the estrogen and androgen receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with biocorrosion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania C. de Araujo-Jorge

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion means any process of corrosion in wich microorganisms are somehow involved. As far as the petroleum industry is concerned, the anaerobic type is the more important, with Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB accouting for half of the described processes. SRB are obligate anaerobs that use sulphur, sulphate or other oxidized sulphur compounds as oxidizing agents when decomposing organic material. A typical product of SRB metabolism, hydrogen sulphide -H2S-, is extremely toxic. In the present work we review the literature on mechanisms underlying biocorrosive process in wich SRB are involved and summarize some of the ultrastructural and eletrochemical work developed using SRB obtained from water injection flow in wells located on PETROBRAS offshore marine plataforms, sampled directly in the field over metallic probes, or cultured under laboratory conditions. Biofilms develop when SRB adhere to inert surfaces. A high diversity of morphological types is found inside these biofilms. Their extracellular matrix is highly hydrated and mainly anionic, as shown by its avid reaction with cationic compounds like ruthenium red. We have noted that variations in iron contet lead to interesting changes in the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell coat and also in the rate of corrosion induced in metallic test cupons. Since routine methods to prevent and treat SRB contamination and biodeterioration involve the use of biocides that are toxic and always have some environmental impact, an accurate diagnosis of biocorrosion is always required prior to a treatment decision. We developed a method that detects and semi-quantifies the presence of living or dead SRB by using free silver potentials as an indicator of corrosive action by SRB-associated sulphides. We found a correlation between sulphide levels (determined either by spectrophotometry, or using a silver electrode -E(Ag- that measured changes in free potentials induced by the presence of exogeneously

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokawa, Takumi [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Koji [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Honda, Hiroki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, Saitama (Japan); Iemitsu, Motoyuki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Hayashi, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA.

  4. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  5. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  6. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Bakker, S J L; Hansen, H P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy....

  7. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    Distribution of calcium, magnesium and sulphate have been examined in the tide-dominated Mandovi and Zuari river systems. Calcium and magnesium appear to take some part in the bio-geochemical cycles of the rivers and behave as semi...

  8. Biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluent using ethanol as carbon and energy source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available .33 due to the conversion of sulphate to sulphur and due to metal sulphide precipitation. Iron and copper were removed completely and aluminium, manganese and zinc to less than 4 mg/l....

  9. Durability of Laterite/Sand Hollow Blocks in Magnesium Sulphate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATA Olugbenga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure of laterite/sand block to magnesium suphate environment were studied. Change in compressive strength of machine compacted hollow block specimens of mix 1:6 and 10% laterite content were measured after 56 days of continuous immersion in 1%, 3% and 5% of magnesium sulphate solutions. Test results showed that the compressive strength significantly reduced with increase in magnesium sulphate concentration and immersion period. Laterite/sand block made with ordinary Portland cement cannot be recommended for use in sulphate-laden environment since it produced a compressive strength of less than 2.07N/mm2 , as required by the Nigerian Standards, after 28 days of immersion in magnesium sulphate solution.

  10. In vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2015-02-01

    This was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate and MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. PDL cells were subjected to different concentrations of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (pformocresol>ferric sulphate>grey MTA. Only grey MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control, the other tested materials were significantly inferior at the three exposure periods (pformocresol. However, considering MTA's unavailability and high price in Jordan, ferric sulphate may be the best alternative to formocresol in pulpotomy of primary teeth.

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAMSHI KRISHNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. The main objective of the study is to formulate buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is 40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using HPMC, SCMC and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using Glycerol and tween-80 as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer using ethyl cellulose for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.402 and 0.431 mm and mass varied between 0.0312 and 0.0352 g. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. All formulations showed good folding endurance. Formulations F9 showed good drug content and Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 108 and 174 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 93.89% over a period of 150 min for formulation F9. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations F9 were best fitted to the non-Fickian kinetics and zero order release was observed.

  12. Chondroitin sulphate-guided construction of polypyrrole nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Liao, Jingwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Shishu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (China); Chen, Junqi; He, Tianrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Faculty of Light and Chemical, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Nanospheres, nanocones, and nanowires are three typical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarchitectures and electrochemically polymerized with the dope of chondroitin sulphate (CS) in this study. CS, a functional biomacromolecule, guides the formation of PPy nanoarchitectures as the dopant and morphology-directing agent. Combined with our previous reported other PPy nanoarchitectures (such as nanotube arrays and nanowires), this work further proposed the novel mechanism of the construction of PPy/CS nanoarchitectures with the synergistic effect of CS molecular chains structure and the steric hindrance. Compared to the undoped PPy, MC3T3-E1 cells with PPy/CS nanoarchitectures possessed stronger proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capability. This suggests that PPy/CS nanoarchitectures have appropriate biocompatibility. Altogether, the nanoarchitectured PPy/CS may find application in the regeneration of bone defect. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of PPy nanoarchitectures was proposed. • CS acted as biofunctional dopant and morphology-directing agent in PPy forming. • PPy-CS nanoarchitectures were dependent on the Py/CS ratio.

  13. Indoxyl sulphate and kidney disease: Causes, consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Small, David M; Vesey, David A; Johnson, David W; Francis, Ross; Vitetta, Luis; Gobe, Glenda C; Morais, Christudas

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as reduced renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) kidney damage (typically manifested as albuminuria) for at least 3 months, has become one of the fastest-growing public health concerns worldwide. CKD is characterized by reduced clearance and increased serum accumulation of metabolic waste products (uremic retention solutes). At least 152 uremic retention solutes have been reported. This review focuses on indoxyl sulphate (IS), a protein-bound, tryptophan-derived metabolite that is generated by intestinal micro-organisms (microbiota). Animal studies have demonstrated an association between IS accumulation and increased fibrosis, and oxidative stress. This has been mirrored by in vitro studies, many of which report cytotoxic effects in kidney proximal tubular cells following IS exposure. Clinical studies have associated IS accumulation with deleterious effects, such as kidney functional decline and adverse cardiovascular events, although causality has not been conclusively established. The aims of this review are to: (i) establish factors associated with increased serum accumulation of IS; (ii) report effects of IS accumulation in clinical studies; (iii) critique the reported effects of IS in the kidney, when administered both in vivo and in vitro; and (iv) summarize both established and hypothetical therapeutic options for reducing serum IS or antagonizing its reported downstream effects in the kidney.

  14. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  15. Interplay between transglutaminases and heparan sulphate in progressive renal scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhan, Izhar; Furini, Giulia; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Atobatele, Adeola G.; Scarpellini, Alessandra; Schroeder, Nina; Atkinson, John; Maamra, Mabrouka; Nutter, Faith H.; Watson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Johnson, Timothy S.; Verderio, Elisabetta A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase-2 (TG2) is a new anti-fibrotic target for chronic kidney disease, for its role in altering the extracellular homeostatic balance leading to excessive build-up of matrix in kidney. However, there is no confirmation that TG2 is the only transglutaminase involved, neither there are strategies to control its action specifically over that of the conserved family-members. In this study, we have profiled transglutaminase isozymes in the rat subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model of progressive renal scarring. All transglutaminases increased post-SNx peaking at loss of renal function but TG2 was the predominant enzyme. Upon SNx, extracellular TG2 deposited in the tubulointerstitium and peri-glomerulus via binding to heparan sulphate (HS) chains of proteoglycans and co-associated with syndecan-4. Extracellular TG2 was sufficient to activate transforming growth factor-β1 in tubular epithelial cells, and this process occurred in a HS-dependent way, in keeping with TG2-affinity for HS. Analysis of heparin binding of the main transglutaminases revealed that although the interaction between TG1 and HS is strong, the conformational heparin binding site of TG2 is not conserved, suggesting that TG2 has a unique interaction with HS within the family. Our data provides a rationale for a novel anti-fibrotic strategy specifically targeting the conformation-dependent TG2-epitope interacting with HS. PMID:27694984

  16. Purification of IgG from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, J G; Elazhary, Y

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from bovine serum raised against Aeromonas Salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (ASP) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (CAAS). Purity of IgG samples prepared by both methods were examined by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. Results suggest that IgG prepared by ASP is better than that obtained by CAAS method in terms of the yield of the IgG monomers and the recovery of the antibody activity.

  17. Isobolographic analysis of the interaction between cadmium (II) and sodium sulphate: toxicological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Sulphate is an essential nutrient for autotrophic organisms and has been shown to have important implications in certain processes of tolerance to cadmium toxicity. Sodium sulphate is the main salt of sulphate in the natural environments. The concentration of this salt is increasing in the aquatic environments due to environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate, using an analysis of isobolograms, the type and the degree of the interaction between Cd(II) and sodium sulphate in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Two blocks of experiments were performed, one at sub-optimal sodium sulphate concentrations (14.2 mg/L). Three fixed ratios (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of the individual EC50 for cadmium and sodium sulphate were used within each block. The isobolographic analysis of interaction at sub-optimal concentrations showed a stronger antagonistic effect with values of interaction index (γ) between 1.46 and 3.4. However, the isobologram with sodium sulphate at supra-optimal concentrations revealed a slight but significant synergistic effect between both chemicals with an interaction index between 0.54 and 0.64. This synergic effect resulted in the potentiation of the toxic effects of cadmium, synergy that was related to the increase of the ionic strength and of two species of cadmium, CdSO4 (aq), and Cd(SO4)2(2-) , in the medium. Results of the current study suggest that sodium sulphate is able to perform a dual antagonist/synergist effect on cadmium toxicity. This role was concentration dependent.

  18. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, C.A.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  19. A microbial method using whole cells of Thiobacillus thiooxidans for measuring sulphate in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Yudiarto, M.A.; Kaneko, N.; Kurosawa, H.; Amano, Y. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A microbial method to determine sulphate concentration in water was developed on the basis of sulphate-dependent acid phosphatase (APase) in whole cells of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The activity of the APase was determined colorimetrically by using p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate. The APase was activated by sulphate. A linear relationship was obtained between the activity of the APase and the concentration of sulphate in the range 0-0.06 mM. Therefore, the sulphate concentration was estimated from the APase activity, represented by the absorbance (A{sub 400}). The microbial method was applied to the determination sulphate in water. The lower limit of detection was 0.02 mM, the relative standard deviation being 2% for 10 measurements on a standard sample. As for practical samples, which were taken from rain, river and tap water, good agreement was obtained between the values measured by the microbial method and those given by a conventional barium chloranilate method. The relative standard deviation was 2.1% for 12 measurements of tap water. The activity of the APase was stable over a period of more than 100 days when the cells were stored in 0.1 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer (pH 5.0) at 4 C. (orig.)

  20. The use of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bioremediation of ex-coal mining soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious impact after exploiting coal by opened peat mining is acid mine drainage phenomenon. This is an oxidation of sulphide minerals by releasing sulphate that generate the environment acidity. This study was aimed to observe the ability of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB isolated of sludge paper mills in decreasing the ex-coal mining sulphate content. Before inoculating onto the soil, SRB was incubated in the sterilized organic matter for 4 days. Organic matter inhabited SRB mix with ex-coal mining soil (1:3 v/v. As a control was a series ex-coal mining mixed with non inoculated organic matter (1:3 v/v. The experiment is carried out in randomized complete design in 3 replications, each consist of 5 buckets. All buckets were maintained in saturated water content. Every 5 days for 20 days the sulphate content, pH and Eh were assessed to observe the bioremediation progress. The result shown that SRB was able to reduce 84.25% ex-coal mining sulphate content in 20 days. In consequence, the soil pH was increased from 4.15 to 6.66 during the process. It is recommended that SRB is prospective to be further developed as a sulphate bioremediation agents on ex-coal mining soil.

  1. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F K Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149

  3. Development of an inhaled sustained release dry powder formulation of salbutamol sulphate, an antiasthmatic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kumaresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid. The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid produces in vitrorelease 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage.

  4. Zinc Sulphate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: an in Vitro and Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafid A Najim

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate both in vitro and in an animal model against both strains of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. The in vitro sensitivities of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of both Leishmania major and L. tropica to zinc sulphate was determined, the LD50 calculated and compared to the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis pentavalent antimony compounds. The results show that the two forms of both strains were sensitive to zinc sulphate and their respective LD50 were lower compared to the pentavalent antimony compound. Furthermore the sensitivities of the forms of both strains were tested using a simple slide method and compared to results of the standard method. To confirm this result, zinc sulphate was administered orally to mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis both therapeutically and prophylactically. Results showed that oral zinc sulphate was effective in both treatment and prophylaxis for cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results encourage the use of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  5. Anthropogenic sulphate aerosol from India: estimates of burden and direct radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, C.; Chandramouli, B.; Patwardhan, A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    1999-08-01

    The paper describes a one-box chemical-meteorological model formulated to make preliminary estimates of sulphate aerosol formation and direct radiative forcing over India. Anthropogenic SO{sub 2} emissions from India, from industrial fuel use and biomass burning, were estimated at 2.0 Tg S yr{sup -1} for 1990 in the range of previous estimates of 1.54 and 2.55 Tg S yr{sup -1} for 1987. Meteorological parameters for 1990 from 18 Indian Meteorological Department stations were used to estimate spatial average sulphate burdens through formation from SO{sub 2} reactions in gas and aqueous phase and removal by dry and wet deposition. The hydrogen peroxide reaction was found dominating for undepleted oxidant-rich conditions. Monthly mean sulphate burdens ranged from 2-10 mg m{sup -2} with a seasonal variation of winter-spring highs and summer lows in agreement with previous GCM studies. The sulphate burdens are dominated by sulphate removal rates by wet deposition, which are high in the monsoon period from June to November. The model is in reasonable agreement with detailed GCM results and provides a simple tool to make preliminary estimates of sulphate burdens and direct radiative forcing.

  6. Isolation and characterisation of putative adhesins from Helicobacter pylori with affinity for heparan sulphate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Ochoa, J L; Wadström, T; Ascencio, F

    2001-03-01

    A pool of heparan sulphate-binding proteins (HSBPs) from Helicobacter pylori culture supernates was obtained by sequential ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The chromatographic procedure yielded one major fraction that contained proteins with heparan sulphate affinity as revealed by inhibition studies of heparan sulphate binding to H. pylori cells. Preparative iso-electric focusing, SDS-PAGE and blotting experiments, with peroxidase(POD)-labelled heparan sulphate as a probe, indicated the presence of two major extracellular proteins with POD-heparan sulphate affinity. One protein had a molecular mass of 66.2 kDa and a pI of 5.4, whilst the second protein had a molecular mass of 71.5 kDa and a pI of 5.0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 71.5-kDa HSBP did not show homology to any other heparin-binding protein, nor to known proteins of H. pylori, whereas the 66.2-kDa HSBP showed a high homology to an Escherichia coli chaperon protein and equine haemoglobin. A third HSBP was isolated from an outer-membrane protein (OMP) fraction of H. pylori cells with a molecular mass of 47.2 kDa. The amino acid sequence of an internal peptide of the OMP-HSBP did not show homology to the extracellular HSBP of H. pylori, or to another microbial HSBP.

