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Sample records for deformed epidermal autoregulatory

  1. Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1 interacts with the Ku70 subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Jensik

    Full Text Available Deformed Epidermal Autoregulatory Factor 1 (DEAF1 is a transcription factor linked to suicide, cancer, autoimmune disorders and neural tube defects. To better understand the role of DEAF1 in protein interaction networks, a GST-DEAF1 fusion protein was used to isolate interacting proteins in mammalian cell lysates, and the XRCC6 (Ku70 and the XRCC5 (Ku80 subunits of DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK complex were identified by mass spectrometry, and the DNA-PK catalytic subunit was identified by immunoblotting. Interaction of DEAF1 with Ku70 and Ku80 was confirmed to occur within cells by co-immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged proteins, and was mediated through interaction with the Ku70 subunit. Using in vitro GST-pulldowns, interaction between DEAF1 and the Ku70 subunit was mapped to the DEAF1 DNA binding domain and the C-terminal Bax-binding region of Ku70. In transfected cells, DEAF1 and Ku70 colocalized to the nucleus, but Ku70 could not relocalize a mutant cytoplasmic form of DEAF1 to the nucleus. Using an in vitro kinase assay, DEAF1 was phosphorylated by DNA-PK in a DNA-independent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DEAF1 or Ku70/Ku80 did not interfere with the DNA binding of each other, but DNA containing DEAF1 binding sites inhibited the DEAF1-Ku70 interaction. The data demonstrates that DEAF1 can interact with the DNA-PK complex through interactions of its DNA binding domain with the carboxy-terminal region of Ku70 that contains the Bax binding domain, and that DEAF1 is a potential substrate for DNA-PK.

  2. The structure of an LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4 and Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1 complex reveals a common mode of binding to LMO4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Joseph

    Full Text Available LIM-domain only protein 4 (LMO4 is a widely expressed protein with important roles in embryonic development and breast cancer. It has been reported to bind many partners, including the transcription factor Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1, with which LMO4 shares many biological parallels. We used yeast two-hybrid assays to show that DEAF1 binds both LIM domains of LMO4 and that DEAF1 binds the same face on LMO4 as two other LMO4-binding partners, namely LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1 and C-terminal binding protein interacting protein (CtIP/RBBP8. Mutagenic screening analysed by the same method, indicates that the key residues in the interaction lie in LMO4LIM2 and the N-terminal half of the LMO4-binding domain in DEAF1. We generated a stable LMO4LIM2-DEAF1 complex and determined the solution structure of that complex. Although the LMO4-binding domain from DEAF1 is intrinsically disordered, it becomes structured on binding. The structure confirms that LDB1, CtIP and DEAF1 all bind to the same face on LMO4. LMO4 appears to form a hub in protein-protein interaction networks, linking numerous pathways within cells. Competitive binding for LMO4 therefore most likely provides a level of regulation between those different pathways.

  3. Performance of Autoregulatory Senescence-inhibition Gene in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The performance of autoregulatory senescence-inhibition gene PSAG12--IPT in rice has been investigated in the study. 422 transgenic plants from 134 independent resistant calli were obtained from 4 rice varieties through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among them, 233were positive PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants identified by GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis.Southern analysis showed the transgene was randomly integrated into rice genome, of which 42.29 % was single copy. Investigations on photosynthesis function and agronomic characters of R1 generation showed that chlorophy Ⅱ content and photosynthesis rate of flag leaves in transgenic plants, were 41.23 96 and 60.24 % higher than the control wild-type rice, respectively. The growth duration and plant height of the transgenic plants were similar to the control. Variations of other characters were dependent on the varieties. For the variety Millin with significant aging phenomenon in China, its total grains per hill, its seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight were increased by 40.44%, 8.05% and 8.32% respectively. The results indicated that after leaf senescence of varieties liable to age was delayed, the seed setting rate and the filling degree of seeds were improved, which finally resulted in significantly increased seed yield and biomass per hill. The new variety Wuyujing 2 without serious aging problem, was also increased in the panicles per hill, the total grains per hill, the seed yield per hill and biomass in different degrees.

  4. Modeling Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution Autoregulatory and Hydrostatic Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. G.; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Feola, A.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Space flight induces a marked cephalad (headward) redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid potentially resulting in a loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency upon introduction into the microgravity environment. Using various types of computational models, we are investigating how this fluid redistribution may induce intracranial pressure changes, relevant to reported reductions in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Methods: We utilize a lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) model, augmented by compartments comprising the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) space, as the primary tool to describe how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. Models of ocular fluid pressures and biomechanics then accept the output of the above model as boundary condition input to allow more detailed, local analysis (see IWS Abstract by Ethier et al.). Recently, we enhanced the capabilities our previously reported CVS model through the implementation of robust autoregulatory mechanisms and a more fundamental approach to the implementation of hydrostatic mechanisms. Modifying the approach of Blanco et al., we implemented auto-regulation in a quasi-static manner, as an averaged effect across the span of one heartbeat. This approach reduced the higher frequency perturbations from the regulatory mechanism and was intended to allow longer simulation times (days) than models that implement within-beat regulatory mechanisms (minutes). A more fundamental approach to hydrostatics was implemented by a quasi-1D approach, in which compartment descriptions include compartment length, orientation and relative position, allowed for modeling of body orientation, relative body positioning and, in the future, alternative gravity environments. At this time the inclusion of hydrostatic mechanisms supplies additional capabilities to train and validate the CVS model

  5. EST Table: FS905677 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 CG8567-PB [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/12 32 %/155 aa FBpp01...ef|XP_966671.1| PREDICTED: similar to Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 CG8567-PB [Tribolium castaneum] DC540200 fufe ...

  6. The basic region of the diaphanous-autoregulatory domain (DAD) is required for autoregulatory interactions with the diaphanous-related formin inhibitory domain.

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    Wallar, Bradley J; Stropich, Brittany N; Schoenherr, Jessica A; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan M; Alberts, Arthur S

    2006-02-17

    Mammalian diaphanous-related (mDia) formins act as Rho GTPase effectors during cytoskeletal remodeling. Rho binding to mDia amino-terminal GTPase-binding domains (GBDs) causes the adjacent Dia-inhibitory domain (DID) to release the carboxyl-terminal Dia-autoregulatory (DAD) domain that flanks the formin homology-2 (FH2) domain. The release of DAD allows the FH2 domain to then nucleate and elongate nonbranched actin filaments. DAD, initially discovered as a region of homology shared between a phylogenetically divergent set of formin proteins, is comprised of a core motif, MDXLLXL, and an adjacent region is comprised of numerous basic residues, typically RRKR in the mDia family. Here, we show that these specific amino acids within the basic region of DAD contribute to the binding of DID and therefore the maintenance of the mDia autoregulatory mechanism. In addition, expression of full-length versions of mDia2 containing amino acid substitutions in either the DAD core or basic regions causes profound changes in the F-actin architecture, including the formation of filopodia-like structures that rapidly elongate from the cell edge. These studies further refine our understanding of the molecular contribution of DAD to mDia control and the role of mDia2 in the assembly of membrane protrusions.

  7. The autoregulatory loop: A common mechanism of regulation of key sex determining genes in insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh Kumar Kumar; Gajula Gopinath; Nagraj Sambrani; Kallare P Arunkumar

    2016-06-01

    Sex determination in most insects is structured as a gene cascade, wherein a primary signal is passed through a series of sex-determining genes, culminating in a downstream double-switch known as doublesex that decides the sexual fate of the embryo. From the literature available on sex determination cascades, it becomes apparent that sex determination mechanisms have evolved rapidly. The primary signal that provides the cue to determine the sex of the embryo varies remarkably, not only among taxa, but also within taxa. Furthermore, the upstream key gene in the cascade also varies between species and even among closely related species. The order Insecta alone provides examples of astoundingly complex diversity of upstream key genes in sex determination mechanisms. Besides, unlike key upstream genes, the downstream double-switch gene is alternatively spliced to form functional sex-specific isoforms. This sex-specific splicing is conserved across insect taxa. The genes involved in the sex determination cascade such as Sex-lethal (Sxl) in Drosophila melanogaster, transformer (tra) in many other dipterans, coleopterans and hymenopterans, Feminizer (fem) in Apis mellifera, and IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (Bmimp) in Bombyx mori are reported to be regulated by an autoregulatory positive feedback loop. In this review, by taking examples from various insects, we propose the hypothesis that autoregulatory loop mechanisms of sex determination might be a general strategy. We also discuss the possible reasons for the evolution of autoregulatory loops in sex determination cascades and their impact on binary developmental choices.

  8. The autoregulatory loop: A common mechanism of regulation of key sex determining genes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawanth, Suresh Kumar; Gopinath, Gajula; Sambrani, Nagraj; Arunkumar, Kallare P

    2016-06-01

    Sex determination in most insects is structured as a gene cascade, wherein a primary signal is passed through a series of sex-determining genes, culminating in a downstream double-switch known as doublesex that decides the sexual fate of the embryo. From the literature available on sex determination cascades, it becomes apparent that sex determination mechanisms have evolved rapidly. The primary signal that provides the cue to determine the sex of the embryo varies remarkably, not only among taxa, but also within taxa. Furthermore, the upstream key gene in the cascade also varies between species and even among closely related species. The order Insecta alone provides examples of astoundingly complex diversity of upstream key genes in sex determination mechanisms. Besides, unlike key upstream genes, the downstream double-switch gene is alternatively spliced to form functional sex-specific isoforms. This sex-specific splicing is conserved across insect taxa. The genes involved in the sex determination cascade such as Sex-lethal (Sxl) in Drosophila melanogaster, transformer (tra) in many other dipterans, coleopterans and hymenopterans, Feminizer (fem) in Apis mellifera, and IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (Bmimp) in Bombyx mori are reported to be regulated by an autoregulatory positive feedback loop. In this review, by taking examples from various insects, we propose the hypothesis that autoregulatory loop mechanisms of sex determination might be a general strategy. We also discuss the possible reasons for the evolution of autoregulatory loops in sex determination cascades and their impact on binary developmental choices.

  9. Continuous Autoregulatory Indices Derived from Multi-Modal Monitoring: Each One Is Not Like the Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Donnelly, Joseph; Menon, David K; Smielewski, Peter; Zweifel, Christian; Brady, Ken; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-07-21

    We assess the relationships between various continuous measures of autoregulatory capacity in a cohort of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed relationships between autoregulatory indices derived from intracranial pressure (ICP: PRx, PAx, RAC), transcranial Doppler (TCD: Mx, Sx, Dx), brain tissue-oxygenation (ORx), and spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS resolved: TOx, THx). Relationships between indices were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, Friedman test, principal component analysis (PCA), agglomerative hierarchal clustering (AHC) and k-means cluster analysis (KMCA). All analytic techniques were repeated for a range of temporal resolutions of data, including minute-by-minute averages, moving means of 30 samples, and grand mean for each patient. Thirty-seven patients were studied. The PRx displayed strong association with PAx/RAC across all the analytical techniques: Pearson correlation (r = 0.682/r = 0.677, p < 0.0001), PCA, AHC, and KMCA in the grand mean data sheet. Most TCD-based indices (Mx, Dx) were correlated and co-clustered on PCA, AHC, and KMCA. The Sx was found to be more closely associated with ICP-derived indices on Pearson correlation, PCA, AHC, and KMCA. The NIRS indices displayed variable correlation with each other and with indices derived from ICP and TCD signals. Of interest, TOx and THx co-cluster with ICP-based indices on PCA and AHC. The ORx failed to display any meaningful correlations with other indices in neither of the analytical method used. Thirty-minute moving average and minute-by-minute data set displayed similar results across all the methods. The RAC, Mx, and Sx were the strongest predictors of outcome at six months. Continuously updating autoregulatory indices are not all correlated with one another. Caution must be advised when utilizing less commonly described autoregulation indices (i.e., ORx) for the clinical assessment of autoregulatory capacity, because they appear

  10. Microfluidic vias enable nested bioarrays and autoregulatory devices in Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalov, Emil P; Walker, Christopher; Taylor, Clive R; Anderson, W French; Scherer, Axel

    2006-08-15

    We report on a fundamental technological advance for multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics. Vertical passages (vias), connecting channels located in different layers, are fabricated monolithically, in parallel, by simple and easy means. The resulting 3D connectivity greatly expands the potential complexity of microfluidic architecture. We apply the vias to printing nested bioarrays and building autoregulatory devices. A current source is demonstrated, while a diode and a rectifier are derived; all are building blocks for analog circuitry in Newtonian fluids. We also describe microfluidic septa and their applications. Vias lay the foundation for a new generation of microfluidic devices.

  11. Verrucous epidermal nevus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Randie; Marmon, Shoshana; Kaplan, Jennifer; Kamino, Hideko; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a three-year history of an enlarging, pruritic, linear, verrucous plaque on his left lower extremity. Histopathologic examination was consistent with a verrucous epidermal nevus, which is a benign epidermal hamartoma, most commonly observed in the pediatric population. Verrucous epidermal nevi are often refractory to treatment and have high rates of recurrences, causing them to be therapeutic challenges. We review the treatment modalities reported to be effect...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: epidermal nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thicker and darker and develop a wart-like (verrucous) appearance. Often, keratinocytic epidermal nevi follow a pattern ... are also known as linear epidermal nevi or verrucous epidermal nevi, based on characteristics of their appearance. ...

  13. Reversible anuric acute kidney injury secondary to acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriano, Louis J; Maesaka, John K; Drakakis, James; Mattana, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Autoregulation of glomerular capillary pressure via regulation of the resistances at the afferent and efferent arterioles plays a critical role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate over a wide range of mean arterial pressure. Angiotensin II and prostaglandins are among the agents which contribute to autoregulation and drugs which interfere with these agents may have a substantial impact on afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance. We describe a patient who suffered an episode of anuric acute kidney injury following exposure to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent while on two diuretics, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and an angiotensin receptor blocker. The episode completely resolved and we review some of the mechanisms by which these events may have taken place and suggest the term "acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction" to describe this syndrome.

  14. PML, YAP, and p73 are components of a proapoptotic autoregulatory feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Eleonora; Di Agostino, Silvia; Donzelli, Sara; Gal, Hilah; Domany, Eytan; Rechavi, Gideon; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Givol, David; Strano, Sabrina; Lu, Xin; Blandino, Giovanni

    2008-12-26

    p73 has been identified as a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been demonstrated to interact with and to enhance p73-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Here, we show the existence of a proapoptotic autoregulatory feedback loop between p73, YAP, and the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) tumor suppressor gene. We demonstrate that PML is a direct transcriptional target of p73/YAP, and we show that PML transcriptional activation by p73/YAP is under the negative control of the proto-oncogenic Akt/PKB kinase. Importantly, we find that PML and YAP physically interact through their PVPVY and WW domains, respectively, causing PML-mediated sumoylation and stabilization of YAP. Hence, we determine a mechanistic pathway in response to DNA damage that could have relevant implications for the treatment of human cancer.

  15. Unifying Views of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Consideration of Autoregulatory Feedback Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Caitlin; Fishell, Gord; Tsien, Richard W

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a challenging goal. Here we review recent progress on several fronts, including genetics, proteomics, biochemistry, and electrophysiology, that raise motivation for forming a viable pathophysiological hypothesis. In place of a traditionally unidirectional progression, we put forward a framework that extends homeostatic hypotheses by explicitly emphasizing autoregulatory feedback loops and known synaptic biology. The regulated biological feature can be neuronal electrical activity, the collective strength of synapses onto a dendritic branch, the local concentration of a signaling molecule, or the relative strengths of synaptic excitation and inhibition. The sensor of the biological variable (which we have termed the homeostat) engages mechanisms that operate as negative feedback elements to keep the biological variable tightly confined. We categorize known ASD-associated gene products according to their roles in such feedback loops and provide detailed commentary for exemplar genes within each module.

  16. Diverse forms of RPS9 splicing are part of an evolving autoregulatory circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Plocik

    Full Text Available Ribosomal proteins are essential to life. While the functions of ribosomal protein-encoding genes (RPGs are highly conserved, the evolution of their regulatory mechanisms is remarkably dynamic. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RPGs are unusual in that they are commonly present as two highly similar gene copies and in that they are over-represented among intron-containing genes. To investigate the role of introns in the regulation of RPG expression, we constructed 16 S. cerevisiae strains with precise deletions of RPG introns. We found that several yeast introns function to repress rather than to increase steady-state mRNA levels. Among these, the RPS9A and RPS9B introns were required for cross-regulation of the two paralogous gene copies, which is consistent with the duplication of an autoregulatory circuit. To test for similar intron function in animals, we performed an experimental test and comparative analyses for autoregulation among distantly related animal RPS9 orthologs. Overexpression of an exogenous RpS9 copy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells induced alternative splicing and degradation of the endogenous copy by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD. Also, analysis of expressed sequence tag data from distantly related animals, including Homo sapiens and Ciona intestinalis, revealed diverse alternatively-spliced RPS9 isoforms predicted to elicit NMD. We propose that multiple forms of splicing regulation among RPS9 orthologs from various eukaryotes operate analogously to translational repression of the alpha operon by S4, the distant prokaryotic ortholog. Thus, RPS9 orthologs appear to have independently evolved variations on a fundamental autoregulatory circuit.

  17. Toksisk epidermal nekrolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, mostly drug-induced life-threatening mucocutaneous reaction with generalised symptoms and internal organ involvement. Current treatment strategy focuses on supportive intensive care with close collaboration among many specialties. Specific therapies...

  18. Effect of exogenous administration of Candida albicans autoregulatory alcohols in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida; Lazzell, Anna L; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2012-08-01

    Candida albicans supernatants contain a mixture of autoregulatory alcohols. In vitro, when added individually or in combination, these alcohols inhibit the yeast to filamentous form conversion. Here we evaluate the in vivo effect of the exogenous administration of a Cocktail solution simulating the composition of alcohols present in a C. albicans culture supernatant (1 ml; 94 μmol l(-1) isoamyl alcohol, 70 μmol l(-1) 2-phenylethanol, 3.2 n mol l(-1) E -nerolidol, and 18 n mol l(-1) E,E -farnesol) using the well established murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Mice injected intraperitoneally with the Cocktail solution demonstrated increased survival and decreased organ fungal burden compared to control mice. Histological observations suggest that the Cocktail, to some extent, has an inhibitory effect on cell filamentation within the kidney. These findings suggest that the exogenous administration of C. albicans autoregulatory alcohols displays a protective effect during disseminated candidiasis.

  19. Splicing factors act as genetic modulators of TDP-43 production in a new autoregulatory TDP-43 Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marine; Miguel, Laetitia; Miel, Camille; Avequin, Tracey; Juge, François; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Lecourtois, Magalie

    2017-09-01

    TDP-43 is a critical RNA-binding factor associated with RNA metabolism. In the physiological state, maintaining normal TDP-43 protein levels is critical for proper physiological functions of the cells. As such, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. TDP-43 is a major disease-causing protein in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Several studies argue for a pathogenic role of elevated TDP-43 levels in these disorders. Modulating the cycle of TDP-43 production might therefore provide a new therapeutic strategy. In this study, we developed a new transgenic Drosophila model mimicking the TDP-43 autoregulatory feedback loop in order to identify genetic modulators of TDP-43 protein steady-state levels in vivo. First, we showed that our TDP-43_TDPBR Drosophila model recapitulates key features of the TDP-43 autoregulatory processes previously described in mammalian and cellular models, namely alternative splicing events, differential usage of polyadenylation sites, nuclear retention of the transcript and a decrease in steady-state mRNA levels. Using this new Drosophila model, we identified several splicing factors, including SF2, Rbp1 and Sf3b1, as genetic modulators of TDP-43 production. Interestingly, our data indicate that these three RNA-binding proteins regulate TDP-43 protein production, at least in part, by controlling mRNA steady-state levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An HIV feedback resistor: auto-regulatory circuit deactivator and noise buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Leor S; Shenk, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Animal viruses (e.g., lentiviruses and herpesviruses) use transcriptional positive feedback (i.e., transactivation) to regulate their gene expression. But positive-feedback circuits are inherently unstable when turned off, which presents a particular dilemma for latent viruses that lack transcriptional repressor motifs. Here we show that a dissipative feedback resistor, composed of enzymatic interconversion of the transactivator, converts transactivation circuits into excitable systems that generate transient pulses of expression, which decay to zero. We use HIV-1 as a model system and analyze single-cell expression kinetics to explore whether the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) uses a resistor to shut off transactivation. The Tat feedback circuit was found to lack bi-stability and Tat self-cooperativity but exhibited a pulse of activity upon transactivation, all in agreement with the feedback resistor model. Guided by a mathematical model, biochemical and genetic perturbation of the suspected Tat feedback resistor altered the circuit's stability and reduced susceptibility to molecular noise, in agreement with model predictions. We propose that the feedback resistor is a necessary, but possibly not sufficient, condition for turning off noisy transactivation circuits lacking a repressor motif (e.g., HIV-1 Tat). Feedback resistors may be a paradigm for examining other auto-regulatory circuits and may inform upon how viral latency is established, maintained, and broken.

  1. An HIV feedback resistor: auto-regulatory circuit deactivator and noise buffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor S Weinberger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal viruses (e.g., lentiviruses and herpesviruses use transcriptional positive feedback (i.e., transactivation to regulate their gene expression. But positive-feedback circuits are inherently unstable when turned off, which presents a particular dilemma for latent viruses that lack transcriptional repressor motifs. Here we show that a dissipative feedback resistor, composed of enzymatic interconversion of the transactivator, converts transactivation circuits into excitable systems that generate transient pulses of expression, which decay to zero. We use HIV-1 as a model system and analyze single-cell expression kinetics to explore whether the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat uses a resistor to shut off transactivation. The Tat feedback circuit was found to lack bi-stability and Tat self-cooperativity but exhibited a pulse of activity upon transactivation, all in agreement with the feedback resistor model. Guided by a mathematical model, biochemical and genetic perturbation of the suspected Tat feedback resistor altered the circuit's stability and reduced susceptibility to molecular noise, in agreement with model predictions. We propose that the feedback resistor is a necessary, but possibly not sufficient, condition for turning off noisy transactivation circuits lacking a repressor motif (e.g., HIV-1 Tat. Feedback resistors may be a paradigm for examining other auto-regulatory circuits and may inform upon how viral latency is established, maintained, and broken.

  2. Epidermal nevus syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Sarah; Sugarman, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    The term epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS) has been used to describe the association of epidermal hamartomas and extracutaneous abnormalities. Although many continue to use the term "ENS," it is now understood that this is not one disease, but rather a heterogeneous group with distinct genetic profiles defined by a common cutaneous phenotype: the presence of epidermal and adnexal hamartomas that are associated with other organ system involvement. One commonality is that epidermal nevi often follow the lines of Blaschko and it appears the more widespread the cutaneous manifestations, the greater the risk for extracutaneous manifestations. The majority of the extracutaneous manifestations involve the brain, eye, and skeletal systems. The CNS involvement is wide ranging and involves both clinical manifestations such as intellectual disability and seizures, as well as structural anomalies. Several subsets of ENS with characteristic features have been delineated including the nevus sebaceus syndrome, Proteus syndrome, CHILD syndrome, Becker's nevus syndrome, nevus comedonicus syndrome, and phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica. Advances in molecular biology have revealed that the manifestations of ENS are due to genomic mosaicism. It is likely that the varied clinical manifestations of ENS are due in great part to the functional effects of specific genetic defects. Optimal management of the patient with ENS involves an interdisciplinary approach given the potential for multisystem involvement. Of note, epidermal nevi have been associated with both benign and malignant neoplasms, and thus ongoing clinical follow-up is required.

  3. Epidermal nevus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Flores-Sarnat

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS) is an inclusive term for a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders characterized by the presence of epidermal nevi associated with systemic involvement. These disorders, as are all primary neurocutaneous syndromes, are neurocristopathies. The epidermal nevi that follow the lines of Blaschko and most systemic anomalies in skeletal, ocular, cardiovascular, endocrine, and orodental tissues, as well as lipomas, are due to defective neural crest. The most important and frequent anomaly in the brain in all forms of epidermal nevus syndromes (ENSs) is hemimegalencephaly (HME). This malformation often is not recognized, despite being the principal cause of neurological manifestations in ENSs. They consist mainly of epilepsy and developmental delay or intellectual disability. The onset of epilepsy in ENS usually is in early infancy, often as infantile spasms. Several syndromic forms have been delineated. I propose the term "Heide's syndrome" for those distinctive cases with the typical triad of hemifacial epidermal nevus, ipsilateral facial lipoma, and hemimegalencephaly. Most ENSs are sporadic. The mechanism is thought to be genetic mosaicism with a lethal autosomal dominant gene. Specific genetic mutations (PTEN, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and AKT1) have been documented in some patients. The large number of contributors for over more than a century and a half to the description of these disorders precludes the use of new author eponyms.

  4. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities.

  5. SIRT1 Undergoes Alternative Splicing in a Novel Auto-Regulatory Loop with p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cian J.; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Ford, Jack; Warnock, Lorna J.; Li, Han; Serrano, Manuel; Milner, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Background The NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a nutrient-sensitive coordinator of stress-tolerance, multiple homeostatic processes and healthspan, while p53 is a stress-responsive transcription factor and our paramount tumour suppressor. Thus, SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p53 has been identified as a key node in the common biology of cancer, metabolism, development and ageing. However, precisely how SIRT1 integrates such diverse processes remains to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that SIRT1 is alternatively spliced in mammals, generating a novel SIRT1 isoform: SIRT1-ΔExon8. We show that SIRT1-ΔExon8 is expressed widely throughout normal human and mouse tissues, suggesting evolutionary conservation and critical function. Further studies demonstrate that the SIRT1-ΔExon8 isoform retains minimal deacetylase activity and exhibits distinct stress sensitivity, RNA/protein stability, and protein-protein interactions compared to classical SIRT1-Full-Length (SIRT1-FL). We also identify an auto-regulatory loop whereby SIRT1-ΔExon8 can regulate p53, while in reciprocal p53 can influence SIRT1 splice variation. Conclusions/Significance We characterize the first alternative isoform of SIRT1 and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in mammalian tissues. The results also reveal a new level of inter-dependency between p53 and SIRT1, two master regulators of multiple phenomena. Thus, previously-attributed SIRT1 functions may in fact be distributed between SIRT1 isoforms, with important implications for SIRT1 functional studies and the current search for SIRT1-activating therapeutics to combat age-related decline. PMID:20975832

  6. SIRT1 undergoes alternative splicing in a novel auto-regulatory loop with p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian J Lynch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a nutrient-sensitive coordinator of stress-tolerance, multiple homeostatic processes and healthspan, while p53 is a stress-responsive transcription factor and our paramount tumour suppressor. Thus, SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p53 has been identified as a key node in the common biology of cancer, metabolism, development and ageing. However, precisely how SIRT1 integrates such diverse processes remains to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that SIRT1 is alternatively spliced in mammals, generating a novel SIRT1 isoform: SIRT1-ΔExon8. We show that SIRT1-ΔExon8 is expressed widely throughout normal human and mouse tissues, suggesting evolutionary conservation and critical function. Further studies demonstrate that the SIRT1-ΔExon8 isoform retains minimal deacetylase activity and exhibits distinct stress sensitivity, RNA/protein stability, and protein-protein interactions compared to classical SIRT1-Full-Length (SIRT1-FL. We also identify an auto-regulatory loop whereby SIRT1-ΔExon8 can regulate p53, while in reciprocal p53 can influence SIRT1 splice variation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We characterize the first alternative isoform of SIRT1 and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in mammalian tissues. The results also reveal a new level of inter-dependency between p53 and SIRT1, two master regulators of multiple phenomena. Thus, previously-attributed SIRT1 functions may in fact be distributed between SIRT1 isoforms, with important implications for SIRT1 functional studies and the current search for SIRT1-activating therapeutics to combat age-related decline.

  7. Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shazly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.

  8. Disassociation of Static and Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulatory Performance in Healthy Volunteers After Lipopolysaccharide Infusion and in Patients with Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan Martin Griffin; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Ronit, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    autoregulatory performance after LPS infusion and in patients with sepsis was similar to values in healthy volunteers at baseline. In contrast, TFA showed decreased gain and an increased phase difference between blood pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity after LPS (both p ...-experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during early sepsis, and (ii) in patients with advanced clinical sepsis. Cerebral autoregulation was tested using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (i) before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in healthy volunteers (n=9), and (ii) in patients......); patients exhibited similar gain but lower phase difference values (p

  9. Auto-Regulatory RNA Editing Fine-Tunes mRNA Re-Coding and Complex Behaviour in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175

  10. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  11. Targeting epidermal Langerhans cells by epidermal powder immunization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Immune reactions to foreign or self-antigens lead to protective immunity and, sometimes, immune disorders such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. Antigen presenting cells (APC) including epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) play an important role in the course and outcome of the immune reactions. Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) is a technology that offers a tool to manipulate the LCs and the potential to harness the immune reactions towards prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and immune disorders.

  12. Toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Florence; Humbert, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe mucocutaneous drug-induced syndrome that causes massive keratinocyte apoptosis and therefore hydro-electrolytic disorders and systemic infection. TEN approximately affects one to two cases per million per year. Mortality rate may reach thirty percent of cases. Thus, TEN constitutes a therapeutic emergency at diagnosis. Typically, clinical examination shows a mucocutaneous detachment involving more than thirty percent of body area. Definitive diagnosis is made on cutaneous biopsy with histological exam that shows the blister of necrotic keratinocytes. Main differential diagnosis are acute staphylococcus epidermis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous fixed pigmented erythema, acute lupus erythematosus. In the early days, SCORTEN gives a good estimation and is now widely used as prognostic score. Drugs are generally considered as the main etiology of TEN but in some cases bacterial or viral infections could be involved. Physiopathology remains unclear even if recent advances have reported the possible implication of immune pathways based on activation of T and NK cells. Treatment of TEN requires to be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made and the patient is preferentially referred to a specialized unit. Supportive care consist of covering areas of cutaneous detachment. No other therapy has demonstrated its efficiency, but high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin might improve the prognosis.

  13. A novel P53/POMC/Gαs/SASH1 autoregulatory feedback loop activates mutated SASH1 to cause pathologic hyperpigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ding'an; Wei, Zhiyun; Kuang, Zhongshu; Luo, Huangchao; Ma, Jiangshu; Zeng, Xing; Wang, Ke; Liu, Beizhong; Gong, Fang; Wang, Jing; Lei, Shanchuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Jiawei; Wang, Teng; He, Yong; Yuan, Yongqiang; Dai, Hongying; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe

    2017-04-01

    p53-Transcriptional-regulated proteins interact with a large number of other signal transduction pathways in the cell, and a number of positive and negative autoregulatory feedback loops act upon the p53 response. P53 directly controls the POMC/α-MSH productions induced by ultraviolet (UV) and is associated with UV-independent pathological pigmentation. When identifying the causative gene of dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH), we found three mutations encoding amino acid substitutions in the gene SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (SASH1), and SASH1 was associated with guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit-alpha isoforms short (Gαs). However, the pathological gene and pathological mechanism of DUH remain unknown for about 90 years. We demonstrate that SASH1 is physiologically induced by p53 upon UV stimulation and SASH and p53 is reciprocally induced at physiological and pathophysiological conditions. SASH1 is regulated by a novel p53/POMC/α-MSH/Gαs/SASH1 cascade to mediate melanogenesis. A novel p53/POMC/Gαs/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype. Our study demonstrates that a novel p53/POMC/Gαs/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype.

  14. Evolution of double positive autoregulatory feedback loops in CYCLOIDEA2 clade genes is associated with the origin of floral zygomorphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Pang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Bo-Ling; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Gao, Qiu; Wei, Lai; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Members of the CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2) clade of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF transcription factor genes are widely involved in controlling floral zygomorphy, a key innovation in angiosperm evolution, depending on their persistently asymmetric expression in the corresponding floral domains. However, it is unclear how this asymmetric expression is maintained throughout floral development. Selecting Primulina heterotricha as a model, we examined the expression and function of two CYC2 genes, CYC1C and CYC1D. We analyzed the role of their promoters in protein-DNA interactions and transcription activation using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transient gene expression assays. We find that CYC1C and CYC1D positively autoregulate themselves and cross-regulate each other. Our results reveal a double positive autoregulatory feedback loop, evolved for a pair of CYC2 genes to maintain their expression in developing flowers. Further comparative genome analyses, together with the available expression and function data of CYC2 genes in the core eudicots, suggest that this mechanism might have led to the independent origins of floral zygomorphy, which are associated with plant-insect coevolution and the adaptive radiation of angiosperms.

  15. HP1a/KDM4A is involved in the autoregulatory loop of the oncogene gene c-Jun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Daoyong

    2015-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Jun plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis, and its aberrant expression has been implicated in many cancers. Previous studies have shown that the c-Jun gene is positively autoregulated by its product. Notably, it has also been reported that c-Jun proteins are enriched in its gene body region. However, the role of c-Jun proteins in its gene body region has yet to be uncovered. HP1a is an evolutionarily conserved heterochromatin-associated protein, which plays an essential role in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. Interestingly, accumulating evidence shows that HP1a is also localized to euchromatic regions to positively regulate gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanism has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that HP1a is involved in the positive autoregulatory loop of the Jra gene, the c-Jun homolog in Drosophila. Jra recruits the HP1a/KDM4A complex to its gene body region upon osmotic stress to reduce H3K36 methylation levels and disrupt H3K36 methylation-dependent histone deacetylation, resulting in high levels of histone acetylation in the Jra gene body region, thus promoting gene transcription. These results not only expand our knowledge toward the mechanism of c-Jun regulation, but also reveal the mechanism by which HP1a exerts its positive regulatory function in gene expression.

  16. Ultrathin epidermal strain sensor based on an elastomer nanosheet with an inkjet-printed conductive polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsu, Yuma; Yamagishi, Kento; Kato, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuya; Tsukune, Mariko; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G.; Takeoka, Shinji; Fujie, Toshinori

    2017-08-01

    To minimize the interference that skin-contact strain sensors cause natural skin deformation, physical conformability to the epidermal structure is critical. Here, we developed an ultrathin strain sensor made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) inkjet-printed on a polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) nanosheet. The sensor, whose total thickness and gauge factor were ˜1 µm and 0.73 ± 0.10, respectively, deeply conformed to the epidermal structure and successfully detected the small skin strain (˜2%) while interfering minimally with the natural deformation of the skin. Such an epidermal strain sensor will open a new avenue for precisely detecting the motion of human skin and artificial soft-robotic skin.

  17. AUTOIMMUNE EPIDERMAL BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune bullous skin diseases (ABDs are uncommon, potentially fatal diseases of skin and mucous membranes which are associated with deposits of autoantibodies and complement against distinct molecules of the epidermis and dermal/epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ. These autoantibodies lead to a loss in skin molecular integrity, which manifests clinically as formation of blisters or erosions. In pemphigus vulgaris, loss of adhesion occurs within the epidermis. The pioneering work of Ernst H. Beutner, Ph.D. and Robert E. Jordon, M.D. confirmed the autoimmune nature of these diseases. Walter F. Lever, M.D. contributed significantly to our understanding of the histopathologic features of these diseases. Walter Lever, M.D. and Ken Hashimoto, M.D. contributed electron microscopic studies of these diseases, especially in pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. In bullous pemphigoid (BP, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, loss of adhesion takes place within or underneath the BMZ. Classic EBA demonstrates extensive skin fragility; DH is commonly associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and manifests clinically with pruritic papulovesicles on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the lumbosacral area. The clinical spectrum of bullous pemphigoid includes tense blisters, urticarial plaques, and prurigo-like eczematous lesions. Pemphigoid gestationis mostly occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy, and mucous membrane pemphigoid primarily involves the oral mucosa and conjunctivae and leads to scarring. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis manifests with tense blisters in a „cluster of jewels”-like pattern in childhood (chronic bullous disease of childhood and is more clinically heterogeneous in adulthood. Many of the autoantigens in these disorders are known and have been well characterized. ABDs may be influenced by both genetic and exogenous factors. The diagnoses of

  18. Photoacoustic measurement of epidermal melanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, John A.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2003-06-01

    Most dermatologic laser procedures must consider epidermal melanin, as it is a broadband optical absorber which affects subsurface fluence, effectively limiting the amount of light reaching the dermis and targeted chromophores. An accurate method for quantifying epidermal melanin content would aid clinicians in determining proper light dosage for therapeutic laser procedures. While epidermal melanin content has been quantified non-invasively using optical methods, there is currently no way to determine the melanin distribution in the epidermis. We have developed a photoacoustic probe that uses a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532nm to generate acoustic pulses in skin in vivo. The probe contained a piezoelectric element that detected photoacoustic waves which were then analyzed for epidermal melanin content, using a photoacoustic melanin index (PAMI). We tested 15 human subjects with skin types I--VI using the photoacoustic probe. We also present photoacoustic data for a human subject with vitiligo. Photoacoustic measurement showed melanin in the vitiligo subject was almost completely absent.