  7. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  8. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  9. Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Increases Serum Levels of Androgens and Estrogens But Does Not Enhance Short-term Memory in Post-Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Paul; Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of administering dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on short-term memory. This experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design to explore the effects of a four week regimen of 50 mg oral DHEA on performance on the digit span, verbal span, and Modified Sternberg (Oberauer) tasks. The results demonstrate that the current regimen of drug administration significantly increases serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone and substantia...

  10. Effect of Interleukin-1beta and Dehydroepiandrosterone on the Expression of Lumican and Fibromodulin in Fibroblast-Like Synovial Cells of the Human Temporomandibular Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, K; Kiga, N.; Shinohara, Y.; Tojyo, I.; Fujita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are more prevalent in women than in men. It has recently been proposed that sex hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are involved with the pathogenesis of TMDs. Although studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen and testosterone and the restoration of TMDs, the relationship between DHEA and TMDs is unknown. The synovial tissue of the temporomandibular jo...

  11. Effect of interleukin-1beta and dehydroepiandrosterone on the expression of lumican and fibromodulin in fibroblast-like synovial cells of the human temporomandibular joint

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, K; Kiga, N.; Shinohara, Y.; Tojyo, I.; Fujita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are more prevalent in women than in men. It has recently been proposed that sex hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are involved with the pathogenesis of TMDs. Although studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen and testosterone and the restoration of TMDs, the relationship between DHEA and TMDs is unknown. The synovial tissue of the temporomandibular jo...

  12. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates...

  13. Coexistence of a sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrio species and the dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 in defined chemostat cultures grown with various combinations of sulphate and tetrachloroethene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drzyzga, O; Gerritse, J; Dijk, JA; Elissen, H; Gottschal, JC

    2001-01-01

    A two-member co-culture consisting of the dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 and the sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrio sp. strain SULF1 was obtained via anaerobic enrichment from soil contaminated with tetrachloroethene (PCE), In this co-culture, PCE dechlorination to cis-dichloroethene

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of esters of 16-formyl-17-methoxy-dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives as inhibitors of 5α-reductase type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Heuze, Yvonne; Córdova, Karen; Nieves, Gladys; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of 16-formyl-17-methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2) obtained from human prostate. The activity of different concentrations of these derivatives was determined for the conversion of labelled testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The results indicated that an aliphatic ester moiety at the C-3 position of these derivatives increases their in vitro potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2 activity compared to finasteride®, which is considered to be a potent inhibitor of 5α-R2. In this case, the augmentation of the lipophilicity of these dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives increased their potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2. However, the presence of cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl or cycloheptyl rings as the cycloaliphatic ester moiety at C-3 of the formyl methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone scaffold did not inhibit the activity of this enzyme. This may be due to the presence of steric factors between the enzyme and the spatial structure of these derivatives.

  15. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Anthropogenic sulphate aerosol from India: estimates of burden and direct radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Patwardhan, Anand

    A one-box chemical-meteorological model had been formulated to make preliminary estimates of sulphate aerosol formation and direct radiative forcing over India. Anthropogenic SO 2 emissions from India, from industrial fuel use and biomass burning, were estimated at 2.0 Tg S yr -1 for 1990 in the range of previous estimates of 1.54 and 2.55 Tg S yr -1 for 1987. Meteorological parameters for 1990 from 18 Indian Meteorological Department stations were used to estimate spatial average sulphate burdens through formation from SO 2 reactions in gas and aqueous phase and removal by dry and wet deposition. The hydrogen peroxide reaction was found dominating for undepleted oxidant-rich conditions. Monthly mean sulphate burdens ranged from 2-10 mg m -2 with a seasonal variation of winter-spring highs and summer lows in agreement with previous GCM studies. The sulphate burdens are dominated by sulphate removal rates by wet deposition, which are high in the monsoon period from June-November. Monthly mean direct radiative forcing from sulphate aerosols is high (-3.5 and -2.3 W m -2) in December and January, is moderate (-1.3 to -1.5 W m -2) during February to April and November and low (-0.4 to -0.6 W m -2) during May to October also in general agreement with previous GCM estimates. This model, in reasonable agreement with detailed GCM results, gives us a simple tool to make preliminary estimates of sulphate burdens and direct radiative forcing.

  17. Effects of varying sulphate and nitrogen supply on DMSP and glycine betaine levels in Spartina anglica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, M. M.; Otte, M. L.

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between sulphate, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and glycine betaine concentrations as well as the interaction with nitrogen supply in Spartina anglica Hubbard was investigated. Several studies have already shown that nitrogen affects levels of DMSP and glycine betaine in Spartina. It has further been suggested that sulphate is important to the growth of the salt marsh grass Spartina. We hypothesised that DMSP might be involved in a high sulphur requirement. It was further hypothesised that the effect of sulphate would depend on nitrogen supply. S. anglica shoots were treated with a range of nutrient solutions containing four different sulphate treatments, 0, 80, 800 or 1600 μM and two different nitrogen levels, 0 or 2 mM ammonium nitrate. Plant parts were analysed for DMSP and glycine betaine, as well as total nitrogen and total sulphur. Plants were analysed for proline as well but levels were very low or non-detectable and patterns were not consistent. Total sulphur was affected by both the nitrogen and sulphate treatments while total nitrogen was affected by the nitrogen treatments only. Sulphate had no effect on growth (leaf length or biomass), but nitrogen increased growth of S. anglica shoots. Levels of DMSP and glycine betaine were unaffected by increased sulphate supply. Nitrogen significantly decreased concentrations of DMSP and glycine betaine. However, due to increased biomass production, total amounts of DMSP and glycine betaine per plant were significantly higher in the 2 mM nitrogen treatments. The data suggest that pools of DMSP in roots and stems are more important than previously thought.

  18. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.694.57, 135.231.73 and 134.741.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  19. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.69�4.57, 135.23�1.73 and 134.74�1.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  20. Sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the treatment of biliary and digestive tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, A; Menunni, G; Petraccia, L; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Grassi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors point out the therapeutic properties of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters. After summarizing the general mechanism of action of mineral waters, the main indications of such waters in thermal treatment are examined including: biliary sand, biliary dyskinesia, functional dyspepsia, irritable colon, chronic primitive constipation. The dysfunctions of biliary and digestive tracts are growing, mainly in the affluent world, because of the increase for stress, dietary habits, modern life style. Now they affect from 2,4% of general population to 7% of men and 20% of women, according to different studies. Mineral waters can improve symptoms and care some physiopathological underlying mechanisms. Authors stress the efficacy of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the therapy of biliary dyskinesias, namely gallbladder hypokinesia and Oddi's sphincter spasm, caused by their content in SO4 = anion and Mg++ cation and related effects on paracrine-endocrine gastrointestinal system. In addition, they report the effects of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the lithogenic bile (sand bile), because of their diluting and washing activity. Among the sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters, the Authors outline the well-documented therapeutic activity of Acqua Santa and Fucoli of Chianciano Terme. Acqua Santa has stimulating effect on cholecystis's motility, as proved by controlled clinical trials. Finally, the therapeutic use of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral water is discussed in functional dyspepsia, chronic primitive constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  1. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined.

  2. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro, E-mail: tolentino@timoteo.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Costa, Rodrigo Moyses, E-mail: rodrigo@moyses.com.br [Universidade de Itauna, Itauna, MG (Brazil); Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  3. Sulphate reducing activity detected in soil samples from Antarctica, Ecology Glacier Forefield, King George Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Zdanowski, Marek K; Żmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena J; Poszytek, Anna; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We determined sulphate-reducing activities in media inoculated with soils and with kettle lake sediments in order to investigate their potential in geomicrobiological processes in low-temperature, terrestrial maritime Antarctic habitats. Soil and sediment samples were collected in a glacier valley abandoned by Ecology Glacier during the last 30 years: from a new formed kettle lake sediment and forefield soil derived from ground moraine. Inoculated with these samples, liquid Postgate C and minimal media supplemented with various carbon sources as electron donors were incubated for 8 weeks at 4°C. High rates of sulphate reduction were observed only in media inoculated with soil. No sulphate reduction was detected in media inoculated with kettle lake sediments. In soil samples culture media calcite and elemental sulphur deposits were observed, demonstrating that sulphate-reducing activity is associated with a potential to mineral formation in cold environments. Cells observed on scanning microscopy (SEM) micrographs of post-culture-soil deposits could be responsible for sulphate-reducing activity.

  4. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  5. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA, CSIC, Apto. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ballesteros, J.C.; Gimenez, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10{sup -2}-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate radical anion under anoxic conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; M Adinarayana

    2003-04-01

    The rates of photooxidation of thymine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) have been determined by measuring the absorbance of thymine at 264 nm spectrophotometrically. The rates and the quantum yields () of oxidation of thymine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of thymine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ and protects thymine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for thymine as well as for caffeic acid. The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been calculated to be 1.24 × 1010 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The quantum yields of photooxidation of thymine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of thymine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cl) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ radicals show that exptl values are lower than cl values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for SO$^{\\bullet-}_{4}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the thymine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the sulphate-halide mineral sulphohalite - implications for evaporites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L

    2014-12-10

    The mineral sulphohalite - Na6(SO4)2FCl is a rare sodium halogen sulphate and occurs associated with evaporitic deposits. Sulphohalite formation is important in saline evaporites and in pipe scales. Sulphohalite is an anhydrous sulphate-halide with an apparent variable anion ratio of formula Na6(SO4)2FCl. Such a formula with oxyanions lends itself to vibrational spectroscopy. The Raman band at 1003cm(-1) is assigned to the (SO4)(2-) ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Shoulders to this band are found at 997 and 1010cm(-1). The low intensity Raman bands at 1128, 1120 and even 1132cm(-1) are attributed to the (SO4)(2-) ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Two symmetric sulphate stretching modes are observed indicating at least at the molecular level the non-equivalence of the sulphate ions in the sulphohalite structure. The Raman bands at 635 and 624cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 SO4(2-) bending modes. The ν2 (SO4)(2-) bending modes are observed at 460 and 494cm(-1). The observation of multiple bands supports the concept of a reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C3v or even C2v. No evidence of bands attributable to the halide ions was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of respiratory substrate in carbon steel corrosion by a Sulphate Reducing Prokaryote model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'agnol, Leonardo T; Cordas, Cristina M; Moura, José J G

    2014-06-01

    Sulphate Reducing Prokaryotes (SRP) are an important group of microorganisms involved in biocorrosion processes. Sulphide production is recognized as a fundamental cause of corrosion and nitrate is often used as treatment. The present work analyses the influence of respiratory substrates in the metal, from off-shore installations, SRP influenced corrosion, using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATTC 27774 as model organism, since this can switch from sulphate to nitrate. Open Circuit Potential over 6days in different conditions was measured, showing an increase around 200 and 90mV for the different media. Tafel plots were constructed allowing Ecorr and jcorr calculations. For SRP in sulphate and nitrate media Ecorr values of -824 and -728mV, and jcorr values of 2.5 and 3.7μAcm(-2), respectively, were attained indicating that in nitrate, the resultant corrosion rate is larger than in sulphate. Also, it is shown that the equilibrium of sulphide in the solution/gas phases is a key factor to the evolution of corrosion Nitrate prevents pitting but promotes general corrosion and increases the corrosion potential and iron dissolution 40 times when compared to sulphate. Our results demonstrate that nitrate injection strategy in oil fields has to be considered carefully as option to reduce souring and localized corrosion.

  9. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomies in primary molars with formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havale, Raghavendra; Anegundi, Rajesh T; Indushekar, Kr; Sudha, P

    2013-03-01

    This in vivo study aimed to assess and compare the relative clinical and radiographic success of formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate as medicaments following pulpotomies in primary molars at three-monthly intervals over one year. The study was carried out on 90 primary molars in 54 children aged from 3 to 9 years. Selected teeth were equally distributed and randomly assigned to formocresol, glutaraldehyde and ferric sulphate pulpotomy medicament groups (30 in each group). The teeth were then evaluated clinically and radiographically at three-monthly intervals over one year. The resulting data were tabulated and statistically analysed using the chi-square test. After one year, the clinical success rate was 100% with glutaraldehyde, 96.7% with ferric sulphate, and 86.7% with formocresol. The radiological success rate gradually decreased over the year in all pulpotomy medicament groups. Radiological success rates in formocresol, glutaraldehyde, and ferric sulphate groups were 56.7%, 83.3%, and 63.3%, respectively. Two per cent glutaraldehyde may be recommended as a more effective alternative to formocresol and ferric sulphate as a pulpotomy medicament.

  10. Endocrine correlates of pregnancy in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta): implications for the masculinization of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Christine M

    2011-04-01

    Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are Malagasy primates that are size monomorphic with males, socially dominate males, and exhibit a long, pendulous clitoris, channeled by the urethra. These masculine traits evoke certain attributes of female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and draw attention to the potential role of androgens in lemur sexual differentiation. Here, hormonal correlates of prenatal development were assessed to explore the possibility that maternal androgens may shape the masculine morphological and behavioral features of developing female lemurs. Maternal serum 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), ∆⁴ androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17,dione), testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were charted throughout the 19 pregnancies of 11 ring-tailed lemurs. As in spotted hyenas, lemur pregnancies were associated with an immediate increase in androgen concentrations (implicating early maternal derivation), followed by continued increases across stages of gestation. Pregnancies that produced singleton males, twin males, or mixed-sex twins were marked by greater androgen and estrogen concentrations than were pregnancies that produced singleton or twin females, especially in the third trimester, implicating the fetal testes in late-term steroid profiles. Concentrations of DHEA-S were mostly below detectable limits, suggesting a minor role for the adrenals in androgen biosynthesis. Androgen concentrations of pregnant lemurs bearing female fetuses, although less than those of pregnant hyenas, exceeded preconception and postpartum values and peaked in the third trimester. Although a maternal (and, on occasion, fraternal) source of androgen may exist for fetal lemurs, further research is required to confirm that these steroids would reach the developing female and contribute to her masculinization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Sato, Koji; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Honda, Hiroki; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the female sexual function in postmenopausal women: ERC-230 open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Derogatis, Leonard; Girard, Ginette; Ayotte, Normand; Gallagher, John; Cusan, Leonello; Archer, David F; Portman, David; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Côté, Isabelle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2016-03-01

    Intravaginal DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone), the exclusive precursor of androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal women, has previously been shown to improve all the domains of sexual function by a strictly local action in the vagina. The well recognized female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in the present study. The long-term effect of 52-week treatment with daily intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA was evaluated on the various domains of female sexual function using the FSFI questionnaire at baseline, Week 26 and Week 52. One hundred and fifty-four postmenopausal women with at least one mild to severe symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and who have completed the FSFI questionnaire at baseline and at least one post-baseline timepoint were included in the analysis. The FSFI domains desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were increased by 28%, 49%, 115%, 51%, 41% and 108%, respectively (pDHEA and all its metabolites, including estradiol and testosterone, show no meaningful change, the present clinical data indicate a stimulatory effect of intravaginal DHEA through a strictly local action in agreement with the preclinical data showing that the androgens made locally from DHEA in the vagina induce an increase in local nerve density.

  14. Influence of dehydroepiandrosterone on G-6-PD activity and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of human lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennas, M.G.; Laconi, S.; Dessi, S.; Milia, G.; Murru, M.R.; Manconi, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was found to inhibit experimental cancer development in mouse and rat lung, colon and mammary gland. Since DHEA is a potent inhibitor of mammalian G-6-PD, the hypothesis that the compound could inhibit cell proliferation through an inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway has been formulated. We studied the effects of DHEA on the proliferation in vitro of human lymphocytes induced by several mitogens (PHA, ConA and PWM), measuring /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. DHEA inhibited /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of mitogen-stimulated cells from both G-6-PD+ and G-6-PD- (mediterranean type deficiency) individuals in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. The inhibitory effect was found even if DHEA was added to cells in the last hours of culture, simultaneously with the addition of /sup 3/H-thymidine. These data suggest that the inhibition of thymidine uptake induced by DHEA on human lymphocytes probably does not depend on the inhibition of G-6-PD.

  15. Increased serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in women with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Sigbritt; Näsman, Birgitta; Olsson, Tommy

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that hypercortisolism contributes to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the fact that excess glucocorticoid exposure has potent adverse effects on the central nervous system. In contrast, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been linked to a broad range of beneficial physiological effects including neuronal excitability and neuroprotection and even memory enhancing properties. Of note, proinflammatory cytokines are present in neuritic plaques (a hallmark of AD) and may regulate cortisol/DHEA release. In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that there is a flattened diurnal curve of cortisol and DHEA in mild to moderate AD, linked to increased cytokine levels. Diurnal profiles of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA were studied in 15 patients with mild to moderate AD (7 men and 8 women, 75.6 ± 5.5 years) and 15 healthy elderly controls (7 men and 8 women, 73.3 ± 5.8 years, respectively). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble TNF receptors were analyzed. Women with AD had significantly increased morning levels of ACTH, DHEA, and IL-6 compared to healthy elderly women. Cortisol levels were significantly increased in men with AD at 0300 h versus healthy elderly men, in spite of slightly decreased ACTH levels. Our data suggest important sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation and steroid hormone clearance in patients with AD. Increased secretion of IL-6 may have a contributory role in this difference.

  16. Fecal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) immunoreactivity as a noninvasive index of circulating DHEA activity in young male laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Lambert, Kelly G

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plays a key role in stress and coping responses. Fecal sampling permits assessment of hormone-behavior interactions reliably and effectively, but no previous study has compared circadian- or stress-dependent alterations between serum DHEA and its fecal metabolites. In the current study, young (28 d of age) male rats were assigned to either an experimental (n = 6) or control (n = 6) group. Rats in the experimental group were exposed to a forced swim test to assess their behavioral and physiologic response to an environmental stressor; blood samples were drawn before the test (baseline), immediately after the test, and at 2 later time points. Only fecal samples were collected from control animals. Fecal DHEA and corticosterone metabolites were monitored in all animals for 24 h. DHEA metabolites in control rats exhibited significant diurnal variation, showing a similar temporal pattern as that of corticosterone metabolites. In addition, fecal and serum DHEA levels were highly correlated. Significant peaks in both DHEA and corticosterone metabolite levels were detected. These data suggest that measures of fecal DHEA can provide a complementary, noninvasive method of assessing adrenal gland function in rats.

  17. The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-09-17

    We examined the influence of work-related effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort-reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort-reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported.

  18. Comparison of 7 Published LC-MS/MS Methods for the Simultaneous Measurement of Testosterone, Androstenedione, and Dehydroepiandrosterone in Serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büttler, Rahel M; Martens, Frans; Fanelli, Flaminia

    2015-01-01

    , and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). METHODS: We used 7 published LC-MS/MS methods to analyze in duplicate 55 random samples from both men and women. We performed Passing-Bablok regression analysis and calculated Pearson correlation coefficients to assess the agreement of the methods investigated with the median concentration...... measured by all methods, and we calculated the intraassay CV of each method derived from duplicate results and the CVs between the methods. RESULTS: Median concentrations of testosterone were 0.22-1.36 nmol/L for women and 8.27-27.98 nmol/L for men. Androstenedione and DHEA concentrations were 0.......05-5.53 and 0.58-18.04 nmol/L, respectively. Intraassay CVs were 2.9%-10%, 1.2%-8.8%, 2.7%-13%, and 4.3%-16% for testosterone in women, testosterone in men, androstenedione, and DHEA. Slopes of the regression lines calculated by Passing-Bablok regression analysis were 0.92-1.08, 0.92-1.08, 0.90-1.13, and 0...

  19. Evidence that androgenic and estrogenic metabolites contribute to the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on cognition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, Elliot; Merritt, Paul; Wang, Cecilia C L; Wierman, Margaret; Budescu, David V; Kohrt, Wendy; Templin, Jonathan L; Bhasin, Shalender

    2004-02-01

    Prior studies of the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cognition have produced complex and inconsistent results. We hypothesize that these results may arise, in part, because of DHEA's metabolism into estrogens and androgens that produce opposing effects on cognition. Our study administered 50 mg of oral DHEA daily for 4 weeks in a placebo-controlled crossover design to six postmenopausal women. We measured blood levels of androgens (total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA, DHEAS), estrogens (estradiol, estrone), and cognitive performance on recognition memory, perceptual identification, digit span memory, and visual attentional vigilance under both drug and placebo conditions. Multiple regression models incorporating the factors of age and body mass index (BMI) were used to ascertain the relation between sex steroids and cognitive performance. Our results demonstrated that estrogens produced a positive effect on recognition memory, while androgens produced a negative effect. This pattern reversed in perceptual identification with estrogens producing a negative effect and androgens producing a positive effect. In addition, BMI produced a negative effect on digit span memory, age produced a negative effect on perceptual identification, and androgens produced a negative effect on visual attentional vigilance. These results help, in part, to explain DHEA's complex effects on cognition. The diverse effects of sex steroids across tasks underscore the importance of identifying the specific cognitive mechanisms influenced by sex steroids and emphasizes that one should not expect sex steroids to produce homogeneous effects across cognitive tasks.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone formation is independent of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase activity in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Pocivavsek, Ana; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17) is a microsomal enzyme reported to have two distinct catalytic activities, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17, 20 lyase, that are essential for the biosynthesis of peripheral androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Paradoxically, DHEA is present and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult rodent brain, while CYP17 activity and protein are undetectable. To determine if CYP17 is required for DHEA formation and function in the adult rodent brain, we generated CYP17 chimeric mice that had reduced circulating testosterone levels. There were no detectable differences in cognitive spatial learning between CYP17 chimeric and wild-type mice. In addition, while CYP17 mRNA levels were reduced in CYP17 chimeric compared to wild-type mouse brain, the levels of brain DHEA levels were comparable. To determine if adult brain DHEA is formed by an alternative Fe(2+)-dependent pathway, brain microsomes were isolated from wild-type and CYP17 chimeric mice and treated with FeSO(4). Fe(2+) caused comparable levels of DHEA production by both wild-type and CYP17 chimeric mouse brain microsomes; DHEA production was not reduced by a CYP17 inhibitor. Taken together these in vivo studies suggest that in the adult mouse brain DHEA is formed via a Fe(2+)-sensitive CYP17-independent pathway.

  1. Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone increases peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of mitochondria from cerebral cortex in D-galactose-induced aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunfu; Lang, Senyang; Zuo, Pingping; Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiangqing

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) could regulate the expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of mitochondria in cerebral cortex. The rats were divided into five groups. Those, in the vehicle-physiological or senescent group, received physiological or d-galactose (subcutaneously) once a day. Rats, in the vehicle-dimethyl sulfoxide- or DHEA-treated senescent group, received 2% of dimethyl sulfoxide or DHEA (intraperitoneally) every other day besides D-galactose (subcutaneously) once a day. Rats in the DHEA-treated normal group received physiological once a day and DHEA every other day. After 8-week, spatial learning was assessed for 5 days by water maze methods. Following behavioural testing, the cerebral cortex mitochondria were purified for PK11195 binding analysis. When compared to the respective vehicle, D-galactose alone induced a significant impairment in water maze performance accompanied by a reduction (30.7%) in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density of mitochondria, and DHEA displayed a significant enhancement in learning memory accompanied by the elevation (18.3%) of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density but not affinity in senescent rats. DHEA showed insignificant effects on both learning/memory ability and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in normal rats when compared to physiological saline. These results suggest that chronic treatment with DHEA enhance cognitive function and increase peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in cerebral cortex mitochondria in middle-aged senescent rats.

  2. Effects of ning shen ling granule and dehydroepiandrosterone on cognitive function in mice undergoing chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Dong, Yi-long; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yan-yong; Gao, Rui-feng; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the changes of spontaneous and cognitive behavior, and cholinergic M receptors in the brain of mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), and to determine the effect of Ning Shen Ling Granule (NSL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on them. CMS model mice were established by applying stress every day for 3 consecutive weeks with 7 kinds of unforeseeable stress sources, and they were medicated for 1 week beginning at the 3rd week of modeling. The changes in behavior were determined by Morris Water Maze and spontaneous movement test, and M-receptor binding activity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus were measured by radioactive ligand assay with 3H-QNB. (1) The spontaneous movement in CMS model mice was significantly reduced, with the latency for searching platform in Morris Water Maze obviously prolonged (PDHEA. (2) The binding ability of M-receptor in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of CMS mice was significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group (PDHEA. The decline of spontaneous movement and spatial learning and memory ability could be induced in animals by chronic mild stress, and that may be related to the low activity of central cholinergic M-receptors. Both NSL and DHEA could effectively alleviate the above-mentioned changes.

  3. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase isoenzymes and on cancer cell line PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratoeff, Eugene; Garrido, Mariana; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Heuze, Yvonne; Sánchez, Araceli; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that testosterone (T) under the influence of 5α-reductase enzyme is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which causes androgen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to synthesize new dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives (3a-e, 4a-i, 6 and 7) having potential inhibitory activity against the 5α-reductase enzyme. This paper also reports the in vivo pharmacological effect of these steroidal molecules. The results from this study showed that all compounds exhibited low inhibitory activity for 5α-reductase type 1 and 2 enzymes and they failed to bind to the androgen receptor. Furthermore, in the in vivo experiment, steroids 3b, 4f, and 4 g showed comparable antiandrogenic activity to that of finasteride; only derivatives 4d and 7 produced a considerable decrease in the weight of the prostate gland of gonadectomized hamsters treated with (T). On the other hand, compounds 4a, f and h showed 100% inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cell line PC-3, with compound 4 g having a 98.2% antiproliferative effect at 50 μM. The overall data indicated that these steroidal molecules, having an aromatic ester moiety at C-3 (4f-h), could have anticancer properties.

  4. Opposing effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and free testosterone on metabolic phenotype in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Giuliani, Albrecht; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    To study the association of adrenal and ovarian androgen levels with metabolic parameters in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic of an academic hospital. Six hundred twenty-two women with PCOS. None. Analysis of the association of endocrine dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and free testosterone (FT) parameters with metabolic measurements. In multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance was statistically significantly higher (4.42, range: 2.26-8.67) for women with PCOS who had elevated FT levels compared with the women with normal DHEAS and FT levels (reference group). We found no statistically significant differences when women with PCOS with elevated DHEAS or a combined elevation of DHEAS and FT levels were compared with the reference group. Women with PCOS and a high DHEAS/FT ratio had a more beneficial metabolic profile compared with the women with a low DHEAS/FT ratio. In multivariate adjusted binary logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significantly lower risk for insulin resistance in the women with PCOS in the highest DHEAS/FT-ratio quartile compared with women with PCOS in the lowest quartile (OR 0.35, range: 0.14-0.89). Our results suggest that the distinction between adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism is important when evaluating metabolic risk in PCOS. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  6. Fat-reducing effects of dehydroepiandrosterone involve upregulation of ATGL and HSL expression, and stimulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reduces body fat in rodents and humans, and increases glycerol release from isolated rat epididymal adipocytes and human visceral adipose tissue explants. It suggests that DHEA stimulates triglyceride hydrolysis in adipose tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unclear. We examined the effects of DHEA on the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the key enzymes of lipolysis, in rat epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% DHEA for 2 weeks and eWAT was analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of ATGL and HSL, as well as mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ2) and its downstream target fatty acid translocase (FAT). Glycerol release from eWAT explants and serum free fatty acids (FFA) were also measured. Rats that received DHEA gained less weight, had 23% lower eWAT mass and 31% higher serum FFA levels than controls. Cultured explants of eWAT from DHEA-treated rats released 81% more glycerol than those from control rats. DHEA administration upregulated ATGL mRNA (1.62-fold, Padipose tissue by increasing the expression and activity of ATGL and HSL. The effects of DHEA appear to be mediated, at least in part, via PPARγ2 activation, which in turn upregulates ATGL and HSL gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on insulin action and development of insulin-induced resistance in C2C12 muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor of androgens and estrogens, has been demonstrated to have effect of preventing insulin resistance and development of diabetes mellitus. Administration of testosterone appears to induce a marked insulin resistance. How these two hormones affect insulin resistance through regulation of sensitivity of tissues to insulin deserves further studies. Here, the effects of DHEA and testosterone on response to insulin in C2C12 muscle cells are analyzed. After 24 h of DHEA (10-6 mol/L) treatment, C2C12 cells showed an increased insulin- stimulated glucose uptake and enhanced activities of glycogen synthase (GS), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), whereas testosterone gave the opposite effects. Incubation of C2C12 cells with high-dose insulin (5×10-7 mol/L) for 24 hours decreased their sensitivity to insulin and led to a state of resistance as assessed on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and activities of GS, PFK and PDH. Addition of DHEA to insulin-resistant C2C12 cells could reverse the response of these cells to high-dose insulin, but testosterone could further impair insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant C2C12 cells. These results suggest that the two hormones may influence the development or inhibition of insulin-resistance in type 2 diabetes through regulating glucose uptake, glycogenesis and glycolysis to some extent.