  19. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  20. EWS-FLI1 perturbs MRTFB/YAP-1/TEAD target gene regulation inhibiting cytoskeletal autoregulatory feedback in Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katschnig, A M; Kauer, M O; Schwentner, R; Tomazou, E M; Mutz, C N; Linder, M; Sibilia, M; Alonso, J; Aryee, D N T; Kovar, H

    2017-07-03

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a paediatric bone cancer with high metastatic potential. Cellular plasticity resulting from dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization, typically regulated via the Rho pathway, is a prerequisite for metastasis initiation. Here, we interrogated the role of the Ewing sarcoma driver oncogene EWS-FLI1 in cytoskeletal reprogramming. We report that EWS-FLI1 strongly represses the activity of the Rho-F-actin signal pathway transcriptional effector MRTFB, affecting the expression of a large number of EWS-FLI1-anticorrelated genes including structural and regulatory cytoskeletal genes. Consistent with this finding, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed strong overlaps in myocardin-related transcription factor B (MRTFB) and EWS-FLI1 chromatin occupation, especially for EWS-FLI1-anticorrelated genes. Binding of the transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP)-1, enrichment of TEAD-binding motifs in these shared genomic binding regions and overlapping transcriptional footprints of MRTFB and TEAD factors led us to propose synergy between MRTFB and the YAP/TEAD complex in the regulation of EWS-FLI1-anticorrelated genes. We propose that EWS-FLI1 suppresses the Rho-actin pathway by perturbation of a MRTFB/YAP-1/TEAD transcriptional module, which directly affects the actin-autoregulatory feedback loop. As spontaneous fluctuations in EWS-FLI1 levels of Ewing sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo, associated with a switch between a proliferative, non-migratory EWS-FLI1-high and a non-proliferative highly migratory EWS-FLI1-low state, were recently described, our data provide a mechanistic basis for the underlying EWS-FLI1-dependent reversible cytoskeletal reprogramming of Ewing sarcoma cells.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 July 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.202.

  1. Evolution of dinosaur epidermal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M; Evans, David C; Campione, Nicolás E

    2015-06-01

    Spectacularly preserved non-avian dinosaurs with integumentary filaments/feathers have revolutionized dinosaur studies and fostered the suggestion that the dinosaur common ancestor possessed complex integumentary structures homologous to feathers. This hypothesis has major implications for interpreting dinosaur biology, but has not been tested rigorously. Using a comprehensive database of dinosaur skin traces, we apply maximum-likelihood methods to reconstruct the phylogenetic distribution of epidermal structures and interpret their evolutionary history. Most of these analyses find no compelling evidence for the appearance of protofeathers in the dinosaur common ancestor and scales are usually recovered as the plesiomorphic state, but results are sensitive to the outgroup condition in pterosaurs. Rare occurrences of ornithischian filamentous integument might represent independent acquisitions of novel epidermal structures that are not homologous with theropod feathers. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery with multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, William J [PowderJect Centre for Gene and Drug delivery Research, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford OX2 6PE (United Kingdom); Kendall, Mark A F [PowderJect Centre for Gene and Drug delivery Research, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford OX2 6PE (United Kingdom); White, Nick [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE (United Kingdom); Bellhouse, Brian J [PowderJect Centre for Gene and Drug delivery Research, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford OX2 6PE (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-21

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) has been adapted to non-invasively characterize hand-held powdered epidermal vaccine delivery technology. A near infrared femtosecond pulsed laser, wavelength at approximately 920 nm, was used to evoke autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores within ex vivo porcine and human skin. Consequently, sub cellular resolution three-dimensional images of stratum corneum and viable epidermal cells were acquired and utilized to observe the morphological deformation of these cells as a result of micro-particle penetration. Furthermore, the distributional pattern of micro-particles within the specific skin target volume was quantified by measuring the penetration depth as revealed by serial optical sections in the axial plane obtained with MPLSM. Additionally, endogenous fluorescence contrast images acquired at the supra-basal layer reveal cellular structures that may pertain to dendritic Langerhans cells of the epidermis. These results show that MPLSM has advantages over conventional histological approaches, since three-dimensional functional images with sub-cellular spatial resolution to depths beyond the epidermis can be acquired non-invasively. Accordingly, we propose that MPLSM is ideal for investigations of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery.

  3. Pentosan polysulfate preserves renal microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity and autoregulatory behavior in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhengrong; Singletary, Sean T; Cha, Haword; Van Beusecum, Justin P; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M; Inscho, Edward W

    2016-03-15

    Inflammation contributes to ANG II-associated impairment of renal autoregulation and microvascular P2X1 receptor signaling, but its role in renal autoregulation in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension is unknown. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized control rats (UNx) by subcutaneous implantation of a DOCA pellet plus administration of 1% NaCl in the drinking water (DOCA-salt) for 3 wk. DOCA-salt rats developed hypertension that was unaltered by anti-inflammatory treatment with pentosan polysulfate (DOCA-salt+PPS) but was suppressed with "triple therapy" (hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and reserpine; DOCA-salt+TTx). Baseline arteriolar diameters were similar across all groups. UNx rats exhibited pressure-dependent vasoconstriction with diameters declining to 69 ± 2% of control at 170 mmHg, indicating intact autoregulation. DOCA-salt treatment significantly blunted this pressure-mediated vasoconstriction. Diameters remained between 91 ± 4 and 98 ± 3% of control over 65-170 mmHg, indicating impaired autoregulation. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was preserved in DOCA-salt+PPS and DOCA-salt+TTx rats, reaching 77 ± 7 and 75 ± 3% of control at 170 mmHg, respectively. ATP is required for autoregulation via P2X1 receptor activation. ATP- and β,γ-methylene ATP (P2X1 receptor agonist)-mediated vasoconstriction were markedly attenuated in DOCA-salt rats compared with UNx (P < 0.05), but significantly improved by PPS or TTx (P < 0.05 vs. DOCA-salt) treatment. Arteriolar responses to adenosine and UTP (P2Y2 receptor agonist) were unaffected by DOCA-salt treatment. PPS and TTx significantly reduced MCP-1 and protein excretion in DOCA-salt rats. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension triggers inflammatory cascades but anti-inflammatory treatment preserves renal autoregulation in DOCA-salt rats, most likely by normalizing renal

  4. Epidermal nevus syndrome and dysplatic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by epidermal nevi and multiple organ involvement. Multicystic kidney disease has been very rarely reported in this syndrome. Here is the report of a boy presented with multiple epidermal nevi, cardiac anomaly, seizure attack, hemi hypertrophy, and multicystic dysplastic kidney complicated with Wilms' tumor. According to this association, it is suggested to search for dysplastic kidney disease in patients with neurocutaneous disorders.

  5. Contracture deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deformity - contracture ... Contracture can be caused by any of the following: Brain and nervous system disorders, such as cerebral ... Follow your health care provider's instructions for treating contracture at home. Treatments may include: Doing exercises and ...

  6. Penile Epidermal Cyst: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguru, Veerapandian; Prabhu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cysts also known as epidermoid cysts, is one of the common benign tumours presenting anywhere in the body. However, epidermal cyst in the penis is very rare. This condition in children is usually congenital due to abnormal embryologic closure of the median raphe; hence, it is termed as median raphe cysts (MRCs). Penile epidermal cysts may occur in adults following trauma or surgery due to epidermal elements being trapped within closed space. During wound healing, trapped squamous epithelium, undergoing keratinisation leads to cyst formation. Here, we report a rare case of patient with a penile epidermoid cyst whose main complaints was discomfort during coitus. PMID:27437298

  7. Transcriptional profiling of epidermal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoja, Nada; Gazel, Alix; Banno, Tomohiro; Yano, Shoichiro; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2006-10-03

    In epidermal differentiation basal keratinocytes detach from the basement membrane, stop proliferating, and express a new set of structural proteins and enzymes, which results in an impermeable protein/lipid barrier that protects us. To define the transcriptional changes essential for this process, we purified large quantities of basal and suprabasal cells from human epidermis, using the expression of beta4 integrin as the discriminating factor. The expected expression differences in cytoskeletal, cell cycle, and adhesion genes confirmed the effective separation of the cell populations. Using DNA microarray chips, we comprehensively identify the differences in genes expressed in basal and differentiating layers of the epidermis, including the ECM components produced by the basal cells, the proteases in both the basal and suprabasal cells, and the lipid and steroid metabolism enzymes in suprabasal cells responsible for the permeability barrier. We identified the signaling pathways specific for the two populations and found two previously unknown paracrine and one juxtacrine signaling pathway operating between the basal and suprabasal cells. Furthermore, using specific expression signatures, we identified a new set of late differentiation markers and mapped their chromosomal loci, as well as a new set of melanocyte-specific markers. The data represent a quantum jump in understanding the mechanisms of epidermal differentiation.

  8. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  9. Haglund's Deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to follow the surgeon’s instructions for postsurgical care. Prevention To help prevent a recurrence of Haglund’s deformity: wear appropriate shoes; avoid shoes with a rigid heel back use arch supports or orthotic devices perform stretching exercises to prevent the Achilles tendon from tightening ...

  10. Psoriatic architecture constructed by epidermal remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hajime; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2004-08-01

    Epidermal remodeling is the concept that epidermal architecture is determined by a simple self-organizing mechanism; epidermal hyperproliferation constructs typical psoriatic architecture. This is based on the assumption that the enlargements in both the two-dimensional proliferative compartment (basal cell layer) and three-dimensional whole epidermal volume coexist. During this process, the dermal papillae become markedly, but passively, expanded by enlargement of the proliferative compartment. This creates a considerable shrinkage force against the crowded basal cell layer, which is forced to lose adherence to the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM). This results in anoikis, a type of apoptosis characterized by cell detachment, and, consequently, a markedly diminished epidermal turnover time in psoriasis. The papillary shrinkage force also explains the fact that dermal papillary height does not exceed a certain limit. At the cessation of hyperproliferation a normalisation remodeling takes place toward normal tissue architecture. Thus the concept of epidermal remodeling explains the self-organizing mechanism of the architectural change in psoriasis, which is essentially a reversible disorder depending on epidermal hyperproliferation.

  11. Epidermal electronic systems for sensing and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nanshu; Ameri, Shideh K.; Ha, Taewoo; Nicolini, Luke; Stier, Andrew; Wang, Pulin

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal electronic system is a class of hair thin, skin soft, stretchable sensors and electronics capable of continuous and long-term physiological sensing and clinical therapy when applied on human skin. The high cost of manpower, materials, and photolithographic facilities associated with its manufacture limit the availability of disposable epidermal electronics. We have invented a cost and time effective, completely dry, benchtop "cut-and-paste" method for the green, freeform and portable manufacture of epidermal electronics within minutes. We have applied the "cut-and-paste" method to manufacture epidermal electrodes, hydration and temperature sensors, conformable power-efficient heaters, as well as cuffless continuous blood pressure monitors out of metal thin films, two-dimensional (2D) materials, and piezoelectric polymer sheets. For demonstration purpose, we will discuss three examples of "cut-and-pasted" epidermal electronic systems in this paper. The first will be submicron thick, transparent epidermal graphene electrodes that can be directly transferred to human skin like a temporary transfer tattoo and can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) with signal-to-noise ratio and motion artifacts on par with conventional gel electrodes. The second will be a chest patch which houses both electrodes and pressure sensors for the synchronous measurements of ECG and seismocardiogram (SCG) such that beat-to-beat blood pressure can be inferred from the time interval between the R peak of the ECG and the AC peak of the SCG. The last example will be a highly conformable, low power consumption epidermal heater for thermal therapy.

  12. Simvastatin-induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Petrou; Vasiliki Karali; Emmanouil Papadakis

    2014-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis comprises a severe immune-complex mediated hypersensitivity reaction that typically involves the skin and mucous membranes.Herein, we describe a68-year -old man who presented with the condition after simvastatin administration.

  13. Simvastatin-induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Petrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis comprises a severe immune-complex mediated hypersensitivity reaction that typically involves the skin and mucous membranes. Herein, we describe a 68-year -old man who presented with the condition after simvastatin administration.

  14. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  15. Epidermal Inclusion Cysts of The Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Motabar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can besevere when these cysts occur in the breast parenchyma. Here,we report two suchcases. The patient in case 1 was an 37-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass inthe right breast. Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, whichindicated a benign tumor, and sonography showed an irregularly shaped and heterogeneoushypoechoic mass, fibroadenoma was suspected on the basis of clinical andimage findings, but excisional biopsy revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst. The patientin case 2 was a 50-year-old woman with a 2.5-cm lesion in the left breast. Mammographyrevealed a round, dense, smoothly outlined mass, and sonography showeda well-defined, central hyperechoic mass. . Breast cancer was suspected on the basisof the sonographic findings and the age of the patient, but the resected specimen revealedan epidermal inclusion cyst. Although epidermal inclusion cysts are benign,occasionally they may play a role in the origin of squamous carcinoma of the breast. .Mammographic and sonographic features of an epidermal cyst may mimic a malignantlesion. Malignant change appears to occur more frequently in epidermal inclusioncysts in the mammary gland, compared to common epidermal inclusion cysts,and this may be associated with origination of mammary epidermal inclusion cystsfrom squamous metaplasia of the mammary duct epithelium.Epidermmoid inclusion cyst of the breast is potentially serious, although such cystsare rare, and differentiation from a malignant or benign breast tumor is required. Excisionis probably the most appropriate treatment, and can eliminate the possible riskof malignant transformation.

  16. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  17. Mechanotransduction in epidermal Merkel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masashi; Maksimovic, Srdjan; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of vertebrate touch reception remains least understood among the traditional five senses. Somatosensory afferents that innervate the skin encode distinct tactile qualities, such as flutter, slip, and pressure. Gentle touch is thought to be transduced by somatosensory afferents whose tactile end organs selectively filter mechanical stimuli. These tactile end organs comprise afferent terminals in association with non-neuronal cell types such as Merkel cells, keratinocytes, and Schwann cells. An open question is whether these non-neuronal cells serve primarily as passive mechanical filters or whether they actively participate in mechanosensory transduction. This question has been most extensively studied in Merkel cells, which are epidermal cells that complex with sensory afferents in regions of high tactile acuity such as fingertips, whisker follicles, and touch domes. Merkel cell-neurite complexes mediate slowly adapting type I (SAI) responses, which encode sustained pressure and represent object features with high fidelity. How Merkel cells contribute to unique SAI firing patterns has been debated for decades; however, three recent studies in rodent models provide some direct answers. First, whole-cell recordings demonstrate that Merkel cells are touch-sensitive cells with fast, mechanically activated currents that require Piezo2. Second, optogenetics and intact recordings show that Merkel cells mediate sustained SAI firing. Finally, loss-of-function studies in transgenic mouse models reveal that SAI afferents are also touch sensitive. Together, these studies identify molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in Merkel cells, reveal unexpected functions for these cells in touch, and support a revised, two-receptor site model of mechanosensory transduction.

  18. Plant nonsense-mediated mRNA decay is controlled by different autoregulatory circuits and can be induced by an EJC-like complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikó, Tünde; Kerényi, Farkas; Szabadkai, Levente; Benkovics, Anna H.; Major, Péter; Sonkoly, Boglárka; Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Barta, Endre; Niemiec, Emilia; Kufel, Joanna; Silhavy, Dániel

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control system that recognizes and degrades transcripts containing NMD cis elements in their 3′untranslated region (UTR). In yeasts, unusually long 3′UTRs act as NMD cis elements, whereas in vertebrates, NMD is induced by introns located >50 nt downstream from the stop codon. In vertebrates, splicing leads to deposition of exon junction complex (EJC) onto the mRNA, and then 3′UTR-bound EJCs trigger NMD. It is proposed that this intron-based NMD is vertebrate specific, and it evolved to eliminate the misproducts of alternative splicing. Here, we provide evidence that similar EJC-mediated intron-based NMD functions in plants, suggesting that this type of NMD is evolutionary conserved. We demonstrate that in plants, like in vertebrates, introns located >50 nt from the stop induces NMD. We show that orthologs of all core EJC components are essential for intron-based plant NMD and that plant Partner of Y14 and mago (PYM) also acts as EJC disassembly factor. Moreover, we found that complex autoregulatory circuits control the activity of plant NMD. We demonstrate that expression of suppressor with morphogenic effect on genitalia (SMG)7, which is essential for long 3′UTR- and intron-based NMD, is regulated by both types of NMD, whereas expression of Barentsz EJC component is downregulated by intron-based NMD. PMID:23666629

  19. Evolution of Double Positive Autoregulatory Feedback Loops in CYCLOIDEA2 Clade Genes Is Associated with the Origin of Floral Zygomorphy[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Pang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Bo-Ling; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Gao, Qiu; Wei, Lai; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Members of the CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2) clade of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF transcription factor genes are widely involved in controlling floral zygomorphy, a key innovation in angiosperm evolution, depending on their persistently asymmetric expression in the corresponding floral domains. However, it is unclear how this asymmetric expression is maintained throughout floral development. Selecting Primulina heterotricha as a model, we examined the expression and function of two CYC2 genes, CYC1C and CYC1D. We analyzed the role of their promoters in protein–DNA interactions and transcription activation using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transient gene expression assays. We find that CYC1C and CYC1D positively autoregulate themselves and cross-regulate each other. Our results reveal a double positive autoregulatory feedback loop, evolved for a pair of CYC2 genes to maintain their expression in developing flowers. Further comparative genome analyses, together with the available expression and function data of CYC2 genes in the core eudicots, suggest that this mechanism might have led to the independent origins of floral zygomorphy, which are associated with plant–insect coevolution and the adaptive radiation of angiosperms. PMID:22649271

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  1. [Beyond immunopathogenesis. Insulin resistance and "epidermal dysfunction"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehncke, W-H; Boehncke, S; Buerger, C

    2012-03-01

    Insulin is a central player in the regulation of metabolic as well as non-metabolic cells: inefficient signal transduction (insulin resistance) not only represents the cornerstone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also drives atherosclerosis through inducing endothelial dysfunction. Last but not least epidermal homeostasis depends on insulin. We summarize the effects of insulin on proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes as well as the relevance of cytokine-induced insulin resistance for alterations in epidermal homeostasis characteristic for psoriasis. Kinases involved in both insulin- as well as cytokine-receptor signaling represent potential targets for innovative therapeutics. Such small molecules would primarily normalize "epidermal dysfunction", thus complementing the immunomodulatory strategies of today's biologics.

  2. Carbamzepine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithyananda K Chowta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, also known as Lyell′s syndrome, is a widespread life-threatening mucocutaneous disease where there is extensive detachment of the skin and mucous membrane. Many factors involved in the etiology of TEN including adverse drug reactions. Here we are reporting a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in an adult male patient after receiving carbamazepine in a 38 year old male. On the18th day of carbamazepine, patient developed blisters which first appeared on the trunk, chest and arms. The erythematous rash was covering almost all over the body with epidermal detachment of 70% body surface area. There was loss of eye lashes, congestion of conjunctiva with mucopurulent discharge and exposure keratitis. The clinical impression was TEN induced by carbamazepine. Carbamazepine was stopped immediately. He was treated with high dose intravenous betamethasone and systemic and topical antibiotics. After one month, the progression of the skin lesions halted and he was discharged.

  3. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin

  4. Epidermal nevus syndrome associated with unusual neurological, ocular, and skeletal features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS is a rare disease, the pathogenesis of which is largely elusive. We, hereby, report an exclusive case of a 20-year-old man with verrucous ENS presented with dark colored papules and plaques along the Blaschko′s lines present over the head and neck area along with fleshy growth in both eyes since birth. Limb length discrepancy and kyphoscoliosis were remarkable. Skin biopsy was compatible with verrucous epidermal nevus while the biopsy of the ocular lesion confirmed complex choristoma. MRI brain revealed calcification in the right temporal lobe. Bilateral arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa, scleral osteoma in the posterior part of the right eyeball, and deformed calvarium were evident on CECT skull and orbit. The present illustration emphasizes the importance of a punctilious work up of the case.

  5. Epidermal Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production Is Required for Permeability Barrier Homeostasis, Dermal Angiogenesis, and the Development of Epidermal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Peter M.; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E.; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf−/− mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis. PMID:18688025

  6. Stevens Johnsons syndrom og toksisk epidermal nekrolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Zachariae, Claus; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute mucocutaneous diseases primarily due to drug intake. The diseases are characterised by the separation of epidermis from dermis which can be life-threatening. Mortality is often caused by sepsis and multiple organ failure. The most...

  7. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  8. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  10. Niche interactions in epidermal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryung Choi; Sang-Young Byun; Soon-Hyo Kwon; Kyoung-Chan Park

    2015-01-01

    Within the epidermis and dermis of the skin, cellssecrete and are surrounded by the extracellular matrix(ECM), which provides structural and biochemicalsupport. The ECM of the epidermis is the basementmembrane, and collagen and other dermal componentsconstitute the ECM of the dermis. There is significantvariation in the composition of the ECM of the epidermisand dermis, which can affect "cell to cell" and "cellto ECM" interactions. These interactions, in turn, caninfluence biological responses, aging, and woundhealing; abnormal ECM signaling likely contributes toskin diseases. Thus, strategies for manipulating cell-ECM interactions are critical for treating wounds and avariety of skin diseases. Many of these strategies focuson epidermal stem cells, which reside in a unique nichein which the ECM is the most important component;interactions between the ECM and epidermal stemcells play a major role in regulating stem cell fate. Asthey constitute a major portion of the ECM, it is likelythat integrins and type Ⅳ collagens are important instem cell regulation and maintenance. In this review,we highlight recent research-including our previouswork-exploring the role that the ECM and its associatedcomponents play in shaping the epidermal stem cellniche.

  11. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Berger, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death) can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection. PMID:28168107

  12. Changes of epidermal thickness in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Kim, You Chan

    2015-04-01

    The stratum corneum and epidermal pigmentation have protective roles against ultraviolet radiation. Because vitiligo skin lacks melanocytes and has no potential to produce pigment, some studies suggested that the epidermis in vitiligo skin is thicker than in normal skin. However, only a few studies investigated epidermal thickness changes in vitiligo, and some of these had relatively small sample sizes. Thus, this study aimed to compare epidermal thickness between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in a large cohort. Photos of hematoxylin and eosin–stained slides of vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin were taken under a microscope. The thicknesses of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and full epidermis were then measured by a computerized image analyzer. A total of 206 patients (412 sections) were included. There were significant differences between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in the thickness of the stratum corneum (P = 0.009), viable epidermis (P = 0.001), and total epidermis (P = 0.001). An analysis comparing skin biopsied from a sun-exposed area versus a sun-protected area showed that the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and total epidermis were significantly thicker in vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin in sun-exposed areas (P vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin, especially on sun-exposed skin, and that this may represent a photoprotective role compensating for absent pigmentation.

  13. The epidermal growth factor receptor is a regulator of epidermal complement component expression and complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Ananthoju, Nageshwar; Mohanty, Tirthankar;

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is activated in response to tissue injury. During wound healing, complement activation seems beneficial in acute wounds but may be detrimental in chronic wounds. We found that the epidermal expression of many complement components was only increased to a minor extent in skin...... wounds in vivo and in cultured keratinocytes after exposure to supernatant from stimulated mononuclear cells. In contrast, the epidermal expression of complement components was downregulated in ex vivo injured skin lacking the stimulation from infiltrating inflammatory cells but with intact injury......-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated growth factor response. In cultured primary keratinocytes, stimulation with the potent EGFR ligand, TGF-α, yielded a significant downregulation of complement component expression. Indeed, EGFR inhibition significantly enhanced the induction of complement...

  14. Autoregulatory mechanisms controlling the microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    The Microprocessor, comprising the ribonuclease Drosha and its essential cofactor, the double-stranded RNA-binding protein, DGCR8, is essential for the first step of the miRNA biogenesis pathway. It specifically cleaves double-stranded RNA within stem-loop structures of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) to generate precursor (pre-miRNA) intermediates. Pre-miRNAs are subsequently processed by Dicer to their mature ∼22 nt form. Thus, Microprocessor is essential for miRNA maturation, and pri-miRNA cleavage by this complex defines one end of the mature miRNA. Moreover, it is emerging that dysregulation of the Microprocessor is associated with various human diseases. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms by which the expression of the subunits of the Microprocessor is regulated. Recent findings have uncovered a post-transcriptional mechanism that maintains the integrity of the Microprocessor. These studies revealed that the Microprocessor is involved in the processing of the messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes DGCR8. This regulatory feedback loop, along with the reported role played by DGCR8 in the stabilization of Drosha protein, is part of a newly identified regulatory mechanism controlling Microprocessor activity.

  15. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S

    2011-01-01

    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  16. Deformed General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Deformed special relativity is embedded in deformed general relativity using the methods of canonical relativity and loop quantum gravity. Phase-space dependent deformations of symmetry algebras then appear, which in some regimes can be rewritten as non-linear Poincare algebras with momentum-dependent deformations of commutators between boosts and time translations. In contrast to deformed special relativity, the deformations are derived for generators with an unambiguous physical role, following from the relationship between canonical constraints of gravity with stress-energy components. The original deformation does not appear in momentum space and does not give rise to non-locality issues or problems with macroscopic objects. Contact with deformed special relativity may help to test loop quantum gravity or restrict its quantization ambiguities.

  17. The AP-2 Transcription Factor APTF-2 Is Required for Neuroblast and Epidermal Morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budirahardja, Yemima; Tan, Pei Yi; Weisdepp, Peter; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved family of AP-2 transcription factors (TF) regulates proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mutations in human AP-2 TF have been linked with bronchio-occular-facial syndrome and Char Syndrome, congenital birth defects characterized by craniofacial deformities and patent ductus arteriosus, respectively. How mutations in AP-2 TF cause the disease phenotypes is not well understood. Here, we characterize the aptf-2(qm27) allele in Caenorhabditis elegans, which carries a point mutation in the conserved DNA binding region of AP-2 TF. We show that compromised APTF-2 activity leads to defects in dorsal intercalation, aberrant ventral enclosure and elongation defects, ultimately culminating in the formation of morphologically deformed larvae or complete arrest during epidermal morphogenesis. Using cell lineaging, we demonstrate that APTF-2 regulates the timing of cell division, primarily in ABarp, D and C cell lineages to control the number of neuroblasts, muscle and epidermal cells. Live imaging revealed nuclear enrichment of APTF-2 in lineages affected by the qm27 mutation preceding the relevant morphogenetic events. Finally, we found that another AP-2 TF, APTF-4, is also essential for epidermal morphogenesis, in a similar yet independent manner. Thus, our study provides novel insight on the cellular-level functions of an AP-2 transcription factor in development. PMID:27176626

  18. Pseudosindactilia en epidermólisis bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La epidermólisis bullosa comprende un grupo de patologías que se caracterizan por la fragilidad de la piel, formación de ampollas, y en las formas distróficas, la formación de pseudosindactilias. Debido a lo exótico de la entidad y la dificultad para el enfoque de tratamiento, se presenta un caso clínico con desarrollo de pseudosindactilias, característico usualmente de las formas distróficas. Se describe en aspectos clínicos de la entidad, el tratamiento quirúrgico de las pseudosindactilias...

  19. Giant epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented with a right upper eyelid mass with mechanical ptosis. The patient gave no history of trauma or surgery. On examination, there was a huge cystic mass fixed to the tarsal plate. Excisional biopsy with tarsectomy was done. Histopathology sections demonstrated a keratin-filled cyst arising from the tarsus. A thorough Pubmed search did not reveal an epidermal cyst of the tarsal plate of this size which was successfully managed. The incision was made in such a way that postoperative ptosis would be avoided. Excess skin was removed during the surgery.

  20. Epidermal cell density is autoregulated via a secretory peptide, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenta; Yokoo, Toshiya; Kajita, Ryoko; Onishi, Takaaki; Yahata, Saiko; Peterson, Kylee M; Torii, Keiko U; Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2009-06-01

    Regulation of the number of cells is critical for development of multicellular organisms. During plant epidermal development, a protodermal cell first makes a fate decision of whether or not to be the meristemoid mother cell (MMC), which undergoes asymmetric cell division forming a meristemoid and its sister cell. The MMC-derived lineage produces all stomatal guard cells and a large proportion of non-guard cells. We demonstrate that a small secretory peptide, EPIDERMAL PATTERING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), is produced by the MMC and its early descendants, and negatively regulates the density of guard and non-guard epidermal cells. Our results suggest that EPF2 inhibits cells from adopting the MMC fate in a non-cell-autonomous manner, thus limiting the number of MMCs. This feedback loop is critical for regulation of epidermal cell density. The amino acid sequence of EPF2 resembles that of EPF1, which is known to control stomatal positioning. Over-expression of EPF1 also inhibits stomatal development, but EPF1 can act only on a later developmental process than EPF2. Overexpression and promoter swapping experiments suggested that the protein functions of EPF1 and EPF2, rather than the expression patterns of the genes, are responsible for the specific functions. Although targets of EPF1 and EPF2 are different, both EPF1 and EPF2 require common putative receptor components TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), ERECTA (ER), ERECTA LIKE 1 (ERL1) and ERL2 in order to function.

  1. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K

    2006-05-12

    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  2. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models.

  3. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, DRESS, AGEP : Do overlap cases exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvresse, Sophie; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Ortonne, Nicolas; Konstantinou, Marie Pauline; Kardaun, Sylvia H.; Bagot, Martine; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Roujeau, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs) include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome-toxic epidermal necrolysis [SJS-TEN]). Because of the varied ini

  4. [Toxic epidermal necrolysis after treatment with oseltamivir: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Paula; Zuazaga, Marcela; Chede, Cecilia; Entin, Elías; Larralde, Margarita

    2010-06-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a rare acute and potentially life-threatening drug-related reaction. Osetalmivir is one of the drugs responsible for these reaction. We describe the case of a Down syndrome patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis previously treated with oseltamivir.

  5. Structural Characterization and Statistical-Mechanical Model of Epidermal Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duyu; Aw, Wen Yih; Devenport, Danelle; Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-12-06

    In proliferating epithelia of mammalian skin, cells of irregular polygon-like shapes pack into complex, nearly flat two-dimensional structures that are pliable to deformations. In this work, we employ various sensitive correlation functions to quantitatively characterize structural features of evolving packings of epithelial cells across length scales in mouse skin. We find that the pair statistics in direct space (correlation function) and Fourier space (structure factor) of the cell centroids in the early stages of embryonic development show structural directional dependence (statistical anisotropy), which is a reflection of the fact that cells are stretched, which promotes uniaxial growth along the epithelial plane. In the late stages, the patterns tend toward statistically isotropic states, as cells attain global polarization and epidermal growth shifts to produce the skin's outer stratified layers. We construct a minimalist four-component statistical-mechanical model involving effective isotropic pair interactions consisting of hard-core repulsion and extra short-range soft-core repulsion beyond the hard core, whose length scale is roughly the same as the hard core. The model parameters are optimized to match the sample pair statistics in both direct and Fourier spaces. By doing this, the parameters are biologically constrained. In contrast with many vertex-based models, our statistical-mechanical model does not explicitly incorporate information about the cell shapes and interfacial energy between cells; nonetheless, our model predicts essentially the same polygonal shape distribution and size disparity of cells found in experiments, as measured by Voronoi statistics. Moreover, our simulated equilibrium liquid-like configurations are able to match other nontrivial unconstrained statistics, which is a testament to the power and novelty of the model. The array of structural descriptors that we deploy enable us to distinguish between normal, mechanically

  6. Epidermal growth factor inhibits cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's gland pouches was studied in the rat. Total output of immunoreactive epidermal growth factor was reduced to approximately 55%, compared with controls, 5 h after administration of cysteamine (300...... mg/kg, s.c.). Furthermore, measurements on tissue extracts of the pouches revealed that 5 h after cysteamine treatment, Brunner's glands were depleted of epidermal growth factor. The effect on ulcer development of intraduodenally applied exogenous epidermal growth factor (1 micrograms/kg . h) also...... factor used, when tested on chronic fistula rats, had no effect on acid secretion and did not influence bicarbonate secretion from Brunner's gland pouches. These results demonstrate that epidermal growth factor has a cytoprotective effect on the duodenal mucosa, and it is suggested that inhibition...

  7. Genetic analysis of Ras genes in epidermal development and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Lechuga, Carmen G; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes are tightly controlled to ensure proper development and homeostasis of the epidermis. The Ras family of small GTPases has emerged as a central node in the coordination of cell proliferation in the epidermis. Recent genetic evidence from mouse models has revealed that the intensity of Ras signaling modulates the proliferative capacity of epidermal keratinocytes. Interfering with Ras signaling either by combined elimination of the 3 Ras genes from the basal layer of the epidermis or by overexpression of dominant-negative Ras isoforms caused epidermal thinning due to hypoproliferation of keratinocytes. In contrast, overexpression of oncogenic Ras mutants in different epidermal cell layers led to hyperproliferative phenotypes including the development of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Here, we discuss the value of loss- and gain-of-function studies in mouse models to assess the role of Ras signaling in the control of epidermal proliferation.

  8. Genetic analysis of Ras genes in epidermal development and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Lechuga, Carmen G; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes are tightly controlled to ensure proper development and homeostasis of the epidermis. The Ras family of small GTPases has emerged as a central node in the coordination of cell proliferation in the epidermis. Recent genetic evidence from mouse models has revealed that the intensity of Ras signaling modulates the proliferative capacity of epidermal keratinocytes. Interfering with Ras signaling either by combined elimination of the 3 Ras genes from the basal layer of the epidermis or by overexpression of dominant-negative Ras isoforms caused epidermal thinning due to hypoproliferation of keratinocytes. In contrast, overexpression of oncogenic Ras mutants in different epidermal cell layers led to hyperproliferative phenotypes including the development of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Here, we discuss the value of loss- and gain-of-function studies in mouse models to assess the role of Ras signaling in the control of epidermal proliferation. PMID:24150175

  9. Herbal medicines that benefit epidermal permeability barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.

  10. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  11. Alar Rim Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The alar rim plays an important role in nasal harmony. Alar rim flaws are common following the initial rhinoplasty. Classification of the deformities helps with diagnosis and successful surgical correction. Diagnosis of the deformity requires careful observation of the computerized or life-sized photographs. Techniques for treatment of these deformities can easily be learned with attention to detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  13. Deformed discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  14. Epidermóide intra-raqueano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Lefèvre

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available Caso de tumor epidermóides intra-raqueano, extra-medular ao nível de T12, diagnosticado e tratado cirùrgicamente, em um menino de 9 anos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a dificuldade diagnostica deste caso, cujo quadro clínico lembrava o de uma radiculopatia compressiva por hérnia de disco intervertebral. A evolução foi favorável, com recuperação total, sem seqüelas. Lembram os autores a necessidade de ser precizada a designação dêsses tumores, que são muitas vêzes confundidos com os cistos dermóides e outros tumores congênitos.