  8. Biological activity of pyrazole and imidazole-dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Marisa; Posada, Alejandro; Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Heuze, Yvonne; Moreno, Isabel; Soriano, Juan; Garrido, Mariana; Cortés, Francisco; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 5 (17β-HSD5) catalyzes the transformation of androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone (T) in the prostate. This metabolic pathway remains active in cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Since physicians seek to develop advantageous and better new treatments to increase the average survival of these patients, we synthesized several different dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives. These compounds have a pyrazole or imidazole function at C-17 and an ester moiety at C-3 and were studied as inhibitors of 17β-HSD5. The kinetic parameters of this enzyme were determined for use in inhibition assays. Their pharmacological effect was also determined on gonadectomized hamsters treated with Δ(4)-androstenedione (4-dione) or testosterone (T) and/or the novel compounds. The results indicated that the incorporation of a heterocycle at C-17 induced strong 17β-HSD5 inhibition. These derivatives decreased flank organ diameter and prostate weight in castrated hamsters treated with T or 4-dione. Inhibition of 17β-HSD5 by these compounds could have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. Simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in tablets by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P. N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 4 in the ratio 60:20:20 v/v. The column used was SS Wakosil-II C-18 with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 224 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 10-110 µg/ml and 20-140 µg/ml for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recovery was found to be 95-105% for salbutamol sulphate and 96.2-102.1% for bromhexine hydrochloride when determined at five different levels.

  10. Growth and characterization of pure and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea zinc chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.M.Jaya Brabha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non linear optical material has wide applications in the area of optical devices. That device mainly used to measure electromagnetic radiation. Single crystals of pure Bis thiourea Zinc chloride and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea Zinc chloride were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline size and unit cell parameter. The incorporation of ferrous sulphate in BTZC was confirmed by the EDAX and FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis suggests that incorporation of ferrous sulphate in the BTZC decreases the thermal stability of the grown crystal.

  11. Electrochemical Behavior of Oxide Films of Stainless Steel in 40 kHz Sonicated Sulphate Electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-qun; LI Min-wei; WANG Hui

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes effects of 40 kHz ultrasound on the oxide films of stainless steel in sulphate electrolytes so as to determine the transmitted power and to characterize mass transfer and peak current density on the electrode surface. Emphasis was mainly laid on electrochemical oxidations and peeling mechanism of oxide films in sonicated sulphate solutions (0.5 and 1.0 mol/L). Polarization voltammetry, current response traces and SEM analysis were carried out in order to provide full information as to oxide films surface.Results shows that the rate of electrochemical oxidation, the shape of polarization curves and the surface micrographs in sonicated sulphate electrolytes are different from those obtained without introduction of ultrasound. It is concluded that ultrasound can change the electro-chemical behavior of oxide films by its cavitaion effects, which would produce transient mechanical impulsive force and enhance electrochemical reactions.

  12. Antifungal Long-Chain Alkenyl Sulphates Isolated from Culture Broths of the Fungus Chaetopsina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Gloria; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Cautain, Bastien; Sánchez, Pilar; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    During a high-throughput screening program focused on the discovery and characterization of new antifungal compounds, a total of 8320 extracts from Fundacion MEDINA's collection were screened against a panel of 6 fungal parasitic strains, namely Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. A total of 127 extracts displayed antifungal properties and, after LC/MS dereplication, 10 were selected for further fractionation. Bioassay-guided fractionation from a 1-L fermentation of one of these extracts, belonging to the fungus Chaetopsina sp., led to the isolation of linoleyl sulphate (1), linolenyl sulphate (2), and oleyl sulphate (3) as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. These molecules were previously described as synthetic products with the ability to produce the allosteric inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase and human lipoxygenase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Performance of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the compressive strength of periwinkle shell ash (PSA blended cement concrete in magnesium sulphate medium. Specimens were prepared from designed characteristics strength of 25 MPa. The cement replacement with PSA ranged between 0 and 40% by volume. A total of 180 cube specimens were cast and cured in water. At 28 days curing, 45 specimens each were transferred into magnesium sulphate of 1%, 3%, and 5% solution, while others were continuously cured in water and tested at 62, 92, and 152 days. The results revealed a higher loss in compressive strength with the control mix, and that it increases with increased in MgSO4 concentration and exposure period, whereas, the attack on the PSA blended cement concrete was less and the least value recorded by 10% PSA content. Therefore, the study concluded that the optimum percentage replacement of cement with 10% PSA could mitigate magnesium sulphate attack.

  14. Magnesium sulphate increases lymphocyte adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Mandach, U; Bürgi, M; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-01-01

    We determined the effect of i.v. magnesium sulphate, which is often combined with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists for tocolytic therapy, on lymphocyte cyclic AMP production, extracellular magnesium and blood calcium concentrations. Sixteen healthy volunteers received i.v. magnesium sulphate 1 g h-1 over 8 h; seven volunteers also had infusion of NaCl 18 mg h-1 as control. Venous blood was taken pre- and post-infusion to determine basal lymphocyte cyclic AMP and the increase evoked by 0.1 mM isoprenaline, as well as serum and plasma concentrations of total and non-protein-bound magnesium and calcium. Following magnesium sulphate there was a significant rise in the isoprenaline-evoked increase in cyclic AMP (P < 0.05) and in the magnesium concentrations (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the free calcium concentration (P < 0.01). PMID:8385975

  15. Magnesium sulphate increases lymphocyte adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Mandach, U; Bürgi, M; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-03-01

    We determined the effect of i.v. magnesium sulphate, which is often combined with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists for tocolytic therapy, on lymphocyte cyclic AMP production, extracellular magnesium and blood calcium concentrations. Sixteen healthy volunteers received i.v. magnesium sulphate 1 g h-1 over 8 h; seven volunteers also had infusion of NaCl 18 mg h-1 as control. Venous blood was taken pre- and post-infusion to determine basal lymphocyte cyclic AMP and the increase evoked by 0.1 mM isoprenaline, as well as serum and plasma concentrations of total and non-protein-bound magnesium and calcium. Following magnesium sulphate there was a significant rise in the isoprenaline-evoked increase in cyclic AMP (P < 0.05) and in the magnesium concentrations (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the free calcium concentration (P < 0.01).

  16. Effects of Urea and Copper Sulphate on Some Serum Biochemical and Meat Parameters in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rasool, M. Tariq Javed*, Masood Akhtar1, S. Shabbir Bhatti, M. N. Shahzad and Riaz Hussain2

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed some of the serum enzymes, urea and creatinine to understand the pathological changes occurring in different organs of broilers due to urea and copper. The feeding for 15 days at or higher than 2% urea + 1gm copper sulphate caused significant rise in serum ALT, AST, AKP and creatinine. With further increase in time of 15 days, the levels of urea and LDH also increased significantly, this was seen even in birds fed 1% urea + 250 mg copper sulphate. We found increase in serum urea even in 1% urea fed birds and in all other groups where combination was used, however, serum creatinine increased significantly (P<0.05 only in birds fed 2% urea+1 gm copper sulphate or higher than these levels. The combined use of urea and copper sulphate resulted in changes in moisture, ash, crude protein and potassium in thigh and breast meat of broilers. The results of the present study suggest damaging effects of higher levels of urea and copper, alone or together and change in meat quality with lower protein contents and higher salt levels in meat of broilers. Thus the use of urea and copper sulphate together is not recommended in broilers, especially at 1% urea and 250mg copper sulphate or higher. The results of the study can be helpful to poultry farmers, pathologists and nutritionists who are involved in augmentation the meat quality and also to general public with special reference to people having hypertension as the meat salt levels may be higher with use of the these compounds in the broiler ration.

  17. Management of oral pyogenic granuloma with sodium tetra decyl sulphate. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatha, Y; Reddy, T Harshavardhan; Jyothirrmai; Ravikiran, A; Sankar, A J Sai

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma, or granuloma pyogenicum, is a common, tumor-like growth of the oral cavity or skin that is considered to be an exaggerated, localized connective tissue reaction to a minor injury or irritation. A total of five clinical cases of oral pyogenic granuloma were randomly selected in the age group between 26 and 41 years. All these cases were treated with sodium tetra decyl sulphate and examined for regression and reccurrence of the lesion for six months. Various treatment modalities consist of conservative surgical excision, cryosurgery, laser surgery and sclerotherapy. Sclerotherapy with sodium tetra decyl sulphate is a relatively simple and effective method for treating oral pyogenic granuloma.

  18. Nucleation Kinetics, Growth and Characterization Studies of a Diamagnetic Crystal-Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate (ZSHH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kanagadurai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, metastable zone width and induction period measurements have been performed on zinc sulphate heptahydrate (ZSHH. Interfacial tension values determined from induction period measurements have been used for the evaluation of the nucleation parameters such as radius of critical nucleus and the free energy of formation of critical nucleus. ZSHH crystallizes in the orthorhombic structure. Crystals of diamagnetic zinc sulphate heptahydrate have been grown by temperature lowering solution growth technique with the optimized growth parameters. The as-grown ZSHH crystals were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS absorption and transmittance, FT-IR absorption, TG-DTA, microhardness and etching studies.

  19. Raman microspectroscopy of hydrotalcite-like compounds modified with sulphate and sulphonate organic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrueco, María Isabel; Mora, Manuel; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael

    2013-02-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) containing dodecylsulphate and dodecylbenzene-sulphonate organic anions in their interlayer region were synthesized by rehydrating the calcination product of a 3:1 magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite intercalated with carbonate ions and characterized by Raman microspectroscopy. The Raman spectra for the samples with intercalated organic anions exhibited the typical bands for the hydrocarbon chains and the sulphate or sulphonate group. This is the first time HTlcs containing organic sulphate or sulphonate ions have been characterized by this technique and Raman spectroscopy proved an effective tool for discriminating between organo-hybrid HTlcs.

  20. Refractory sickle cell leg ulcer: is heparan sulphate a new hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Shady; Dibo, Saad; Baroud, Joe; Ibrahim, Amir; Barritault, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease are known to have recurrent lower extremity ulcers that have a high pain score and are resistant to conventional means of wound therapy. This study reports the successful use of synthetic heparan sulphate (Cacipliq20(®) , OTR3, Paris, France) in the treatment of a sickle cell ulcer that had failed to respond to several other means of treatment. Therapeutic success was assessed by complete wound coverage and vast improvement in pain score. This is the first study to report use of heparan sulphate in sickle cell ulcers.

  1. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  2. Collagen/silicocarnotite composites, cross-linked with chondroitin sulphate: in vitro bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lachezar Radev; Vladimir Hristov; Irena Michailova; Maria H. V. Fernandes; Isabel M. M. Salvado

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the experimental results on synthesis, structure evolution and in vitro bioactivity of collagen-silicocarnotite-chondroitin sulphate composites. The obtained samples were synthesised by mixing collagen (C) and silicocarnotite (S) powder with C:S ratio of 75:25 and 25:75 wt.% in the presence of chondroitin sulphate (ChS). Collagen was diluted in 5M CH3COOH before mixing. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT...

  3. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    -41% of those at T(opt). Short-term incubations of exponentially growing cultures showed that the highest sulphate reduction rates occurred 2-9 degrees C above T(opt). In contrast to growth and sulphate reduction rates, growth yields of strains ASv26, LSv54 and PSv29 were almost constant between -1.8 degrees C...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...

  4. SMASS - a simulation model of physical and chemical processes in acid sulphate soils; Version 2.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Simulation Model for Acid Sulphate Soils (SMASS) has been developed to predict the effects of water management strategies on acidification and de-acidification in areas with acid sulphate soils. It has submodels for solute transport, chemistry, oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation. The model mu

  5. Application of multivariate analysis techniques for the identification of sulphates from Raman spectra - Implication for ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sobron, P.; Lafuente, B.; Rull, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present results of the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least-Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the identification of sulphates in pure and mixed samples. The studied samples include Fe-, Mg-, Ca-, and Na sulphates.

  6. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated biological/chemical process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available not require strict anaerobic conditions in the bulk of the water, only in their micro-environment. They can tolerate oxygen, as long as other organisms present in the system consume it. The practical value of simultaneous sulphate and sulphide removal is that...

  7. Salt rejection in nanofiltration for single and binary salt mixtures in view of sulphate removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieg, H.M.; Modise, S.J.; Keizer, Klaas; Neomagus, H.W.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Three commercial membranes (NF70, NF90 and TFC-SR) were firstly characterized in terms of pure water flux and the rejection of uncharged (alcohols and sugars) compounds. Subsequently, the rejection of monovalent (sodium and chloride) and divalent (calcium and sulphate) ions in single (NaCl, CaCl, an

  8. Does sulphate enrichment promote the expansion of Typha domingensis (cattail) in the Florida Everglades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hao, Chen; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. The expansion of Typha domingensis into areas once dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been attributed to altered hydrology and phosphorus enrichment, although increased concentrations of sulphate and phosphorus often coincide. The potential importance of hydrogen sulphide produced from sulphate in the expansion of Typha has received little attention. The present study aimed to quantify the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of Cladium and Typha to sulphate/sulphide. 2. Laboratory experiments showed that Cladium is less tolerant of sulphide than Typha. Cladium was adversely affected at sulphide concentrations of approximately 0.22 mm, while Typha continued to grow well and appeared healthy up to 0.69 mm sulphide. 3. Experiments in field mesocosms provided strong support for species-specific differences in physiology and growth. Regardless of interstitial sulphide concentrations attained, Typha grew faster and had a higher photosynthetic capacity than Cladium. However, sulphide concentrations in the mesocosms reached only 0.18 mm which, based on the hydroponic study, was insufficient to affect the growth or photosynthetic responses of either species. Nevertheless, the upper range of sulphide (0.25-0.375 mm) in Everglades' soil is high enough, based on our results, to impact Cladium but not Typha. 4. This research supports the hypothesis that sulphide accumulation could affect plant species differentially and modify species composition. Consequently, the role of sulphate loading should be considered, in conjunction with hydroperiod, phosphorus availability and disturbances, in developing future management plans for the Everglades. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOROFTEI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5% have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by calculating the mitotic index and also through the analysis of chromosomes alterations during the mitosis. The phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis in all the phases is estimated for all variants. For microscopy investigations it was used a Novex Holland B microscope with digital camera included. The cytological analysis realized on Allium cepa revealed a strong decrease in the mitotic index due to sulphate treatments which is more intense with the time of exposure. Moreover this phenomenon is associated with the appearance of different chromosomal complement alterations including the appearance of highly condensed chromatin. The mitotic index and genotoxic observations over the chromosomes can also be correlated with phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis.