  15. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Caused by Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe skin reaction related to drugs and infections, characterized by fever, stomatitis and conjunctivitis. Many drug related TEN cases have been reported in literature but amoxicillin related TEN cases are rare. In this article, a case of amoxicillin related severe TEN in a female patient during treatment of tonsillitis has been reported. The increased use of amoxicillin, especially for control of infection, may be the reason for the increased incidence TEN due to the same drug. The identification of a drug as the cause for the immune related cytotoxic reaction may be difficult if the molecule is not generally known to be a classical cause of this reaction.

  16. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, S; Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M; Gibbons, J; Pharmd; Cain, V; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe exfoliative disease of the skin and mucous membranes that results in high mortality. As the elderly population increases, the number of elderly patients with TEN can also be expected to increase. Elderly patients with comparably sized burn wounds usually have a poor prognosis. Our purpose was to determine whether elderly TEN patients exhibit similarly high mortality. A retrospective review was conducted of 52 patients treated for TEN from October 1991 through September 1998. Eleven patients were older than 65 years. All patients were treated according to our TEN protocol. Eight of 11 patients recovered, and 3 died. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) involvement for the patients who recovered was 24%, compared with 66% for the nonsurvivors. The survival rate for elderly patients (73%) compares well with that for those younger than 65 years (89%). Therefore, we propose that we should be aggressive in treating elderly patients with TEN.

  17. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in pharmacological doses is able to induce precoccious lung maturation in rabbits and sheeps. As EGF is probably acting in a para- or autocrine way, we have searched for EGF in the lungs. We report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in the type II pneumocytes...... of the rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout life. G-200 gelchromatography of lung extracts indicates that the EGF-reactive material is a high...... molecular weight form of EGF. Since previous studies have shown that EGF in pharmacological doses is able to promote lung maturation, our results may imply a physiological role for EGF in the lungs....

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira-Cunha, Melissa, E-mail: melissacunha@doctors.org.uk [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Newman, William G. [Genetic Medicine, MAHSC, University of Manchester, St Mary' s Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Siriwardena, Ajith K. [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-24

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Hans

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where 'd

  20. Resurgent deformation quantisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, Mauricio, E-mail: garay91@gmail.com [Institut für Mathematik, FB 08 Physik, Mathematik und Informatik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Goursac, Axel de, E-mail: Axelmg@melix.net [Chargé de Recherche au F.R.S.-FNRS, IRMP, Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron, 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Straten, Duco van, E-mail: straten@mathematik.uni-mainz.de [Institut für Mathematik, FB 08 Physik, Mathematik und Informatik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We construct a version of the complex Heisenberg algebra based on the idea of endless analytic continuation. The algebra would be large enough to capture quantum effects that escape ordinary formal deformation quantisation. -- Highlights: •We construct resurgent deformation quantisation. •We give integral formulæ. •We compute examples which show that hypergeometric functions appear naturally in quantum computations.

  1. Deformations of Superconformal Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay; Intriligator, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in $d \\geq 3$ dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformat...

  2. Massey products and deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, Dmitry; Lang, Lynelle

    1996-01-01

    The classical deformation theory of Lie algebras involves different kinds of Massey products of cohomology classes. Even the condition of extendibility of an infinitesimal deformation to a formal one-parameter deformation of a Lie algebra involves Massey powers of two dimensional cohomology classes which are not powers in the usual definition of Massey products in the cohomology of a differential graded Lie algebra. In the case of deformations with other local bases, one deals with other, more specific Massey products. In the present work a construction of generalized Massey products is given, depending on an arbitrary graded commutative, associative algebra. In terms of these products, the above condition of extendibility is generalized to deformations with arbitrary local bases. Dually, a construction of generalized Massey products on the cohomology of a differential graded commutative associative algebra depends on a nilpotent graded Lie algebra. For example, the classical Massey products correspond to the...

  3. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  4. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal....... It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin....

  5. Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Molinnus, Denise; Mirza, Omar; Guinovart, Tomás; Windmiller, Joshua R; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Andrade, Francisco J; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration. Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mechanical deformations experienced by the human epidermis. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concentration was transmitted wirelessly via a body-worn transceiver from the sodium tattoo sensor to a notebook while the subjects perspired on a stationary cycle. The favorable analytical performance along with the wearable nature of the wireless transceiver makes the new epidermal potentiometric sensing system attractive for continuous monitoring the sodium dynamics in human perspiration during diverse activities relevant to the healthcare, fitness, military, healthcare and skin-care domains.

  6. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  7. Clinical and Microscopic Characteristics of Canine Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banovic, F; Olivry, T; Bazzle, L; Tobias, J. R; Atlee, B; Zabel, S; Hensel, N; Linder, K. E

    2015-01-01

    Canine toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), a rare and life-threatening cutaneous drug reaction, traditionally has been described as full-thickness devitalization of the epidermis with minimal dermal inflammation...

  8. Epidermal Nevus Syndrome Associated with Brain Malformations and Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Juntendo University and Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Japan; and University of California, San Francisco, Ca, report a male infant with epidermal nevus syndrome associated with brainstem and cerebellar malformations and neonatal medulloblastoma.

  9. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Key words: Breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu, immunohistochemistry, ... therapy.[6‑8] Of all these prognostic and predictive factors, ... one of the biggest private medical laboratories in Nigeria.

  10. the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and survivin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE ... Objective: To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin ..... lung cancer by the FDA in 2003 (28) and is currently.

  11. Epidermal and dermal integumentary structures of ankylosaurian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Burns, Michael E; Bell, Phil R; Currie, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosaurian dinosaurs are most notable for their abundant and morphologically diverse osteoderms, which would have given them a spiky appearance in life. Isolated osteoderms are relatively common and provide important information about the structure of the ankylosaur dermis, but fossilized impressions of the soft-tissue epidermis of ankylosaurs are rare. Nevertheless, well-preserved integument exists on several ankylosaur fossils that shows osteoderms were covered by a single epidermal scale, but one or many millimeter-sized ossicles may be present under polygonal, basement epidermal scales. Evidence for the taxonomic utility of ankylosaurid epidermal scale architecture is presented for the first time. This study builds on previous osteological work that argues for a greater diversity of ankylosaurids in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta than has been traditionally recognized and adds to the hypothesis that epidermal skin impressions are taxonomically relevant across diverse dinosaur clades. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor production is required for permeability barrier homeostasis, dermal angiogenesis, and the development of epidermal hyperplasia: implications for the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Peter M; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R

    2008-09-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf(-/-) mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis.

  13. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse...... the spherical deformation model in detail and describe how it may be used to summarize the shape of star-shaped three-dimensional objects with few parameters. It is of interest to make statistical inference about the three-dimensional shape parameters from continuous observations of the surface and from...

  14. Calcaneo-valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D

    1975-08-01

    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  15. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-05

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Filaggrin and the great epidermal barrier grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John A

    2008-05-01

    One of the principal functions of human skin is to form an effective mechanical barrier against the external environment. This involves the maturation and death of epidermal keratinocytes as well as the assembly of a complex network of differentially and spatially expressed proteins, glycoproteins and lipids into the keratinocyte cell membrane and surrounding extracellular space. In 2006, the key role of the granular cell layer protein filaggrin (filament-aggregating protein) in maintaining the skin barrier was determined with the identification of loss-of-function mutations in the profilaggrin gene (FLG). These mutations have been shown to be the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris and a major risk factor for the development of atopic dermatitis, asthma associated with atopic dermatitis as well as systemic allergies. Mutations in the FLG gene are extremely common, occurring in approximately 9% of individuals from European populations. The remarkable discovery of these widespread mutations is expected to have a major impact on the classification and management of many patients with ichthyosis and atopic disease. It is also hoped that the genetic discovery of FLG mutations will lead to the future development of more specific, non-immunosuppressive treatments capable of restoring effective skin barrier function and alleviating or preventing disease in susceptible individuals.

  17. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N

    1979-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  18. Specification of Epidermal Cell Fate in Plant Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu eTakada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots.

  19. Autologous epidermal cell suspension: A promising treatment for chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds have become an increasing medical and economic problem of aging societies because they are difficult to manage. Skin grafting is an important treatment method for chronic wounds, which are refractory to conservative therapy. The technique involving epidermal cell suspensions was invented to enable the possibility of treating larger wounds with only a small piece of donor skin. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions can be prepared and survive permanently on the wound bed. A systematic search was conducted of EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed and web of science by using Boolean search terms, from the establishment of the database until May 31, 2014. The bibliographies of all retrieved articles in English were searched. The search terms were: (epithelial cell suspension OR keratinocyte suspension) and chronic and wound. From the included, 6 studies are descriptive interventions and discussed the use of autologous keratinocyte suspension to treat 61 patients' chronic wound. The various methods of preparation of epidermal cell suspension are described. The advantages and shortcomings of different carriers for epidermal cell suspensions are also summarised. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions have been used to treat chronic wounds. Although the limitations of these studies include the small number of patient populations with chronic wounds and many important problems that remain to be solved, autologous epidermal cell suspension is a promising treatment for chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya [Pola Chemical Industries Inc., 560 Kashio-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244-0812 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: sasakih@jikei.ac.jp [Division of Fine Morphology, Core Research Facilities, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Infomatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. {yields} It altered Ca{sup 2+} distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. {yields} Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca{sup 2+} gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca{sup 2+} distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca{sup 2+} gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca{sup 2+} gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca{sup 2+} flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} gradient.

  1. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  2. Deformations of singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Jan

    2003-01-01

    These notes deal with deformation theory of complex analytic singularities and related objects. The first part treats general theory. The central notion is that of versal deformation in several variants. The theory is developed both in an abstract way and in a concrete way suitable for computations. The second part deals with more specific problems, specially on curves and surfaces. Smoothings of singularities are the main concern. Examples are spread throughout the text.

  3. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al. Th...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  4. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Van Swygenhoven; Julia R. Weertman

    2006-01-01

    It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic...

  5. Epidermal growth factor induces changes of interaction between epidermal growth factor receptor and actin in intact cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Song; Haixing Xuan; Qishui Lin

    2008-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cyto-skeleton-binding protein. Although purified EGFR can interact with actins in vitro and normally at least 10% of EGFR exist in the insoluble cytoskeleton fraction of A431 cells, interaction of cytosolic EGFR with actin can only be visualized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer when epidermal growth factor presents in the cell medium. Results indicate that the correct orientation between EGFR and actin is important in the signal transduction process.

  6. Epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I upregulate the expression of the epidermal growth factor system in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Vinter-Jensen, L

    2000-01-01

    as the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha peptide. The level of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA expression was found to correlate both in control and growth factor-treated animals, whereas the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and epidermal growth...

  7. Fluorescence lifetime to image epidermal ionic concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behne, Martin J.; Barry, Nicholas P.; Moll, Ingrid; Gratton, Enrico; Mauro, Theodora M.

    2004-09-01

    Measurements of ionic concentrations in skin have traditionally been performed with an array of methods which either did not reveal detailed localization information, or only provided qualitative, not quantitative information. FLIM combines a number of advantages into a method ideally suited to visualize concentrations of ions such as H+ in intact, unperturbed epidermis and stratum corneum (SC). Fluorescence lifetime is dye concentration-independent, the method requires only low light intensities and is therefore not prone to photobleaching or phototoxic artifacts, and because multiphoton lasers of IR wavelength are used, light penetrates deep into intact tissue. The standard method to measure SC pH is the flat pH electrode, which provides reliable information only about surface pH changes, without further vertical or subcellular spatial resolution; i.e., specific microdomains such as the corneocyte interstices are not resolved, and the deeper SC is inaccessible without resorting to inherently disruptive stripping methods. Furthermore, the concept of a gradient of pH through the SC stems from such stripping experiments, but other confirmation for this concept is lacking. Our investigations into the SC pH distribution so far have revealed the crucial role of the Sodium/Hydrogen Antiporter NHE1 in generation of SC acidity, the colocalization of enzymatic lipid processing activity in the SC with acidic domains of the SC, and the timing and localization of emerging acidity in the SC of newborns. Together, these results have led to an improved understanding of the SC pH, its distribution, origin, and regulation. Future uses for this method include measurements of other ions important for epidermal processes, such as Ca2+, and a quantitative approach to topical drug penetration.

  8. Metabolic epidermal necrosis-hepatocutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, K P

    1999-11-01

    It is clear that cutaneous lesions of metabolic epidermal necrosis in the dog can occur either with a demonstrable glucagon-secreting tumor or with hepatic disease without any detectable glucagonoma. Additional clinical case reports of the disease in cats are needed to better characterize the disease in this species. The lesions of NME-MEN may not represent a specific physiological mechanism of cutaneous disease but instead a pathophysiological process that can be triggered by several systemic metabolic abnormalities. The fact that NME is observed in association with a variety of conditions supports the theory that an overall metabolic derangement results in the rash. The prognosis for canine MEN is poor; however, some affected dogs have been maintained for many months with dietary management. High-quality protein diets such as Hill's Prescription Diet a/d (Hill's Pet Products) or other "recovery" diets may be helpful. Zinc and essential fatty acid supplementation may help some patients. Dietary supplementation with cooked egg yolks may be helpful. It is prudent to avoid corticosteroids in these cases, as development of diabetes mellitus worsens the prognosis. Histopathological examination of the pancreas coupled with determination of plasma glucagon may help define the characteristics of GS versus HS in dogs. It is possible that some dogs diagnosed with MEN-HS may have an undetected pancreatic tumor. Although the hepatic ultrasound findings in dogs with MEN-HS are becoming well characterized, it is possible for dogs with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors to also have abnormal hepatic ultrasonography. As the presence of MEN and hepatic disease does not necessarily rule out the presence of a pancreatic tumor, prospective studies correlating plasma glucagon levels with pancreatic histopathology in cases of MEN-GS versus MEN-HS seem warranted.

  9. Deformation quantization of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.

  10. ATML1 promotes epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinobu; Takada, Nozomi; Yoshida, Ayaka

    2013-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms that generate distinct tissue layers in plant shoots are not well understood. ATML1, an Arabidopsis homeobox gene, is expressed in the outermost cell layer, beginning at an early stage of development. The promoters of many epidermis-specific genes, including ATML1, contain an ATML1-binding site called an L1 box, suggesting that ATML1 regulates epidermal cell fate. Here, we show that overexpression of ATML1 was sufficient to activate the expression of epidermal genes and to induce epidermis-related traits such as the formation of stomatal guard cells and trichome-like cells in non-epidermal seedling tissues. Detailed observation of the division planes of these ectopic stomatal cells suggested that a near-surface position, as well as epidermal cell identity, were required for regular anticlinal cell division, as seen in wild-type epidermis. Moreover, analyses of a loss-of-function mutant and overexpressors implied that differentiation of epidermal cells was associated with repression of mesophyll cell fate. Collectively, our studies contribute new information about the molecular basis of cell fate determination in different layers of plant aerial organs.

  11. Ultraviolet absorption and epidermal-transmittance spectra in foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, T.A.; Howells, B.W.; Rice, W.J. (Dept. of Biology, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1994-01-01

    We examined the UV absorption spectra and the epidermal-transmittance spectra (280-350 nm) of foliage from 42 plant species. Sun foliage was sampled from naturally growing individuals of seven species in each of six life forms comprising two evergreen groups (gymnosperms and angiosperms) and four deciduous angiosperm groups (trees, shrubs and vines, herbaceous dicotyledons and grasses). There were large differences in absorption spectra of whole-leaf extracts among species. While absorbance declined with increasing wavelength in most woody species, there was a through in absorbance around 300 nm in many herbaceous species. Absorption spectra were negatively correlated with epidermal-transmittance spectra in 31 of the 42 species. Relationships between absorbance and transmittance did not follow the theoretical exponential function. Species rankings of UV-screening effectiveness were similar when we assessed it by using epidermal transmittance at single wavelengths (300 or 320 nm) or different UV-action spectra to weight epidermal-transmittance spectra and estimate the levels of biologically effective UV reaching the mesophyll. Thus, differences in absolute epidermal transmittance among species appeared to overshadow spectral differences. Nevertheless, the differences we found in the internal UV spectral regime in foliage suggest that whole-plant action spectra will differ among species. While species rankings of UV-screening effectiveness were similar when different action spectra were used, the absolute amounts of biologically effective UV reaching the mesophyll of species varied considerably when different action spectra were used. (au) (46 refs.)

  12. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method......, the interface (curve in 2D; surface in 3D) is represented explicitly as a piecewise linear curve or surface. However, the domain is also subject to discretization: triangulation in 2D; tetrahedralization in 3D. This way, the interface can be alternatively represented as a set of edges/triangles separating...... demonstrate those strengths in several applications. In particular, a novel, DSC-based fluid dynamics solver has been developed during the PhD project. A special feature of this solver is that due to the fact that DSC maintains an explicit interface representation, surface tension is more easily dealt with...

  13. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  14. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  15. Post-laminectomy deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Stumpf Lutz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the deformities and evaluate the results of their treatment. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with deformity following surgical access to the spinal canal. Fifteen patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Patients without complete data in medical records were excluded. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgical treatment and one patient received conservative treatment with vest type TLSO. The average angle of kyphosis correction was 87° preoperatively to 38° postoperatively, while the associated scoliosis correction was 69° preoperatively to 23° postoperatively. Conclusions: The prevention of deformity should be emphasized to avoid laminectomy alone, while laminoplasty should be the procedure of choice for canal access in surgeries where there is no need for resection of the posterior elements.

  16. Deformation of C isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-Enyo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the deformations of proton and neutron densities in even-even C isotopes was done based on the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The $E2$ transition strength was discussed in relation to the deformation. We analyze the $B(E2;2^+_1\\to 0^+_1)$ in $^{16}$C, which has been recently measured to be abnormally small. The results suggest the difference of the deformations between proton and neutron densities in the neutron-rich C isotopes. It was found that stable proton structure in C isotopes plays an important role in the enhancement the neutron skin structure as well as in the systematics of $B(E2)$ in the neutron-rich C.

  17. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Van Swygenhoven

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic metals based on insights gained by atomistic computer simulations. These insights are discussed with reference to recent striking experimental observations that can be compared with predictions made by the simulations.

  18. Heat treatment deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaro, A. (Soliveri SpA, Caravaggio (Italy))

    1990-02-01

    Types and causes of heat treatement derived isotropic and anisotropic dilatancies in ferrous materials are reviewed. The concepts are developed in such a way as to allow extension to all materials exhibiting martensitic tempering behaviour. This paper intends to illustrate the basic processes of dimensional variations undergone by the materials under heat treatments. The parametric analysis includes an analysis of the interactions amongst the parameters themselves. The relative importance of each parameter is assessed in order to determine methods to attenuate deformation action. Simplified examples are offered to provide technicians explanations as to why specific deformations occur and indications on improved materials working techniques.

  19. A Ruptured Digital Epidermal Inclusion Cyst: A Sinister Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Iain; Fletcher, Phillip; Ragg, Amanda; Vane, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign cutaneous lesions caused by dermal or subdermal implantation and proliferation of epidermal squamous epithelium as a result of trauma or surgery. They are typically located on the scalp, face, trunk, neck, or back; however they can be found anywhere on the body. Lesions are asymptomatic unless complicated by rupture, malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, or infection at which point they can clinically appear as more sinister pathologies. We present the case of a 45-year-old laborer with a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst, manifesting clinically and radiographically as a malignancy. Following MRI, definitive surgical management may appear to be a logical progression in management of the patient. This case however is a good example of why meticulously following surgical protocol when evaluating an unknown soft tissue mass is imperative. By following protocol, an alternate diagnosis was made and the patient has since gone on to a make a full recovery without life transforming surgery.

  20. Autologous Epidermal Grafting Using a Novel Negative Pressure Epidermal Harvesting System in a Case of Stable Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vanathi; Navaneetha Krishnan, Paru Priyadarshini; Danasekaran, Nithya Gayathri Devi; Rajendrabose, Ratnavel

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder of the skin with a great amount of social stigma attached to it. Though various medical modalities are available for the treatment of stable vitiligo, surgical modality remains the treatment of choice for stable and localized vitiligo. The surgical options range from simple punch grafting to the recent epidermal harvesting methods using a negative pressure unit. Although successful use of multiple methods of epidermal grafting has been reported, most of them are cumbersome and time-consuming. The new automated epidermal harvesting system now commercially available involves a tool that applies both heat and suction concurrently to normal skin to induce epidermal micrografts. Hence it serves as a safe, quick and cost-effective method without anesthesia, with a very minimal downtime for healing and requires an optimal expertise. The duration of repigmentation seems to be faster and more uniform compared to other procedures. We would like to share our experience with the negative pressure epidermal harvesting method in a patient with stable vitiligo. PMID:28003945

  1. Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Presenting as a Palpable Scrotal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres F. Correa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a scrotal epidermal inclusion cyst located outside the median raphe which a rare entity in the absence of trauma and few cases have been reported. 47 year old male presents with a complaint of right sided testicular swelling and discomfort. On examination a 3 cm mass was palpated between the scrotum and the medial thigh on the subcutaneous tissue with a positive slip sign. Complete surgical excision of the cyst was performed. Histopathology confirmed epidermal inclusion cyst with no evidence of malignancy.

  2. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  3. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst in the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Sakamoto

    2015-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The clinical symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst can mimic those of an infected epidermal cyst. The current report facilitates awareness of such disease.

  5. Deformed Algebras and Generalizations of Independence on Deformed Exponential Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuzoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A deformed exponential family is a generalization of exponential families. Since the useful classes of power law tailed distributions are described by the deformed exponential families, they are important objects in the theory of complex systems. Though the deformed exponential families are defined by deformed exponential functions, these functions do not satisfy the law of exponents in general. The deformed algebras have been introduced based on the deformed exponential functions. In this paper, after summarizing such deformed algebraic structures, it is clarified how deformed algebras work on deformed exponential families. In fact, deformed algebras cause generalization of expectations. The three kinds of expectations for random variables are introduced in this paper, and it is discussed why these generalized expectations are natural from the viewpoint of information geometry. In addition, deformed algebras cause generalization of independences. Whereas it is difficult to check the well-definedness of deformed independence in general, the κ-independence is always well-defined on κ-exponential families. This is one of advantages of κ-exponential families in complex systems. Consequently, we can well generalize the maximum likelihood method for the κ-exponential family from the viewpoint of information geometry.

  6. Deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The intracrystalline deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As in other phyllosilicates, the deformation of chlorite is dominated by the (001) slip plane. Slip along this plane is very easy through the generation an

  7. EGFR-ras-raf signaling in epidermal stem cells: roles in hair follicle development, regeneration, tissue remodeling and epidermal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

    2013-09-25

    The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions.

  8. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients prese

  9. Nonperturbative effects in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Periwal, V

    2000-01-01

    The Cattaneo-Felder path integral form of the perturbative Kontsevich deformation quantization formula is used to explicitly demonstrate the existence of nonperturbative corrections to na\\"\\i ve deformation quantization.

  10. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himadri S; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zickler, Gerald A; Raz-Ben Aroush, D; Funari, Sérgio S; Roschger, Paul; Wagner, H Daniel; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not homogeneous but distributed between a tensile deformation of the fibrils and a shearing in the interfibrillar matrix between them.

  11. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypertrophic scarring is associated with epidermal abnormalities : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriessen, MP; Niessen, FB; Van de Kerkhof, PC; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The role of epidermal keratinocytes in the early phases of normal unimpaired wound healing has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the cell biological processes in the epidermis and the basal membrane zone during the later phases of dermal matrix formation and remodelling of the

  13. Hypertrophic scarring is associated with epidermal abnormalities : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriessen, MP; Niessen, FB; Van de Kerkhof, PC; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The role of epidermal keratinocytes in the early phases of normal unimpaired wound healing has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the cell biological processes in the epidermis and the basal membrane zone during the later phases of dermal matrix formation and remodelling of the

  14. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  15. The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in chronic kidney diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Laura R.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Goor, van Harry; Meijer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has a critical role in renal development, tissue repair and electrolyte handling. Numerous studies have reported an association between dysregulation of this pathway and the initiation and progression of various chronic kidney diseases such as diab

  16. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs, and sometimes by infections.1 They are characterised by widespread ... infections by. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the herpes simplex virus.⁵ .... Figure 2: Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis due first line treatment for TB – note greater than 30 % skin ... Human intravenous immune globulin (IVIg) has been used for both ...

  17. Clinical Studies on conformal radiotherapy combined with epidermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in second-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Yong Cai1, Ji-Ying Wang2 and .... Adenocarcinoma. 55. 118 ... survival, as risk factors, while EGFR mutation correlated with ...

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor: Target for delivery and silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Oliveira, S.

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer therapy Recently, cancer research has been able to identify molecular targets that are specific for (or highly expressed by) cancer cells. These molecular targets serve as models for the development of rationally designed anticancer drugs that target import

  19. Epidermal hydration levels in rosacea patients improve after minocycline therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Raghallaigh, S

    2013-12-06

    Patients with rosacea frequently report increased skin sensitivity, with features suggestive of an abnormal stratum corneum (SC) permeability barrier. Sebum, pH and hydration levels influence epidermal homeostasis. The correlation of the change in these parameters with clinically effective treatment has not been previously analysed.

  20. Micromorphology and development of the epicuticular structure on the epidermal cell of ginseng leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The outwardly projected cuticle and epidermal cell wall (i.e., an epicuticular wrinkle acts as a major barrier to block out sunlight in ginseng leaves. The small vesicles in the peripheral region of epidermal cells may suppress the cuticle and parts of epidermal wall, push it upward, and consequently contribute to the formation of the epicuticular structure.

  1. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  2. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  3. Deformation twinning in monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R.S.; Marshall, D.B

    2003-10-20

    Polycrystalline monazite (LaPO{sub 4}) was deformed at room temperature by a spherical indenter. Deformation twins were identified by TEM in 70 grains. Five twin planes were found: (100) was by far the most common; (001) and (120) were less common; (122-bar)was rare, and kinks in (120) twins were identified as irrational '(483)' twin planes. The twinning modes on these planes were inferred from the expression of twinning shear at free surfaces, predictions of classical deformation twinning theory, and various considerations of twin morphology and crystal structure. Atomic shuffle calculations that allow formation of either a glide plane or a mirror plane at the twin interface were used to analyze twin modes. The inferred twin modes all have small atomic shuffles. For (001) twins, the smallest shuffles were obtained with a glide plane at the interface, with displacement vector R=((1)/(2))[010]. The results do not uniquely define a twin mode on (100), leaving open the possibility of more than one mode operating on this plane. Factors that may determine the operative deformation twinning modes are discussed. Crystal structure considerations suggest that the relative abundance of twinning modes may correlate with low shear modulus on the twin plane in the direction of twinning shear, and with a possible low-energy interface structure consisting of a layer of xenotime of one half-unit-cell thickness that could form at (100) and (001) twins. The three most common twins have low strains to low {sigma} coincidence site lattices (CSLs)

  4. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  5. Sprengels deformity: anaesthesia management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave S

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A 28 years old lady presented with Sprengels deformity and hemivertebrae for Fothergills surgery. Clinically there were no anomalies of the nervous, renal or the cardiovascular systems. She had a short neck and score on modified Mallapati test was grade 2. She was successfully anaesthetised using injection Propofol as a total intravenous anaesthetic agent after adequate premedication with injection Midazolam and injection Pentazocine. Patient had an uneventful intraoperative and postoperative course.

  6. Autoregulatory Feedback Mechanism of P38MAPK/Caspase-8 in Photodynamic Therapy-Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxy Phthalocyanine Zinc-Induced Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Bel-7402 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a novel and promising antitumor treatment. Our previous study showed that hydrophilic/lipophilic tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine zinc- (TαPcZn- mediated PDT (TαPcZn-PDT inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells by triggering apoptosis and arresting cell cycle. However, mechanisms of TαPcZn-PDT-induced apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells have not been fully clarified. In the present study, therefore, effect of TαPcZn-PDT on apoptosis, P38MAPK, p-P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bid, Cytochrome c, and mitochondria membrane potential in Bel-7402 cells without or with P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or Caspase-8 inhibitor Ac-IEFD-CHO was investigated by haematoxylin and eosin (HE staining assay, flow cytometry analysis of annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI double staining cells and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1, and immunoblot assay. We found that TαPcZn-PDT resulted in apoptosis induction, activation of P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, and Bid, downregulation of Bcl-2, release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in TαPcZn-PDT-treated Bel-7402 cells. In contrast, SB203580 or Ac-IEFD-CHO attenuated induction of apoptosis, activation of P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, and Bid, downregulation of Bcl-2, release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in TαPcZn-PDT-treated Bel-7402 cells. Taken together, we conclude that Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bid, and mitochondria are involved in autoregulatory feedback of P38MAPK/Caspase-8 during TαPcZn-PDT-induced apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells.

  7. CcaR is an autoregulatory protein that binds to the ccaR and cefD-cmcI promoters of the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarta, Irene; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Pérez-Redondo, Rosario; Martín, Juan F; Liras, Paloma

    2002-06-01

    The putative regulatory CcaR protein, which is encoded in the beta-lactam supercluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and heparin affinity chromatography. In addition, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a His-tagged recombinant protein (rCcaR), and used to raise anti-rCcaR antibodies. The partially purified CcaR protein from S. clavuligerus was able to bind DNA fragments containing the promoter regions of the ccaR gene itself and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region. In contrast, CcaR did not bind to DNA fragments with the promoter regions of other genes of the cephamycin-clavulanic acid supercluster including lat, blp, claR, car-cyp, and the unlinked argR gene. The DNA shifts obtained with CcaR were prevented by anti-rCcaR immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies but not by anti-rabbit IgG antibodies. ccaR and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region were fused to the xylE reporter gene and expressed in Streptomyces lividans and S. clavuligerus. These constructs produced low catechol dioxygenase activity in the absence of CcaR; activity was increased 1.7- to 4.6-fold in cultures expressing CcaR. Amplification of the ccaR promoter region lacking its coding sequence in a high-copy-number plasmid in S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 resulted in a reduced production of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid, by 12 to 20% and 40 to 60%, respectively, due to titration of the CcaR regulator. These findings confirm that CcaR is a positively acting autoregulatory protein able to bind to its own promoter as well as to the cefD-cmcI bidirectional promoter region.

  8. PARP-1 expression in the mouse is controlled by an autoregulatory loop: PARP-1 binding to an upstream S/MAR element and to a novel recognition motif in its promoter suppresses transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaković, Melita; Gluch, Angela; Qiao, Junhua; Oumard, Andrè; Frisch, Matthias; Poznanović, Goran; Bode, Juergen

    2009-05-15

    This work identifies central components of a feedback mechanism for the expression of mouse poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Using the stress-induced duplex destabilization algorithm, multiple base-unpairing regions (BURs) could be localized in the 5' region of the mouse PARP-1 gene (muPARP-1). Some of these could be identified as scaffold/matrix-attachment regions (S/MARs), suggesting an S/MAR-mediated transcriptional regulation. PARP-1 binding to the most proximal element, S/MAR 1, and to three consensus motifs, AGGCC, in its own promoter (basepairs -956 to +100), could be traced by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The AGGCC-complementary GGCCT motif was detected by cis-diammine-dichloro platinum cross-linking and functionally characterized by the effects of site-directed mutagenesis on its performance in wild type (PARP-1(+/+)) and PARP-1 knockout cells (PARP-1(-/-)). Mutation of the central AGGCC tract at basepairs -554 to -550 prevented PARP-1/promoter interactions, whereby muPARP-1 expression became up-regulated. Transfection of a series of reporter gene constructs with or without S/MAR 1 (basepairs -1523 to -1007) and the more distant S/MAR 2 (basepairs -8373 to -6880), into PARP-1(+/+) as well as PARP-1(-/-) cells, revealed an additional, major level of muPARP-1 promoter down-regulation, triggered by PARP-1 binding to S/MAR 1. We conclude that S/MAR 1 represents an upstream control element that acts in conjunction with the muPARP-1 promoter. These interactions are part of a negative autoregulatory loop.

  9. Nanoscale Deformable Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst in the thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akio; Shiba, Eisuke; Hisaoka, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst is rare, and the most frequently affected region is the head and neck. Presentation of case A 41-year-old man noticed swelling and a small ulceration in the thumb pulp. A lesion with a 2-cm diameter was simply resected based on a diagnosis of infected epidermal cyst. Pathological diagnosis of the resected material was squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst. Consequent amputation was performed. Discussion and conclusion The clinical symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst can mimic those of an infected epidermal cyst. The current report facilitates awareness of such disease. PMID:25912006

  11. Influence of epidermal growth factor on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter Skov; Boesby, S.; Kirkegaard, P.;

    2013-01-01

    growth factor could be identified in portal venous blood after intestinal instillation of epidermal growth factor. Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands secrete epidermal growth factor. Extirpation of Brunner's glands decreased liver regeneration, whereas removal of the submandibular glands had......The role of epidermal growth factor on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats was investigated. After a 70% hepatectomy in rats, the concentration of epidermal growth factor in portal venous blood was unchanged compared with unoperated controls. However, small amounts of epidermal...

  12. Quantizing Earth surface deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Bowin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.

  13. Space Deformations, Surface Deformations and the Opportunities In-Between

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Cohen-Or

    2009-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed a large interest in surface deformation techniques. This has been a reaction that can be attributed to the ability to develop techniques which are detail-preserving. Space deformation techniques, on the other hand, received less attention, but nevertheless they have many advantages over surface-based techniques. This paper explores the potential of these two approaches to deformation and discusses the opportunities that the fusion of the two may lead to.

  14. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.;

    2006-01-01

    During plastic deformation of metals and alloys, dislocations arrange in ordered patterns. How and when these self-organization processes take place have remained elusive, because in situ observations have not been feasible. We present an x-ray diffraction method that provided data on the dynamics...... of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....

  15. The epidermal growth factor system in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghal, Nadeem; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-03-10

    The single known epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and single epidermal growth factor receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans mediate two types of processes, each via a distinct signal transduction pathway. Several instances of cell fate specification during organogenesis require the RAS-MAP kinase pathway, as well as multiple nuclear factors. By contrast, appropriate myoepithelial contractions during ovulation involve IP3-mediated signal transduction. Positive modulators of the RAS pathway include KSR, SUR-8, phosphatase PP2A, and a zinc cation diffusion facilitator. Negative regulators of the RAS pathway include homologs of CBL, GAP-1, ACK, and MAP kinase phosphatase, while negative regulators of the IP3 pathway are enzymes that modify IP3. In addition to its stimulation of RAS activity, the GRB2 homolog SEM-5 acts negatively on both signaling pathways, as does the Ack-related kinase ARK-1.

  16. Toxic epidermal necrolysis secondary to ceftriaxone use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İçer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare, life-threatening condition that is usually associated with medication use and characterized by separation of epidermis and dermis and a scalded skin appearance. A 71-year-old man presented to emergency department with fever, malaise, and hyperemic skin eruptions and bullae. Skin lesions covered more than 70% of total body surface area. Nikolsky sign was positive. He had been begun ceftriaxone for pneumonia before. TEN was considered as the initial diagnosis; the medication he used was stopped, appropriate supportive treatment was begun, and the patient was admitted to intensive care unit. He was discharged on 8th day after skin epithelization occurred. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a highly fatal syndrome, in which early diagnosis, stopping the offensive drug, and administering appropriate supportive treatment are important components of the management.

  17. Leaf Epidermal Cells: A Trap for Lipophilic Xenobiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Plant surfaces are covered by a layer of cuticle, which functions as a natural barrier to protect plants from mechanical damage, desiccation, and microbial invasion. Results presented in this report show that the epicuticular wax and the cuticle of plant leaves also play an important role in resisting xenobiotic invasion.Although the epicuticular wax is impermeableto hydrophilic xenobiotics, the cuticle not only restricts the penetration of hydrophilic compounds into leaf cells, but also traps lipophilic ones. The role of the epidermal cells of plant leaves in resisting xenobiotic invasion has been neglected until now. The present study shows, for the first time, that the epidermal cells may reduce or retard the transport of lipophilic xenobiotics into the internal tissues through vacuolar sequestration. Although the guard cells appear to be an easy point of entry for xenobiotics, only a very small proportion of xenobiotics present on the leaf surface actually moves into leaf tissues via the guard cells.