  10. Sulphur-oxidising and Sulphate-reducing Communities in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.C.F; Fasanella, C.C.; Durrer, A.; Melo, I.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Andreote, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-ox

  11. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  12. TRPM3 channel stimulated by pregnenolone sulphate in synovial fibroblasts and negatively coupled to hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Anne A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium-permeable channels are known to have roles in many mammalian cell types but the expression and contribution of such ion channels in synovial cells is mostly unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential relevance of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 (TRPM3 channel to fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods The study used RT-PCR and immunofluorescence to detect mRNA and protein. Intracellular calcium measurement detected channel activity in a FLS cell-line and primary cultures of FLSs from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays measured hyaluronan. Results Endogenous expression of TRPM3 was detected. Previously reported stimulators of TRPM3 sphingosine and pregnenolone sulphate evoked sustained elevation of intracellular calcium in FLSs. The FLS cell-line showed an initial transient response to sphingosine which may be explained by TRPV4 channels but was not observed in FLSs from patients. Blocking antibody targeted to TRPM3 inhibited sustained sphingosine and pregnenolone sulphate responses. Secretion of hyaluronan, which contributes adversely in rheumatoid arthritis, was suppressed by pregnenolone sulphate in FLSs from patients and the effect was blocked by anti-TRPM3 antibody. Conclusions The data suggest that FLSs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis express TRPM3-containing ion channels that couple negatively to hyaluronan secretion and can be stimulated by pharmacological concentrations of pregnenolone sulphate.

  13. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores t

  14. Different treatment regimens of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis in women in preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Helen C; Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie

    2015-12-14

    Magnesium sulphate has been used to inhibit preterm labour to prevent preterm birth. There is no consensus as to the safety profile of different treatment regimens with respect to dose, duration, route and timing of administration. To assess the efficacy and safety of alternative magnesium sulphate regimens when used as single agent tocolytic therapy during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing different magnesium sulphate treatment regimens when used as single agent tocolytic therapy during pregnancy in women in preterm labour. Quasi-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Cross-over and cluster trials were not eligible for inclusion. Health outcomes were considered at the level of the mother, the infant/child and the health service. intravenous or oral magnesium sulphate given alone for tocolysis.Comparison: alternative dosing regimens of magnesium sulphate given alone for tocolysis. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. Three trials including 360 women and their infants were identified as eligible for inclusion in this review. Two trials were rated as low risk of bias for random sequence generation and concealment of allocation. A third trial was assessed as unclear risk of bias for these domains but did not report data for any of the outcomes examined in this review. No trials were rated to be of high quality overall.Intravenous magnesium sulphate was administered according to low-dose regimens (4 g loading dose followed by 2 g/hour continuous infusion and/or increased by 1 g/hour hourly until successful tocolysis or failure of treatment), or high-dose regimens (4 g loading dose followed by 5 g/hour continuous infusion and increased by 1 g/hour hourly until successful tocolysis or failure of treatment, or 6 g loading dose followed by 2 g

  15. Paddle-wheel versus percolation mechanism for cation transport in some sulphate phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bandaranyake, P.W.S.K.; Careem, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    at the tetrahedral 8c-sites (1/4, 1/4, 1/4), although significantly distorted in the directions of the four neighbouring sulphate ions. The remaining 10% of the lithium ions are refined as an evenly distributed spherical shell which is surrounding the sulphate ions. The lithium ions are transported along a slightly...... in these phases. A single-crystal neutron diffraction study has been performed for cubic lithium sulphate. The refinement of the data gives a very complex model for the location of the lithium ions. There is definitely a void at and near the octahedral (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) position. 90% of the lithium ions are located...... curved pathway of continuous lithium occupation corresponding to a distance of about 3.7 angstrom. Thus, lithium transport occurs in one of the six directions [110], [110BAR], [101] etc. The electrical conductivity has been studied for solid solutions of lithium tungstate in cubic lithium sulphate...

  16. Simple and Efficient Method for Deprotection of Tetrahydropyranyl Ethers by Using Silica Supported Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar K. Ravi; Satyanarayana P. V. V.; Reddy B. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    Tetrahydropyranyl (THP) ethers have been efficiently and simply deprotected by using Silica supported sodium hydrogen sulphate (NaHSO4-SiO2) in methanol at room temperature to regenerate the parent alcohols in high yields.

  17. Development and Validation of Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Hydroxychloroquine Sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Roopkishora; Singh, C L; Gupta, R; Kumar, S; Kumar, M

    2015-01-01

    In the present work new, simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of hydroxychloroquine sulphate in blood plasma. Chloroquine sulphate was used as an internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved with octadecyl silane Hypersil C18 column (250×6 mm, 5 μm) using water and organic (acetonitrile:methanol: 50:50, v/v) mobile phase in 75:25 v/v ratio, with sodium 1-pentanesulfonate and phosphoric acid. This organic phase was maintained at pH 3.0 by orthophosphoric acid. The flow rate of 2.0 ml/min(.) with detection at 343 nm was used in the analysis. The calibration curve of standard hydroxychloroquine sulphate was linear in range 0.1-20.0 μg/ml. The method was validated with respected to linearity, range, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness studies according to ICH guidelines. The method was found to be accurate and robust to analyze the hydroxychloroquine sulphate in plasma samples.

  18. Greener iodination of arenes using sulphated ceria-zirconia catalysts in polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    An environmentally benign method for the selective monoiodination of diverse aromatic compounds has been developed using reusable sulphated ceria-zirconia under mild conditions. The protocol provides moderate to good yields of aryl iodides in PEG-200 as a greener solvent. The cat...

  19. Toxicity of Copper (11 Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The range–finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range-finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range-finding test. However, in the definitive test, the toxicant was introduced at varying concentrations of 0.1g/l, 0.125g/l, 0.15g/l, and 0.175g/l. From the definitive test, the Median Lethal Concentration of copper sulphate to Clarias gariepinus was found to be 0.175g/l. The study showed that Clarias gariepinus fingerling exhibited initial erratic movement, rapid opercular movement, skin discoloration and loss of reflex. Also, histopathological alterations such as the degeneration of gill and liver tissues were observed in the fish that were exposed to the toxicant. The water quality data were analyzed by subjecting them to one–way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Thus, the study indicates that copper sulphate is toxic to Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

  20. Toxicity of Copper (11 Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The range – finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range- finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range- finding test. However, in the definitive test, the toxicant was introduced at varying concentrations of 0.1g/l, 0.125g/l, 0.15g/l, and 0.175g/l. From the definitive test, the Median Lethal Concentration of copper sulphate to Clarias gariepinus was found to be 0.175g/l. The study showed that Clarias gariepinus fingerling exhibited initial erratic movement, rapid opercular movement, skin discoloration and loss of reflex. Also, histopathological alterations such as the degeneration of gill and liver tissues were observed in the fish that were exposed to the toxicant. The water quality data were analyzed by subjecting them to one – way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Thus, the study indicates that copper sulphate is toxic to Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

  1. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  2. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males

  3. Influence of the COD to sulphate ratio on the anaerobic organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Abstract. The influence of .... Micronutrients were added from a stock solution of salts and trace metals (nickel sulphate – 0.5 .... (4) Magnetic stirrer; (5) Sampler; (6) Heat exchange;. (7) Peristaltic pump.

  4. Salt: rejection in nanofiltration for single and binary salt mixtures in view of sulphate removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieg, H.M.; Modise, S.J.; Keizer, K.; Neomagus, H.W.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Three commercial membranes (NF70, NF90 and TFC-SR) were firstly characterized in terms of pure water flux and the rejection of uncharged (alcohols and sugars) compounds. Subsequently, the rejection of monovalent (sodium and chloride) and divalent (calcium and sulphate) ions in single (NaCl, CaCl, an

  5. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkerbout, T.A.; Slot, D.E.; Bakker, E.W.P.; Van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Focused question: What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? Material and methods: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up

  6. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid...... with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe......(III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1. Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox...

  7. Salt rejection in nanofiltration for single and binary salt mixtures in view of sulphate removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieg, H.M.; Modise, S.J.; Keizer, Klaas; Neomagus, H.W.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Three commercial membranes (NF70, NF90 and TFC-SR) were firstly characterized in terms of pure water flux and the rejection of uncharged (alcohols and sugars) compounds. Subsequently, the rejection of monovalent (sodium and chloride) and divalent (calcium and sulphate) ions in single (NaCl, CaCl,

  8. Environmental risks of metals mobilised from acid sulphate soils in Finland. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeltmarsch, R. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)); Aastroem, M. (Kalmar Univ., Kalmar (Sweden)); Vuori, K.-M. (Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to review the available research information on the environmental risks and effects of metals leached from Finnish acid sulphate soils. The reason for carrying out this study was recent evidence demonstrating that much larger quantities of a number of metals are leached from these soils than from the entire Finnish industry taken together. Alarmingly few scientific studies on the actual biological impacts of acid sulphate soils have been published. However, they all indicate an extensive and serious effect on biota, including metal imbalance in crops and elevated concentrations of Al and Zn in the milk of cows. Acid sulphate soils have also significant, but spatially and temporally variable impacts on biodiversity and community structure of fish, benthic invertebrates and macrophytes, with numerous cases of mass fish kills along the Finnish coast. Furthermore, chronic exposure to high concentrations of metals may pose an actual threat on human health. The potential risks for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease in acid sulphate soil landscapes are discussed. (orig.)

  9. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Live

  10. Sulphate removal induces a major conformational change in Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Lindsay B; Morgan, Hugh P; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2008-11-14

    We report X-ray structures of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana (LmPYK) that are trapped in different conformations. These, together with the previously reported structure of LmPYK in its inactive (T-state) conformation, allow comparisons of three different conformers of the same species of pyruvate kinase (PYK). Four new site point mutants showing the effects of side-chain alteration at subunit interfaces are also enzymatically characterised. The LmPYK tetramer crystals grown with ammonium sulphate as precipitant adopt an active-like conformation, with sulphate ions at the active and effector sites. The sulphates occupy positions similar to those of the phosphates of ligands bound to active (R-state) and constitutively active (nonallosteric) PYKs from several species, and provide insight into the structural roles of the phosphates of the substrates and effectors. Crystal soaking in sulphate-free buffers was found to induce major conformational changes in the tetramer. In particular, the unwinding of the Aalpha6' helix and the inward hinge movement of the B domain are coupled with a significant widening (4 A) of the tetramer caused by lateral movement of the C domains. The two new LmPYK structures and the activity studies of site point mutations described in this article are consistent with a developing picture of allosteric activity in which localised changes in protein flexibility govern the distribution of conformer families adopted by the tetramer in its active and inactive states.

  11. Dysplastic histogenesis of cartilage growth plate by alteration of sulphation pathway: a transgenic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Casasco, Andrea; Casasco, Marco; Riva, Federica; Necchi, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter (dtdst) gene causes different forms of chondrodysplasia in the human. The generation of a knock-in mouse strain with a mutation in dtdst gene provides the basis to study developmental dynamics in the epiphyseal growth plate and long bone growth after impairment of the sulphate pathway. Our microscopical and histochemical data demonstrate that dtdst gene impairment deeply affects tissue organization, matrix structure, and cell differentiation in the epiphyseal growth plate. In mutant animals, the height of the growth plate was significantly reduced, according to a concomitant decrease in cell density and proliferation. Although the pathway of chondrocyte differentiation seemed complete, alteration in cell morphology compared to normal counterparts was detected. In the extracellular matrix, it we observed a dramatic decrease in sulphated proteoglycans, alterations in the organization of type II and type X collagen fibers, and premature onset of mineralization. These data confirm the crucial role of sulphate pathway in proteoglycan biochemistry and suggest that a disarrangement of the extracellular matrix may be responsible for the development of dtdts cartilage dysplasia. Moreover, we corroborated the concept that proteoglycans not only are structural components of the cartilage architecture, but also play a dynamic role in the regulation of chondrocyte growth and differentiation.

  12. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores t

  13. Effects of magnesium sulphate on amplitude-integrated continuous EEG in asphyxiated term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendaal, F; Rademaker, CMA; Toet, MC; de Vries, LS

    2002-01-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that magnesium sulphate in asphyxiated full-term neonates could lead to a gradual improvement in background pattern of the amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), an early marker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot study of 22

  14. Synthesis, Isolation and Characterization of Process-Related Impurities in Salbutamol Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three known and one unknown impurities in salbutamol sulphate bulk drug at level 0.1% (ranging from 0.05-0.1% were detected by gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. These impurities were preliminarily identified by the mass number of the impurities. Different experiments were conducted and finally synthesized and characterized the known and unknown imputities.

  15. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet...

  16. Control emissions in sulphate paper paste. Control de emisiones en las fabricas de pasta de sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstrom, P.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum levels of gaseous emissions into the atmosphere (SOx, NOx and chlorinated derivatives) for sulphate type paper paste are showed. The usual sources of these emissions and those technologies currently used for their control are presented. Finally an economical estimation is given to install these technologies in a new factory.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRAULIC GYPSUM THAT CONTAINS CEMENTS THAT HAVE SULPHATED CLINKER PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheenkov Mikhail Arkad'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider the feasibility of development of water-hardened gypsum that is capable of hardening in the water. The gypsum in question is made of the gypsum binding material, sulphated Portland cement, and granulated blast-furnace slag. The gypsum developed hereunder has a softening coefficient over 1 while the building gypsum content exceeds 75 %.

  18. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males part

  19. Comparison of intravenous ferrous sucrose and oral ferrous sulphate in treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouly, Nabih I

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous ferrous sucrose, compared to oral ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In a single center, randomized, controlled study, 352 patients with hemoglobin 9 gm/dl or less and serum ferritin of ferrous sucrose (up to three calculated replacement doses) or oral ferrous sulphate (150 mg twice daily for six weeks). Primary measures were to assess the rise in hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin. By day 5, the Hb level in women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had rised from 8.48 ± 0.47 to 9.4 ± 0.56 gm/dl. Women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had significantly higher Hb levels on day 5, day 14 and day 40 (p ferrous sulphate. Throughout the study, ferritin level rose rapidly in those treated with intravenous iron and remained significantly higher than in those treated with oral iron (p ferrous sucrose increases Hb level more rapidly than ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum IDA. It also replenishes iron stores more rapidly with better tolerability.