  18. Transient silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during fruit ripening modifies tomato epidermal cells and cuticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Reina-Pinto, José J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY CELL CULTURE FROM TAIL EPIDERMAL TISSUE OF KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio koi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Gardenia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from tail epidermal tissue of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi was developed. Cells were grown in Leibovits-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Penicillin/Streptomycin and Kanamycin. Cell growth was observed in a range of incubation temperature (17oC±2oC, 22oC±2oC, 27oC±2oC, and 32oC±2oC in order to determine the optimum temperature. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature between 17oC to 32oC with optimal growth at 22oC. Primary cells infected with koi herpes virus produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation and deformation of nuclei, which is consistent with those of previous reports. Artificial injection experiment by using supernatant koi herpes virus SKBM-1 isolate revealed that it could cause 90% mortality in infected fish within two weeks. PCR test with Sph I-5 specific primers carried out with DNA template from supernatant virus, pellet cell, and gills of infected fish showed positive results in all samples (molecular weight of DNA target 290 bp. The cells were found to be susceptible to koi herpes virus and can be used for virus propagation.

  20. Tumor epidermóide intramedular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Júnior Marco Antônio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso raro de tumor epidermóide intramedular, estendendo-se entre os níveis da segunda e quarta vértebras torácicas, em uma paciente de 15 anos do sexo feminino, tratado cirurgicamente com sucesso. São discutidos o quadro clínico e a etiopatogenia e é feita breve revisão da literatura.

  1. A review of toxic epidermal necrolysis management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kinoshita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe adverse drug reaction characterized by necrosis of the epidermis. Its incidence is approximately 1 per million a year and average mortality rate is high at 25–50%. TEN has a flu-like prodrome, followed by atypical, targetoid erythematous or purpuric macules on the skin. These macules coalesce to form flaccid blisters that slough off as areas of epidermal necrosis. Drugs such as allopurinol, sulfonamides, and carbamazepine are the most common causes. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B*15:02 in Asians being administered carbamazepine and the HLA-B*58:01 antigen in patients of all ethnicities being administered allopurinol are known to be high-risk factors. Rapid diagnosis, discontinuation of the causative drug, and supportive treatment are essential for better prognosis and improvement of sequelae. Till now, systemic corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins have been used as the most common active interventions; however, no gold standard has been established. In Japan, physicians follow a unique diagnostic criteria and treatment guideline to improve the diagnosis rate and streamline treatments. This may be a contributing factor for the lower mortality rate (14.3%. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis may have been beneficial as well. In Japan, TEN is defined as an epidermal detachment of over 10% of the body surface area (BSA, while the globally accepted definition established by Bastuji-Garin describes it as an epidermal detachment of over 30% of the BSA. In Japanese individuals, HLA-A*02:06, HLA-A*02:07, HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*51:01 may be linked to higher risks of TEN.

  2. Phospholipase C-epsilon regulates epidermal morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P Vázquez-Manrique

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration of cells within epithelial sheets is an important feature of embryogenesis and other biological processes. Previous work has demonstrated a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3-mediated calcium signalling in the rearrangement of epidermal cells (also known as hypodermal cells during embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However the mechanism by which IP(3 production is stimulated is unknown. IP(3 is produced by the action of phospholipase C (PLC. We therefore surveyed the PLC family of C. elegans using RNAi and mutant strains, and found that depletion of PLC-1/PLC-epsilon produced substantial embryonic lethality. We used the epithelial cell marker ajm-1::gfp to follow the behaviour of epidermal cells and found that 96% of the arrested embryos have morphogenetic defects. These defects include defective ventral enclosure and aberrant dorsal intercalation. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy we show that the migration of the ventral epidermal cells, especially of the leading cells, is slower and often fails in plc-1(tm753 embryos. As a consequence plc-1 loss of function results in ruptured embryos with a Gex phenotype (gut on exterior and lumpy larvae. Thus PLC-1 is involved in the regulation of morphogenesis. Genetic studies using gain- and loss-of-function alleles of itr-1, the gene encoding the IP(3 receptor in C. elegans, demonstrate that PLC-1 acts through ITR-1. Using RNAi and double mutants to deplete the other PLCs in a plc-1 background, we show that PLC-3/PLC-gamma and EGL-8/PLC-beta can compensate for reduced PLC-1 activity. Our work places PLC-epsilon into a pathway controlling epidermal cell migration, thus establishing a novel role for PLC-epsilon.

  3. Phospholipase C-epsilon regulates epidermal morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P Vázquez-Manrique

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration of cells within epithelial sheets is an important feature of embryogenesis and other biological processes. Previous work has demonstrated a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3-mediated calcium signalling in the rearrangement of epidermal cells (also known as hypodermal cells during embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However the mechanism by which IP(3 production is stimulated is unknown. IP(3 is produced by the action of phospholipase C (PLC. We therefore surveyed the PLC family of C. elegans using RNAi and mutant strains, and found that depletion of PLC-1/PLC-epsilon produced substantial embryonic lethality. We used the epithelial cell marker ajm-1::gfp to follow the behaviour of epidermal cells and found that 96% of the arrested embryos have morphogenetic defects. These defects include defective ventral enclosure and aberrant dorsal intercalation. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy we show that the migration of the ventral epidermal cells, especially of the leading cells, is slower and often fails in plc-1(tm753 embryos. As a consequence plc-1 loss of function results in ruptured embryos with a Gex phenotype (gut on exterior and lumpy larvae. Thus PLC-1 is involved in the regulation of morphogenesis. Genetic studies using gain- and loss-of-function alleles of itr-1, the gene encoding the IP(3 receptor in C. elegans, demonstrate that PLC-1 acts through ITR-1. Using RNAi and double mutants to deplete the other PLCs in a plc-1 background, we show that PLC-3/PLC-gamma and EGL-8/PLC-beta can compensate for reduced PLC-1 activity. Our work places PLC-epsilon into a pathway controlling epidermal cell migration, thus establishing a novel role for PLC-epsilon.

  4. Dynamic recruitment of the curvature-sensitive protein ArhGAP44 to nanoscale membrane deformations limits exploratory filopodia initiation in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Milos; Tsai, Feng-Chiao; Collins, Sean R; Matis, Maja; Bandara, Samuel; Meyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, exploratory filopodia transiently form on dendritic branches to sample the neuronal environment and initiate new trans-neuronal contacts. While much is known about the molecules that control filopodia extension and subsequent maturation into functional synapses, the mechanisms that regulate initiation of these dynamic, actin-rich structures have remained elusive. Here, we find that filopodia initiation is suppressed by recruitment of ArhGAP44 to actin-patches that seed filopodia. Recruitment is mediated by binding of a membrane curvature-sensing ArhGAP44 N-BAR domain to plasma membrane sections that were deformed inward by acto-myosin mediated contractile forces. A GAP domain in ArhGAP44 triggers local Rac-GTP hydrolysis, thus reducing actin polymerization required for filopodia formation. Additionally, ArhGAP44 expression increases during neuronal development, concurrent with a decrease in the rate of filopodia formation. Together, our data reveals a local auto-regulatory mechanism that limits initiation of filopodia via protein recruitment to nanoscale membrane deformations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03116.001 PMID:25498153

  5. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  7. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Wong

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are uncommon, acute and potentially life-threatening adverse cutaneous drug reactions. These pathologies are considered a hypersensitivity reaction and can be triggered by drugs, infections and malignancies. The drugs most often involved are allopurinol, some antibiotics, including sulfonamides, anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, and some non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Necrosis of keratinocytes is manifested clinically by epidermal detachment, leading to scalded skin appearance. The rash begins on the trunk with subsequent generalization, usually sparing the palmoplantar areas. Macular lesions become purplish, and epidermal detachment occurs, resulting in flaccid blisters that converge and break, resulting in extensive sloughing of necrotic skin. Nikolsky's sign is positive in perilesional skin. SJS and TEN are considered to be two ends of the spectrum of one disease, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Management of patients with SJS or TEN requires three measures: removal of the offending drug, particularly drugs known to be high-risk; supportive measures and active interventions. Early diagnosis of the disease, recognition of the causal agent and the immediate withdrawal of the drug are the most important actions, as the course of the disease is often rapid and fatal.

  8. Morphometry of primary and secondary epidermal laminae in equine hoof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the length of primary and secondary epidermal laminae of the toe and the lateral and medial quarters of horses, distributed into proximal, middle and distal thirds of the hooves. Eight limbs from adult crossbred horses, four females and four males, used to pull carts without pedal conditions. Fragments were taken from different regions of the hooves and subjected to conventional histological techniques. The samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The primary epidermal laminae were higher in the hooves of forelimbs compared to hindlimbs in the proximal and middle thirds and the regions of the medial quarter and toe. The secondary laminae were higher in forelimb of the middle third and medial quarter. Comparing the length of the epidermal laminae between hoof parts, it was seen that the primary laminae are lower in the proximal third and higher in the toe, while the secondary laminae are lower in the proximal third and medial quarter. The results suggested that the morphology of the laminae in the different regions of the hooves is influenced through the work performed by the animal, as well as through the different distribution of forces.

  9. The circadian molecular clock creates epidermal stem cell heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janich, Peggy; Pascual, Gloria; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Ripperger, Jürgen; Albrecht, Urs; Cheng, Hai-Ying M; Obrietan, Karl; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2011-11-09

    Murine epidermal stem cells undergo alternate cycles of dormancy and activation, fuelling tissue renewal. However, only a subset of stem cells becomes active during each round of morphogenesis, indicating that stem cells coexist in heterogeneous responsive states. Using a circadian-clock reporter-mouse model, here we show that the dormant hair-follicle stem cell niche contains coexisting populations of cells at opposite phases of the clock, which are differentially predisposed to respond to homeostatic cues. The core clock protein Bmal1 modulates the expression of stem cell regulatory genes in an oscillatory manner, to create populations that are either predisposed, or less prone, to activation. Disrupting this clock equilibrium, through deletion of Bmal1 (also known as Arntl) or Per1/2, resulted in a progressive accumulation or depletion of dormant stem cells, respectively. Stem cell arrhythmia also led to premature epidermal ageing, and a reduction in the development of squamous tumours. Our results indicate that the circadian clock fine-tunes the temporal behaviour of epidermal stem cells, and that its perturbation affects homeostasis and the predisposition to tumorigenesis.

  10. Deformation analysis: The Fredericton approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vrečko, Anja; Ambrožič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Fredericton approach to deformation analysis is presented. It is possible to use several deformation models to determine the differences between the geodetic observations or between the coordinates of points in geodetic network in more epochs. The most appropriate deformation model has been chosen based on statistical testing and available information about dynamics at the area of interest. First, a theoretical background of the approach ...

  11. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  12. Extraction of high-quality epidermal RNA after ammonium thiocyanate-induced dermo-epidermal separation of 4 mm human skin biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anders; Thomassen, Mads; Clemmensen, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    To obtain a separation of the epidermal and dermal compartments to examine compartment specific biological mechanisms in the skin, we incubated 4 mm human skin punch biopsies in ammonium thiocyanate. We wanted to test (i) the histological quality of the dermo-epidermal separation obtained...... was not always histologically well-defined (i.e. occurred partly intra-epidermally), but also varied between subjects. Consequently, curettage along the dermal surface of the biopsy was added to the procedure. This modified method resulted in an almost perfect separation of the epidermal and dermal compartments...... and almost completely separated from the dermis of 4 mm skin biopsies by 30 min incubation in 3.8% ammonium thiocyanate combined with curettage of the dermal surface, producing high-quality RNA suitable for transcriptional analysis. Our refined method of dermo-epidermal separation will undoubtedly prove...

  13. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraya, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation. T

  14. Deformation of the ABJM Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal, Mir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the ABJM theory on deformed spacetime. We show that this theory reduces to a deformed super-Yang-Mills theory when one of the scalar superfields is given a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value. Our analyse is done in N=1 superspace formulism.

  15. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  16. Metastable vacua and geometric deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Amariti, A; Girardello, L; Mariotti, A

    2008-01-01

    We study the geometric interpretation of metastable vacua for systems of D3 branes at non isolated toric deformable singularities. Using the L^{aba} examples, we investigate the relations between the field theoretic susy breaking and restoration and the complex deformations of the CY singularities.

  17. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  18. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization...... published during the Ph.D. project. To put these articles into the general context of deformable template models and to pass on an overview of the deformable template model literature, the thesis starts with a compact survey of the deformable template model literature with special focus on representation....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  19. Structural and biophysical characteristics of human skin in maintaining proper epidermal barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Magdalena; Duchnik, Ewa; Maleszka, Romuald; Marchlewicz, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part – stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transep...

  20. Epidermal cyst of the breast simulating a benign solid mass: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Shim, Jeong Yeon [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    Epidermal cysts are benign epithelial cysts occurring within the skin. Epidermal cysts are not uncommonly found in the skin of the breast, but rare in the nipple and subareolar area. There have been only a few radiologic reports. We report a case of a 40 year old woman with an incidentally discovered epidermal cyst, located in the subareolar area, and this lesion was radiologically resembled a benign solid mass.

  1. Mechanical response of a living human epidermal keratinocyte sheet as measured in a composite diaphragm inflation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, John C; Shannon, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Sheets of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were reconstituted in vitro on tensed but highly compliant, freestanding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes, 5.0 mm in diameter and 10 mum thick. NHEK-PDMS composite diaphragm (CD) specimens were then subjected to cyclical axisymmetric inflation tests to investigate epithelial sheet rheology under conditions of physiologically severe deformations (~50% nominal polar biaxial strains). Because the compliance of the specially formulated PDMS membrane was greater than that of the attached cell layer, the finite load-deformation behavior (mechanical response) of the living NHEK sheet was inferred from differences between the mechanical behavior of the CD specimen and the response of the underlying PDMS membrane measured prior to cell culture. In these composite diaphragm inflation (CDI) experiments, interconnected NHEKs exhibited rheological behaviors that were suggestive of a viscoelastic-plastic stress response. Remarkably, specimens returned to quiescent culture following a sequence of inflation tests recovered at least 80% of their original ability to store elastic strain energy, evidence of biological adaptation and recovery or restitutio ad integrum. Unlike methodologies that assay the morphological or biochemical response of cultured cells to an applied mechanostimulus, CDI experiments can be used to probe the load-bearing functions of desmosomes and adherens junctions within a living epithelial sheet, as well as to assess the rheological behaviors of the intermediate filament and microfilament networks that these cell-cell junctions serve to interconnect.

  2. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis and in the bulge region of the hair follicle play a critical role for normal tissue maintenance. In wound healing, multipotent epidermal stem cells contribute to re-epithelization. It is possible that defects in growth control of either epidermal stem cells......In this review we focus on epidermal stem cells in the normal regeneration of the skin as well as in wounded and psoriatic skin. Furthermore, we discuss current data supporting the idea of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Epidermal stem cells present...

  3. S UCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF INTRAORAL EPIDERMAL CYST IN A NEWBORN : A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal cysts involving head and neck are uncommon representing around 7% of all epidermal cysts in the body . Sublingual cysts are still uncommon (1 . 5 - 2% usually presenting in young adults in 2 nd or 3 rd decade of life . An epidermal cyst presenting at birth in sublingual position is extr emely rare . A large sublingual epidermal cyst in a newborn baby girl , which is causing breathing and swallowing difficulties leading to hypoxia in supine position and continuous drooling of saliva with inability to close the mouth , is reported . Successful excision of the cyst without rupture by transoral route under general anesthesia is performed at 24 hours of life .

  4. Epidermal nevus syndrome associated with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, CNS lipoma, and aplasia cutis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabanillas, Miguel; Aneiros, Angel; Monteagudo, Benigno; Santos-García, Diego; Suárez-Amor, Oscar; Ramírez-Santos, Aquilina

    2009-01-01

    ... and urogenital systems. We describe a patient with an extensive epidermal nevus associated with various organ abnormalities, particularly polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, central nervous system lipoma, and aplasia cutis...

  5. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  6. In vitro human epidermal penetration of 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, H Frederick; Dotson, G Scott; Barbero, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP; CAS number 106-94-5), also known as n-propyl bromide, is a halogenated short-chain alkane used as an organic solvent with numerous commercial and industrial applications, including garment dry cleaning and vapor degreasing of metals. The purpose of this study was to determine the dermal absorption characteristics and corrosivity of 1-BP. Heat-separated human epidermal membranes were mounted on static diffusion cells. Different exposure scenarios were studied (infinite dose, finite dose, and transient exposure) using neat 1-BP and saturated aqueous solution as donor. Steady-state fluxes for infinite-dose neat 1-BP exposure averaged 625 to 960 μg cm(-2) h(-1). The finite-dose (10 μl/cm(2) = 13.5 mg/cm(2)) unoccluded donor resulted in penetration of <0.2% of the applied dose (22 μg/cm(2)). A 10-min transient exposure to infinite dose resulted in total penetration of 179 μg/cm(2). Steady-state 1-BP fluxes from neat application of a commercial dry cleaning solvent were similar (441 to 722 μg cm(-2) h(-1)). The permeability coefficient of 1-BP in water vehicle was 0.257 ± 0.141 cm/h. The absorption potential of 1-BP following dermal exposure is dependent upon the type and duration of exposure. Donor losses due to evaporation were approximately 500-fold greater than dermal absorption flux; evaporation flux was 420 mg cm(-2) h(-1). 1-BP is cytotoxic but not corrosive, based on results from a cultured reconstructed human epidermal model (EpiDerm Skin Corrosivity Test).

  7. Inhibition of JNK promotes differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Alix; Banno, Tomohiro; Walsh, Rebecca; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2006-07-21

    In inflamed tissue, normal signal transduction pathways are altered by extracellular signals. For example, the JNK pathway is activated in psoriatic skin, which makes it an attractive target for treatment. To define comprehensively the JNK-regulated genes in human epidermal keratinocytes, we compared the transcriptional profiles of control and JNK inhibitor-treated keratinocytes, using DNA microarrays. We identified the differentially expressed genes 1, 4, 24, and 48 h after the treatment with SP600125. Surprisingly, the inhibition of JNK in keratinocyte cultures in vitro induces virtually all aspects of epidermal differentiation in vivo: transcription of cornification markers, inhibition of motility, withdrawal from the cell cycle, stratification, and even production of cornified envelopes. The inhibition of JNK also induces the production of enzymes of lipid and steroid metabolism, proteins of the diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate pathways, mitochondrial proteins, histones, and DNA repair enzymes, which have not been associated with differentiation previously. Simultaneously, basal cell markers, including integrins, hemidesmosome and extracellular matrix components, are suppressed. Promoter analysis of regulated genes finds that the binding sites for the forkhead family of transcription factors are over-represented in the SP600125-induced genes and c-Fos sites in the suppressed genes. The JNK-induced proliferation appears to be secondary to inhibition of differentiation. The results indicate that the inhibition of JNK in epidermal keratinocytes is sufficient to initiate their differentiation program and suggest that augmenting JNK activity could be used to delay cornification and enhance wound healing, whereas attenuating it could be a differentiation therapy-based approach for treating psoriasis.

  8. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency......(-9) mol/L. The antibodies recognized purified EGF from the submandibular glands (6 kD) and from urine (45 kD) and further native EGF in saliva and urine. The cross-reactivity toward transforming growth factor-alpha was below 3%. Binding of EGF by antibodies inhibited its binding to the EGF...

  9. Cyclophosphamide in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangogiannis, N G; Boridy, I; Mazhar, M; Mathews, R; Gangopadhyay, S; Cate, T

    1996-10-01

    A patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma and recent radiotherapy for brain metastases developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) shortly after therapy with phenytoin was initiated for a seizure. Exfoliation progressed to involve 90% of her body surface despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids for 5 days, but sloughing and systemic toxicity ceased within 2 days of initiating therapy with intravenous cyclophosphamide (300 mg/day). Reepithelialization rapidly followed. This experience and the reports of others suggest that intravenous cyclophosphamide is helpful in the treatment of TEN.

  10. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in solid tumor malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Mette K; Hedegaard, Chris J; Poulsen, Hans S

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed, as well as mutated, in many types of cancers. In particular, the EGFR variant type III mutant (EGFRvIII) has attracted much attention as it is frequently and exclusively found on many tumor cells, and hence both EGFR and EGFRvIII have...... been proposed as valid targets in many cancer therapy settings. Different strategies have been developed in order to either inhibit EGFR/EGFRvIII activity or to ablate EGFR/EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. Drugs that inhibit these receptors include monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind...

  11. Simultaneous occurrence of toxic epidermal necrolysis and neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is an acute life-threatening blistering disease characterized by involvement of the skin, multiple mucous membranes and internal organs. It is most commonly precipitated by the administration of medications like anticonvulsants. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare complication of neuroleptic therapy characterized by catatonic behavior, generalized muscular rigidity, hyperthermia and autonomic dysfunction. An 18-year-old girl presenting with simultaneous appearance of TEN and NMS following anti-psychotic drugs given for bipolar mood disorder, is reported for the rare association and her complete recovery.

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands...... is well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  13. Cephalosporin Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Subsequent Penicillin Drug Exanthem

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lam; Inderpal Randhawa; William Klaustermeyer

    2008-01-01

    Background: Drug hypersensitivity is classically divided into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated disease. We report a rare case of consequent IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated reactions within the beta lactam class of antibiotics. Case Summary: An 84-year-old man developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) due to ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, involving 72% of the body surface area. The patient recovered but within weeks subsequently developed an acute IgE mediated allergic r...

  14. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis induced by rarely implicated drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Rajagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN and Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS are serious disorders commonly caused as idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, the most common ones being oxicams, anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. We present a case of TEN in a patient who developed the lesions after ingesting multiple drugs including paracetamol, metoclopramide, antihistamines, and multivitamins. These drugs have rarely been implicated in this disorder. The suspected drugs in this case were paracetamol and metoclopramide. However, the role of other drugs could not be ruled out definitely. The patient was managed with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and parenteral fluids and recovered well.

  15. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Lars E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Both are rare, with TEN and SJS affecting approximately 1or 2/1,000,000 annually, and are considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Currently, TEN and SJS are considered to be two ends of a spectrum of severe epidermolytic adverse cutaneous drug reactions, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the aetiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Genetic susceptibility to SJS and TEN is likely as exemplified by the strong association observed in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and SJS induced by carbamazepine. Diagnosis relies mainly on clinical signs together with the histological analysis of a skin biopsy showing typical full-thickness epidermal necrolysis due to extensive keratinocyte apoptosis. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS. Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis

  16. Acyl-CoA binding protein and epidermal barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2014-01-01

    enzymatic systems; however, the precise function remains unknown. ACBP is expressed at relatively high levels in the epidermis, particularly in the suprabasal layers, which are highly active in lipid synthesis. Targeted disruption of the ACBP gene in mice leads to a pronounced skin and fur phenotype, which...... levels of non-esterified very long chain fatty acids in the stratum corneum of ACBP(-/-) mice. Here we review the current knowledge of ACBP with special focus on the function of ACBP in the epidermal barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis...

  17. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  18. Involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shutaro; Hirao, Makoto; Tsuboi, Hideki; Akita, Shosuke; Matsushita, Masato; Ohshima, Shiro; Saeki, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity was confirmed in a rheumatoid arthritis case with a destructive valgus hindfoot deformity. Correction of severe valgus, calcaneal lateral offset, and pronated foot deformity instantly normalized hallux valgus deformities postoperatively. Thus, careful hindfoot status evaluation is important when assessing forefoot deformity, including hallux valgus, in rheumatoid arthritis cases.

  19. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.

  20. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  1. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, V. I.; Bazeia, D.; Brito, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scena...

  2. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF......-immunoreactivity was revealed homogeneously in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, which might suggest that EGF is present as a precursor molecule in the mammary glands. Altered glucose metabolism during lactation results in secondary hypoinsulinaemia in the lactating rat. As insulin is also known to affect lactation...... in several species, we treated normal lactating rats daily with insulin and studied the effect on the composition of milk. A significant increase in the content of total protein and milk fat was observed after a few days of insulin-treatment, as compared to a control group [total protein: 50 (36-97) g/l vs...

  3. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  4. A novel role of RASSF9 in maintaining epidermal homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Mei Lee

    Full Text Available The physiological role of RASSF9, a member of the Ras-association domain family (RASSF, is currently unclear. Here, we report a mouse line in which an Epstein-Barr virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 transgene insertion has created a 7.2-kb chromosomal deletion, which abolished RASSF9 gene expression. The RASSF9-null mice exhibited interesting phenotypes that resembled human ageing, including growth retardation, short lifespan, less subcutaneous adipose layer and alopecia. In the wild-type mice, RASSF9 is predominantly expressed in the epidermal keratinocytes of skin, as determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. In contrast, RASSF9-/- mice presented a dramatic change in epithelial organization of skin with increased proliferation and aberrant differentiation as detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays and immunofluorescence analyses. Furthermore, characteristic functions of RASSF9-/- versus wild type (WT mouse primary keratinocytes showed significant proliferation linked to a reduction of p21Cip1 expression under growth or early differentiation conditions. Additionally, in RASSF9-/- keratinocytes there was a drastic down-modulation of terminal differentiation markers, which could be rescued by infection with a recombinant adenovirus, Adv/HA-RASSF9. Our results indicate a novel and significant role of RASSF9 in epidermal homeostasis.

  5. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process.

  6. MITF accurately highlights epidermal melanocytes in atypical intraepidermal melanocytic proliferations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Grant E; Sargen, Michael; Abraham, Ronnie; Zhang, Paul J; Ming, Michael; Xu, Xiaowei

    2013-02-01

    Atypical intraepidermal melanocytic proliferations (AIMP) have random cytologic atypia and other histologic features that are concerning for malignancy and often require immunohistochemistry to differentiate from melanoma in situ. Immunostaining with S100, Melan-A, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was performed for 49 morphologically well-characterized AIMP lesions. The percentage of cells in the basal layer of the epidermis that were identified as melanocytes by immunohistochemistry was compared with the percentage observed by morphology on hematoxylin and eosin staining, which is the gold standard stain for identifying cytologic atypia within an AIMP. Melan-A estimated the highest percentage of melanocytes and S100 the fewest in 47 of the 49 lesions examined. The estimated percentage of melanocytes was 23.3% (95% confidence interval: 18.6-28.1; P Melanocyte estimates were similar for hematoxylin and eosin and MITF (P = 0.15) although S100 estimated 21.8% (95% confidence interval: -27.2 to -16.4; P melanocytes than hematoxylin and eosin. Melan-A staining produces higher estimates of epidermal melanocytes than S100 and MITF, which may increase the likelihood of diagnosing melanoma in situ. In contrast, melanoma in situ may be underdiagnosed with the use of S100, which results in lower estimates of melanocytes than the other 2 immunostains. Therefore, the best immunohistochemical marker for epidermal melanocytes is MITF.

  7. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in ora leukoplakia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Kobayashi; Kenichi Kumagai; Akito Gotoh; Takanori Eguchi; Hiroyuki Yamada; Yoshiki Hamada; Satsuki Suzuki; Ryuji Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ ErbB 1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP), The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP.

  8. Extraordinarily Stretchable All-Carbon Collaborative Nanoarchitectures for Epidermal Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yichen

    2017-06-16

    Multifunctional microelectronic components featuring large stretchability, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and broad sensing range have attracted a huge surge of interest with the fast developing epidermal electronic systems. Here, the epidermal sensors based on all-carbon collaborative percolation network are demonstrated, which consist 3D graphene foam and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained by two-step chemical vapor deposition processes. The nanoscaled CNT networks largely enhance the stretchability and SNR of the 3D microarchitectural graphene foams, endowing the strain sensor with a gauge factor as high as 35, a wide reliable sensing range up to 85%, and excellent cyclic stability (>5000 cycles). The flexible and reversible strain sensor can be easily mounted on human skin as a wearable electronic device for real-time and high accuracy detecting of electrophysiological stimuli and even for acoustic vibration recognition. The rationally designed all-carbon nanoarchitectures are scalable, low cost, and promising in practical applications requiring extraordinary stretchability and ultrahigh SNRs.

  9. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tayyebi Meibodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis presents with perinuclear vacuolization of the keratinocytes in spinous and granular layers, keratinocytes with ill-defined limits, which leads to a reticulate appearance of the epidermis, an increased number of variously shaped and sized basophilic keratohyalin granules and the same sized eosinophilic trichohyalin granules, at any level of epidermis, mainly in the stratum granulosum, and compact hyperkeratosis. This minor reactive pathologic reaction pattern of skin is found in large variety of diseases. This paper is the first case report of such pattern in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Our case is of a 23-year-old man with pruritic verrucous lesions of trunk and extremities initiated since 13 years ago. Physical examination revealed white linear hyperkeratotic lesions, some of them on erythematous background and also classic epidermal nevus. No skeletal, ophthalmic, and nervous system involvement was detected. Microscopic study of pruritic verrucous lesions showed psoriasiform acanthosis, mild papillomatous, hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic hyperkeratotic changes in hair follicles and acrosyrinx accompanied with moderate perivascular inflammation.

  10. Steven johnsons syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri ram Anne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the etiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS. Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

  11. Specific antibodies and sensitive immunoassays for the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2, HER3, and HER4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Marianne Nordlund; Westgaard, Arne; Paus, Elisabeth; Øijordsbakken, Miriam; Henanger, Karoline J; Naume, Bjørn; Bjøro, Trine

    2017-06-01

    The use of trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer that overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 has significantly improved treatment outcomes. However, a substantial proportion of this patient group still experiences progression of the disease after receiving the drug. Evaluation of the changes in expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptors could be of interest. Monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of the human growth factor receptors, 2, 3, and 4, have been raised, and specific and sensitive immunoassays have been established. Sera from healthy individuals (Nordic Reference Interval Project and Database) were analyzed in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay (N = 805) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 and 4 assays (N = 114), and reference limits were calculated. In addition, sera from 208 individual patients with breast cancer were tested in all three assays. Finally, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay was compared with a chemiluminescent immunoassay for serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu. Reference values were as follows: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 3, human epidermal growth factor receptor 4, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 serum levels between the patients with tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative ( p = 0.0026, p = 0.000011) tumors, but not in the serum levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 4 ( p = 0.054). There was good agreement between the in-house human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay and the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Our new specific antibodies for all the three human epidermal growth factor receptors may prove valuable in the development of novel anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapies with

  12. Shape Deformations in Atomic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hamamoto, Ikuko

    2011-01-01

    The ground states of some nuclei are described by densities and mean fields that are spherical, while others are deformed. The existence of non-spherical shape in nuclei represents a spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  13. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness......Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...... of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...

  14. Deformed two center shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghescu, R A

    2003-01-01

    A highly specialized two-center shell model has been developed accounting for the splitting of a deformed parent nucleus into two ellipsoidaly deformed fragments. The potential is based on deformed oscillator wells in direct correspondance with the shape change of the nuclear system. For the first time a potential responsible for the necking part between the fragments is introduced on potential theory basis. As a direct consequence, spin-orbit {\\bf ls} and {\\bf l$^2$} operators are calculated as shape dependent. Level scheme evolution along the fission path for pairs of ellipsoidaly deformed fragments is calculated. The Strutinsky method yields the shell corrections for different mass asymmetries from the superheavy nucleus $^{306}$122 and $^{252}$Cf all along the splitting process.

  15. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  16. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  17. Deformed Calabi-Yau Completions

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    We define and investigate deformed n-Calabi-Yau completions of homologically smooth differential graded (=dg) categories. Important examples are: deformed preprojective algebras of connected non Dynkin quivers, Ginzburg dg algebras associated to quivers with potentials and dg categories associated to the category of coherent sheaves on the canonical bundle of a smooth variety. We show that deformed Calabi-Yau completions do have the Calabi-Yau property and that their construction is compatible with derived equivalences and with localizations. In particular, Ginzburg dg algebras have the Calabi-Yau property. We show that deformed 3-Calabi-Yau completions of algebras of global dimension at most 2 are quasi-isomorphic to Ginzburg dg algebras and apply this to the study of cluster-tilted algebras and to the construction of derived equivalences associated to mutations of quivers with potentials. In the appendix, Michel Van den Bergh uses non commutative differential geometry to give an alternative proof of the fac...

  18. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  19. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  20. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ormerod

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  1. Properties of deformed Λ hypernuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xian-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The properties of Be and B isotopes and the corresponding Λ hypernuclei are studied by using a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock approach with realistic nucleonic Skyrme forces, pairing correlations, and a microscopically determined lambda-nucleon interaction based on Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of hypernuclear matter. The results suggest that the core nuclei and the corresponding hypernuclei have similar deformations with the same sign.

  2. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF recep...

  3. The epidermal melanocyte system in individuals of Scandinavian origin, determined by DOPA-staining and TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drzewiecki, K T; Piltz-Drzewiecka, J

    1979-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes in 16 patients of Scandinavian origin showed both individual and regional differences in the melanocyte count. Our data is in agreement with other published studies. The distribution in the number of melanocytes varies significant...... concerning the presence of the epidermal melanin unit....

  4. Characterization of pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes in a long-term in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Klar, Agnieszka S; Widmer, Daniel S; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory, we have been using human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes for short-term experiments since several years. Little is known, however, about the long-term biology of such constructs after transplantation. We constructed human, melanocyte-containing dermo-epidermal skin substitutes of different (light and dark) pigmentation types and studied them in a long-term animal experiment. Developmental and maturational stages of the epidermal and dermal compartment as well as signs of homoeostasis were analysed 15 weeks after transplantation. Keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from human skin biopsies were isolated and assembled into dermo-epidermal skin substitutes. These were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and investigated 15 weeks after transplantation. Chromameter evaluation showed a consistent skin colour between 3 and 4 months after transplantation. Melanocytes resided in the epidermal basal layer in physiological numbers and melanin accumulated in keratinocytes in a supranuclear position. Skin substitutes showed a mature epidermis in a homoeostatic state and the presence of dermal components such as Fibrillin and Tropoelastin suggested advanced maturation. Overall, pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes show a promising development towards achieving near-normal skin characteristics and epidermal and dermal tissue homoeostasis. In particular, melanocytes function correctly over several months whilst remaining in a physiological, epidermal position and yield a pigmentation resembling original donor skin colour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Growth activity of epidermal cells from different parts of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; MA Zhong-feng; YANG Hong-ming; LIU Qiang; Liang Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Most epidermal cells used in skin tissue engineering are obtained from the skins of fetuses or prepuces,which can not be widely used in culturing and transplanting autologous epidermis for patients with extensive burn wounds. To solve the problem, in this study, we cultured epidermal cells from different parts of human body in vitro, and detected their growth activity.Methods Normal epidermal cells obtained from the prepuce, scalp, and axilla of male patients, were cultured and passaged. Their growth characteristics including adherent rate and growth activity were compared. Data were analyzed by homogeneity test of variance.Results In primary culture, the growth of epidermal cells from the prepuce was significantly faster than that of the epidermal cells from the scalp and axilla. In the cells obtained from the prepuce, 80% confluence was achieved on day 12, while on day 16 and day 20 in the cells from the scalp and axilla, respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in their growth and proliferation in the second passage.Conclusions Although the growth of epidermal cells obtained from the scalp and axilla is slower than that from the prepuce in primary culture, stable cell line can be established and used in preparation of auto-epidermal grafts for patients with extensive burn wounds. Therefore, the scalp and axillary skin should be considered as important sources of epidermal cells other than the prepuce.

  6. Systemic epidermal nevus with involvement of the oral mucosa due to FGFR3 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Fagerberg, Christina R; Clemmensen, Ole J

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal nevi (EN) represent benign congenital skin lesions following the lines of Blaschko. They result from genetic mosaicism, and activating FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations have been implicated.......Epidermal nevi (EN) represent benign congenital skin lesions following the lines of Blaschko. They result from genetic mosaicism, and activating FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations have been implicated....

  7. Growth activity of epidermal cells from different parts of human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jia-ke; Sheng, Zhi-yong; Ma, Zhong-feng; Yang, Hong-ming; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Li-ming

    2007-08-20

    Most epidermal cells used in skin tissue engineering are obtained from the skins of fetuses or prepuces, which can not be widely used in culturing and transplanting autologous epidermis for patients with extensive burn wounds. To solve the problem, in this study, we cultured epidermal cells from different parts of human body in vitro, and detected their growth activity. Normal epidermal cells obtained from the prepuce, scalp, and axilla of male patients, were cultured and passaged. Their growth characteristics including adherent rate and growth activity were compared. Data were analyzed by homogeneity test of variance. In primary culture, the growth of epidermal cells from the prepuce was significantly faster than that of the epidermal cells from the scalp and axilla. In the cells obtained from the prepuce, 80% confluence was achieved on day 12, while on day 16 and day 20 in the cells from the scalp and axilla, respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in their growth and proliferation in the second passage. Although the growth of epidermal cells obtained from the scalp and axilla is slower than that from the prepuce in primary culture, stable cell line can be established and used in preparation of auto-epidermal grafts for patients with extensive burn wounds. Therefore, the scalp and axillary skin should be considered as important sources of epidermal cells other than the prepuce.

  8. SURGICAL REMOVAL OF THE EPIDERMAL INCLUSION CYSTS WITH SQUEEZE TECHNIQUE: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Eren Yuksel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal inclusion cysts are common benign cutaneous cysts which arise from hair follicles. These cysts usually present as asymptomatic, small, smooth, firm, round, slow growing swellings on hair bearing areas such as scalp, face, neck and trunk. Epidermal inclusion cysts are easily diagnosed by their clinical features. However, trichilemmal cyst, dermoid cyst, neurofibroma, hemangioma, lipoma and liposarcoma should also be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of cutaneous cystic lesions. As malignant transformation of epidermal inclusion cysts has been reported, histopathological evaluation of epidermal inclusion cysts is mandatory in order to rule out malignancy. Moreover, giant epidermal inclusion cysts with ulceration, rapid growth, resistance to treatment, recurrence and fistula drainage may have malignant potential. Therefore, epidermal cysts should be surgically removed. There are several different types of surgical techniques to remove cutaneous cysts. A proper surgical technique should facilitate the complete removal of the cyst wall to prevent recurrence. In addition, it should provide minimal scarring and a low wound infection rate. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be easily removed surgically with squeeze technique. In this technique, the cyst is squeezed out through a small incision using both index fingers. Thus, the cyst is not ruptured. The squeeze technique allows the cyst capsule to remain intact. Therefore, the risk of wound infection, recurrence and scar formation is minimized. Hereby, we present a 48-year-old male with multiple epidermal inclusion cysts on the scalp treated surgically with squeeze technique. 

  9. Distribution and number of epidermal growth factor receptors in skin is related to epithelial cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Basketter, D A; Couchman, J R

    1983-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a low-molecular-weight polypeptide (G. Carpenter and S. Cohen, 1979, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48, 193-216), stimulates the proliferation and keratinisation of cultured embryonic epidermis (S. Cohen, 1965, Dev. Biol. 12, 394-407) and promotes epidermal growth, thickening,...

  10. The correlation between serum epidermal growth factor/testicular epidermal growth factor receptor and spermatogenesis in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yi-feng; Bao Shi-hua; Xu Dong-liang; Zong Wan; Fang Xiang; Sheng Shi-le; Lu Ling-ming; Xu Guo-xiang; LU Ren-kang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between epidermal growth factor (EGF)/testicular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and spermatogenesis in rat.Methods: Forty mature male Spraque-Dauley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to four groups, ten rats in each: sham operation group (SOG), sialoadenectomy group (SG), sialoadeand blood and testes were obtained on the 48th day after the operation. Serum EGF concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA), expression of EGF-R in testes was examined by the immunohistochemical method, and the spermatogenesis was pathologically checked.Results:Serum EGF levels in SG-EGFIand SG decreased significantly when compared with those of SOG (P<0.05 and P< 0.01, respectively). The testicular function of spermatogenesis showed a moderate to severe impairment in SG. The expression of EGF-R in Leydig cells decreased in SG (P< 0. 05). The two dosage groups of EGF replacement had different effects.There were no significant differences of EGF-R expression in testicular germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in SOG, SG-EGFIand SG-EGFⅡ(P>0.05).Conclusion: EGF may play an important role in the regulation of spermatogenesis. Serum EGF concentration and high expression of EGF-R in Leydig cells have a positive correlation with spermatogenic function of the testes.

  11. Dissociation of Thermal Nociception and Epidermal Innervation in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Kristina K; Calcutt, Nigel A; Mizisin, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    The quantification of epidermal innervation, which consists primarily of heat-sensitive C-fibers, is emerging as a tool for diagnosing and staging diabetic neuropathy. However, the relationship between changes in heat sensitivity and changes in epidermal innervation has not yet been adequately explored. Therefore, we assessed epidermal nerve fiber density and thermal withdrawal latency in the hind paw of Swiss Webster mice after two and four weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Thermal hypoalgesia developed after only two weeks of diabetes, but a measurable reduction in PGP9.5-immunoreactive epidermal nerve fiber density did not appear until four weeks. These data suggest that impaired epidermal nociceptor function contributes to early diabetes-induced thermal hypoalgesia prior to the loss of peripheral terminals. PMID:18619518

  12. Epidermal development in mammals: key regulators, signals from beneath, and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Huishan; Duan, Enkui

    2013-05-24

    Epidermis is one of the best-studied tissues in mammals that contain types of stem cells. Outstanding works in recent years have shed great light on behaviors of different epidermal stem cell populations in the homeostasis and regeneration of the epidermis as well as hair follicles. Also, the molecular mechanisms governing these stem cells are being elucidated, from genetic to epigenetic levels. Compared with the explicit knowledge about adult skin, embryonic development of the epidermis, especially the early period, still needs exploration. Furthermore, stem cells in the embryonic epidermis are largely unstudied or ambiguously depicted. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the process of embryonic epidermal development, with focuses on some key molecular regulators and the role of the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. We will also try to trace adult epidermal stem cell populations back to embryonic development. In addition, we will comment on in vitro derivation of epidermal lineages from ES cells and iPS cells.

  13. Epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihshan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare case of epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal (EAC in an adult. Epidermal cyst of the bony EAC, although very rare, should be kept in the list of differential diagnosis of a skin-lined mass of the EAC. Epidermal cyst is very rare in the EAC. Only two cases of epidermoid cyst arising from the bony EAC are reported previously in English, but both were in pediatric age group. Epidermal cyst in EAC in adult patients may be confused with masses that are commonly seen, and these include osteomas, exostosis, ear polyps, carcinomas, etc. Epidermal cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an ear mass.

  14. Dermoscopy of verrucous epidermal nevus: large brown circles as a novel feature for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotti, Mattia; Coppola, Rosa; Graziano, Antonio; Verona Rinati, Maria; Paolilli, Francesco Luigi; Zanframundo, Salvatore; Panasiti, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The epidermal nevus is a hamartomatous proliferation of the epithelium that can involve keratinocytes, sebaceous glands, the pilosebaceous unit, and eccrine or apocrine glands. It occurs in one in 1000 live births and most commonly presents as the verrucous type. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive technique commonly used to differentiate between melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions. This study was performed to analyze dermoscopic aspects of verrucous epidermal nevi, which have not previously been described. Dermoscopic analyses of eight different verrucous epidermal nevi were conducted. Each lesion was excised, and its diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed. In non-melanocytic lesions, a new dermoscopic feature of large brown circles was observed. This characteristic is useful in the diagnosis of verrucous epidermal nevi. Large brown circles represent a specific dermoscopic feature for the diagnosis of verrucous epidermal nevus. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on

  16. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, P. M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Smith, J.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Wenk, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal structure of the high pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, yet little is known about its deformation mechanisms. Information about how stishovite deforms under stress is important for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. Particularly, stishovite is elastically anisotropic and thus development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation may contribute to seismic anomalies in the mantle. We converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. Diffraction patterns were collected in situ in radial geometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to examine development of CPO during deformation. We find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction and infer deformation mechanisms leading to the observed CPO with visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity models. Our results show pyramidal and basal slip are most likely active at high pressure and ambient temperature, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of rutile (TiO2) and paratellurite (TeO2), which are isostructural to stishovite. Conversely other TEM studies of stishovite done at higher temperature suggest dominant prismatic slip. This indicates that a variety of slip systems may be active in stishovite, depending on conditions. As a result, stishovite's contribution to the seismic signature in the mantle may vary as a function of pressure and temperature and thus depth.

  17. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  18. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  19. Deformation of Second and Third Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  20. A Case of Epidermal Nervous Syndrome with a Novel Association of Congenital Cystic Dysplastic Kidney with Numerous Nephroblastic Proliferations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Epidermal nevus syndrome is a broad term encompassing several disease processes. These entities are united by their association with epidermal nevi...and extracutaneous abnormalities. Renal aberrancies associated with this syndrome include nephroblastoma, hamartomas, hypoplasia, and renal agenesis...However, there are no well-described, documented cases of dysplastic kidney with cystic nephroblastic proliferation associated with epidermal nevus

  1. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...... hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the carcinomas expressed positive EGF-R immunoreactivity. In general, staining was most prominent....../inactive endometria and seven of 13 (54%) endometria with adenomatous hyperplasia were EGF-R positive, with an immunostaining pattern rather similar to that of the carcinomas....

  2. Isolation, characterization and comparison of mammalian epidermal prekeratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, P T; Taylor, M; Wood, E J; Cunliffe, W J

    1983-01-01

    1. The lower living layers of mammalian epidermis contain a cytoplasmic tonofilament protein, prekeratin, believed to be the precursor of the keratin which is found in the outer dead cell layer or stratum corneum. 2. Prekeratin is distinguished by its property of being extractable from epidermis homogenized in the presence of citric acid trisodium citrate buffer pH 2.65. 3. In the present study we have compared the epidermal prekeratins from ten mammalian species and have shown them to be of similar amino acid composition. 4. Conditions have been established for studying the immunology of these insoluble proteins and examination of their immunological properties has shown that they are similar to one another but that their antigenic determinants are different from those of callus keratin. 5. The SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of these proteins differ widely and we have also demonstrated anatomical site variation by this method.

  3. Epidermal segmentation in high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Annan; Cheng, Jun; Yow, Ai Ping; Wall, Carolin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Tey, Hong Liang; Liu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Epidermis segmentation is a crucial step in many dermatological applications. Recently, high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) has been developed and applied to imaging subsurface skin tissues. In this paper, a novel epidermis segmentation method using HD-OCT is proposed in which the epidermis is segmented by 3 steps: the weighted least square-based pre-processing, the graph-based skin surface detection and the local integral projection-based dermal-epidermal junction detection respectively. Using a dataset of five 3D volumes, we found that this method correlates well with the conventional method of manually marking out the epidermis. This method can therefore serve to effectively and rapidly delineate the epidermis for study and clinical management of skin diseases.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berasain, Carmen, E-mail: cberasain@unav.es; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Prieto, Jesús [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); CIBERehd, University Clinic, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31080 (Spain); Ávila, Matías A. [Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain)

    2011-05-18

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment.

  5. Transcriptional responses of human epidermal keratinocytes to Oncostatin-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelt, Nika; Gazel, Alix; Gorelick, Steven; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2005-08-21

    Oncostatin-M (OsM) plays an important role in inflammatory and oncogenic processes in skin, including psoriasis and Kaposi sarcoma. However, the molecular responses to OsM in keratinocytes have not been explored in depth. Here we show the results of transcriptional profiling in OsM-treated primary human epidermal keratinocytes, using high-density DNA microarrays. We find that OsM strongly and specifically affects the expression of many genes, in particular those involved with innate immunity, angiogenesis, adhesion, motility, tissue remodeling, cell cycle and transcription. The timing of the responses to OsM comprises two waves, early at 1h, and late at 48 h, with much fewer genes regulated in the intervening time points. Secreted cytokines and growth factors and their receptors, as well as nuclear transcription factors, are primary targets of OsM regulation, and these, in turn, effect the secondary changes.

  6. Epidermal growth factor pathway substrate 15, Eps15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Chen, H; Iannolo, G

    1999-01-01

    Eps15 was originally identified as a substrate for the kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Eps15 has a tripartite structure comprising a NH2-terminal portion, which contains three EH domains, a central putative coiled-coil region, and a COOH-terminal domain containing...... of EGF and transferrin, demonstrating that both proteins are components of the endocytic machinery. Since the family of EH-containing proteins is implicated in various aspects of intracellular sorting, biomolecular strategies aimed at interfering with these processes can now be envisioned....... These strategies have potentially far reaching implications extending to the control of cell proliferation. In this regard, it is of note that Eps15 has the potential of transforming NIH-3T3 cells and that the eps15 gene is rearranged with the HRX/ALL/MLL gene in acute myelogeneous leukemias, thus implicating...

  7. Epidermal Nerve Fiber Quantification in the Assessment of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Kristina K.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Mizisin, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Assessment of cutaneous innervation in skin biopsies is emerging as a valuable means of both diagnosing and staging diabetic neuropathy. Immunolabeling, using antibodies to neuronal proteins such as protein gene product 9.5, allows for the visualization and quantification of intraepidermal nerve fibers. Multiple studies have shown reductions in intraepidermal nerve fiber density in skin biopsies from patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. More recent studies have focused on correlating these changes with other measures of diabetic neuropathy. A loss of epidermal innervation similar to that observed in diabetic patients has been observed in rodent models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and several therapeutics have been reported to prevent reductions in intraepidermal nerve fiber density in these models. This review discusses the current literature describing diabetes-induced changes in cutaneous innervation in both human and animal models of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:18384843

  8. Aceclofenac induced Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaderthambi Hajamohideen Nooru Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a rare occurrence of Stevens-Johnson/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN overlap syndrome after the use of aceclofenac. A 38 year old healthy adult male presented with rapidly evolving rash over face and upper body with ulceration of buccal mucosa and breathlessness after taking aceclofenac tablet. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was six, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. Despite aggressive fluid resuscitation and use of antihistamines and systemic steroids, patient′s health rapidly worsened and died within six hours of presentation. Aceclofenac induced SJS/TEN overlap is an extremely rare clinical association previously reported only once in medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of such an association in the Indian population. We are presenting this case to highlight the serious adverse reactions possible from a routinely prescribed drug.

  9. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  10. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  11. A case report on toxic epidermal necrolysis with etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Kameshwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etoricoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibitor and is exploited for its analgesic activity in various disease conditions like osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, acute pain including postoperative dental pain and primary dysmenorrhea, etc. Although highly efficacious in pain management the safety profile of this COX-2 inhibitor is yet to be established in a broader sense. Short-term clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance have shown a very rare incidence of very serious skin reactions like Steven Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. In this case report, we summarize regarding a patient who developed TEN after treatment with etoricoxib for osteoarthritis that later resolved in 15 days after withdrawal and symptomatic treatment.

  12. Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis in the Presence of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heye

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the incidence of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is low, it is also associated with a high mortality rate. The condition predominantly affects the skin, but may also affect the gastrointestinal tract, dramatically increasing mortality. We present a case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in the presence of TEN. The patient was taking medication, known to be a risk factor, and presented an affected total body surface area and temporal development similar to previously reported cases of TEN. Characteristic abdominal symptoms, however, were missing. Gastrointestinal involvement in TEN appears to be a poor prognostic factor; medical staff must therefore be alert to patients with TEN who complain of abdominal discomfort. The exact pathogenesis, however, remains unclear.

  13. Interferon gamma-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, Elena; Vassilenko, Konstantin; Dorosh, Victoria; Gonchar, Ilya; Nikolsky, Nikolai

    2007-04-03

    The present report provides evidence that, in A431 cells, interferon gamma (IFNgamma) induces the rapid (within 5 min), and reversible, tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). IFNgamma-induced EGFR transactivation requires EGFR kinase activity, as well as activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinases and JAK2. Here, we show that IFNgamma-induced STAT1 activation in A431 and HeLa cells partially depends on the kinase activity of both EGFR and Src. Furthermore, in these cells, EGFR kinase activity is essential for IFNgamma-induced ERK1,2 activation. This study is the first to demonstrate that EGFR is implicated in IFNgamma-dependent signaling pathways.

  14. Epidermal growth factor in rat milk is dependent on insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexo, E;

    1993-01-01

    decreased when compared to the control group. In contrast, the total protein concentration in milk from the untreated diabetic rats was similar to the concentration in milk from the control rats. Insulin-treatment of diabetic rats almost completely reversed the decrease in the milk volume......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was measured in milk from four groups of rats: untreated diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic, insulin-treated normal and control rats. In the untreated diabetic group the volume of milk, and the concentration of EGF and the total output of EGF were significantly...... of EGF from the mammary glands is dependent on insulin and that the decrement in milk-EGF from diabetic rats is selective when compared to the content of protein in milk....

  15. Redox-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Heppner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling represents a unique feature of multicellular organisms, and is important in regulation of cell differentiation and specialized cell functions. Multicellular organisms also contain a diverse family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs that have been closely linked with tyrosine kinase-based cell signaling and regulate tyrosine phosphorylation via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues that are highly conserved within many proteins involved in this signaling pathway. An example of redox-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a widely studied receptor system with diverse functions in normal cell biology as well as pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as cancer. The purpose of this Graphical Redox Review is to highlight recently emerged concepts with respect to NOX-dependent regulation of this important signaling pathway.

  16. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with deflazacort therapy with nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Chae Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a drug-related fatal disease. Extensive necrosis of the epidermis can lead to serious complications. This report describes two cases of TEN, associated with deflazacort (DFZ, in two boys, aged 4 years and 14 years, with nephrotic syndrome (NS. The 14-year-old male teenager received DFZ following NS relapse. After 17 days, pruritic papules appeared on the lower extremities. Another case involved a 4-year-old boy receiving DFZ and enalapril. After a 41-day DFZ treatment period, erythematous papules appeared on the palms and soles. Within 3 days, both boys developed widespread skin lesions (>50% and were admitted to the intensive care unit for resuscitative and supportive treatment. The patients showed improvement after intravenous immunoglobulin-G therapy. Owing to the rapid, fatal course of TEN, clinicians need to be aware of the adverse effects of this drug when treating cases of NS.

  17. Protein kinase D1 deficiency promotes differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vivek; Olala, Lawrence O.; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Helwa, Inas; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein kinase D (PKD or PKD1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has been shown to play a role in a variety of cellular processes; however, the function of PKD1 in the skin has not been fully investigated. The balance between proliferation and differentiation processes in the predominant cells of the epidermis, the keratinocytes, is essential for normal skin function. Objective To investigate the effect of PKD1 deficiency on proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Methods We utilized a floxed PKD1 mouse model such that infecting epidermal keratinocytes derived from these mice with an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase allowed us to determine the effect of PKD1 gene loss in vitro. Proliferation and differentiation were monitored using qRT-PCR, Western blot, transglutaminase activity assays, [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell cycle analysis. Results A significant decrease in PKD1 mRNA and protein levels was achieved in adenoviral Cre-recombinase-infected cells. Deficiency of PKD1 resulted in significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of various differentiation markers such as loricrin, involucrin, and keratin 10 either basally and/or upon stimulation of differentiation. PKD1-deficient keratinocytes also showed an increase in transglutaminase expression and activity, indicating an anti-differentiative role of PKD1. Furthermore, the PKD1-deficient keratinocytes exhibited decreased proliferation. However, PKD1 loss had no effect on stem cell marker expression. Conclusions Cre-recombinase-mediated knockdown represents an additional approach demonstrating that PKD1 is an anti-differentiative, pro-proliferative signal in mouse keratinocytes. PMID:25450094

  18. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, DRESS, AGEP: Do overlap cases exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouvresse Sophie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS and epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome–toxic epidermal necrolysis [SJS-TEN]. Because of the varied initial presentation of such adverse drug reactions, diagnosis may be difficult and suggests overlap among SCARs. Overlapping SCARs are defined as cases fulfilling the criteria for definite or probable diagnosis of at least 2 ADRs according to scoring systems for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overlap among SCARs among cases in the referral hospital in France. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data for 216 patients hospitalized in the referral centre over 7 years with a discharge diagnosis of AGEP (n = 45, DRESS (n = 47, SJS-TEN (n = 80 or “drug rash” (n = 44. Each case with detailed clinical data and a skin biopsy specimen was scored for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN by use of diagnostic scores elaborated by the RegiSCAR group. Results In total, 45 of 216 cases (21% had at least 2 possible diagnoses: 35 had a single predominant diagnosis (definite or probable, 7 had several possible diagnoses and 3 (2.1% of 145 confirmed SCARs were overlap SCARs. Conclusions Despite ambiguities among SCARs, confirmed overlap cases are rare. This study did not avoid pitfalls linked to its retrospective nature and selection bias. In the acute stage of disease, early identification of severe ADRs can be difficult because of clinical or biologic overlapping features and missing data on histology, biology and evolution. Retrospectively analyzing cases by use of diagnostic algorithms can lead to reliable discrimination among AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN.

  19. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  20. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Yarker, Joanne L.; Emelianov, Vladimir N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Scarpa, Julie A.; Chambon, Pierre; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin structural states and their remodelling, including higher-order chromatin folding and three-dimensional (3D) genome organisation, play an important role in the control of gene expression. The role of 3D genome organisation in the control and execution of lineage-specific transcription programmes during the development and differentiation of multipotent stem cells into specialised cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we show that substantial remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a keratinocyte lineage-specific gene locus on mouse chromosome 3, occurs during epidermal morphogenesis. During epidermal development, the locus relocates away from the nuclear periphery towards the nuclear interior into a compartment enriched in SC35-positive nuclear speckles. Relocation of the EDC locus occurs prior to the full activation of EDC genes involved in controlling terminal keratinocyte differentiation and is a lineage-specific, developmentally regulated event controlled by transcription factor p63, a master regulator of epidermal development. We also show that, in epidermal progenitor cells, p63 directly regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Brg1, which binds to distinct domains within the EDC and is required for relocation of the EDC towards the nuclear interior. Furthermore, Brg1 also regulates gene expression within the EDC locus during epidermal morphogenesis. Thus, p63 and its direct target Brg1 play an essential role in remodelling the higher-order chromatin structure of the EDC and in the specific positioning of this locus within the landscape of the 3D nuclear space, as required for the efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal progenitor cells during skin development. PMID:24346698

  1. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Lachlan D; Lester, Daniel R; Metcalfe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations - such as shear banding or wall slip - creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here we investigate 'webs' of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering sl...

  2. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  3. Finite Deformation of Magnetoelastic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barham, Matthew Ian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-31

    A nonlinear two-dimensional theory is developed for thin magnetoelastic lms capable of large deformations. This is derived directly from three-dimensional theory. Signi cant simpli cations emerge in the descent from three dimensions to two, permitting the self eld generated by the body to be computed a posteriori. The model is specialized to isotropic elastomers with two material models. First weak magnetization is investigated leading to a free energy where magnetization and deformation are un-coupled. The second closely couples the magnetization and deformation. Numerical solutions are obtained to equilibrium boundary-value problems in which the membrane is subjected to lateral pressure and an applied magnetic eld. An instability is inferred and investigated for the weak magnetization material model.

  4. On deformations of triangulated models

    CERN Document Server

    De Deken, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a project aimed at understanding deformations of triangulated categories, and more precisely their dg and A infinity models, and applying the resulting theory to the models occurring in the Homological Mirror Symmetry setup. In this first paper, we focus on models of derived and related categories, based upon the classical construction of twisted objects over a dg or $A_{\\infty}$-algebra. For a Hochschild 2 cocycle on such a model, we describe a corresponding "curvature compensating" deformation which can be entirely understood within the framework of twisted objects. We unravel the construction in the specific cases of derived A infinity and abelian categories, homotopy categories, and categories of graded free qdg-modules. We identify a purity condition on our models which ensures that the structure of the model is preserved under deformation. This condition is typically fulfilled for homotopy categories, but not for unbounded derived categories.

  5. Improved epidermal barrier formation in human skin models by chitosan modulated dermal matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieremet, Arnout; Rietveld, Marion; Absalah, Samira; van Smeden, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Full thickness human skin models (FTMs) contain an epidermal and a dermal equivalent. The latter is composed of a collagen dermal matrix which harbours fibroblasts. Current epidermal barrier properties of FTMs do not fully resemble that of native human skin (NHS), which makes these human skin models less suitable for barrier related studies. To further enhance the resemblance of NHS for epidermal morphogenesis and barrier formation, we modulated the collagen dermal matrix with the biocompatible polymer chitosan. Herein, we report that these collagen-chitosan FTMs (CC-FTMs) possess a well-organized epidermis and maintain both the early and late differentiation programs as in FTMs. Distinctively, the epidermal cell activation is reduced in CC-FTMs to levels observed in NHS. Dermal-epidermal interactions are functional in both FTM types, based on the formation of the basement membrane. Evaluation of the barrier structure by the organization of the extracellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum revealed an elongated repeat distance of the long periodicity phase. The ceramide composition exhibited a higher resemblance of the NHS, based on the carbon chain-length distribution and subclass profile. The inside-out barrier functionality indicated by the transepidermal water loss is significantly improved in the CC-FTMs. The expression of epidermal barrier lipid processing enzymes is marginally affected, although more restricted to a single granular layer. The novel CC-FTM resembles the NHS more closely, which makes them a promising tool for epidermal barrier related studies. PMID:28333992

  6. Dynamic tracing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in urinary circulating DNA in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Qin; Xue, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Wukong

    2017-02-01

    The mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor are detected in gastric cancer, indicating its suitability as a target for receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as a marker for clinical outcome of chemotherapeutic treatments. However, extraction of quality tumor tissue for molecular processes remains challenging. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical relevance of urinary cell-free DNA as an alternative tumor material source used specifically for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Therefore, 120 gastric cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 100 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The gastric patients also received epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor treatment for a serial monitoring study. Paired primary tumor specimens were obtained with blood and urine samples, which were taken at a 1-month interval for a duration of 12 months. We found that urinary cell-free DNA yielded a close agreement of 92% on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to primary tissue at baseline, and of 99% epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to plasma samples at different time points. Thus, our data suggest that urinary cell-free DNA may be a reliable source for screening and monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in the primary gastric cancer.

  7. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  8. Deformable mirror with thermal actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, Gleb; Loktev, Mikhail

    2002-05-01

    Low-cost adaptive optics is applied in lasers, scientific instrumentation, ultrafast sciences, and ophthalmology. These applications demand that the deformable mirrors used be simple, inexpensive, reliable, and efficient. We report a novel type of ultralow-cost deformable mirror with thermal actuators. The device has a response time of ~5 s , an actuator stroke of ~6mum , and temporal stability of ~lambda/10 rms in the visible range and can be used for correction of rather large aberrations with slow-changing amplitude.

  9. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-07-27

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  10. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  11. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttell, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realisation of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  12. Deforming baryons into confining strings

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben

    2004-01-01

    We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nunez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G_2 holonomy M theory background. The interpretation of these solutions as deformed baryons/confining strings is not as straightforward.

  13. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-03-01

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS2 metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  14. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  15. Epidermization in the esophageal mucosa: unusual epithelial changes clearly detected by Lugol's staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y; Ochiai, A; Shimoda, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, H; Hirohashi, S

    1997-05-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese man with superficial esophageal cancer accompanied by unusual epithelial changes, including esophageal mucosal epidermization, is reported. Staining with Lugol's iodine clearly showed irregular unstained lesions, which could not be seen clearly macroscopically, in the resected specimen. Histologic examination of the irregular unstained areas showed definite granular and horny layers regarded as epidermization, acanthosis with slight nuclear enlargement, and epithelial atrophy. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of keratins in the epidermized and atrophic lesions were similar to those in the epidermis, and the keratin staining patterns of the acanthotic lesion were similar to those of the oral epithelium.

  16. Vulvar epidermal inclusion cyst as a long-term complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM. We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  17. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  18. Structural and biophysical characteristics of human skin in maintaining proper epidermal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Magdalena; Duchnik, Ewa; Maleszka, Romuald; Marchlewicz, Mariola

    2016-02-01

    The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part - stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transepidermal water loss and sebum excretion. The knowledge of biophysical skin processes may be useful for the implementation of prophylactic actions whose aim is to restore the barrier function.

  19. Structural and biophysical characteristics of human skin in maintaining proper epidermal barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Boer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part – stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transepidermal water loss and sebum excretion. The knowledge of biophysical skin processes may be useful for the implementation of prophylactic actions whose aim is to restore the barrier function.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma arising on a verrucous epidermal nevus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Analia; Aguinaga, Felipe; Marinho, Flauberto; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association - as with other malignant tumors - is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi.

  1. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  2. Spatiotemporal deformations of reflectionless potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Longhi, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reflectionless potentials for classical or matter waves represent an important class of scatteringless systems encountered in different areas of physics. Here we mathematically demonstrate that there is a family of non-Hermitian potentials that, in contrast to their Hermitian counterparts, remain reflectionless even when deformed in space or time. These are the profiles that satisfy the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We start by considering scattering of matter waves for the Schrödinger equation with an external field, where a moving potential is observed in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. We then generalize this result to the case of electromagnetic waves, by considering a slab of reflectionless material that both is scaled and has its center displaced as an arbitrary function of position. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the backscattering from these profiles remains zero, even for extreme deformations. Our results indicate the supremacy of non-Hermitian Kramers-Kronig potentials over reflectionless Hermitian potentials in keeping their reflectionless property under deformation and could find applications to, e.g., reflectionless optical coatings of highly deformed surfaces based on perfect absorption.

  3. Bethe ansatz and Isomonodromic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Talalaev, D

    2008-01-01

    We study symmetries of the Bethe equations for the Gaudin model appeared naturally in the framework of the geometric Langlands correspondence under the name of Hecke operators and under the name of Schlesinger transformations in the theory of isomonodromic deformations, and particularly in the theory of Painlev\\'e transcendents.

  4. Pre-Lie Deformation Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the deformation theory controlled by pre-Lie algebras; the main tool is a new integration theory for preLie algebras. The main field of application lies in homotopy algebra structures over a Koszul operad; in this case, we provide a homotopical description of the associated

  5. Highly deformable nanofilaments in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, S.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental analysis of hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by flow is conducted to help in understanding physical phenomena responsible for transport properties and shape deformations of long bio-objects, like DNA or proteins. Investigated hydrogel nanofilaments exhibit typical macromolecules-like behavior, as spontaneous conformational changes and cross-flow migration. Results of the experiments indicate critical role of thermal fluctuations behavior of single filaments.

  6. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  7. Regulation of epidermal Langerhans cell migration by lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Uribe-Luna, S; Headon, D R; Ward, P P; Conneely, O M; Kimber, I

    2000-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins to which several anti-inflammatory functions have been ascribed. LF has been shown to down-regulate expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), although the possibility has been raised that the activity of LF in this regard was indirect and secondary to its ability to bind to and inactivate the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) used to induce cytokine production. However, the identification of putative membrane receptors for LF raises the possibility that the interaction of LF with its receptor may be one important route through which this protein exerts anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigations the biological properties of LF have been examined in a model of cutaneous immune function where the allergen-induced migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) from the skin and their subsequent accumulation as dendritic cells (DC) in skin-draining lymph nodes are known to be dependent upon the de novo synthesis of TNF-alpha, but independent of exogenous LPS. Consistent with the protein having direct anti-inflammatory properties, it was found that the intradermal injection of recombinant murine LF (either iron-saturated or iron-depleted LF) inhibited significantly allergen (oxazolone) -induced LC migration and DC accumulation. That these inhibitory effects were secondary to the inhibition of local TNF-alpha synthesis was suggested by the findings that first, LF was unable to inhibit LC migration induced by intradermal injection of TNF-alpha itself, and second, that migration stimulated by local administration of another epidermal cytokine, interleukin 1beta, which is also dependent upon TNF-alpha production, was impaired significantly by prior treatment with LF. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of LF in skin, associated primarily with keratinocytes. Collectively these data support the possession by

  8. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsun, Murat; Yilmaz, Mehmet B; Pinar, Murat; Tonbul, Murat; Celik, Cemil; Ozdemir, Barbaros; Dumlu, Kemal; Erbas, Mevlut

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder, and joint hypermobility The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects' psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels, and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity, and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton scores of the subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in male subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility.

  9. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis mimicking burn injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billig Allan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a rare exfoliative disorder with a high mortality rate. Case presentation We present a 70-year-old woman of Iranian descent who presented with toxic epidermal necrolysis that was initially diagnosed as a scald burn. Further anamnesis prompted by spread of the lesions during hospitalization revealed that the patient had been receiving ceftriaxone for several days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ceftriaxone-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis in the English literature. Conclusion Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an acute, life-threatening, exfoliative disorder with a high mortality rate. High clinical suspicion, prompt recognition, and initiation of supportive care is mandatory. Thorough investigation of the pathogenetic mechanisms is fundamental. Optimal treatment guidelines are still unavailable.

  10. Transplantation of autologous noncultured epidermal cell suspension in treatment of patients with stable vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ai-e; WEI Xiao-dong; CHENG Dong-qing; ZHOU He-fen; QIAN Guo-pei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Treatment of vitiligo by transplantation of noncultured melanocytes containing keratino-cytes has been successful since 1992,1 We report the encouraging results of autologous epidermal cell suspension in the treatment of 24 patients with stable vitiligo since 1998.

  11. Clinical Experience and Best Practices Using Epidermal Skin Grafts on Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bernstein, Brent; Bhatia, Animesh; Lantis, John; Le, Lam; Lincoln, Katherine; Liu, Paul; Rodgers, Lee; Shaw, Mark; Young, David

    2015-11-01

    Over the years, autologous skin grafting has been used extensively to achieve wound closure, optimize a functional scar, and improve aesthetic outcomes for the patient. Although a vast majority of the literature is on the use of full-thickness and split-thickness skin grafts, epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) have emerged as a viable option in the reconstructive ladder when only the epidermal layer is needed. These grafts are distinct from other types of autologous skin grafts in that they can be harvested without anesthesia and leave minimal or no scarring at the donor site. In order to explore the use of ESGs in the continuum of primary wound closure, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened in October 2014, in Las Vegas, NV, to review the scientific basis and clinical uses of epidermal grafting. This publication provides an overview of epidermal grafting, recommendations for graft application, and potential roles for its use in wound care and closure.

  12. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  13. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  14. Clinical characteristics and epidermal barrier function of papulopustular rosacea: A comparison study with acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Maosong; Xie, Hongfu; Cheng, Lin; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and epidermal barrier function of papulopustular rosacea by comparing with acne vulgaris. Methods: Four hundred and sixty-three papulopustular rosacea patients and four hundred and twelve acne vulgaris patients were selected for the study in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from March 2015 to May 2016. They were analyzed for major facial lesions, self-conscious symptoms and epidermal barrier function. Results: Erythema, burning, ...

  15. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) promotes epidermal proliferation, remodeling, and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Oike, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Kunio; Ito, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Shun-ichiro; Maekawa, Hiromitsu; Morisada, Tohru; Arai, Fumio; Nakagata, Naomi; Takeya, Motohiro; Masuho, Yasuhiko; Suda, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    We report here the identification of an angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF). To examine the biological function of AGF in vivo, we created transgenic mice expressing AGF in epidermal keratinocytes (K14-AGF). K14-AGF mice exhibited swollen and reddish ears, nose and eyelids. Histological analyses of K14-AGF mice revealed significantly thickened epidermis and a marked increase in proliferating epidermal cells as well as vascular cells in the skin compared with nontr...