  20. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkerbout, T.A.; Slot, D.E.; Bakker, E.W.P.; Van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Focused question: What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? Material and methods: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up

  1. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresdottir, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Hansen, H. P.; Parving, H-H; Rossing, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We conducted a post-hoc study

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate brJoint Statement by the German Society for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine [DGGEF] and the German Professional Association of Gynecologists [BVF])

    OpenAIRE

    Rabe T; Ahrendt HJ; Albring C; Bachmann A; Bitzer J; Blume-Peytavi U; Egarter C; Hinney B; Kentenich H; König K; Merki Feld G; Merkle E; Mueck AO; Rossmanith WG; Sänger N

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most frequent circulating steroid hormone in humans. It is formed in the reticular zone of the adrenal glands to 90 95% and, to a lower extent in the gonads and the brain where DHEA acts as neuro-steroid. There is an interconversion of DHEA to DHEAS in both directions. DHEAS levels in the blood are approximately 300 times higher in comparison to free DHEA levels. The DHEA peak levels are reached in the early morning hours whereas DHEAS is not subject to...

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an anabolic steroid like dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, and tetrahydrogestrinone (THG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Luu-The, Van; Martel, Céline; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Calvo, Ezequiel; Morissette, Jean; Labrie, Claude

    2006-07-01

    We have recently taken advantage of the unique power of DNA microarrays to compare the genomic expression profile of tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) with that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, thus clearly demonstrating that THG is an anabolic steroid. In 2004, the U.S. Controlled Substances Act has been modified to include androstenedione (4-dione) as an anabolic steroid. However, despite the common knowledge that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the precursor of testosterone, DHEA has been excluded from the list of anabolic steroids. We thus used the same DNA microarray technology to analyze the expression profile of practically all the 30,000 genes of the mouse genome modulated by DHEA and DHT in classical androgen-sensitive tissues. Daily subcutaneous injections of DHT (0.1mg) or DHEA (3mg) for 1 month in gonadectomized C57BL6/129 SV mice increased ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weight (p or =30%), in the prostate (ventral+dorsal), seminal vesicles and preputial glands, respectively, compared to tissues from gonadectomized control animals. After 7 days of daily treatment with DHEA and DHT, 629, 919 and 562 probe sets were commonly modulated in the same tissues while after 27 days of treatment, 1195, 5127 and 2883 probe sets were modulated, respectively. In analogy with the data obtained with THG, the present microarray data provide an extremely precise and unquestionable genomic signature and proof of the androgenic/anabolic activity of DHEA. Such data add to the literature showing that DHEA is transformed into androgens in the human peripheral tissues as well as in laboratory animal species, including the monkey, thus exerting potent androgenic/anabolic activity. The present microarray approach to identify anabolic compounds is applicable to all potential androgenic/anabolic compounds.

  4. Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrie, C.; Simard, J.; Zhao, H.F.; Belanger, A.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. (Laval Univ. Medical Center, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-06-01

    Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of DHEA and delta 4-dione similar to those found in adult man on sensitive and specific markers of androgen action in the rat ventral prostate. In addition to ventral prostate weight, we have measured the steady state levels of the mRNAs encoding the C1 component of rat prostatic binding protein (PBP-C1) and spermine-binding protein (SBP) using 35S-labeled cDNA probes for in situ hybridization. One week after castration, ventral prostate weight fell 84%, while prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen-dependent mRNAs were undetectable. When administered via Silastic implants to castrated adult rats for 1 week, plasma concentrations of 1.37 +/- 0.06 ng/ml DHEA or 0.43 +/- 0.08 ng/ml delta 4-dione independently caused increases in ventral prostate weight to 33% and 65% of normal values, respectively. The same plasma levels of DHEA and delta 4-dione resulted in high intraprostatic levels of DHT to 1.19 +/- 0.34 and 3.66 +/- 0.89 ng/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, DHEA caused an increase in the steady state levels of PBP-C1 and SBP mRNAs to 50% and 57% of the normal state, respectively, while delta 4-dione caused increases corresponding to 80% and 119% of control values, respectively. Castrated adult rats receiving testosterone at a concentration of 1.66 +/- 0.37 ng/ml plasma maintained normal ventral prostate weight and gene expression levels.

  5. Ample Evidence: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA Conversion into Activated Steroid Hormones Occurs in Adrenal and Ovary in Female Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqiao Zhou

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is important for human health, especially for women. All estrogens and practically half of androgens are synthesized from DHEA in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism and exact target tissues of DHEA biotransformation in the female are not fully clear. The present study showed that maximal content of androstenedione (AD and testosterone (T were observed at 3h after DHEA administration in female rats, which was 264% and 8000% above the control, respectively. Estradiol (E2 content significantly increased at 6h after DHEA administration, which was 113% higher than that in control group. Gavage with DHEA could significantly reduce 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD mRNA level at 3-12h and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD mRNA level at 12h in ovary, while increasing aromatase mRNA levels at 6, 24, and 48 h. It is interesting that administration of DHEA caused a significant increase of 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD and aromatase mRNA levels in adrenal. The AD and T contents also markedly increased by 537% and 2737% after DHEA administration in ovariectomised rats, in company with a significant increase in 17β-HSD and 3β-HSD mRNA levels and decreased aromatase mRNA level in adrenal. However, DHEA administration did not restore the decreased E2, estrone (E1, and progesterone (P caused by the removal of the ovaries in females. These results clearly illustrated that exogenous DHEA is preferentially converted into androgens in adrenal, while its conversion to estrogens mainly happens in the ovary through steroidogenic enzyme in female rats.

  6. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F; Khalil, K I; Hussein, A M; Zaki, M S A; Eid, R A; Alkhateeb, M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on memory and cognition in experimental animals is well known, but its efficacy in clinical dementia is unproven. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHEA on learning and memory activities in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). Forty-eight male rats that positively passed the holeboard memory test were chosen for the study before bilateral permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery. They were divided into four groups (n=12, each) as follows (i) untreated control, (ii) rats exposed to surgical permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) leading to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, (iii) rats exposed to BCCAO then received DHEA (BCCAO + DHEA) and (i.v.) rats exposed to BCCAO then received donepezil (BCCAO + DON). Holeboard memory test was used to assess the time, latency, working memory and reference memory. Central level of acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine in the hippocampus were measured. Furthermore, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was determined. Histopathological studies of the cerebral cortex and transmission electron microscope of the hippocampus were performed. BCCAO decreased the learning and memory activities in the holeboard memory. Also, it decreased the expression of BDNF as well as the central level of acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine as compared to control rats. Treatment with DHEA and donepezil increased the working and reference memories, BDNF expression as well as the central acetylcholine in the hippocampus as compared to BCCAO rats. DHEA produced neuroprotective effects through increasing the expression of BDNF as well as increasing the central level of acetylcholine and catecholamines which are non-comparable to donepezil effects.

  7. The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects the retina from AMPA-induced excitotoxicity: NGF TrkA receptor involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Gravanis, Achille; Thermos, Kyriaki

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective properties of the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in an in vivo model of retinal excitotoxicity, and the involvement of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in its actions. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) received intravitreally (RS)-alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid hydrobromide (AMPA; 42 nmol/eye) alone or in combination with DHEA (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6) M), or PBS (50 mM, control group). To examine the involvement of NGF and its TrkA receptor in the pharmacological effects of DHEA, animals received AMPA and NGF (60 pg/eye) in the absence or presence of a TrkA receptor inhibitor (Calbiochem 648450, 10(-6) M) or AMPA, DHEA (10(-6) M) and TrkA receptor inhibitor (10(-6), 10(-5) M). Immunohistochemistry studies [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), brain nitric oxide synthetase (bNOS), calbindin, and TUNEL] and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to examine retinal cell loss and protection. TrkA receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) and colocalization studies with relevant markers were also performed. AMPA (42 nmol) treatment resulted in a loss of bNOS, ChAT and calbindin immunoreactivities 24 h after its administration. DHEA, administered intravitreally, protected the retina from excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was mimicked by NGF, and reversed by the NGF TrkA receptor inhibitor. The TrkA receptor is expressed in ganglion cells of rat retina. TUNEL staining and FACS analysis substantiated the neuroprotective actions of DHEA. These results demonstrate for the first time that the neurosteroid DHEA, administered intravitreally, protects the retina from AMPA excitotoxicity. An NGF TrkA receptor mechanism appears to be involved in this neuroprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8.  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, osteoprotegerin and its soluble ligand sRANKL and bone metabolism in girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Ostrowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Only scarce data exist concerning the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and/or its sulfate form DHEAS and bone status in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN.Aim:We investigated whether a relationship existed between DHEAS and bone metabolism (as assessed based on serum osteocalcin [OC], and collagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide [CTx]. We also aimed to establish whether the above mentioned relationship might be affected by osteoprotegerin (OPG and its soluble ligand sRANKL.Material/Methods:Fifty-six female patients with AN and 21 healthy female subjects aged 13 to 16 years participated in the study. Serum DHEAS, OC, CTx, OPG and sRANKL were measured by ELISA.Results:Our female patients with AN demonstrated significant suppression of DHEAS and bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL levels, and a reduction of the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio correlated positively with BMI. A significant positive correlation was also observed between DHEAS and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, OC and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and CTx and sRANKL. The correlation was negative in the case of DHEAS and CTx, DHEAS and sRANKL, CTx and the OPG/sRANKL ratio, and sRANKL and the OPG/sRANKL ratio.Discussion/DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa was associated with a decrease in the levels of bone markers, an increase in OPG and sRANKL concentrations and a significant decrease in the OPG/sRANKL ratio. DHEAS suppression in girls with anorexia nervosa might have a harmful effect on their bone tissue, probably via a shift in the OPG/RANKL ratio toward a functional excess of sRANKL.

  9. Ample Evidence: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Conversion into Activated Steroid Hormones Occurs in Adrenal and Ovary in Female Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqiao; Kang, Jian; Chen, Di; Han, Ningning; Ma, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is important for human health, especially for women. All estrogens and practically half of androgens are synthesized from DHEA in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism and exact target tissues of DHEA biotransformation in the female are not fully clear. The present study showed that maximal content of androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were observed at 3h after DHEA administration in female rats, which was 264% and 8000% above the control, respectively. Estradiol (E2) content significantly increased at 6h after DHEA administration, which was 113% higher than that in control group. Gavage with DHEA could significantly reduce 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) mRNA level at 3-12h and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) mRNA level at 12h in ovary, while increasing aromatase mRNA levels at 6, 24, and 48 h. It is interesting that administration of DHEA caused a significant increase of 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD and aromatase mRNA levels in adrenal. The AD and T contents also markedly increased by 537% and 2737% after DHEA administration in ovariectomised rats, in company with a significant increase in 17β-HSD and 3β-HSD mRNA levels and decreased aromatase mRNA level in adrenal. However, DHEA administration did not restore the decreased E2, estrone (E1), and progesterone (P) caused by the removal of the ovaries in females. These results clearly illustrated that exogenous DHEA is preferentially converted into androgens in adrenal, while its conversion to estrogens mainly happens in the ovary through steroidogenic enzyme in female rats.

  10. HIV-TB coinfection impairs CD8(+) T-cell differentiation and function while dehydroepiandrosterone improves cytotoxic antitubercular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Guadalupe V; Angerami, Matías T; Vecchione, María B; Laufer, Natalia; Turk, Gabriela; Ruiz, Maria J; Mesch, Viviana; Fabre, Bibiana; Maidana, Patricia; Ameri, Diego; Cahn, Pedro; Sued, Omar; Salomón, Horacio; Bottasso, Oscar A; Quiroga, María F

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients. The decreasing frequencies of terminal effector (TTE ) CD8(+) T cells may increase reactivation risk in persons latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have previously shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases the protective antitubercular immune responses in HIV-TB patients. Here, we aimed to study Mtb-specific cytotoxicity, IFN-γ secretion, memory status of CD8(+) T cells, and their modulation by DHEA during HIV-TB coinfection. CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients showed a more differentiated phenotype with diminished naïve and higher effector memory and TTE T-cell frequencies compared to healthy donors both in total and Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells. Notably, CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients displayed higher Terminal Effector (TTE ) CD45RA(dim) proportions with lower CD45RA expression levels, suggesting a not fully differentiated phenotype. Also, PD-1 expression levels on CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients increased although restricted to the CD27(+) population. Interestingly, DHEA plasma levels positively correlated with TTE in CD8(+) T cells and in vitro DHEA treatment enhanced Mtb-specific cytotoxic responses and terminal differentiation in CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients. Our data suggest that HIV-TB coinfection promotes a deficient CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, whereas DHEA may contribute to improving antitubercular immunity by enhancing CD8(+) T-cell functions during HIV-TB coinfection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Beneficial effects of the sigma1 receptor agonists igmesine and dehydroepiandrosterone against learning impairments in rats prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-01-01

    In utero cocaine (IUC) exposure results in offspring rats in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations, particularly affecting learning and memory processes. We examined here the impact of IUC exposure on memory functions in male and female offspring rats and report that selective sigma(1) (sigma(1)) receptor agonists are effective in reversing the deficits. Dams received a daily cocaine, 20 mg/kg ip, injection between gestational days E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P30 and P41 using delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. Both male and female rats prenatally exposed to cocaine showed delayed alternation deficits and impairments of acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water maze, as shown by higher acquisition latencies and diminutions of time spent in the training quadrant during the probe test. The acquisition of a daily changing platform position also demonstrated impaired working memory. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. Pretreatment with the synthetic sigma(1) agonist igmesine (0.1-1 mg/kg ip) or the neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA 10-40 mg/kg ip) reversed the prenatal cocaine-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The sigma(1) antagonist BD1063 (1 mg/kg ip) failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine and DHEA effects, confirming the involvement of the sigma(1) receptor. IUC exposure thus results in marked memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. The activation of the sigma(1) neuromodulatory receptor allows a complete behavioral recovery of the memory functions in prenatally cocaine-exposed rats.