  16. Epidermal differentiation complex yields a secret: mutations in the cornification protein filaggrin underlie ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Julia A

    2006-06-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), characterized by mild scaling on limbs and lower abdomen, has an incidence of 1 in 250. Smith, McLean, and colleagues demonstrate that common mutations in filaggrin underlie IV. Filaggrin aggregates keratin intermediate filaments and is cross-linked into the cornified envelope to form the epidermal barrier. These findings reinforce the importance of the epidermal barrier in pathogenesis of skin diseases.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, H C; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S A; Yancey, R J

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC90) of < o...

  18. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez; Laura Cubells-Sánchez; Lorena Martínez-Leborans; José Luis Sánchez-Carazo; Víctor Alegre de Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal ...

  19. Cephazolin-Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin and N-Acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis is the most severe form of drug-induced skin reaction and includes denudation of >30% of total body surface area. The mechanism of disease is not completely understood, but immunologic mechanisms, cytotoxic reactions, and delayed hypersensitivity seem to be involved. We report a case of cephazolin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and N-acetylcysteine with excellent response.

  20. Prediction of deformity in spinal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, Paul; Wuite, Sander; The, Bertram; van Altena, Richard; Veldhuizen, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the spine may cause kyphosis, which may in turn cause late paraplegia, respiratory compromise, and unsightly deformity. Surgical correction therefore may be considered for large or progressive deformities. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and radiographic parameters to predict th

  1. Toxic epidermal necrolysis: a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Chidananda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare but serious is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. It is primarily a cutaneous reaction to various precipitating agents, characterized by wide spread erythema and detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. Among the various cutaneous adverse drug reactions, TEN occupy a primary place in terms of mortality. In TEN large sheets of skin are lost from the body surface, thereby decreasing the protecting function of the skin, which results in complications. Usually, TEN is self-limited in absence of complications. If complicated by sepsis, there will be increased chances of mortality. The main treatment would be cessation of the causative drug and early admission of the patient for supportive care and minimizing the occurrence of complications. The present articles reviews the etiology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment protocol, with a case of TEN occurrence in a child of 4 years age after consuming phenytoin syrup for febrile convulsions. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 1-5

  2. Epidermal growth factor signaling induces behavioral quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, Cheryl; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases regulate several aspects of development, including the development of the mammalian nervous system. ErbB signaling also has physiological effects on neuronal function, with influences on synaptic plasticity and daily cycles of activity. However, little is known about the effectors of EGFR activation in neurons. Here we show that EGF signaling has a nondevelopmental effect on behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. Ectopic expression of the EGF-like ligand LIN-3 at any stage induces a reversible cessation of feeding and locomotion. These effects are mediated by neuronal EGFR (also called LET-23) and phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), diacylglycerol-binding proteins, and regulators of synaptic vesicle release. Activation of EGFR within a single neuron, ALA, is sufficient to induce a quiescent state. This pathway modulates the cessation of pharyngeal pumping and locomotion that normally occurs during the lethargus period that precedes larval molting. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for EGF signaling in the regulation of behavioral quiescence.

  3. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  4. Epidermal growth factor: a critical factor in fetal maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, G D; Waters, M J; Young, I R; Dolling, M; Buntine, D; Hopkins, P S

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused over 3-14 days into fetal sheep of 110-125 days gestation resulted in a number of morphological and endocrine changes. Striking hypertrophy of the skin, wool follicles and their accessory structures was seen, together with a reduction in the ratio of secondary to primary follicles and degenerative changes in wool fibres associated with shedding of fibres. Adrenal, thyroid, liver and kidney weights were increased while thymus weight was decreased. The increase in adrenal size resulted from cortical hypertrophy and was associated with increased cortisol secretion. Thyroid hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in colloid stores, decreased plasma thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, unchanged plasma T3 and thyroid-binding globulin and raised thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Thyrotropin receptor affinity and content per gram of tissue were unchanged. Fetal and maternal plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels, and fetal plasma placental lactogen levels, were unchanged, although there was a significant rise in maternal plasma placental lactogen concentrations with high doses of EGF. Other maturational parameters such as switching from fetal to adult haemoglobin and liver glycogen content were unaffected.

  5. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua He

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF, typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother's breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N' terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform.

  6. [New routes of administration: epidermal, transcutaneous mucosal ways of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, François; Alain, Sophie; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2007-04-01

    A successful vaccine triggers the interaction of various cells of the immune system as does a regular immune response. It is thus necessary to introduce the vaccine antigens into an anatomic site where they will contact immune cells. The route of administration is thus critical for the outcome of vaccination. Intramuscular or subcutaneous injections are the most popular. Antigens injected intramuscularly can form persistent precipitates that are dissolved and re-absorbed relatively slowly. If injecting antigens is a quick, easy and reproducible way to vaccination, it requires trained personnel. Alternatives exist, through non-invasive formulations which allow administration by the patient or a third party with no particular expertise. The skin, especially its epidermal layer, is an accessible and competent immune environment and an attractive target for vaccine delivery, through transcutaneous delivery or immunostimulant patches. Mucosal immunization is another strategy: its major rationale is that organisms invade the body via mucosal surfaces. Therefore, local protection at mucosal surface as well as systemic defense is beneficial. Various formulations of mucosal vaccines have been developed, such as the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV), rotavirus vaccines, cold-adapted influenza vaccines or vaccine against typhoid fever. Thus we are entering in an era where mucosal and transcutaneous immunisation will play an important role in disease management. However, it has not been so easy to obtain regulatory approval for mucosal or transcutaneous formulations and needle-based vaccines continue to dominate the market.

  7. Shavenbaby couples patterning to epidermal cell shape control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Chanut-Delalande

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that developmental programs act during embryogenesis to determine animal morphogenesis. How these developmental cues produce specific cell shape during morphogenesis, however, has remained elusive. We addressed this question by studying the morphological differentiation of the Drosophila epidermis, governed by a well-known circuit of regulators leading to a stereotyped pattern of smooth cells and cells forming actin-rich extensions (trichomes. It was shown that the transcription factor Shavenbaby plays a pivotal role in the formation of trichomes and underlies all examined cases of the evolutionary diversification of their pattern. To gain insight into the mechanisms of morphological differentiation, we sought to identify shavenbaby's downstream targets. We show here that Shavenbaby controls epidermal cell shape, through the transcriptional activation of different classes of cellular effectors, directly contributing to the organization of actin filaments, regulation of the extracellular matrix, and modification of the cuticle. Individual inactivation of shavenbaby's targets produces distinct trichome defects and only their simultaneous inactivation prevent trichome formation. Our data show that shavenbaby governs an evolutionarily conserved developmental module consisting of a set of genes collectively responsible for trichome formation, shedding new light on molecular mechanisms acting during morphogenesis and the way they can influence evolution of animal forms.

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Crook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions.

  9. Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin

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    Yoshihiro Akimoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488. However, the molecular mechanism of this transdifferentiation process was unknown for a long time. Recent studies demonstrated that Gbx1, a divergent homeobox gene, is one of the target genes of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for this transdifferentiation. Furthermore, it was found that ATRA can induce the epidermal transdifferentiation into a mucosal epithelium in mammalian embryonic skin, as well as in chick embryonic skin. In the mammalian embryonic skin, the co-expression of Tgm2 and Gbx1 in the epidermis and an increase in TGF-β2 expression elicited by ATRA in the dermis are required for the mucosal transdifferentiation, which occurs through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Not only does retinoic acid (RA play an important role in mucosal transdifferentiation, periderm desquamation, and barrier formation in the developing mammalian skin, but it is also involved in hair follicle downgrowth and bending by its effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families.

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Kharmate

    Full Text Available Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa. However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa cells or PCa patient serum contains EGFR. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize EGFR in exosomes derived from PCa cells, LNCaP xenograft and PCa patient serum. Exosomes were isolated from conditioned media of different PCa cell lines; LNCaP xenograft serum as well as patient plasma/serum by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Exosomes were confirmed by electron microscopy, expression of exosomal markers and NanoSight™ analysis. EGFR expression was determined by western blot analysis and ELISA. This study demonstrates that exosomes may easily be derived from PCa cell lines, serum obtained from PCa xenograft bearing mice and clinical samples derived from PCa patients. Presence of exosomal EGFR in PCa patient exosomes may present a novel approach for measuring of the disease state. Our work will allow to build on this finding for future understanding of PCa exosomes and their potential role in PCa progression and as minimal invasive biomarkers for PCa.

  11. Human epidermal growth factor and the proliferation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, G; Cohen, S

    1976-06-01

    The effect of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), a 5,400 molecular weight polypeptide isolated from human urine, on the growth of human foreskin fibroblasts (HF cells) was studied by measuring cell numbers and the incorporation of labeled thymidine. The addition of hEGF to HF cells growing in a medium containing 10% calf serum resulted in a 4-fold increase in the final density. The presence of hEGF also promoted the growth of HF cells in media containing either 1% calf serum or 10% gamma globulin-free serum. The addition of hEGF to quiescent confluent monolayers of HF cells, maintained in a medium with 1% calf serum for 48 hours, resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in the amount of 3H-thymidine incorporation after 20-24 hours. The stimulation of thymidine incorporation was maximal at an hEGF concentration of 2 ng/ml, was dependent on the presence of serum, and was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid. In confluent cultures of HF cells, subject to density dependent inhibition of growth, hEGF was able to stimulate DNA synthesis more effectively than fresh calf serum. Human EGF stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures, however, regardless of cell density. The addition of rabbit anti-hEGF inhibited all effects of this growth factor on HF cells.

  12. Langerhans Cells Facilitate UVB-induced Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julia M.; Bürgler, Christina D.; Freudzon, Marianna; Golubets, Kseniya; Gibson, Juliet F.; Filler, Renata B.; Girardi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is considered the major environmental inducer of human keratinocyte DNA mutations, including within the tumor-suppressor gene p53, and chronic exposure is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation. Langerhans cells (LC) comprise a dendritic network within the suprabasilar epidermis, yet the role of LC in UVB-induced carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we show that LC-intact epidermis develops UVB-induced tumors more readily than LC-deficient epidermis. While levels of epidermal cyclopyrimidine dimers (CPD) following acute UVB exposure are equivalent in the presence or absence of LC, chronic UVB-induced p53 mutant clonal islands expand more readily in association with LC which remain largely intact and are preferentially found in proximity to the expanding mutant keratinocyte populations. The observed LC facilitation of mutant p53 clonal expansion is completely αβ and γδ T-cell independent, and is associated with increased intraepidermal expression of interleukin (IL)-22 and the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). These data demonstrate that LC play a key role in UVB-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis, and suggest that LC locally stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and innate immune cells that provoke tumor outgrowth. PMID:26053049

  13. Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abé Shin-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. RT-PCR showed that all the receptors cloned were expressed in both Sertoli and germ cells at the spermatogonial stage. In the organ cultures with inhibitors for the EGF receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, the EGF-induced spermatogonial proliferation was suppressed. Furthermore, when the organ culture was exposed to EGF, the expressions of stem cell factor (SCF, immunoglobulin-like domain containing neuregulin1 (Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4 mRNA were increased. These results suggested that, since the spermatogonia are sequestered within cysts by the blood-testis barrier consisted of Sertoli cells, EGF possibly mediates spermatogonial proliferation in an endocrine manner through the receptors including ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4 expressed on Sertoli cells via activation of MAPK cascade or/and PI3K cascade by elevating the expressions of SCF, Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  15. Nutrition in Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Multicenter Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Caran; Faraklas, Iris; Maniatis, Katelynn; Panter, Elizabeth; La Force, Jessica; Aleem, Razia; Zavala, Sarah; Albrecht, Marlene; Edwards, Paul; Cochran, Amalia

    2016-05-03

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe exfoliative diseases treated in burn centers due to large skin losses. Literature on SJS/TEN refers to parenteral nutrition (PN) as the preferred route of nutrition support. This study describes nutrition support interventions in SJS/TEN patients admitted to burn centers. Seven burn centers participated in this Institutional Review Board-exempted retrospective chart review of adults with SJS/TEN admitted from 2000-2012. This analysis included 171 patients with SJS/TEN. Median total body surface area involvement was 35% (n = 145; interquartile range [IQR], 16%-62%). The majority required mechanical ventilation (n = 105). Based on indirect calorimetry, measured energy needs were 24.2 kcal/kg of admit weight (n = 58; IQR, 19.4-29.9). Thirty-one patients did not require enteral nutrition (EN) and started oral intake on hospital day 1 (IQR, 1-2), and 81% required EN support due to inadequate oral intake and remained on EN until day 16 (median hospital day, 16; IQR, 9-25). High-protein enteral formulas predominated. PN was rarely used (n = 12, 7%). Most patients were discharged home (57%), with 14% still requiring EN. Nutrition support should be considered in patients with SJS/TEN due to increased metabolic needs and an inability to meet these needs orally. Most SJS/TEN patients continued on EN and did not require escalation to PN. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, T A; Razon, N; Bartal, A D; Yarden, Y; Schlessinger, J; Soreq, H

    1984-02-01

    The expression of receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF-R) was determined in 29 samples of brain tumors from 22 patients. Primary gliogenous tumors, of various degrees of cancer, five meningiomas, and two neuroblastomas were examined. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after the operation and stored at -70 degrees until use. Cerebral tissue samples from 11 patients who died from diseases not related to the central nervous system served as controls. Immunoprecipitation of functional EGF-R-kinase complexes revealed high levels of EGF-R in all of the brain tumors of nonneuronal origin that were examined. The level of EGF-R varied between tumors from different patients and also between specimens prelevated from different areas of the same tumor. In contrast, the levels of EGF-R from control specimens were invariably low. The biochemical properties of EGF-R in brain tumor specimens were found to be indistinguishable from those of the well-characterized EGF-R from the A-431 cell line, derived from human epidermoid carcinomas. Human brain EGF-R displays a molecular weight of 170,000 by polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It is phosphorylated mainly in tyrosine residues and shows a 2-dimensional phosphopeptide map similar to that obtained with the phosphorylated EGF-R from membranes of A-431 cells. Our observations suggest that induction of EGF-R expression may accompany the malignant transformation of human brain cells of nonneuronal origin.

  17. Verrucous hemangioma with pseudoepitheliomatous epidermal hyperplasia in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Écija, A; Estepa, J C; Barranco, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Mendoza, F J; Gómez-Laguna, J

    2014-09-01

    Verrucous hemangiomas are a rare specific variant of equine skin tumors not well described in the literature. An 8-year-old gelding presented a unilateral lesion on the pastern. Macroscopically, the mass showed a warty and verrucous surface with focal ulcerations. The histology showed a dermal proliferation of endothelial-layered capillaries and venules separated by a delicate stroma of scant fibroblasts and collagen deposition, with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (exuberant reactive irregular epithelial hyperplasia with tongue-like projections extending into the dermis, mimicking downgrowth of squamous cell carcinoma) and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis of the overlying epidermis. The immunohistochemical study confirmed the endothelial origin of the tumor, and a final diagnosis of verrucous hemangioma with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia was confirmed. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first detailed description of this entity in adult horses. Moreover, the clinical progression and epidermal changes have not been previously reported, emphasizing the importance of a pathological study of any epithelial preneoplastic lesion to rule out an underlying dermal neoplasia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Ex vivo differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells to skin epidermal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Kaihong; Xiong Jun; Fan Lixing; Hu Kaimeng; Liu Houqi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: By establishing the indirect contact co-culture system, we studied the in vitro condition for MAPCs differentiating into epidermal cells and the transformation of MAPCs into epidermal cell phenotype. Methods: Cell culture insert membrane was used for substitute basal membrane and MAPCs, fibroblast cells (FCs) and mixture of MAPCs and epidermal cells and FCs were separately implanted into 2 sides of it. PKH26 was used to label cloned MAPCs; type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method was used to isolate and culture the skin epidermal cells from 1-day-old SD rat. Results: Part of the MAPCs transformed into cells expressing keratin in the presence of peripheral epithelia and FCs. Type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method successfully selected rats' epidermal stem cells. The mixture of the 2 kinds of cells or indirect culture might promote the differentiation through mesenchymal factors secreted by dermis FC. Conclusion: We were the first to have established the in vitro model of MAPCs differentiation into epidermal cells, in which MAPCs were transformed into epithelium-like cells.

  19. Evolution of the clonogenic potential of human epidermal stem/progenitor cells with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobiri O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olivia Zobiri, Nathalie Deshayes, Michelle Rathman-JosserandDepartment of Biological Research, L'Oréal Advanced Research, Clichy Cedex, FranceAbstract: A number of clinical observations have indicated that the regenerative potential and overall function of the epidermis is modified with age. The epidermis becomes thinner, repairs itself less efficiently after wounding, and presents modified barrier function recovery. In addition, the dermal papillae flatten out with increasing age, suggesting a modification in the interaction between epidermal and dermal compartments. As the epidermal regenerative capacity is dependent upon stem and progenitor cell function, it is naturally of interest to identify and understand age-related changes in these particular keratinocyte populations. Previous studies have indicated that the number of stem cells does not decrease with age in mouse models but little solid evidence is currently available concerning human skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clonogenic potential of keratinocyte populations isolated from the epidermis of over 50 human donors ranging from 18 to 71 years old. The data indicate that the number of epidermal cells presenting high regenerative potential does not dramatically decline with age in human skin. The authors believe that changes in the microenvironment controlling epidermal basal cell activity are more likely to explain the differences in epidermal function observed with increasing age.Keywords: skin, epidermal stem cells, aging, colony-forming efficiency test

  20. The increasing role of epidermal grafting utilizing a novel harvesting system in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Skin grafting techniques range from harvesting full-thickness to split-thickness grafts to grafts containing only epidermis. All of these autologous tissues have their place on the reconstructive ladder. However, the use of full-thickness and split-thickness grafts as coverage over chronic wounds remains limited by a number of factors, including the need for anesthesia, a surgically trained physician, and an operating room in which to perform the procedure; pain and damage associated with the donor site; and severe patient comorbidities. Epidermal grafting offers an option for autografts and uses only a minimal amount of superficial epidermis from the donor site. Although successful use of epidermal grafting has been reported in pigmentation disorders, as well as burns and chronic wounds, previous harvesting methods have been described as cumbersome and time consuming. An automated epidermal harvesting system is now commercially available and involves a tool that applies both heat and suction concurrently to normal skin to induce epidermal micrograft formation. The new tool allows quick harvest and transfer of the epidermal micrografts at the bedside without anesthesia, with minimal donor site healing time and patient discomfort. The use of epidermal grafts in chronic wounds and the harvesting technique are reviewed here.

  1. Periostin contributes to epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis common to atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takagi, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Miho; Ontsuka, Kanako; Suto, Hajime; Suzuki, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Simmons, Olga; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Toda, Shuji; Aihara, Michiko; Conway, Simon J; Ikeda, Shigaku; Izuhara, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal hyperplasia is a histological hallmark observed in both atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis, although the clinical features and the underlying immunological disorders of these diseases are different. We previously showed that periostin, a matricellular protein, plays a critical role in epidermal hyperplasia in AD, using a mouse model and a 3-dimensional organotypic coculture system. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that periostin is involved in epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. To examine expression of periostin in psoriasis patients, we performed immunohistochemical analysis on skin biopsies from six such patients. To investigate periostin's role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we evaluated periostin-deficient mice in a psoriasis mouse model induced by topical treatment with imiquimod (IMQ). Periostin was substantially expressed in the dermis of all investigated psoriasis patients. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by IMQ treatment was impaired in periostin-deficient mice, along with decreased skin swelling. However, upon treatment with IMQ, periostin deficiency did not alter infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils; production of IL-17, -22, or -23; or induction/expansion of IL-17- and IL-22-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells. Periostin plays an important role during epidermal hyperplasia in IMQ-induced skin inflammation, independently of the IL-23-IL-17/IL-22 axis. Periostin appears to be a mediator for epidermal hyperplasia that is common to AD and psoriasis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Limits Glucocorticoid-Induced Epidermal Atrophy in Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubec, Eve; Laouénan, Cédric; Deschamps, Lydia; Nguyen, Van Tuan; Scheer-Senyarich, Isabelle; Wackenheim-Jacobs, Anne-Catherine; Steff, Maud; Duhamel, Stéphanie; Tubiana, Sarah; Brahimi, Nesrine; Leclerc-Mercier, Stéphanie; Crickx, Béatrice; Perret, Claudine; Aractingi, Selim; Escoubet, Brigitte; Duval, Xavier; Arnaud, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic; Mentré, France; Farman, Nicolette

    2015-07-01

    A major deleterious side effect of glucocorticoids is skin atrophy. Glucocorticoids activate the glucocorticoid and the mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor, both present in the epidermis. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid-induced epidermal atrophy may be related to inappropriate occupancy of MR by glucocorticoids. We evaluated whether epidermal atrophy induced by the topical glucocorticoid clobetasol could be limited by coadministration of MR antagonist. In cultured human skin explants, the epidermal atrophy induced by clobetasol was significantly limited by MR antagonism (canrenoate and eplerenone). Blockade of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC by phenamil was also efficient, identifying a role of MR-ENaC cascade in keratinocytes, acting through restoration of clobetasol-induced impairment of keratinocyte proliferation. In the SPIREPI randomized double-blind controlled trial, gels containing clobetasol, the MR antagonist spironolactone, both agents, or placebo were applied on four zones of the forearms of 23 healthy volunteers for 28 days. Primary outcome was histological thickness of the epidermis with clobetasol alone or clobetasol+spironolactone. Spironolactone alone did not affect the epidermal thickness but coapplication of clobetasol and spironolactone significantly limited clobetasol-induced atrophy and was well tolerated. Altogether, these findings identify MR as a factor regulating epidermal homeostasis and suggest that topical MR blockade could limit glucocorticoid-induced epidermal atrophy.

  3. Streptococcus induces circulating CLA(+) memory T-cell-dependent epidermal cell activation in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Marta; Galván, Ana B; Rincón, Catalina; Romeu, Ester R; Sacrista, Marc; Barboza, Erika; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Celada, Antonio; Pujol, Ramon M; Santamaria-Babí, Luis F

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcal throat infection is associated with a specific variant of psoriasis and with HLA-Cw6 expression. In this study, activation of circulating psoriatic cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)(+) memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells occurred only when streptococcal throat extracts were added. This triggered the production of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cytokines, as well as epidermal cell mediators (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11). Streptococcal extracts (SEs) did not induce any activation with either CLA(-) cells or memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells from healthy subjects. Intradermal injection of activated culture supernatants into mouse skin induced epidermal hyperplasia. SEs also induced activation when we used epidermal cells from nonlesional skin of psoriatic patients with CLA(+) memory T cells. Significant correlations were found between SE induced upregulation of mRNA expression for ifn-γ, il-17, il-22, ip-10, and serum level of antistreptolysin O in psoriatic patients. This study demonstrates the direct involvement of streptococcal infection in pathological mechanisms of psoriasis, such as IL-17 production and epidermal cell activation.

  4. Sensitivity enhancement of a micro-scale biomimetic tactile sensor with epidermal ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua

    2010-08-01

    A microscale biomimetic tactile sensor with epidermal ridges is proposed to enhance the sensitivity of force detection. Guided by the principles of the human tactile perception mechanism, specifically the epidermal ridges, artificial epidermal ridges made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were designed and placed on micro-fabricated metal strain gauge arrays. A polyimide layer was fabricated to facilitate attachment between the metal and PDMS, so that patterned copper could be deposited on the polyimide to function as the strain gauges. The aspect ratio of the artificial epidermal ridges was optimized using material stability calculations and finite element method (FEM) simulations, and the optimal structure obtained was 400 µm in width and 110 µm in height. Experiments verified the effectiveness of enhancing the sensitivity of such a tactile sensor with the artificial epidermal ridges, in that the outputs of the strain gauges were 1.8 times more sensitive than those of a tactile sensor without ridges. The proposed artificial epidermal ridges are readily applicable to any developed tactile sensors for performance enhancement.

  5. Protein transfer to membranes upon shape deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Bijl, E.; Antono, L.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells, milk fat droplets, or liposomes all have interfaces consisting of lipid membranes. These particles show significant shape deformations as a result of flow. Here we show that these shape deformations can induce adsorption of proteins to the membrane. Red blood cell deformability is a

  6. Airborne Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Otten, M.; Halsema, E. van

    2000-01-01

    In ground engineering the need for deformation measurements is urgent. SAR interferometry can be used to measure small (sub-wavelength) deformations. An experiment to investigate this for dike deformations was set up, using the C-band SAR system PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal SAR). This paper descri

  7. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  8. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  9. Molecular deformation mechanisms in polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Coutry, S

    2001-01-01

    adjacent labelled stems is significantly larger when the DPE guest is a copolymer molecule. Our comparative studies on various types of polyethylene lead to the conclusion that their deformation behaviour under drawing has the same basis, with additional effects imputed to the presence of tie-molecules and branches. Three major points were identified in this thesis. The changes produced by drawing imply (1) the crystallisation of some of the amorphous polymer and the subsequent orientation of the newly formed crystals, (2) the re-orientation of the crystalline ribbons and (3) the beginning of crystallite break-up. However, additional effects were observed for the high molecular weight linear sample and the copolymer sample and were attributed, respectively, to the presence of tie-molecules and of branches. It was concluded that both the tie-molecules and the branches are restricting the molecular movement during deformation, and that the branches may be acting as 'anchors'. This work is concerned with details...

  10. Deformation quantization and Nambu mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Dito, G; Sternheimer, D; Takhtajan, L A; Dito, Giuseppe; Flato, Moshe; Sternheimer, Daniel; Takhtajan, Leon

    1996-01-01

    Starting from deformation quantization (star-products), the quantization problem of Nambu Mechanics is investigated. After considering some impossibilities and pushing some analogies with field quantization, a solution to the quantization problem is presented in what we call the Zariski quantization of fields (observables, functions, in this case polynomials). This quantization is based on the factorization over {\\Bbb R} of polynomials in several real variables. We quantize the algebra of fields generated by the polynomials by defining a deformation of this algebra which is Abelian, associative and distributive. This procedure is then adapted to derivatives (needed for the Nambu brackets), which ensures the validity of the Fundamental Identity of Nambu Mechanics also at the quantum level. Our construction is in fact more general than the particular case considered here: it can be utilized for quite general defining identities and for much more general star-products.

  11. Deformation of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Jian; Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the Lie group GNC α , β , γ , of which the kinematical symmetry group GNC of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is a special case due to fixed nonzero α, β, and γ, is three-parameter deformation quantized using the method suggested by Ballesteros and Musso [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 195203 (2013)]. A certain family of QUE algebras, corresponding to GNC α , β , γ with two of the deformation parameters approaching zero, is found to be in agreement with the existing results of the literature on quantum Heisenberg group. Finally, we dualize the underlying QUE algebra to obtain an expression for the underlying star-product between smooth functions on GNC α , β , γ .

  12. Deformations of extremal toric manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact toric extremal K\\"ahler manifold. Using the work of Sz\\'ekelyhidi, we provide a simple criterion on the fan describing $X$ to ensure the existence of complex deformations of $X$ that carry extremal metrics. As an example, we find new CSC metrics on 4-points blow-ups of $\\C\\P^1\\times\\C\\P^1$.

  13. Spinal deformities in tall girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, L B; Steen, H; Trygstad, O

    1985-04-01

    In a prospective study, 62 girls who consulted the paediatric department because of tall stature were examined for spinal deformities. Thirteen cases of scoliosis measuring 10 degrees or more were found. Eighteen girls had a thoracic kyphosis of more than 40 degrees and 11 had additional vertebral abnormalities indicating Scheuermann's disease. The incidence of scoliosis and Scheuermann's disease was much higher in our material than normal.

  14. Constructal Hypothesis for Mechanical Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mild Steel specimen, when subjected to tensile forces shows considerable plastic deformation before fracture. A cross-section of the fractured specimen has the familiar cup – cone form and shows traces of a three – dimensional parabolic geometry. The morphing of the steel specimen from a volume to a point as a spontaneous, entropy producing or energy dispersing process is analysed using the Constructal law.

  15. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Rolling, Acta Materiala (08 2014) Zhe Wang , John H Perepezko, David Larson, David Reinhard. Mixing Behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V Multilayers Induced...by Cold Rolling, Journal of Alloys and Compounds (07 2014) Zhe Wang , John H. Perepezko. Deformation-Induced Nanoscale Mixing Reactions in Cu/Ni...FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Zhe Wang 0.50 0.50 1 Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students

  16. Epidermal transglutaminase (TGase 3 is required for proper hair development, but not the formation of the epidermal barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGase, a family of cross-linking enzymes present in most cell types, are important in events as diverse as cell-signaling and matrix stabilization. Transglutaminase 1 is crucial in developing the epidermal barrier, however the skin also contains other family members, in particular TGase 3. This isoform is highly expressed in the cornified layer, where it is believed to stabilize the epidermis and its reduction is implicated in psoriasis. To understand the importance of TGase 3 in vivo we have generated and analyzed mice lacking this protein. Surprisingly, these animals display no obvious defect in skin development, no overt changes in barrier function or ability to heal wounds. In contrast, hair lacking TGase 3 is thinner, has major alterations in the cuticle cells and hair protein cross-linking is markedly decreased. Apparently, while TGase 3 is of unique functional importance in hair, in the epidermis loss of TGase 3 can be compensated for by other family members.

  17. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  18. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  19. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables such as deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transformations and gauge fields is given. An application of the formalism to a description of systems with distributed parameters in a local thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  20. Loop-deformed Poincar\\'e algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Mielczarek, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    In this essay we present evidence suggesting that loop quantum gravity leads to deformation of the local Poincar\\'e algebra within the limit of high energies. This deformation is a consequence of quantum modification of effective off-shell hypersurface deformation algebra. Surprisingly, the form of deformation suggests that the signature of space-time changes from Lorentzian to Euclidean at large curvatures. We construct particular realization of the loop-deformed Poincar\\'e algebra and find that it can be related to curved momentum space, which indicates the relationship with recently introduced notion of relative locality. The presented findings open a new way of testing loop quantum gravity effects.

  1. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised......We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...

  2. Homologous radioimmunoassay for human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, G.E.; Kraus, J.W.; Orth, D.N.

    1978-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a polypeptide hormone originally discovered in the mouse submaxillary gland, stimulates growth in a variety of tissues in several species. This hormone has recently been identified in human urine. A homologous RIA for human EGF (RIA-hEGF) has been developed. In general, levels were similar to those recently reported using a heterologous RIA system. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of RIA-hEGF by normal adult males and females was 63.0 +- 3.0 and 52.0 +- 3.5 (mean +- SE) ..mu..g/total vol, or 29.7 +- 1.1 and 39.8 +- 1.7 ..mu..g/g creatinine, respectively. Excretion by females taking oral contraceptives was significantly greater (60.1 +- 2.7 ..mu..g/g creatinine; P < 0.01) than that by females who were not. Recent evidence suggests the probable identity of hEGF and ..beta..-urogastrone, a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Adult males with active peptic ulcer disease appeared to have lower urinary RIA-hEGF excretion (22.9 +- 2.6 ..mu..g/g creatinine) than normal men, but this was not significant (P > 0.05). Several of those with very low values had histories of alcohol abuse. Excretion by patients with Cushing's syndrome was normal. Patients with psoriasis or recovering from major burns excreted both abnormally high and abnormally low levels of RIA-hEGF, with no obvious correlation to their clinical condition. There was no apparent diurnal or postprandial variation in urinary RIA-hEGF excretion by normal subjects. An excellent linear correlation was observed between RIA-hEGF and creatinine concentrations in each urine sample for each subject, suggesting that RIA-hEGF concentration in a random urine sample provides a valid index of 24-h RIA-hEGF excretion.

  3. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1993-12-01

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. [14C]- and [3H]acetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from acetate appeared in 14- to 20-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated. No label was seen in the essential fatty acid 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4. Radiolabel from [9, 10-3H]palmitic acid (16:0) was detected in 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, and 18:1. [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) was converted to 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, and 20:4, demonstrating delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activity in keratinocytes. Label from acetate, 16:0, or 18:2 was found mostly in the cellular phospholipids while only one third of the label from [14C]arachidonic was found in the phospholipids. [14C]acetate and [14C]18:2 time course data were used to construct a model of the metabolism of these reactants, using coupled, first-order differential equations. The data show that EFA-deficient keratinocytes metabolize fatty acids using pathways previously found in liver; they suggest the positioning of 18:2 desaturase and 18:3 elongase near the plasma membrane; they indicate that for the synthesis of nonessential fatty acids the formation of 18:0 from 16:0 is the rate-determining step; and they show that the conversion of 18:2 to 20:3 is rapid. These experiments demonstrate a method to study lipid enzyme kinetics in living cells.

  4. Topography of human placental receptors for epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Ramani, N; Chegini, N; Stadig, B K; Carman, F R; Woost, P G; Schultz, G S; Cook, C L

    1985-02-10

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether term human placental microvillus plasma membranes, which are exposed to maternal blood, and basolateral plasma membranes, which are in close proximity to fetal blood capillaries, contain receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF). These two highly purified membranes bound 125I-EGF with similar affinity (apparent dissociation constants, 0.07-0.12 nM, but the total number of available receptors was greater in microvillus (8.2 pmol/mg protein) compared to basolateral (4.9 pmol/mg protein) plasma membranes. Detailed characterization of 125I-EGF binding to these membranes revealed numerous similarities as well as differences. The two membranes contained two major (155 and 140 kDa) and at least three minor (115, 175, and 210 kDa) specific 125I-EGF binding proteins. The 115-kDa protein was only found in basolateral plasma membranes. The 155-kDa protein was predominantly labeled in microvillus, whereas the 140-kDa protein was labeled predominantly in basolateral plasma membranes. The addition of protease inhibitors did not alter the multiple 125I-EGF binding proteins pattern found in these membranes. EGF stimulated phosphorylation of 140- and 155-kDa proteins in both microvillus and basolateral plasma membranes. However, the 155-kDa protein was phosphorylated to a greater extent in microvillus, whereas both 140- and 155-kDa proteins were phosphorylated equally in basolateral plasma membranes. Light and electron microscope autoradiographic studies revealed that 125I-EGF preferentially associated with microvillus plasma membranes. The data demonstrates the presence of EGF receptors in outer cell membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and suggests that maternal EGF may influence syncytiotrophoblast function by binding to receptors in microvillus plasma membranes, while fetal EGF may also influence syncytiotrophoblast function but via receptors in basolateral plasma membranes.

  5. Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

  6. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  7. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Nan; CUI GuangHui; WANG ZhiChong; HUANG Bing; GE Jian; LU Rong; ZHANG KeFei; FAN ZhiGang; LU Li; PENG Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative corneal epithelium-like cells, which may provide a practical source of autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of epidermal stem cells for trans-differentiation into corneal epithelium-like cells. Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells were isolated by type IV collagen attachment method. Flow cytometry analysis, immunohistology and RT-PCR were conducted to identify the expression of specific markers (β1, α6 integrin, K15, K1/K10, K3/K12 and CD71) on the isolated rapid attaching cells. The isolated cells were cocultured with human corneal limbal stroma and corneal epithelial cells. After coculture, the expression of the same specific markers was evaluated in order to identify expression difference caused by the coculture conditions. K3/K12 expression was analyzed in coculture cells on day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Putative epidermal stem cells in conditioned culture media were used as control. Putative epidermal stem cells were predominant in rapid attaching cells by type IV collagen attachment isolation. Before being cocultured, the rhesus putative epidermal stem cells expressed K15, α6 and β1 integrin, but no CD71, K1/K10 and K3/K12. After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and β 1 integrin, but no K1/K10. Cells being not coculture converted into terminally differentiated cells expressing K1/K10. These results indicate that rhesus putative epidermal stem cells can trans-differentiate into corneal epithelium-like cells and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic application as autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas.