  12. Metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone by rat hippocampal cells in culture: possible role of aromatization and 7-hydroxylation in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinck, P H; Lee, S J; McEwen, B S

    2001-10-01

    The rate of metabolism of the multifunctional neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), by embryonic rat hippocampal cells maintained in culture was compared to that of 4-androstenedione (AD), the immediate precursor of estrone (E1). The experiments were carried out to assess the relative contribution of DHEA, its 7-hydroxylated metabolites and estrogen on their reported effects on memory and neuroprotection. The 3H-labeled steroids of high specific radioactivity were incubated for 1, 8, 24 and 48 h and the putative metabolites extracted from the culture medium with acetone-ethyl acetate before separation by TLC for radioassay. [3H]DHEA (2.0 ng/5x10(5) cells) yielded primarily the 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxylated steroids in an almost equal ratio under conditions that resembled those used by others to study the protection of neurons by hippocampal astrocytes against excitatory amino acid-induced toxicity. The rate of conversion of DHEA to AD, and particularly to E1, was much lower. With [3H]AD as substrate, significant aromatization to estrogen occurred only after 24 h when most of [3H]DHEA had already been converted to its 7-hydroxylated products and the hydroxylase and aromatase systems would no longer be competing for the same coenzyme (NADPH). The hippocampal cells were still viable after 48 h of incubation with the steroids and were able to oxidize estradiol (E2) to E1 and reduce E1 to E2 and AD to testosterone (T). It is suggested that 7alpha- and 7beta-OHDHEA, the main metabolites formed in the rat hippocampus, might be responsible for some of the functions previously ascribed to estrogens in the brain and the reasons for this proposal are discussed.

  13. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in elderly men on event-related potentials, memory, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, O T; Naumann, E; Hellhammer, D H; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-09-01

    In humans, concentrations of the adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) decline with age. Results from studies in rodents have suggested that DHEA administration can improve memory performance as well as neuronal plasticity. However, a first study from our laboratory could not demonstrate beneficial effects of DHEA substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in elderly subjects. To further evaluate whether DHEA replacement has effects on the central nervous system, an experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs) was conducted. In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 17 elderly men (mean age, 71.1 +/- 1.7 yr; range 59-81 yr) took placebo or DHEA (50 mg/day) for 2 weeks (double blind). After each treatment period subjects participated in an auditory oddball paradigm with three oddball blocks. In the first two blocks subjects had to count the rare tone silently, whereas, in the third block they had to press a button. In addition, memory tests assessing visual, spatial, and semantic memory as well as questionnaires on psychological and physical well-being were presented. Baseline DHEAS levels were lower compared with young adults. After 2-week DHEA replacement, DHEAS levels rose 5-fold to levels observed in young men. DHEA substitution modulated the P3 component of the ERPs, which reflects information updating in short-term memory. P3 amplitude was increased after DHEA administration, and only selectively in the second oddball block. DHEA did not influence P3 latency. Moreover, DHEA did not enhance memory or mood. A 2-week DHEA replacement in elderly men results in changes in electrophysiological indices of central nervous system stimulus processing if the task is performed repeatedly. However, these effects do not appear to be strong enough to improve memory or mood.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone and the relationship with aging and memory: a possible link with protein kinase C functional machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racchi, M; Govoni, S; Solerte, S B; Galli, C L; Corsini, E

    2001-11-01

    A progressive decline of cognitive and memory functions, compared to the average young-life performance, characterizes brain aging. The changes in performance may depend upon altered activity of neurotransmitters acting on attention and memory trace formation (acetylcholine, catecholamines, glutamate, for example) or the failure of the transduction mechanisms linked to receptor activation. One of the fundamental cellular changes associated with brain aging is the alteration of mechanisms involving the activity of the calcium-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC). A crucial event for the activation of protein kinase C is its translocation from the cytosol to different intracellular sites and recent studies have demonstrated the key role played by several anchoring proteins in this mechanism. The defective activation of PKC-dependent pathways during aging is due to a defective mechanism of translocation of the kinase because of reduced levels of the major anchoring protein RACK-1 (receptor for activated C kinase). Pharmacological strategies aimed at the correction of age-associated memory deficits have been mostly focused on neurotransmitters using direct or indirect agonists. More recently, attention has been paid to the memory enhancing properties of some steroid hormones, namely 'neurosteroids'. Among these the activities of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnenolone (PREG) and their sulfates, have been extensively studied. These neuroactive steroids, can regulate neuronal function through their concurrent influence on transmitter-gated ion channels and gene expression. We addressed the possibility that DHEA, among other neurosteroids, could modulate directly the age-associated impairment of PKC signal transduction and provide experimental evidence that DHEA can revert the alteration of RACK-1 anchoring protein expression.

  15. Effect of Regular Yogic Training on Growth Hormone and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate as an Endocrine Marker of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridip Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS secretion decline with advancing age and are associated with the symptoms of aging. Yogic texts claimed that regular practice of yoga may restore and maintain general endocrinological properties in the human body. Objective of the Study. To observe the effect of yogic training for twelve weeks on basal level of GH and DHEAS in middle aged group. Method. Forty-five untrained volunteers were divided into two groups, that is, yoga practicing (experimental: male 15, age 42.80 ± 7.43 yrs; female 8, age 44.75 ± 8.40 yrs and waitlisted control group (male 15, age 41.67 ± 7.87 yrs; female 7, age 45.43 ± 7.00 yrs. The experimental group underwent combined yogic practices daily in the morning for 6 days/week for 12 weeks, whereas control group continued their usual routine activities. Standing height, body weight, body mass index, and basal level of GH and DHEAS were measured before commencement and after six and twelve weeks of yogic training period. The repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results. 12 weeks of yogic training produces a significant increase in GH and DHEAS for both male and female groups as compared to their baseline data, whereas no as such changes were observed in the control group. Conclusion. Combined approach of graded yogic training may be beneficial for maintaining the basal level of GH and DHEAS in the human body, thus promoting healthy aging.

  16. Enhancement of zidovudine uptake by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in rat syncytiotrophoblast cell line TR-TBT 18d-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Seki, Yoshiaki; Sato, Kazuko; Chishu, Takuya; Kose, Noriko; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Kang, Young-Sook; Sai, Yoshimichi; Nakashima, Emi

    2008-10-01

    AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; zidovudine), which is used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, is transplacentally transferred to the fetus across the blood-placenta barrier, which is composed of syncytiotrophoblasts. We recently showed that apical uptake of AZT by syncytiotrophoblasts is mediated by saturable transport system(s) in the TR-TBT 18d-1 cell line, and the cellular accumulation of AZT was increased in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Here, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of this effect of DHEAS. Inhibitors of efflux transporters, including breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and multidrug resistance proteins, had little effect on the cellular accumulation of AZT in TR-TBT 18d-1. Kinetic study revealed that the rate constant for AZT uptake was greatly increased in the presence of 1 mM DHEAS. These results suggested that the effect of DHEAS was because of enhancement of the uptake process(es), rather than inhibition of efflux. When AZT uptake was analyzed according to the Michaelis-Menten equation, the estimated Michaelis constant, Km, for AZT uptake in the presence of 1 mM DHEAS was lower than that in its absence, whereas maximum uptake velocity, Vmax, and nonsaturable uptake clearance, kns, were similar in the presence and absence of DHEAS, indicating that DHEAS may change the recognition characteristics of the transporter for AZT in TR-TBT 18d-1. Thus, the increase of AZT uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells in the presence of DHEAS was concluded to be because of a DHEAS-induced change in the affinity of AZT uptake system, although the transporter responsible for AZT uptake has not been identified.

  17. A rapid, simple questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal symptoms after oral ferrous sulphate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Couto Irving, Susana S; Lomer, Miranda C E; Powell, Jonathan J

    2014-06-04

    Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n = 10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean ± SEM = 6.7 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2 ± 0.5) (p = 0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6 ± 2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0 ± 0.7) although this did not reach significance (p = 0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p ≤ 0.03). A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side

  18. Reuse of partially sulphated CFBC ash as an SO{sub 2} sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy; Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Physics; Montagnaro, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Ash produced from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers typically contains large amounts of unreacted calcium oxide (CaO) when limestone is added into the combustor for in situ removal of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This paper reported on a study that evaluated the reactivation of partially sulphated ash obtained from an industrial circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler by hydration with liquid water and steam. A pilot-scale mini-CFBC was used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in solution or as powder. Re-sulphation tests on the hydrated samples were performed in a Cahn 1000 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at 850 degrees C for 90 minutes in a simulated flue gas environment with sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentration at 5000 ppm. Re-sulphation was carried out on unhydrated ash at the same conditions used in the baseline test. The TGA results showed that although liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, but the fly ash by itself was extremely reactive. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was negligible if Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution improved SO{sub 2} removal, but to a lesser extent than if only water hydration was used. Increasing the amount of water to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. It was concluded that reactivation by water is the most practical way to reuse the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Fell-Muir Lecture: chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycans: fun for some and confusion for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterson, Bruce

    2012-02-01

    This review emphasizes the importance of glycobiology in nature and aims to highlight, simplify and summarize the multiple functions and structural complexities of the different oligosaccharide combinatorial domains that are found in chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CS/DS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. For example, there are 1008 different pentasaccharide sequences possible within CS, DS or CS/DS hybrid GAG chains. These combinatorial possibilities provide numerous potential ligand-binding domains that are important for cell and extracellular matrix interactions as well as specific associations with cytokines, chemokines, morphogens and growth factors that regulate cellular differentiation and proliferation during tissue development, for example, morphogen gradient establishment. The review provides some details of the large and diverse number of different enzymes that are involved in CS/DS biosynthesis and attempts to explain how differences in their expression patterns in different cell types can lead to subtle but important differences in the GAG metabolism that influence cellular proliferation and differentiation in development as well as regeneration and repair in disease. Our laboratory was the first to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that very specifically recognize different ‘native’ sulphation motif/epitopes in CS/DS GAG chains. These monoclonal antibodies have been used to identify very specific spatio-temporal expression patterns of CS/DS sulphation motifs that occur during tissue and organ development (in particular their association with stem/progenitor cell niches) and also their recapitulated expression in adult tissues with the onset of degenerative joint diseases. In summary, diversity in CS/DS sulphation motif expression is a very important necessity for animal life as we know it.

  20. The Role of Diltiazem enriched with Zinc sulphate in Anal Fissure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamoudi Mosah Alsumbouly

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic anal fissure has traditionally been treated surgically. Initial enthusiasm for chemical sphincterotomy has waned because of poor outcomes with glyceryltrinitrate ointment. In this study the use of topical 2% diltiazem enriched with 2% Zinc sulphate ointment has been investigated as an alternative method of chemical sphincterotomy. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combined ointment of 2% diltiazem enriched with Zinc sulphate in the treatment of anal fissure, and to analyze the relationship between healing duration of the treatment, and the number of applications. A prospective observational study of 55 patients diagnosed with anal fissure that began treatment with three groups; control group A; using Vaseline ointment (15 cases, group B; (15 cases topical diltiazem ointment 2%, and group C; (20 cases using combined ointment diltiazem 2% enriched with Zinc sulphate 2% , between August and December 2012. Diltiazem and zinc sulphate ointment was prepared in the Pharmacy Service. Effectiveness and safety were assessed by regular visits as an outpatient management and a telephone survey conducted with each patient within 8 weeks of treatment, adding it to the patient\\s clinical records. Variables were analyzed including healing, adverse effects, duration of treatment and number of applications, among others. Follow-up was carried out for up to 3 months until complete recovery of the fissure. A total of 55 patients were included in the study , 50% of anal fissure cases were healed especially group C. Recovery occurred in 15% of patients with anal fissure in group B and in 3% of patients with anal group A. 50 % of patients fissure were cured who underwent treatment for a month or more. Treatment of chronic anal fissures with 2% diltiazem ointment enriched with Zinc sulphate 2% for two months has avoided surgery in nearly 50 % of patients, with few adverse effects. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 173-176

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate brJoint Statement by the German Society for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine [DGGEF] and the German Professional Association of Gynecologists [BVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is the most frequent circulating steroid hormone in humans. It is formed in the reticular zone of the adrenal glands to 90– 95% and, to a lower extent in the gonads and the brain where DHEA acts as neuro-steroid. There is an interconversion of DHEA to DHEAS in both directions. DHEAS levels in the blood are approximately 300 times higher in comparison to free DHEA levels. The DHEA peak levels are reached in the early morning hours whereas DHEAS is not subject to a circadian rhythm. Hence, DHEAS is well suitable for analysis in serum. DHEA is a universal precursor for the formation of androgen and estrogen in peripheral tissues. They contain enzyme systems such as 3beta-HSDH for the formation of androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the synthesis of testosterone and aromatase for estrogen-synthesis. Maximum levels of DHEA/DHEAS are reached between 20 and 30 years of age. At the age of 70 or older DHEAS levels can be up to 75% lower.br Mode of action: DHEA acts predominantly as steroid precursor in the biosynthesis of androgenic and estrogenic sex steroids. There have been no DHEA/ DHEAS receptors identified yet. DHEA and DHEAS bind and activate several receptors including ER-alpha and ER-beta, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors, PXR (pregnant-X-receptor, AUTO (constitutive androstane receptor and beyond that membrane receptors as neuro-steroids like NMDA receptors (N-methyl- D-aspartate, glutamate as positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and negative allosteric modulator. DHEA/DHEAS has a variety of dose independent effects like immune-modulation, effects on haemostasis, the lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism, bone health and mental health.br Pharmacology: The pharmacokinetic of DHEA depends on gender, dosing (25–50, 100 or 300 mg/day oral, no further increase of DHEA or DHEAS concentrations, respectively, and the route of application (oral, transdermal, vaginal. The oral

  2. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  3. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-11-10

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of eclampsia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (4 June 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant, or comparisons of different drugs, for pre-eclampsia. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 15 trials. Six (11,444 women) compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or no anticonvulsant: magnesium sulphate more than a halved the risk of eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 100, 95% CI 50 to 100), with a non-significant reduction in maternal death (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.10) but no clear difference in serious maternal morbidity (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.32). It reduced the risk of placental abruption (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; NNTB 100, 95% CI 50 to 1000), and increased caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). There was no clear difference in stillbirth or neonatal death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.15). Side effects, primarily flushing, were more common with magnesium sulphate (24% versus 5%; RR 5.26, 95% CI 4.59 to 6.03; number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 6, 95% CI 5 to 6).Follow-up was reported by one trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo: for 3375 women there was no clear difference in death (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.53) or morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.26) (median follow-up 26 months); for 3283 children exposed in utero

  4. Altered regulation of IL-6 production with normal aging. Possible linkage to the age-associated decline in dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfated derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynes, R A; Araneo, B A; Ershler, W B; Maloney, C; Li, G Z; Ryu, S Y

    1993-06-15

    Normal aging in humans has been recently shown to be accompanied by reduced control over production of the multifunctional cytokine IL-6. This cytokine was reported to be quantitatively elevated in most serum samples obtained from "normal" elderly humans. In the present investigation, we report that IL-6 levels are elevated in serum samples obtained from aged mice, and its spontaneous production could also be easily detected in culture supernatants of unstimulated lymphoid cells obtained from aged, but not mature, adult donors. Spontaneous production of IL-6 was consistently observed in culture supernatants of lymphoid cells from both the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes from aged donors, but was absent from supernatants derived from their peripheral lymph nodes. In aged mice, the reduced regulation of IL-6 production could be effectively prevented and/or reversed by supplementing aging animals with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, a steroid hormone whose endogenous production is known to decline with advancing age in all species tested. It was also established that serum obtained from old dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-treated mice contained lower (normal) levels of serum amyloid P substance (an acute phase reactant), reduced levels of serum Ig (all classes and isotypes) and lower titers of tissue-specific autoantibodies than untreated aged controls. Therefore, a number of well described, age-related conditions, some of which could be contributing to the pathologic phenotype of old age, may actually represent secondary effects to this age-associated change in IL-6 production.