  8. Evaluation of emulsion electrospun polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor nanofibrous scaffolds for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenbei; Qian, Yuna; Li, Linhao; Pan, Lianhong; Njunge, Lucy W; Dong, Lili; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing scaffolds provide cells with structural integrity and can also deliver biological agents to establish a skin tissue-specific microenvironment to regulate cell functions and to accelerate the healing process. In this study, we fabricated biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds with an emulsion electrospinning technique. The scaffolds were composed of polycaprolactone, hyaluronan and encapsulating epidermal growth factor. The morphology and core-sheath structure of the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scaffolds were also characterized for chemical composition and hydrophilicity with a Fourier-transform infrared analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the water contact angle. An in vitro model protein bovine serum albumin and epidermal growth factor release study was conducted to evaluate the sustained release potential of the core-sheath structured nanofibers with and without the hyaluronan component. Additionally, an in vitro cultivation of human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts on polycaprolactone/hyaluronan and polycaprolactone/hyaluronan-epidermal growth factor scaffolds showed a significant synergistic effect of hyaluronan and epidermal growth factor on cell proliferation and infiltration. Furthermore, there was an up-regulation of the wound-healing-related genes collagen I, collagen III and TGF-β in polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor scaffolds compared with control groups. In the full-thickness wound model, the enhanced regeneration of fully functional skin was facilitated by epidermal regeneration in the polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor treatment group. Our findings suggest that bioactivity and hemostasis of the hyaluronan-based nanofibrous scaffolds have the capability to encapsulate and control the release of growth factors that can serve as skin tissue engineering scaffolds for wound healing.

  9. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative corneal epithelium-like cells, which may provide a practical source of autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of epi-dermal stem cells for trans-differentiation into corneal epithelium-like cells. Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells were isolated by type IV collagen attachment method. Flow cytometry analysis, immuno-histology and RT-PCR were conducted to identify the expression of specific markers (β1, α6 integrin, K15, K1/K10, K3/K12 and CD71) on the isolated rapid attaching cells. The isolated cells were cocultured with human corneal limbal stroma and corneal epithelial cells. After coculture, the expression of the same specific markers was evaluated in order to identify expression difference caused by the coculture conditions. K3/K12 expression was analyzed in coculture cells on day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Putative epi-dermal stem cells in conditioned culture media were used as control. Putative epidermal stem cells were predominant in rapid attaching cells by type IV collagen attachment isolation. Before being co-cultured, the rhesus putative epidermal stem cells expressed K15, α6 and β1 integrin, but no CD71, K1/K10 and K3/K12. After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and β 1 integrin, but no K1/K10. Cells being not coculture converted into terminally differentiated cells expressing K1/K10. These results indicate that rhesus putative epidermal stem cells can trans-differentiate into corneal epithelium-like cells and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic application as autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas.

  10. Pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin: A rare entity - Report of a case with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmy, P S; Subitha, K; Priya, P V; Johnson, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Epidermal cyst is a very common benign cystic lesion of the skin. It is usual to find ulceration of the lining epithelium, rupture of the cyst wall with chronic inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction. But, it is very rare to see an epidermal cyst with marked accumulation of melanin pigment. Only a few cases of pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin pigment have been published in the literature. Here, we are reporting a case of ruptured epidermal cyst with keratin granuloma formation and showing dense collection of melanin pigment.

  11. Leukocyte deformability: finite element modeling of large viscoelastic deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Skalak, R

    1992-09-21

    An axisymmetric deformation of a viscoelastic sphere bounded by a prestressed elastic thin shell in response to external pressure is studied by a finite element method. The research is motivated by the need for understanding the passive behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) and interpreting extensive experimental data in terms of the mechanical properties. The cell at rest is modeled as a sphere consisting of a cortical prestressed shell with incompressible Maxwell fluid interior. A large-strain deformation theory is developed based on the proposed model. General non-linear, large strain constitutive relations for the cortical shell are derived by neglecting the bending stiffness. A representation of the constitutive equations in the form of an integral of strain history for the incompressible Maxwell interior is used in the formulation of numerical scheme. A finite element program is developed, in which a sliding boundary condition is imposed on all contact surfaces. The mathematical model developed is applied to evaluate experimental data of pipette tests and observations of blood flow.

  12. Gradient Domain Mesh Deformation - A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Xu; Kun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This survey reviews the recent development of gradient domain mesh deformation method. Different to other deformation methods, the gradient domain deformation method is a surface-based, variational optimization method. It directly encodes the geometric details in differential coordinates, which are also called Laplacian coordinates in literature. By preserving the Laplacian coordinates, the mesh details can be well preserved during deformation. Due to the locality of the Laplacian coordinates, the variational optimization problem can be casted into a sparse linear system. Fast sparse linear solver can be adopted to generate deformation result interactively, or even in real-time. The nonlinear nature of gradient domain mesh deformation leads to the development of two categories of deformation methods: linearization methods and nonlinear optimization methods. Basically, the linearization methods only need to solve the linear least-squares system once. They are fast, easy to understand and control, while the deformation result might be suboptimal. Nonlinear optimization methods can reach optimal solution of deformation energy function by iterative updating. Since the computation of nonlinear methods is expensive, reduced deformable models should be adopted to achieve interactive performance. The nonlinear optimization methods avoid the user burden to input transformation at deformation handles, and they can be extended to incorporate various nonlinear constraints, like volume constraint, skeleton constraint, and so on. We review representative methods and related approaches of each category comparatively and hope to help the user understand the motivation behind the algorithms. Finally, we discuss the relation between physical simulation and gradient domain mesh deformation to reveal why it can achieve physically plausible deformation result.

  13. Protective Effect of HemoHIM on Epidermal Melanocytes in Ultraviolet-B irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Choon; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Jeongeup Campus of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Tae Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, and observed the effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM, HH) on the formation, and decrease of UV-B-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UV-B 80 mJ:cm{sup -2} (0.5 mW:sec{sup -1}) daily for 7 days, and HH was intraperitoneally, orally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 13∼15 melanocytes:mm{sup -2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas showed an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal, oral or topical treatment with HH before each irradiation interrupted UV-B-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to the number found in UV-B-irradiated, untreated control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with HH at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The present study suggests the HH as inhibitor of UV-B-induced pigmentation, and depigmenting agent.

  14. Homologs of SCAR/WAVE complex components are required for epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yuchuan; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Ping; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous actins (F-actins) play a vital role in epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, a limited number of studies have examined actin-dependent leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis events in rice. In this study, two recessive mutants were isolated: less pronounced lobe epidermal cell2-1 (lpl2-1) and lpl3-1, whose leaf and stem epidermis developed a smooth surface, with fewer serrated pavement cell (PC) lobes, and decreased papillae. The lpl2-1 also exhibited irregular stomata patterns, reduced plant height, and short panicles and roots. Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that LPL2 and LPL3 encode the PIROGI/Specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (PIR/SRA1)-like and NCK-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins, respectively, two components of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein (SCAR/WAVE) regulatory complex involved in actin nucleation and function. Epidermal cells exhibited abnormal arrangement of F-actins in both lpl2 and lpl3 expanding leaves. Moreover, the distorted trichomes of Arabidopsis pir could be partially restored by an overexpression of LPL2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that LPL2 can directly interact with LPL3 in vitro Collectively, the results indicate that LPL2 and LPL3 are two functionally conserved homologs of the SCAR/WAVE complex components, and that they play an important role in controlling epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice by organising F-actin.

  15. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Epidermal electrode technology for detecting ultrasonic perturbation of sensory brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stanley; Fisher, Jonathan A N; Ye, Meijun; Kim, Yun-Soung; Ma, Rui; Nabili, Marjan; Krauthamer, Victor; Myers, Matthew R; Coleman, Todd P; Welle, Cristin G

    2017-08-29

    We aim to demonstrate the in vivo capability of a wearable sensor technology to detect localized perturbations of sensory-evoked brain activity. Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were recorded in mice via wearable, flexible epidermal electrode arrays. We then utilized the sensors to explore the effects of transcranial focused ultrasound, which noninvasively induced neural perturbation. SSEPs recorded with flexible epidermal sensors were quantified and benchmarked against those recorded with invasive epidural electrodes. We found that cortical SSEPs recorded by flexible epidermal sensors were stimulus frequency-dependent. Immediately following controlled, focal ultrasound perturbation, the sensors detected significant SSEP modulation, which consisted of dynamic amplitude decreases and altered stimulus-frequency dependence. These modifications were also dependent on the ultrasound perturbation dosage. The effects were consistent with those recorded with invasive electrodes, albeit with roughly one order of magnitude lower signal-to-noise ratio. We found that flexible epidermal sensors reported multiple SSEP parameters that were sensitive to focused ultrasound. This work therefore (1) establishes that epidermal electrodes are appropriate for monitoring the integrity of major CNS functionalities through SSEP, and (2) leveraged this technology to explore ultrasound-induced neuromodulation. The sensor technology is well-suited for this application because the sensor electrical properties are uninfluenced by direct exposure to ultrasound irradiation. The sensors and experimental paradigm we present involve standard, safe clinical neurological assessment methods and are thus applicable to a wide range of future translational studies in humans with any manner of health condition.

  17. Serum response factor controls transcriptional network regulating epidermal function and hair follicle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Congxing; Hindes, Anna; Burns, Carole J; Koppel, Aaron C; Kiss, Alexi; Yin, Yan; Ma, Liang; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Khnykin, Denis; Jahnsen, Frode L; Crosby, Seth D; Ramanan, Narendrakumar; Efimova, Tatiana

    2013-03-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early, cytoskeletal, and muscle-specific genes to control growth, differentiation, and cytoskeletal integrity in different cell types. To investigate the role for SRF in epidermal development and homeostasis, we conditionally knocked out SRF in epidermal keratinocytes. We report that SRF deletion disrupted epidermal barrier function leading to early postnatal lethality. Mice lacking SRF in epidermis displayed morphogenetic defects, including an eye-open-at-birth phenotype and lack of whiskers. SRF-null skin exhibited abnormal morphology, hyperplasia, aberrant expression of differentiation markers and transcriptional regulators, anomalous actin organization, enhanced inflammation, and retarded hair follicle (HF) development. Transcriptional profiling experiments uncovered profound molecular changes in SRF-null E17.5 epidermis and revealed that many previously identified SRF target CArG box-containing genes were markedly upregulated in SRF-null epidermis, indicating that SRF may function to repress transcription of a subset of its target genes in epidermis. Remarkably, when transplanted onto nude mice, engrafted SRF-null skin lacked hair but displayed normal epidermal architecture with proper expression of differentiation markers, suggesting that although keratinocyte SRF is essential for HF development, a cross-talk between SRF-null keratinocytes and the surrounding microenvironment is likely responsible for the barrier-deficient mutant epidermal phenotype.

  18. In situ visualization of intracellular morphology of epidermal cells using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Mariko; Tokunaga, Kyoya; Hosoi, Junichi; Iwanaga, Shinya; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of epidermal cells is important because the differentiation patterns of keratinocytes (KCs) are considered to be related to the functions and condition of skin. Optical microscopy has been widely used to investigate epidermal cells, but its applicability is still limited because of the need for sample fixation and staining. Here, we report our staining-free observation of epidermal cells in both tissue and culture by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy that provides molecular vibrational contrast. SRS allowed us to observe a variety of cellular morphologies in skin tissue, including ladder-like structures in the spinous layer, enucleation of KCs in the granular layer, and three-dimensional cell column structures in the stratum corneum. We noticed that some cells in the spinous layer had a brighter signal in the cytoplasm than KCs. To examine the relevance of the observation of epidermal layers, we also observed cultured epidermal cells, including KCs at various differentiation stages, melanocytes, and Langerhans cell-like cells. Their SRS images also demonstrated various morphologies, suggesting that the morphological differences observed in tissue corresponded to the cell lineage. These results indicate the possible application of SRS microscopy to dermatological investigation of cell lineages and types in the epidermis by cellular-level analysis.

  19. Evolution of the clonogenic potential of human epidermal stem/progenitor cells with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobiri, Olivia; Deshayes, Nathalie; Rathman-Josserand, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    A number of clinical observations have indicated that the regenerative potential and overall function of the epidermis is modified with age. The epidermis becomes thinner, repairs itself less efficiently after wounding, and presents modified barrier function recovery. In addition, the dermal papillae fatten out with increasing age, suggesting a modification in the interaction between epidermal and dermal compartments. As the epidermal regenerative capacity is dependent upon stem and progenitor cell function, it is naturally of interest to identify and understand age-related changes in these particular keratinocyte populations. Previous studies have indicated that the number of stem cells does not decrease with age in mouse models but little solid evidence is currently available concerning human skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clonogenic potential of keratinocyte populations isolated from the epidermis of over 50 human donors ranging from 18 to 71 years old. The data indicate that the number of epidermal cells presenting high regenerative potential does not dramatically decline with age in human skin. The authors believe that changes in the microenvironment controlling epidermal basal cell activity are more likely to explain the differences in epidermal function observed with increasing age.

  20. Phylogenetic and Systematic Value of Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in Some Members of Nigerian Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Olorunshola Alege

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.

  1. THE EFFECT OF MEBT/MEBO ON EPIDERMAL REGENERATIVE STEM CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of the effect of Moist Exposed Burn Therapy (MEBT) and Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) on the spontaneous repair and healing of superficial third degree burn wound involving fatty layer. Method: A series of skin tissue samples were taken from deep burn wounds of 2 cases. Immunocytochemistry method, biotin avidin DCS system, and indirect immunofluorescence technique were applied. Mouse anti human keratin type 19 monoclonal antibody was used to detect regenerative epidermal stem cells in wound tissues. Results: Epidermal regenerative stem cells emerged at 24 hours post burn, and the number of epidermal regenerative stem cell increased on day 4 post burn. On days 7 and 14 post burn, the number of epidermal stem cells increased to the peak level. On days 21 and 28 post burn, it decreased and disappeared gradually as burn wound progressed to healing. Conclusion: MEBT/MEBO has the effect of promoting the activation and proliferation of epidermal regenerative stem cells in the residual viable tissue of superficial full thickness burn wound, and these stem cells play an unique role in spontaneous wound healing of deep burn.

  2. From diffuse growth to planar polarity in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eBalcerowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots fulfill important functions as they serve in water and nutrient uptake, provide anchorage of the plant body in the soil and in some species form the site of symbiotic interactions with soil-living biota. Root hairs, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specific epidermal cells, significantly increase the root's surface area and aid in these processes. In this review we focus on the molecular mechanisms that determine the hair and non-hair cell fate of epidermal cells and that define the site on the epidermal cell where the root hair will be initiated (= planar polarity determination. In the model plant Arabidopsis, trichoblast and atrichoblast cell fate results from intra- and intercellular position-dependent signaling and from complex feedback loops that ultimately regulate GL2 expressing and non-expressing cells. When epidermal cells reach the end of the root expansion zone, root hair promoting transcription factors dictate the establishment of polarity within epidermal cells followed by the selection of the root hair initiation site at the more basal part of the trichoblast. Molecular players in the abovementioned processes as well as the role of phytohormones are discussed, and open areas for future experiments are identified.

  3. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. RESULTS: Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  4. TALE homeodomain proteins regulate site-specific terminal differentiation, LCE genes and epidermal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Brown, Stuart J; Avilion, Ariel A; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Sully, Katherine; Akinduro, Olufolake; Murphy, Mark; Cleary, Michael L; Byrne, Carolyn

    2011-05-15

    The epidermal barrier varies over the body surface to accommodate regional environmental stresses. Regional skin barrier variation is produced by site-dependent epidermal differentiation from common keratinocyte precursors and often manifests as site-specific skin disease or irritation. There is strong evidence for body-site-dependent dermal programming of epidermal differentiation in which the epidermis responds by altering expression of key barrier proteins, but the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. The LCE multigene cluster encodes barrier proteins that are differentially expressed over the body surface, and perturbation of LCE cluster expression is linked to the common regional skin disease psoriasis. LCE subclusters comprise genes expressed variably in either external barrier-forming epithelia (e.g. skin) or in internal epithelia with less stringent barriers (e.g. tongue). We demonstrate here that a complex of TALE homeobox transcription factors PBX1, PBX2 and Pknox (homologues of Drosophila Extradenticle and Homothorax) preferentially regulate external rather than internal LCE gene expression, competitively binding with SP1 and SP3. Perturbation of TALE protein expression in stratified squamous epithelia in mice produces external but not internal barrier abnormalities. We conclude that epidermal barrier genes, such as the LCE multigene cluster, are regulated by TALE homeodomain transcription factors to produce regional epidermal barriers.

  5. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  6. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  7. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangburn Heather A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC. NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor (EGFR. Methods HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068, total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and α-tubulin. Results EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. Conclusion These results suggest that

  8. Deformable Registration of Digital Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管伟光; 解林; 等

    1998-01-01

    is paper proposes a novel elastic model and presents a deformable registration method based on the model.The method registers images without the need to extract reatures from the images,and therefore works directly on grey-level images.A new similarity metric is given on which the formation of external forces is based.The registration method,taking the coarse-to-fine strategy,constructs external forces in larger scales for the first few iterations to rely more on global evidence,and ther in smaller scales for later iterations to allow local refinements.The stiffness of the elastic body decreases as the process proceeds.To make it widely applicable,the method is not restricted to any type of transformation.The variations between images are thought as general free-form deformations.Because the elastic model designed is linearized,it can be solved very efficiently with high accuracy.The method has been successfully tested on MRI images.It will certainly find other uses such as matching time-varying sequences of pictures for motion analysis,fitting templates into images for non-rigid object recognition,matching stereo images for shape recovery,etc.

  9. Physics of Deformed Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Girelli, F; Girelli, Florian; Livine, Etera R.

    2004-01-01

    In many different ways, Deformed Special Relativity (DSR) has been argued to provide an effective limit of quantum gravity in almost-flat regime. Unfortunately DSR is up to now plagued by many conceptual problems (in particular how it describes macroscopic objects) which forbids a definitive physical interpretation and clear predictions. Here we propose a consistent framework to interpret DSR. We extend the principle of relativity: the same way that Special Relativity showed us that the definition of a reference frame requires to specify its speed, we show that DSR implies that we must also take into account its mass. We further advocate a 5-dimensional point of view on DSR physics and the extension of the kinematical symmetry from the Poincare group to the Poincare-de Sitter group (ISO(4,1)). This leads us to introduce the concept of a pentamomentum and to take into account the renormalization of the DSR deformation parameter kappa. This allows the resolution of the "soccer ball problem" (definition of many-...

  10. Effect of body deformability on microswimming

    CERN Document Server

    Pande, Jayant; Krüger, Timm; Harting, Jens; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider the following question: given a mechanical microswimming mechanism, does increased deformability of the swimmer body hinder or promote the swimming? To answer this we run immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann simulations of a microswimmer comprised of three vesicular beads connected by springs and increase systematically the deformability of the beads. We impose the forces driving the motion and allow the swimming stroke to emerge on its own. The simulations show that both `deformability-enhanced' and `deformability-hindered' regimes of microswimming exist. To understand the occurrence of these regimes, we assume a model where the amplitudes of the surface oscillations of the beads in the swimmer are much smaller than the other length scales. This results in only the driving frequency mode of the surface deformations contributing to the velocity. The theory predicts that the dominant elasticity of the swimming mechanism dictates the deformability-based regime in which the swimming occur...

  11. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  12. Deformations of three-dimensional metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2015-03-01

    We examine three-dimensional metric deformations based on a tetrad transformation through the action the matrices of scalar field. We describe by this approach to deformation the results obtained by Coll et al. (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 34:269, 2002), where it is stated that any three-dimensional metric was locally obtained as a deformation of a constant curvature metric parameterized by a 2-form. To this aim, we construct the corresponding deforming matrices and provide their classification according to the properties of the scalar and of the vector used in Coll et al. (Gen Relativ Gravit 34:269, 2002) to deform the initial metric. The resulting causal structure of the deformed geometries is examined, too. Finally we apply our results to a spherically symmetric three geometry and to a space sector of Kerr metric.

  13. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  14. Effects of epidermal growth factor and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on the small bowel of septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, M S

    1992-05-01

    1. The effects of parenteral nutrition with or without glutamine supplementation and epidermal growth factor treatment (0.15 microgram/g body weight) was studied in the small bowel of septic rats after 4 days. 2. Septic rats infused with glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition with or without epidermal growth factor treatment survived sepsis significantly better than other septic rats given parenteral nutrition. The cumulative percentage of deaths over 4 days in septic rats infused with glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition was 20% (without epidermal growth factor) and 15% (with epidermal growth factor) compared with 50% in septic rats treated with parenteral nutrition without glutamine and 35% in septic rats given parenteral nutrition without glutamine but with epidermal growth factor treatment. 3. Glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition with or without epidermal growth factor treatment resulted in improved nitrogen balance in septic rats. The cumulative nitrogen balance over the 4 day period was the least negative as compared with other groups of septic rats. 4. Septic rats given parenteral nutrition with glutamine, epidermal growth factor or glutamine and epidermal growth factor exhibited marked increases in intestinal net rates of utilization of glutamine (P less than 0.001) and production of ammonia (P less than 0.001) compared with septic rats given parenteral nutrition without glutamine and/or epidermal growth factor treatment. 5. Septic rats given parenteral nutrition with glutamine, epidermal growth factor or glutamine and epidermal growth factor exhibited significant increases in jejunal wet weight (by 32.4-40.6%), DNA content (by 24.2-34.7%), protein content (by 29.1-50.0%), villus height (by 16.3-26.4%) and crypt depth (by 20.3-29.6%) compared with other groups of septic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Differential gene expression in individual papilla-resistant and powdery mildew-infected barley epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, T.; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Skøt, Leif

    2004-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility in barley to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is determined at the single-cell level. Even in genetically compatible interactions, attacked plant epidermal cells defend themselves against attempted fungal penetration by localized responses...... leading to papilla deposition and reinforcement of their cell wall. This conveys a race-nonspecific form of resistance. However, this defense is not complete, and a proportion of penetration attempts succeed in infection. The resultant mixture of infected and uninfected leaf cells makes it impossible...... to relate powdery mildew-induced gene expression in whole leaves or even dissected epidermal tissues to resistance or susceptibility. A method for generating transcript profiles from individual barley epidermal cells was established and proven useful for analyzing resistant and successfully infected cells...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated...... for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds...... at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis...

  17. Linear verrucous epidermal nevi-effects of carbon dioxide laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Adam; Strus-Rosińska, Beata; Raszewska-Famielec, Magdalena; Sajdak-Wojtaluk, Agnieszka; Pilat, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    Linear epidermal nevus is a congenital malformation characterized by linear, often one-sided arrangement. The lesions are localized along the Blaschko's lines, are present at birth, or appear in early childhood. They can be single or multiple, and have various colors-from skin color to dark brown. These lesions persist through the whole life making a significant cosmetic defect. Here, we present three clinical cases of epidermal nevus treated with CO2 laser. In a female patient, verrucous, dark brown skin eruptions were observed at the back of earlobe and down the neck. In the cases of the male patients, the lesions were located in the area of the neck and left blade. The removal of nevi was performed in stages, by cutting and evaporation using a CO2 laser. A very good therapeutic effect was obtained. CO2 laser treatment is the method of choice for the removal of extensive epidermal nevi. It is characterized by high efficacy and safety.

  18. A Taxonomic Study of some Species in Cassiinae (Leguminosae using Leaf Epidermal Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefiu Adekilekun SAHEED

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foliar epidermal characters of ten species from the genus Cassia L. Emend. Gaertner, Senna Miller and Chamaecrista Moench found in South Western Nigeria were studied. The aim was to establish some useful diagnostic features that may be employed in combination with other characters as intra or inter-specific or generic tools for their delimitation. Our results revealed exciting features that are helpful in the identification of each species. These include guard cell area, stomatal index and frequency, presence or absence of trichomes, types of trichomes, as well as their length on epidermal surfaces and wall types. These results, therefore suggest diagnostic features that were found on the epidermal surface that can be employed to justify the separation of the new genera Senna and Chamaecrista from their initial genus Cassia.

  19. Filaggrin genotype in ichthyosis vulgaris predicts abnormalities in epidermal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert; Elias, Peter M; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Brandner, Johanna M; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Presland, Richard B; Fleckman, Philip; Janecke, Andreas R; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W H Irwin; Fritsch, Peter O; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Schmuth, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Although it is widely accepted that filaggrin (FLG) deficiency contributes to an abnormal barrier function in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, the pathomechanism of how FLG deficiency provokes a barrier abnormality in humans is unknown. We report here that the presence of FLG mutations in Caucasians predicts dose-dependent alterations in epidermal permeability barrier function. Although FLG is an intracellular protein, the barrier abnormality occurred solely via a paracellular route in affected stratum corneum. Abnormal barrier function correlated with alterations in keratin filament organization (perinuclear retraction), impaired loading of lamellar body contents, followed by nonuniform extracellular distribution of secreted organelle contents, and abnormalities in lamellar bilayer architecture. In addition, we observed reductions in corneodesmosome density and tight junction protein expression. Thus, FLG deficiency provokes alterations in keratinocyte architecture that influence epidermal functions localizing to the extracellular matrix. These results clarify how FLG mutations impair epidermal permeability barrier function.

  20. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with severe cytomegalovirus infection in a patient on regular hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary illness with cytomegalovirus leads to latent infection with possible reactivations especially in the immunocompromised patients. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an immune mediated cytotoxic reaction. A fifty years old female diabetic hypertensive patient with end stage renal disease was admitted with fever of unknown origin, constitutional symptoms, vague upper gastrointestinal symptoms and skin rash. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy confirmed her diagnosis with cytomegalovirus esophagitis and duodenitis. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G levels were negative but polymerase chain reaction showed fulminant viremia. Biopsy of the skin rash was consistent with toxic epidermal necrolysis. Despite treatment with Ganciclovir, intravenous immunoglobulins, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor the patient’s condition rapidly deteriorated and she died due to multiorgan failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and overwhelming sepsis. Probably there is a true association linking toxic epidermal necrolysis to fulminant reactivation of cytomegalovirus. The aim of this anecdote is reporting a newly recognized presentation of cytomegalovirus.

  1. Epidermal inclusion cyst as a rare complication of neonatal male circumcision: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke Linus Ikechukwu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ibadan, Nigeria, has a very high rate of complications of male circumcision. In a previous survey, redundant or excessive loss of foreskin, skin bridges and injury to the glans penis were the major types of complications identified. Epidermal inclusion cyst complicating neonatal male circumcision appears to be extremely rare, and an extensive search of all databases revealed no reports in the recent literature. Case presentation In 1992, a 10-year-old boy was seen at the urology outpatients clinic presenting with a globular swelling in the penile skin located at the ventral surface proximal to the coronal sulcus. The histology of the excised mass revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst. Since then, he has remained healthy. Conclusions Epidermal inclusion cyst complicating male neonatal circumcision is extremely rare. The diagnosis is easy and a simple total excision is curative.

  2. The repair of impaired epidermal barrier function in rats by the cutaneous application of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottey, C; Hartop, P J; Black, J G; McCormack, J I

    1976-01-01

    Epidermal barrier function in rats was experimentally impaired by two separate means, namely, by rendering the animals deficient in essential fatty acids and by evoking a primary cutaneous irritant response by treating with a solution of sodium laurate. Impaired barrier function was manifested by a greatly increased rate of transepidermal water loss. Application to the skin of sunflower seed oil, which is rich in linoleic acid, rapidly restored to normal the abnormally high rates of transepidermal water loss in both experimental cases, and it was shown with the essential fatty acid-deficient rats that there was a concomitant incorporation of linoleic acid of the sunflower seed oil into epidermal lipids. Cutaneous application of olive oil, which is low in linoleic acid but rich in the non-essential oleic acid, did not influence epidermal barrier function. A close relationship of barrier function and essential fatty acids is indicated.

  3. Role of mucosal prostaglandins and DNA synthesis in gastric cytoprotection by luminal epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Piastucki, I; Dembinski, A; Radecki, T; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Zmuda, A; Gregory, H

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandins (PGE2 or PGI2), applied topically to gastric mucosa, on gastric secretion and formation of ASA-induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Epidermal growth factor given topically in non-antisecretory doses prevented dose-dependently the formation of ASA-induced ulcers without affecting prostaglandin generation but with a significant rise in DNA synthesis in the oxyntic mucosa. The anti-ulcer effect of topical prostaglandins was also accompanied by an increase in DNA synthesis. This study indicates that topical epidermal growth factor, like PGE2 or PGI2, is cytoprotective and that this cytoprotection is not mediated by the inhibition of gastric secretion or prostaglandin formation but related to the increase in DNA synthesis in oxyntic mucosa. PMID:7030877

  4. Fatal Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Evolving from a Localized Verrucous Epidermal Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Riad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A malignant transformation is known to occur in many nevi such as a sebaceous nevus or a basal cell nevus, but a verrucous epidermal nevus has only rarely been associated with neoplastic changes. Keratoacanthoma, multifocal papillary apocrine adenoma, multiple malignant eccrine poroma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC have all been reported to develop from a verrucous epidermal nevus. CSCC has also been reported to arise from other nevoid lesions like a nevus comedonicus, porokeratosis, a sebaceous nevus, an oral sponge nevus and an ichthyosiform nevus with CHILD syndrome. Here we report a case of progressive poorly differentiated CSCC arising from a localized verrucous epidermal nevus, which caused both spinal cord and brain metastasis.

  5. Giant epidermal inclusion cyst in the male breast: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Hyun Jin; Park, Woon Ju; KIm, Sang Wook; Paik, So Ya [Daejin Medical Center Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Giant epidermal inclusion cyst is a rare disease entity, and the occurrence of this cyst in the male breast is extremely rare. We report a case of giant epidermal inclusion cyst in the breast, which presented as a palpable and painful right breast mass in a 63-year-old man. The sonographic and computed tomography (CT) features are described in-depth. Physical examination revealed a firm, well-defined mass in the upper central portion of the right breast. Ultrasonography showed a 5.2 cm sized, oval, circumscribed, and complex cystic and solid mass with posterior acoustic enhancement, and CT showed a well-defined homogeneous low density mass without enhancement in the right breast. Surgical excision was performed, and pathological examination revealed a giant epidermal inclusion cyst.

  6. In situ localization of epidermal stem cells using a novel multi epitope ligand cartography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetze, Martin; Gallinat, Stefan; Wenck, Horst; Deppert, Wolfgang; Knott, Anja

    2010-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the frequency and localization of epidermal stem cells within skin tissue would further our understanding of their role in maintaining skin homeostasis. As a novel approach we used the recently developed method of multi epitope ligand cartography, applying a set of described putative epidermal stem cell markers. Bioinformatic evaluation of the data led to the identification of several discrete basal keratinocyte populations, but none of them displayed the complete stem cell marker set. The distribution of the keratinocyte populations within the tissue was remarkably heterogeneous, but determination of distance relationships revealed a population of quiescent cells highly expressing p63 and the integrins alpha(6)/beta(1) that represent origins of a gradual differentiation lineage. This population comprises about 6% of all basal cells, shows a scattered distribution pattern and could also be found in keratinocyte holoclone colonies. The data suggest that this population identifies interfollicular epidermal stem cells.

  7. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  8. Smooth Crossed Products of Rieffel's Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshveyev, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Assume is a Fréchet algebra equipped with a smooth isometric action of a vector group V, and consider Rieffel's deformation of . We construct an explicit isomorphism between the smooth crossed products and . When combined with the Elliott-Natsume-Nest isomorphism, this immediately implies that the periodic cyclic cohomology is invariant under deformation. Specializing to the case of smooth subalgebras of C*-algebras, we also get a simple proof of equivalence of Rieffel's and Kasprzak's approaches to deformation.

  9. Deformation effects in Giant Monopole Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Kvasil, J; Repko, A; Bozik, D; Kleinig, W; Reinhard, P -G

    2014-01-01

    The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) in Samarium isotopes (from spherical $^{144}$Sm to deformed $^{148-154}$Sm) is investigated within the Skyrme random-phase-approximation (RPA) for a variety of Skyrme forces. The exact RPA and its separable version (SRPA) are used for spherical and deformed nuclei, respectively. The quadrupole deformation is shown to yield two effects: the GMR broadens and attains a two-peak structure due to the coupling with the quadrupole giant resonance.

  10. Integrable Deformations of the XXZ Spin Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Beisert, Niklas; de Leeuw, Marius; Loebbert, Florian

    2013-01-01

    We consider integrable deformations of the XXZ spin chain for periodic and open boundary conditions. In particular, we classify all long-range deformations and study their impact on the spectrum. As compared to the XXX case, we have the z-spin at our disposal, which induces two additional deformations: the short-range magnetic twist and a new long-range momentum-dependent twist.

  11. Deformed self-dual magnetic monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970, Campina Grande (Brazil); Casana, R.; Ferreira, M.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Hora, E. da, E-mail: edahora.ufma@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Coordenadoria do Curso Interdisciplinar em Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Losano, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    2013-12-18

    We develop a deformation method for attaining new magnetic monopole analytical solutions consistent with generalized Yang–Mills–Higgs model introduced recently. The new solutions fulfill the usual radially symmetric ansatz and the boundary conditions suitable to assure finite energy configurations. We verify our prescription by studying some particular cases involving both exactly and partially analytical initial configurations whose deformation leads to new analytic BPS monopoles. The results show consistency among the models, the deformation procedure and the profile of the new solutions.

  12. Deformed self-dual magnetic monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Ferreira, M M; da Hora, E; Losano, L

    2013-01-01

    We develop a deformation method for attaining new magnetic monopole analytical solutions consistent with generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs model introduced recently. The new solutions fulfill the usual radially symmetric ansatz and the boundary conditions suitable to assure finite energy configurations. We verify our prescription by studying some particular cases involving both exactly and partially analytical initial configurations whose deformation leads to new analytic BPS monopoles. The results show consistency among the models, the deformation procedure and the profile of the new solutions.

  13. Deformed self-dual magnetic monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M.; da Hora, E.; Losano, L.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a deformation method for attaining new magnetic monopole analytical solutions consistent with generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs model introduced recently. The new solutions fulfill the usual radially symmetric ansatz and the boundary conditions suitable to assure finite energy configurations. We verify our prescription by studying some particular cases involving both exactly and partially analytical initial configurations whose deformation leads to new analytic BPS monopoles. The results show consistency among the models, the deformation procedure and the profile of the new solutions.

  14. Deformation Twinning During Nanoindentation of Nanocrystalline Ta

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y. M.; Hodge, A. M.; Biener, J.; Hamza, A.V.; Barnes, D E; Liu, Kai; Nieh, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    The deformation mechanism of body-centered cubic (bcc) nanocrystalline tantalum with grain sizes of 10–30 nm is investigated by nanoindentation, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In a deviation from molecular dynamics simulations and existing experimental observations on other bcc nanocrystalline metals, the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline Ta during nanoindentation is controlled by deformation twinning. The observation of multiple twin i...