  5. Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for poor-responder patients before and during IVF treatment improves the pregnancy rate: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, A; Gonen, O; Ghetler, Y; Shavit, T; Berkovitz, A; Shulman, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on in vitro fertilization (IVF) data and outcomes among poor-responder patients. A randomized, prospective, controlled study was conducted. All patients received the long-protocol IVF. Those in the study group received 75 mg of DHEA once a day before starting the next IVF cycle and during treatment. Thirty-three women with significantly diminished ovarian reserves were enrolled, 17 in the DHEA group and 16 in the control group. The 33 patients underwent 51 IVF cycles. The DHEA group demonstrated a non-significant improvement in estradiol levels on day of hCG (P = 0.09) and improved embryo quality during treatment (P = 0.04) between first and second cycles. Patients in the DHEA group also had a significantly higher live birth rate compared with controls (23.1% versus 4.0%; P = 0.05), respectively. Six of seven deliveries were among patients with secondary infertility (P = 0.006). Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation can have a beneficial effect on ovarian reserves for poor-responder patients on IVF treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01145144.

  6. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical outcome in poor responders: A pilot study in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, using bologna criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA supplementation in women with poor ovarian response (POR undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Private tertiary fertility clinic. MATERIALS AND Methods: 31 infertile women with POR diagnosed as per the Bologna criteria. Interventions: DHEA supplementation for 2 months and a subsequent IVF cycle, after two previous IVF cycles with POR. Main Outcome Measure(S: Dose and duration of gonadotropin therapy, oocyte yield, embryo number and quality, pregnancy and live birth rate. Results: No difference was seen in gonadotropin requirement before and after DHEA supplementation. There was a significant increase in total and metaphase II oocytes (5.9 ± 0.68 vs. 2.73 ± 0.24; 4.45 ± 0.47 vs. 2.09 ± 0.26, fertilization (3.65 ± 0.49 vs. 2.00 ± 0.27, Grade I embryos (1.52 ± 0.25 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, pregnancy rate (30% vs. 9.1% and live birth rate (25% vs 0% in those who completed the cycle, following DHEA supplementation. Conclusions: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in an improvement in oocyte yield, embryo quality, and live birth rate in a group of women with POR having undergone at least two previous failures due to POR.

  7. The Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone on the Expression of AT1 receptor and TNF-induced ICAM-1 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Saizhu; Wang Zidong; Zhou Zhongjiang; Zhou Kexiang; Wu Yanxian; Sun Fei; Rong Zhiyi; Ma Rui; Wei Heming

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To further investigate the molecular mechanism of vasoprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), we examined DHEA on AT1 receptor and ICAM-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods RT-PCR and Western Blot was used to determine the change of the expressions of mRNA and protein of AT1 and ICAM-1 when given various concentration dehydroepiandrosterone. Results 1.AT1 was abundant under the basal condition. The expression of AT1 mRNA and protein decreased after stimulated by DHEA (at 10-10mol/L , 10-8 mol/L, 10-6 mol/L), and the effects of DHEA on AT1 protein was dose-dependent. ER inhibitor Tamoxifen and AR inhibitor Flutamide enhanced AT1 protein expression, but did not influence the mRNA expression. 2. The exp-ression of ICAM-1 gene was low under the basal condition. It increased when induced by TNF-α,but decreased when induced by DHEA (at l0-10 mol/L, 10-8 mol/L, 10-6 mol/L) ,and the effects of DHEA on ICAM-1 gene expression were dose-dependent. Conclusions These findings suggest that DHEA modulates AT1 and inflammatory factor induced ICAM-1 gene expression in VSMC, but further studies are necessary in the mecha-nism of DHEA action.

  8. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    is a valuable tool for a more realistic assessment of SRB abundance in the natural environment. The distribution of SRB was investigated in a coastal marine sediment by hybridization of membrane-immobilized rRNA with oligonucleotide probes. As represented by general probe-target groups, SRB rRNA contributed...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates...

  9. Disturbance of hapten-antibody equilibria by ammonium sulphate solutions. A source of error in antibody affinity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, I J

    1975-12-01

    The affinity of anti-hapten antibody can be conveniently measured by precipitating immune complexes with ammonium sulphate. The method has, however, not proved very reproducible. Here is described one variable difficult to control in the assay: the ammonium sulphate was found to cause dissociation of ligands from hapten (NIP)--antibody complexes. The reason was the volume increase caused by addition of ammonium sulphate. The study suggested that in the calculation of the free hapten concentration the final volume during precipitation should be used. The precipitate should not be washed when hapten binding capacities are measured.

  10. Effect of sulphated polysaccharides on erythrocyte changes due to oxidative and nitrosative stress in experimental hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, C K; Josephine, A; Preetha, S P; Varalakshmi, P

    2007-12-01

    Kidney stones are known to haunt humanity for centuries and increase in oxalate is a predominant risk factor for stone formation. The present study was initiated with a notion to study the oxidative and nitrosative stress on erythrocytes under oxalate stress and the putative role of sulphated polysaccharides. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two groups by the administration of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and one of them was treated with sulphated polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus from the 8th day to the end of the experimental period of 28 days at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously. Control and drug control (sulphated polysaccharides alone) were also included in the study. Glycolic and glyoxylic acid levels of urine were analyzed as an index of hyperoxaluria. The plasma enzymic markers of cellular integrity, redox status of red blood cells, osmotic fragility, and (14)C-oxalate binding were investigated. Urine and plasma nitric oxide metabolites, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein, and mRNA were assessed in kidney to evaluate the nitrosative stress. Increased levels of glycolic and glyoxylic acid in urine indicated the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in ethylene glycol-administered groups. Plasma aspartate and alanine transaminase were not altered, but alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase of hyperoxaluric group were increased indicating tissue damage. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased, whereas erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation was increased in hyperoxaluric rats. Moreover, an altered fragility with an increase in oxalate binding activity was observed in hyperoxaluric group. Increase in nitric oxide metabolites levels in urine and plasma along with an increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein and mRNA in kidney were observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Administration of sulphated polysaccharides to hyperoxaluric rats averted the abnormal increase in urinary glycolic

  11. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  12. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varro, A; Dockray, G J

    1993-11-01

    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide sequence. The factors determining these post-translational processing events are still poorly understood. We have used brefeldin A, which disrupts transport from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to examine the mechanisms of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation of rat progastrin-derived peptides. Biosynthetic products were detected after immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the extreme C-terminus of progastrin, followed by reversed-phase and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Gastrin cells incorporated [3H]tyrosine, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate into both progastrin and its extreme C-terminal tryptic (nona-) peptide. Ion-exchange chromatography resolved four forms of the C-terminal tryptic fragment of progastrin which differed in whether they were phosphorylated at Ser96, sulphated at Tyr103, both or neither. The specific activity of [3H]tyrosine in the peak that was both phosphorylated and sulphated was higher than in the others. Brefeldin A inhibited the appearance of [3H]tyrosine-labelled C-terminal tryptic fragment but there was an accumulation of labelled progastrin and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 46 residues of progastrin. Brefeldin A also inhibited incorporation of 32P and 35S into both progastrin and its C-terminal fragment. Thus phosphorylation of Ser96, sulphation of Tyr103 and cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 depend on passage of newly synthesized progastrin along the secretory pathway; as brefeldin A is thought to act proximal to the trans-Golgi, these processing steps would appear to occur distal to this point. The data also indicate that the stores of unphosphorylated C-terminal tryptic fragment are not available for phosphorylation, implying that this modification occurs proximal to the secretory

  13. Lack of influence of dyspareunia on the beneficial effect of intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David; Bouchard, Céline; Fortier, Michel; Cusan, Leonello; Gomez, José-Luis; Girard, Ginette; Baron, Mira; Ayotte, Normand; Moreau, Michèle; Dubé, Robert; Côté, Isabelle; Labrie, Claude; Lavoie, Lyne; Gilbert, Lucy; Martel, Céline; Balser, John

    2014-07-01

    We have previously observed that intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) improved all domains of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Investigate the influence of moderate/severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) (MSD) at baseline on FSD following prasterone administration. The effect of daily administration of prasterone (0, 3.25 mg, 6.5 mg or 13 mg) for 12 weeks on FSD in 215 postmenopausal women with or without MSD at baseline was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial. Differences were examined on desire, arousal and orgasm. Comparable benefits were observed in women not having MSD (n = 56) vs. those having MSD (n = 159). The benefits over placebo in prasterone-treated women for desire, avoiding intimacy and vaginal dryness as well as for the total sexual domain of the MENQOL (Menopause Specific Quality of Life) questionnaire, ranged between 18.0% and 38.2% with P values of <0.05 or <0.01 except in one out of 12 subgroups. For the arousal/sensation, arousal/lubrication and summary score of the ASF (Abbreviated Sexual Function) questionnaire, in the MSD+ group, improvements of 64.2% (P = 0.01), 118% (P = 0.001) and 31.1% (P = 0.03) were observed over placebo, respectively, while similar differences (58.0%, 67.6% and 32.1%) did not reach statistical significance in the MSD- group having up to only 44 prasterone-treated women compared with 119 in the MSD+ group. No MSD at baseline does not apparently affect the effects of intravaginal prasterone on sexual dysfunction. Knowing the absence of significant effects of estrogens on FSD, the present data suggest that vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and vulvovaginal sexual dysfunction (VVSD) are two different consequences of sex steroid deficiency at menopause which can respond independently. In addition, the present data seriously question the justification of pain being part of FSD as well as the separation of FSD into

  14. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-12-13

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  16. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of uraemic toxins p-cresol sulphate and indoxyl sulphate in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Korytowska, Natalia; Sankowski, Bartłomiej; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    p-Cresol sulphate (pCS) and indoxyl sulphate (IS) are uraemic toxins, the concentration of which in serum correlate with the stage of renal failure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of pCS and IS in saliva. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a method has been developed using saliva. Unstimulated, fasting saliva was collected from healthy volunteers in the morning and pooled for validation assay. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, stability (freeze/thaw stability, stability in autosampler, short- and long-term stability, stock solution stability), dilution integrity and matrix effect. The analysed validation criteria were fulfilled. No influence of salivary flow (pCS: p=0.678; IS: p=0.238) nor type of swab in the Salivette device was detected. Finally, using the novel validated method, the saliva samples of healthy people (n=70) of various ages were analysed. We observed a tendency for an increase of concentration of toxins in saliva in the elderly. This could be a result of age-related diseases, e.g., diabetes and kidney function decline. We can conclude that the novel LC-MS/MS method can be used for the determination of pCS and IS in human saliva. The results encourage the validation of saliva as a clinical sample for monitoring toxin levels in organisms.

  17. Size-controlled preparation of α-calcium sulphate hemihydrate starting from calcium sulphate dihydrate in the presence of modifiers and the dissolution rate in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Gao, Jun; Yin, Hengbo; Liu, Fanggang; Wang, Aili; Zhu, Yongqiang; Wu, Zhanao; Jiang, Tingshun; Qin, Daming; Chen, Bujun; Ji, Yuqin; Sun, Min

    2013-08-01

    Different-sized α-calcium sulphate hemihydrate (α-CSH) rods were hydrothermally prepared by converting calcium sulphate dihydrate at 110-140°C in the presence of MgCl2, sodium citrate (CANa), and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the modifiers. The α-CSH rods with the average diameters and the average lengths in the ranges of 2.6-5.2 and 17.5-33.1 μm, respectively, were tunably prepared. The presence of the modifiers favoured the formation of small-sized α-CSH rods. The effect of the modifiers on decreasing the diameters of α-CSH rods was in an order of SDBS>CANa>MgCl2. The dissolution rates of the different-sized α-CSH rods prepared at 140°C in simulated body fluid were in an order of α-CSH (CANa)>α-CSH (MgCl2)>α-CSH (reference)>α-CSH (SDBS). The naked and small-sized α-CSH rods had high dissolution rates. The adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of α-CSH rods decreased their dissolution rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Element mobility during diagenesis: sulphate cementation of Rotliegend sandstones, Southern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluyas, J. [BP Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Jolley, L.; Primmer, T. [BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    Several wells in the Amethyst gas field of the North Sea`s Southern Basin are poor producers and have been since they were drilled. The lack of gas flow from these wells is due to pervasive cementation of the Rotliegend sandstone reservoir by either anhydrite and/or barite. Both minerals precipitated late in the diagenetic history of the sandstones. Such cements form up to 20% of the total rock. Isotopic and geochemical evidence indicate that the source of the elements for these sulphate cements was outside the Rotliegend sandstone. The sulphur and oxygen isotope data for the anhydrite and barite are unlike those which could have precipitated in Lower Permian times from an evaporating marine basin. Both the timing and distribution of these cements is taken to indicate that faulting allowed, or indeed promoted, mixing of sulphate-rich and barium-rich formation waters derived from the Zechstein and Carboniferous, respectively. (author)

  19. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  20. Study on the preparation and formation mechanism of barium sulphate nanoparticles modified by different organic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhua Shen; Chuanhao Li; Xuemei Zhu; Anjian Xie; Lingguang Qiu; Jinmiao Zhu

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports a simple method to prepare barium sulphate nanoparticles by use of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and stearic acid as modifier. The barium sulphate nanoparticles obtained are characterized by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic laser light scatter (DLLS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the BaSO4 particles are all spherical and in the nano-scale. Our method has a better dispersion and controllable diameter dependent on the length of the chain of organic acid and the pH value of the system. A possible mechanism is also discussed.