  15. Self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Much, Albert [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    We consider deformations of unbounded operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. By using the Kato-Rellich theorem, we show that unbounded self-adjoint deformed operators are self-adjoint if they satisfy a certain condition. This condition proves itself to be necessary for the oscillatory integral to be well-defined. Moreover, different proofs are given for self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators in the context of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

  16. Learning a hierarchical deformable template for rapid deformable object parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long Leo; Chen, Yuanhao; Yuille, Alan

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we address the tasks of detecting, segmenting, parsing, and matching deformable objects. We use a novel probabilistic object model that we call a hierarchical deformable template (HDT). The HDT represents the object by state variables defined over a hierarchy (with typically five levels). The hierarchy is built recursively by composing elementary structures to form more complex structures. A probability distribution--a parameterized exponential model--is defined over the hierarchy to quantify the variability in shape and appearance of the object at multiple scales. To perform inference--to estimate the most probable states of the hierarchy for an input image--we use a bottom-up algorithm called compositional inference. This algorithm is an approximate version of dynamic programming where approximations are made (e.g., pruning) to ensure that the algorithm is fast while maintaining high performance. We adapt the structure-perceptron algorithm to estimate the parameters of the HDT in a discriminative manner (simultaneously estimating the appearance and shape parameters). More precisely, we specify an exponential distribution for the HDT using a dictionary of potentials, which capture the appearance and shape cues. This dictionary can be large and so does not require handcrafting the potentials. Instead, structure-perceptron assigns weights to the potentials so that less important potentials receive small weights (this is like a "soft" form of feature selection). Finally, we provide experimental evaluation of HDTs on different visual tasks, including detection, segmentation, matching (alignment), and parsing. We show that HDTs achieve state-of-the-art performance for these different tasks when evaluated on data sets with groundtruth (and when compared to alternative algorithms, which are typically specialized to each task).

  17. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor; Radiotherapie et recepteur de l'Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deberne, M. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in

  18. Clinical, microscopic and microbial characterization of exfoliative superficial pyoderma-associated epidermal collarettes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovic, Frane; Linder, Keith; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    The microscopic and microbial features of the spreading epidermal collarettes of canine exfoliative superficial pyodermas are poorly characterized. To characterize the clinical, cytological, microbial and histopathological features of epidermal collarettes in five dogs. Cytology from the margins of collarettes identified neutrophils, extracellular and intracellular cocci within neutrophils but no acantholytic keratinocytes. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses identified all bacterial isolates from the centre and margin of five epidermal collarettes as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PCRs of collarette-associated Staphylococcus strains did not amplify genes encoding for the known exfoliative toxins expA and expB, whereas the predicted siet and speta amplification products were detected in all isolates. Microscopically, epidermal collarettes consisted of interfollicular, epidermal spongiotic pustules. Advancing edges of lesions consisted of peripheral intracorneal clefts in the deep stratum disjunctum above an intact stratum compactum; they contained lytic neutrophil debris, bacterial cocci and fluid, but no acantholytic keratinocytes. This intracorneal location of bacteria was confirmed using Gram stains and fluorescent in situ hybridization with eubacterial- and Staphylococcus-specific probes. The indirect immunofluorescence staining patterns of desmoglein-1, desmocollin-1, claudin-1, E-cadherin and corneodesmosin were discontinuous and patchy in areas of spongiotic pustules, whereas only that of corneodesmosin was weaker and patchy in advancing collarette edges. Epidermal collarettes represent unique clinical and histological lesions of exfoliative superficial pyodermas that are distinct from those of impetigo and superficial bacterial folliculitis. The characterization of possible causative staphylococcal exfoliatin proteases and the role of corneodesmosin in collarette pathogenesis deserve further investigation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.) H. Lev.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Raj K; Irudayaraj V; Johnson M; Patric Raja D

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphology, biochemistry and bioactivity of the epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of Christella parasitica (C. parasitica) (L.) H. Lev. Methods:Morphological studies on epidermal glands were carried out by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. To prepare the extract, the shade-dried fronds of glandular morphotype were soaked in acetone. For antibacterial studies paper disc method was followed by using various pathogenic bacteria. Results: Detailed micromorphological, phytochemical and bioactivity studies on a medicinal fern C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. showed its intraspecific variation in antibacterial activity. The presence or absence of the epidermal glands was the key factor for antibacterial activity in the morphovariants of this species. The epidermal glands were orange-coloured, stalked and elongated ones of about 84.2 μm 45 μm, and distributed on the undersurface of costa, costules and veins in croziers, young and mature leaves. Frequency of glands varied from 15/cm on costa in mature leaves to 140/cm on costules in croziers. The acetone extract of the glands showed antibacterial activities and also toxic effect against mosquito larvae and tadpoles of frog. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPLC studies of the gland extract showed the presence of various kinds of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in it. Conclusions: The present study shows that epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. have several bioactive compounds and such rare morphovariant should be conserved in nature. The next step is to isolate the pure compounds and to screen the bioactivity of individual compounds of the epidermal glands.

  20. Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.) H. Lev.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Raj; K; Irudayaraj; V; Johnson; M; Patric; Raja; D

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the morphology,biochemistry and bioactivity of the epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of Christella parasitica(C.parasitica)(L.) H.Lev.Methods: Morphological studies on epidermal glands were earned out by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope.To prepare the extract,the shade-dried fronds of glandular morphotype were soaked in acetone.For antibacterial studies paper disc method was followed by using various pathogenic bacteria.Results:Detailed micromorphological,phytochemical and bioactivity studies on a medicinal fern C.parasitica(L.) H.Lev.showed its inlraspecific variation in antibacterial activity.The presence or absence of the epidermal glands was the key factor for antibacterial activity in the morphovariants of this species.The epidermal glands were orange-coloured,stalked and elongated ones of about 84.2μm×45μm,and distributed on the undersurface of cosla,coslules and veins in croziers,young and mature leaves.Frequency of glands varied from 15/cm on costa in mature leaves to 140/cm on costules in croziers.The acetone extract of the glands showed antibacterial activities and also toxic effect against mosquito larvae and tadpoles of frog.Preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPLC studies of the gland extract showed the presence of various kinds of terpenoids,alkaloids,tannins,saponins and flavonoids in it.Conclusions:The present study shows that epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of C. parasitica(L.) H.Lev.have several bioactive compounds and such rare moiphovariant should be conserved in nature.The next step is to isolate the pure compounds and to screen the bioactivity of individual compounds of the epidermal glands.

  1. Reduced trisialoganglioside synthesis in chemically but not mos-transformed mouse epidermal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Colburn, N.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific decrease in the net de novo synthesis ((1-14C)-glucosamine incorporation) of cell surface trisialoganglioside (GT) occurs in preneoplastic mouse JB6 epidermal cells in response to tumor-promoting phorbol esters, mezerein, or epidermal growth factor, all of which promote neoplastic transformation in JB6 cells, but not in response to the bladder promoter sodium cyclamate, a nonpromoter in JB6 cells. The ganglioside showing elevated synthesis after mezerein or epidermal growth factor exposure is monosialoganglioside 1, whereas disialoganglioside 1b synthesis is elevated after phorbol ester exposure. Primary mouse epidermal cells and putatively initiated epidermal cell lines selected for their resistance to induction of terminal differentiation by high calcium are resistant to promotion of anchorage-independent transformation by 2-week exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. In both cell types, little or no decrease in GT synthesis occurs in response to short-term 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure, thus extending further our previous observation that this GT response is restricted to promotable cells. A decreased synthesis of GT also occurs consistently in cell lines transformed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or N-methyl-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine as compared with their nontransformed counterparts but not in cell lines transformed by a cloned integrated murine sarcoma provirus containing the oncogenic sequence v-mos. Thus, reduced cell surface GT synthesis may be important both in the induction and in the maintenance of the chemically transformed but not viral oncogene mos-transformed phenotype in mouse epidermal cells.

  2. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.

  3. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christian; Ellinger, Dorothea; von Hülsen, Behrend; Heim, René; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape - liquid cover glass technique (ACT) for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection (LM) coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the ACT for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to LM and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  4. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  5. Epidermal Th22 and Tc17 Cells Form a Localized Disease Memory in Clinically Healed Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Stanley; Wikén, Maria; Blomqvist, Lennart; Nylén, Susanne; Talme, Toomas; Ståhle, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease in which T cells play a key role. Effective treatment heals the skin without scarring, but typically psoriasis recurs in previously affected areas. A pathogenic memory within the skin has been proposed, but the nature of such site-specific disease memory is unknown. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been ascribed a role in immunity after resolved viral skin infections. Because of their localization in the epidermal compartment of the skin, TRM may contribute to tissue pathology during psoriasis. In this study, we investigated whether resolved psoriasis lesions contain TRM cells with the ability to maintain and potentially drive recurrent disease. Three common and effective therapies, narrowband-UVB treatment and long-term biologic treatment systemically inhibiting TNF-α or IL-12/23 signaling were studied. Epidermal T cells were highly activated in psoriasis and a high proportion of CD8 T cells expressed TRM markers. In resolved psoriasis, a population of cutaneous lymphocyte–associated Ag, CCR6, CD103, and IL-23R expressing epidermal CD8 T cells was highly enriched. Epidermal CD8 T cells expressing the TRM marker CD103 responded to ex vivo stimulation with IL-17A production and epidermal CD4 T cells responded with IL-22 production after as long as 6 y of TNF-α inhibition. Our data suggest that epidermal TRM cells are retained in resolved psoriasis and that these cells are capable of producing cytokines with a critical role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We provide a potential mechanism for a site-specific T cell–driven disease memory in psoriasis. PMID:24610014

  6. Programmed Cell Death Progresses Differentially in Epidermal and Mesophyll Cells of Lily Petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai

    Full Text Available In the petals of some species of flowers, programmed cell death (PCD begins earlier in mesophyll cells than in epidermal cells. However, PCD progression in each cell type has not been characterized in detail. We separately constructed a time course of biochemical signs and expression patterns of PCD-associated genes in epidermal and mesophyll cells in Lilium cv. Yelloween petals. Before visible signs of senescence could be observed, we found signs of PCD, including DNA degradation and decreased protein content in mesophyll cells only. In these cells, the total proteinase activity increased on the day after anthesis. Within 3 days after anthesis, the protein content decreased by 61.8%, and 22.8% of mesophyll cells was lost. A second peak of proteinase activity was observed on day 6, and the number of mesophyll cells decreased again from days 4 to 7. These biochemical and morphological results suggest that PCD progressed in steps during flower life in the mesophyll cells. PCD began in epidermal cells on day 5, in temporal synchrony with the time course of visible senescence. In the mesophyll cells, the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (LoCYP and S1/P1 nuclease (LoNUC genes were upregulated before petal wilting, earlier than in epidermal cells. In contrast, relative to that in the mesophyll cells, the expression of the SAG12 cysteine proteinase homolog (LoSAG12 drastically increased in epidermal cells in the final stage of senescence. These results suggest that multiple PCD-associated genes differentially contribute to the time lag of PCD progression between epidermal and mesophyll cells of lily petals.

  7. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by Raf-MAPK signaling requires Stat3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarutani, Masahito; Nakajima, Kimiko; Takaishi, Mikiro; Ohko, Kentaro; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2013-11-01

    Raf is one of the downstream effectors of Ras GTPases, and plays a key role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation through the activation of MAPK. We have previously demonstrated that temporal induction of Raf in the epidermis of K14-Raf:ER transgenic mice results in epidermal hyperplasia resembling squamous cell carcinoma and psoriasis. It has been demonstrated that epidermal Stat3 activation is required for psoriasis development, since keratinocyte-specific Stat3 activation in a mouse model elicits a psoriasis-like phenotype, which is reversed by inhibition of Stat3 signaling. The aim of this study was whether Stat3 signaling is involved in Raf-MAPK-dependent epidermal hyperplasia. K14-Raf:ER transgenic mice, in which the 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT)-responsive mutant estrogen receptor ligand binding domain-Raf fusion gene is expressed under control of the keratin 14 promoter, were mated with epidermis-specific Stat3 null mice (K5-Cre.Stat3(flox/flox)). K5-Cre.Stat3(flox/flox) mice were used to define the impact of Stat3 deficiency on Raf-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Over-expression of Raf by 4OHT treatment in K14-Raf:ER;K5-Cre.Stat3(flox/flox) mice greatly attenuated the epidermal hyperplasia and dermal cell infiltrates compared with K14-Raf:ER;K5-Cre.Stat3(flox/WT) mice. Also, up-regulation of psoriasis-associated cytokine profiles, including VEGF, was inhibited in the skin from K14-Raf:ER;K5-Cre.Stat3(flox/flox) mice following 4OHT treatment. These results clearly indicate that Raf-MAPK-dependent psoriatic-like epidermal hyperplasia requires Stat3 signaling in keratinocytes. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metric Gauge Fields in Deformed Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, F; Petrucci, A

    2014-01-01

    We show that, in the framework of Deformed Special Relativity (DSR), namely a (four-dimensional) generalization of the (local) space-time struc- ture based on an energy-dependent "deformation" of the usual Minkowski geometry, two kinds of gauge symmetries arise, whose spaces either coin- cide with the deformed Minkowski space or are just internal spaces to it. This is why we named them "metric gauge theories". In the case of the internal gauge ?elds, they are a consequence of the deformed Minkowski space (DMS) possessing the structure of a generalized Lagrange space. Such a geometrical structure allows one to de?ne curvature and torsion in the DMS.

  9. Rigidity Constraints for Large Mesh Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Xin-Guo Liu; Qun-Sheng Peng; Hu-Jun Bao

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenging problem of surface-based deformation to avoid apparent volumetric distortions around largely deformed areas. In this paper, we propose a new rigidity constraint for gradient domain mesh deformation to address this problem. Intuitively the proposed constraint can be regarded as several small cubes defined by the mesh vertices through mean value coordinates. The user interactively specifies the cubes in the regions which are prone to volumetric distortions, and the rigidity constraints could make the mesh behave like a solid object during deformation. The experimental results demonstrate that our constraint is intuitive, easy to use and very effective.

  10. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  11. Epidermólise bolhosa: um desafio para a (sobre) vida

    OpenAIRE

    Prazeres, Silvana Mara Janning

    2016-01-01

    A epidermólise bolhosa (EB) hereditária é uma genodermatose, ou seja, doença de pele transmitida geneticamente. É uma doença rara, a qual se caracteriza pelo aparecimento de bolhas, ulcerações ou feridas em qualquer local da superfície corporal em resposta a mínimos traumas ou desencadeadas espontaneamente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram elaborar uma cartilha para o cuidado, no âmbito hospitalar, de neonato com epidermólise bolhosa. Investigar como os profissionais de saúde que atuam em UTI ...

  12. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  13. Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) bearing immunoglobulin E (IgE) may be involved in the genesis of atopic disease. The identity of the IgE receptor(s) on LC remained unclear, although it represents a crucial point in understanding cellular events linked to the binding of allergens to LC via IgE. In this report, we demonstrate that epidermal LC express the high affinity receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE (Fc epsilon RI) which has, so far, only been described on mast c...

  14. COMPARATIVE FOLIAR EPIDERMAL STUDIES IN CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (STAPF. AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS (HOCHST. CHIOV. IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The foliar epidermal studies were carried out on Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus with the aim of determining the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and assessing their value in species identification and classification. The characters of diagnostic importance in the identification of C. citratus are the micro hairs, which are sparsely distributed in the adaxial epidermis and prickle hairs present in both abaxial and adaxial epidermis. The diagnostic character for C. giganteus is the papillae seen alongside their long cells.

  15. An epidermal inclusion cyst mimicking chronic prepatellar bursitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Meredith; Werner, Jordan; Joshi, Bhavesh; Abramovici, Liugia; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    Soft tissue lesions are common to the prepatellar region, often due to acute or chronic trauma, and most frequently include prepatellar bursitis, lipomas, and ganglion cysts. We report a case of a posttraumatic prepatellar epidermal inclusion cyst to highlight the diagnostic complexities that can arise with soft tissue lesions in this location. On the basis of our case report, treating orthopaedic surgeons should consider the possibility of an epidermal inclusion cyst in patients who present with atypical anterior soft tissue masses with a history of trauma to the anterior knee. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. The "Alarmins" HMBG1 and IL-33 Downregulate Structural Skin Barrier Proteins and Impair Epidermal Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Uffe; van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Niehues, Hanna;

    2016-01-01

    investigated the impact of HMGB1 and IL-33 on gene transcription, protein expression and epidermal differentiation across 3 distinct keratinocyte in vitro models. Primary keratinocytes from healthy donors were used in submerged monolayer cultures, 3D human epidermis equivalents and 3D human skin equivalents......The epidermal-derived "alarmins" high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are upregulated in patients with atopic dermatitis. How-ever, their capacity as pro-inflammatory cytokines and their derived effects on skin barrier regulation are poorly elucidated. We...

  17. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly A; Pearson, Joseph C; McGinnis, William

    2005-04-15

    We used wounded Drosophila embryos to define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for repairing the epidermal surface barrier. This pathway includes a wound response enhancer from the Ddc gene that requires grainy head (grh) function and binding sites for the Grh transcription factor. At the signaling level, tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities are induced in epidermal cells near wounds, and activated ERK is required for a robust wound response. The conservation of this Grh-dependent pathway suggests that the repair of insect cuticle and mammal skin is controlled by an ancient, shared control system for constructing and healing the animal body surface barrier.

  18. Vancomycin-associated linear IgA disease mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Amanda Regio; de Moura, Luis Henrique Barbizan; Pinheiro, Jhonatan Rafael Siqueira; Pasin, Victor Pavan; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Linear IgA dermatosis is a rare subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the basement membrane zone. In the last three decades, many different drugs have been associated with the drug-induced form of the disease, especially vancomycin. We report a case of vancomycin-induced linear IgA disease mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis. The aim of this work is to emphasize the need to include this differential diagnosis in cases of epidermal detachment and to review the literature on the subject and this specific clinical presentation. PMID:28300888

  19. Diffuse intestinal submucosal lipomatosis with incidental epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum clinically masquerading as carcinoma caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Brijesh; Kishore, Sanjeev; Bhardwaj, Aparna; Kudesia, Sandip

    2014-07-30

    Symptomatic diffuse submucosal intestinal lipomatosis is a rare entity. Also few cases of epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum have been reported in literature. Here, we are presenting a rare case of intestinal submucosal lipomatosis with coincidence of epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum and presumptively diagnosed as carcinoma of ileocaecal region during surgery in a 55 years old male. Both are rare entity considering the location even they should be kept as a differential diagnosis in unusual cases of intestinal perforations with inconclusive radiological findings or clinical uncertainity.

  20. Diffuse intestinal submucosal lipomatosis with incidental epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum clinically masquerading as carcinoma caecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Thakur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic diffuse submucosal intestinal lipomatosis is a rare entity. Also few cases of epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum have been reported in literature. Here, we are presenting a rare case of intestinal submucosal lipomatosis with coincidence of epidermal inclusion cyst of caecum and presumptively diagnosed as carcinoma of ileocaecal region during surgery in a 55 years old male. Both are rare entity considering the location even they should be kept as a differential diagnosis in unusual cases of intestinal perforations with inconclusive radiological findings or clinical uncertainity.

  1. A Case of "Inflammatory Linear Verrucous Epidermal Nevus" (ILVEN) Treated with CO2 Laser Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfaldoni, Serena; Tchernev, Georgi; Gianfaldoni, Roberto; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello

    2017-07-25

    The "inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus" is a rare disease, consisting of hyperplasia of the normal components of the epidermis. Its clinical features include erythematous and hyperkeratosic, warty, sometimes psoriasiform or lichenoid patches with a typical linear arrangement. At present, there are no effective medical therapies available. Currently, the best therapeutic results are obtained with surgical excision or the latest laser therapy. The Authors present a 9-years old girl with an inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus on her neck, successfully treated with CO2 Laser ablation.

  2. Advantages of formulating an evolution equation directly for elastic distortional deformation in finite deformation plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M. B.; Cardiff, P.

    2017-06-01

    Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 66:199-219, 1988) proposed an evolution equation for elastic deformation together with a constitutive equation for inelastic deformation rate in plasticity. The numerical algorithm (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 68:1-31, 1988) for determining elastic distortional deformation was simple. However, the proposed inelastic deformation rate caused plastic compaction. The corrected formulation (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 99:61-112, 1992) preserves isochoric plasticity but the numerical integration algorithm is complicated and needs special methods for calculation of the exponential map of a tensor. Alternatively, an evolution equation for elastic distortional deformation can be proposed directly with a simplified constitutive equation for inelastic distortional deformation rate. This has the advantage that the physics of inelastic distortional deformation is separated from that of dilatation. The example of finite deformation J2 plasticity with linear isotropic hardening is used to demonstrate the simplicity of the numerical algorithm.

  3. 2012 ROCK DEFORMATION: FEEDBACK PROCESSES IN ROCK DEFORMATION GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 19-24, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter

    2012-08-24

    Topics covered include: Failure At High Confining Pressure; Fluid-assisted Slip, Earthquakes & Fracture; Reaction-driven Cracking; Fluid Transport, Deformation And Reaction; Localized Fluid Transport And Deformation; Earthquake Mechanisms; Subduction Zone Dynamics And Crustal Growth.

  4. [Effects of transfection of human epidermal growth factor gene with adenovirus vector on biological characteristics of human epidermal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan'an; Shang, Yuru; Li, Dawei; Li, Longzhu; Zhao, Dongxu; Cheng, Wenfeng

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the suitable transfection condition of human epidermal cells (hECs) with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene by adenovirus vector (Ad-hEGF) and its effects on the biological characteristics of hECs. hECs were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision by enzyme digestion method and then sub-cultured. hECs of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into non-transfection group and 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 fold transfection groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 3 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were not transfected with Ad-hEGF gene, while cells in the latter six groups were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in multiplicities of infection (MOI) of 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 respectively. The morphology of the cells was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope, and expression of green fluorescent protein of the cells was observed with inverted fluorescence microscope at transfection hour (TH) 24, 48, and 72. (2) Another three batches of cells were collected, grouped, and treated as above, respectively. Then the transfection rate of Ad-hEGF gene was detected by flow cytometer (n=3), the mass concentration of EGF in culture supernatant of cells was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n=6), and the proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and microplate reader (n=6) at TH 24, 48, and 72, respectively. (3) Cells were collected and divided into non-transfection group and transfection group, with 6 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells without transfection, while cells in transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells which were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in the optimum MOI (50). CCK8 and microplate reader were used to measure the biological activity of EGF secreted by cells on culture

  5. Individual Grain Orientation and Heterogeneous Deformation in Cold-deformed Interstitial-Free Sheet Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cold rolling deformation textural evolution of an interstitial-free (IF) steel sheet is investigated by experiment and simulation. The microstructure of the IF steel is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the deformation behavior of individual grain and the grain orientation are connected by Taylor factor M. The results show that the grains with higher Taylor factor are deformed slighter than those with lower ones. By considering the heterogeneous deformation, the texture simulation result can be greatly improved.

  6. The Hot Deformation Activation Energy of 7050 Aluminum Alloy under Three Different Deformation Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Deli Sang; Ruidong Fu; Yijun Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hot deformation activation energy values of 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy, calculated with two different methods under three deformation modes, were compared. The results showed that the hot deformation activation energy values obtained with the classical constitutive equation are nearly equivalent under the hot tensile, compression, and shear-compression deformation modes. Average values exhibited an obvious increase when calculated with the modified constitutive equation beca...

  7. Calcium-calmodulin signalling is involved in light-induced acidification by epidermal leaf cells of pea, Pisum sativum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    1997-01-01

    Pathways of signal transduction of red and blue light-dependent acidification by leaf epidermal cells were studied using epidermal strips of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum. In these preparations the contribution of guard cells to the acidification is minimal. The hydroxypyridine nifedipine, a

  8. Epidermal Patterning Genes Impose Non-cell Autonomous Cell Size Determination and have Additional Roles in Root Meristem Size Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian L?fke; Kai Dünser; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of cellular growth is of vital importance for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. Growth regulation in the epidermis has importance for organ growth rates in roots and shoots, proposing epidermal cells as an interesting model for cellular growth regulation. Here we assessed whether the root epidermis is a suitable model system to address cell size determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana L., root epidermal cells are regularly spaced in neighbouring tricho-(root hair) and atrichoblast (non-hair) cells, showing already distinct cell size regulation in the root meristem. We determined cell sizes in the root meristem and at the onset of cellular elongation, revealing that not only division rates but also cellular shape is distinct in tricho-and atrichoblasts. Intriguingly, epidermal-patterning mutants, failing to define differential vacuolization in neighbouring epidermal cell files, also display non-differential growth. Using these epidermal-patterning mutants, we show that polarized growth behaviour of epidermal tricho-and atrichoblast is interdependent, suggesting non-cell autonomous signals to integrate tissue expansion. Besides the interweaved cell-type-dependent growth mechanism, we reveal an additional role for epidermal patterning genes in root meristem size and organ growth regulation. We conclude that epidermal cells represent a suitable model system to study cell size determination and interdependent tissue growth.

  9. AP2γ regulates neural and epidermal development downstream of the BMP pathway at early stages of ectodermal patterning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbo Qiao; Yue Zhu; Nengyin Sheng; Jun Chen; Ran Tao; Qingqing Zhu; Ting Zhang; Cheng Qian; Naihe Jing

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits neural specification and induces epidermal differentiation during ectodermal patterning.However,the mechanism of this process is not well understood.Here we show that AP2γ,a transcription factor activator protein (AP)-2 family member,is upregulated by BMP4 during neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Knockdown of AP2γ facilitates mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural fate determination and impairs epidermal differentiation,whereas AP2γ overexpression inhibits neural conversion and promotes epidermal commitment.In the early chick embryo,AP2γ is expressed in the entire epiblast before HH stage 3 and gradually shifts to the putative epidermal ectoderm during HH stage 4.In the future neural plate AP2γ inhibits excessive neural expansion and it also promotes epidermal development in the surface ectoderm.Moreover,AP2γ knockdown in ESCs and chick embryos partially rescued the neural inhibition and epidermal induction effects of BMP4.Mechanistic studies showed that BMP4 directly regulates AP2γ expression through Smad1 binding to the AP2γ promoter.Taken together,we propose that during the early stages of ectodermal patterning in the chick embryo,AP2γ acts downstream of the BMP pathway to restrict precocious neural expansion in the prospective neural plate and initiates epidermal differentiation in the future epidermal ectoderm.

  10. Bacteriological examination of inflamed epidermal cysts: a survey between 2008 and 2009 at a hospital in southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsi Liu

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were present in the inflamed epidermal cysts, although the anaerobic bacteria, specifically, Propionibacterium spp and Peptostreptococcus spp, were isolated slightly more frequently. Antibiotics directed against anaerobes may be considered in the treatment regimen for inflamed epidermal cysts.

  11. Swimming near a deformable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcelo; Powers, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    It is a known fact that swimmers behave differently near deformable soft tissues than when near a rigid surface. Motivated by this class of problems, we investigate swimming microorganisms near flexible walls. We calculate the speed of a n infinitely long swimmer near an interface between two viscous fluids. Part of the calculation of the speed is the calculation of the shape of the free boundary. The swimming speed is controlled by the competition between surface and viscous effects, where two limits are observed. When the surface tension vanishes, we get Taylor's result for a swimmer with no walls. When the surface tension is infinite, the problem is like that of a swimmer near a rigid wall.

  12. Deformation of Linked Polymer Coils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董朝霞; 李明远; 吴肇亮; 林梅钦

    2003-01-01

    Linked polymer solution (LPS) is defined as the solution of linked polymer coils (LPCs) dispersed in water, composed of low concentration partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and aluminum citrate (crosslinker). In the work, the conformational changes of LPCs under different conditions were investigated by the methods of membrane filtering under low pressure, dynamic light scattering and core flooding experiments. The results showed that in some conditions the LPCs could be compressed mechanically to 1/158.5 of their original volume because of relatively lower HPAM cross-linking. The hydration property of LPCs was similar to that of normal polymer coils. The deformation of LPCs was more restricted than that of ordinary polymer coils under the flow shear stress or the shift of hydration equilibrium caused in the variation of the electrolyte concentration which is responsible for the effective plugging in the throats of porous media when LPCs are used for deep diverting.

  13. κ-deformed Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Fourier transform in the picture of the κ-algebra derived in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The κ-Fourier transform is obtained from a κ-Fourier series recently introduced by Scarfone (2013). The kernel of this transform, that reduces to the usual exponential phase in the κ → 0 limit, is composed by a κ-deformed phase and a damping factor that gives a wavelet-like behaviour. We show that the κ-Fourier transform is isomorph to the standard Fourier transform through a changing of time and frequency variables. Nevertheless, the new formalism is useful to study, according to Fourier analysis, those functions defined in the realm of the κ-algebra. As a relevant application, we discuss the central limit theorem for the κ-sum of n-iterate statistically independent random variables.

  14. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  15. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  16. Challenges of β-deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. Yu.

    2012-10-01

    We briefly review problems arising in the study of the beta deformation, which turns out to be the most difficult element in a number of modern problems: the deviation of β from unity is connected with the "exit from the free-fermion point" in two-dimensional conformal theories, from the symmetric graviphoton field with ∈2 = -∈1 in instanton sums in four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories, with the transition from matrix models to beta ensembles, from HOMFLY polynomials to superpolynomials in the Chern-Simons theory, from quantum groups to elliptic and hyperbolic algebras, and so on. We mainly attend to issues related to the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence and its possible generalizations.

  17. Deformation in the continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physical Properties of Earth Materials Committee, a technical committee of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, is organizing a dinner/colloquium as part of the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. This event will be held Monday, December 3rd, in the Gold Rush Room of the Holiday Inn Golden Gateway Hotel at 1500 Van Ness St. There will be a no-host bar from 6:30 to 7:30 P.M., followed by dinner from 7:30 to 8:30 P.M. Paul Tapponnier will deliver the after-dinner talk, “Large-Scale Deformation Mechanisms in the Continental Lithosphere: Where Do We Stand?” It will start at 8:30 P.M. and a business meeting will follow at 9:30 P.M.

  18. Use of a serum-free epidermal culture model to show deleterious effects of epidermal growth factor on morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Lavker, R M; Rodeck, U; Risse, B; Jensen, P J

    1995-01-01

    The presence of serum has limited the utility of many culture models for the study of cytokine effects because its complexity and variability can confound the interpretation of data. In the present study, a serum-free skin co-culture model was used to investigate the effect of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes cultured on collagen rafts at the air-liquid interface produced a well-differentiated epithelium that resembled normal epidermis. Keratin filaments, membrane-coating granules, and keratohyalin granules were all observed. Epidermal differentiation markers keratin K1/K10, involucrin, and transglutaminase were localized in most of the suprabasal layers, whereas profilaggrin/filaggrin was confined to the granular layers and stratum corneum. In the continual presence of 10-20 ng/mL EGF, the epidermis was less organized, thinner, and less proliferative. EGF also depressed several indicators of differentiation: The number of keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules was greatly decreased; antigen expression of profilaggrin/filaggrin appeared diminished by immunocytochemical staining; frequent nuclear retention was noted in the relatively thickened stratum corneum-like layers. As detected by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of EGF receptor in the epidermis was reduced by exogenous EGF. These data illustrate that EGF cannot be considered a simple mitogen. Our findings also underscore the importance of using sophisticated culture models to assess complex cytokine effects that may be dependent on the architecture of a differentiating epidermis.

  19. Real-time three-dimensional imaging of epidermal splitting and removal by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther;

    2014-01-01

    , the epidermal removal was incomplete as remnants of the epidermal basal cell layer remained attached to the basement membrane on the dermis. With Triton X-100 treatment, the epidermis was not removed. In conclusion, HD-OCT imaging permits real-time 3-D visualization of the impact of selected agents on human...... to be equally efficient in the removal of the epidermis from human split-thickness skin allografts. However, a different epidermal splitting level at the dermo-epidermal junction could be observed and confirmed by immunolabelling of collagen type IV and type VII. Epidermal splitting occurred at the level...... of the lamina densa with dispase II and above the lamina densa (in the lamina lucida) with NaCl. The 3-D architecture of dermal papillae and dermis was more affected by Dispase II on HD-OCT which corresponded with histopathologic (orcein staining) fragmentation of elastic fibres. With SDS treatment...

  20. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose anal

  1. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  2. Einstein-Riemann Gravity on Deformed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Wess

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A differential calculus, differential geometry and the E-R Gravity theory are studied on noncommutative spaces. Noncommutativity is formulated in the star product formalism. The basis for the gravity theory is the infinitesimal algebra of diffeomorphisms. Considering the corresponding Hopf algebra we find that the deformed gravity is based on a deformation of the Hopf algebra.

  3. Initialization and Optimation of Deformable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Madsen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    The deformable model literature has in general been very focused on the formulation and development of new models or the solution of a specific application. Teh final and crucial steps of initialization and optimazation of the deformable model, needed for making inference, have received very little...

  4. Cyclic Shearing Deformation Behavior of Saturated Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The apparatus for static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear soil testing is employed to perform stress-controlled cyclic single-direction torsional shear tests and two-direction coupled shear tests under unconsolidated-undrained conditions. Through a series of tests on saturated clay, the effects of initial shear stress and stress reversal on the clay's strain-stress behavior are examined, and the behavior of pore water pressure is studied. The experimental results indicate that the patterns of stress-strain relations are distinctly influenced by the initial shear stress in the cyclic single-direction shear tests. When the initial shear stress is large and no stress reversal occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by an accumulative effect. When the initial shear stress is zero and symmetrical cyclic stress occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by a cyclic effect. The pore water pressure fluctuates around the confining pressure with the increase of cycle number. It seems that the fluctuating amplitude increases with the increase of the cyclic stress. But a buildup of pore water pressure does not occur. The deformations of clay samples under the complex initial and the cyclic coupled stress conditions include the normal deviatoric deformation and horizontal shear deformation, the average deformation and cyclic deformation. A general strain failure criterion taking into account these deformations is recommended and is proved more stable and suitable compared to the strain failure criteria currently used.

  5. Deformation Wave Hardening of Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kirichek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the machine parts hardening by means of deformation waves generated by the impact system with a waveguide as an intermediary member. The conditions for the efficient use of impact energy for elastoplastic deformation of the processed material and creation of the deep hardened surface layer.

  6. Deformed metals - structure, recrystallisation and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how new discoveries and advanced experimental techniques in the last 25 years have led to paradigm shifts in the analysis of deformation and annealing structures of metals and in the way the strength of deformed samples is related to structural parameters. This is described in three...... sections: structural evolution by grain subdivision, recovery and recrystallisation and strength-structure relationships....

  7. Deformation of cylindrical shells under thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aptukov, V.N. (Institut Mekhaniki Sploshnykh Sred, Perm (USSR))

    1990-06-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of cylindrical shells under conditions of a nonsymmetric thermal shock is investigated numerically using a two-dimensional formulation. In particular, attention is given to the effect of the shell thickness on the deformation and fracture characteristics. Some computational difficulties associated with the solution of problems of this type are examined. 16 refs.

  8. On the deformation analysis of point fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsink, H.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to determine a multi-point deformation of the earth’s surface or objects upon it, represented by point fields measured in two epochs, is presented. The problem of determining, which points have been deformed, is not approached by testing point-by-point, but by formulating alternative

  9. Bimodules and branes in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Calaque, Damien; Ferrario, Andrea; Rossi, Carlo A

    2009-01-01

    We prove a version of Kontsevich's formality theorem for two subspaces (branes) of a vector space $X$. The result implies in particular that the Kontsevich deformation quantizations of $\\mathrm{S}(X^*)$ and $\\wedge(X)$ associated with a quadratic Poisson structure are Koszul dual. This answers an open question in Shoikhet's recent paper on Koszul duality in deformation quantization.

  10. Acquired nasal deformities in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemakers, Joyce R C; van Amerongen, Pieter; Kon, Moshe

    2010-07-01

    Fighter pilots may develop slowly progressive deformities of their noses during their flying careers. The spectrum of deformities that may be acquired ranges from soft tissue to osseous changes. The main cause is the varying pressure exerted by the oxygen mask on the skin and bony pyramid of the nose during flying.

  11. On parameter estimation in deformable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1998-01-01

    Deformable templates have been intensively studied in image analysis through the last decade, but despite its significance the estimation of model parameters has received little attention. We present a method for supervised and unsupervised model parameter estimation using a general Bayesian...... method is based on a modified version of the EM algorithm. Experimental results for a deformable template used for textile inspection are presented...

  12. [Longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mami, Z; Monsegu, J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal stent deformation is defined as a compression of stent length after its implantation. It's a rare complication but dangerous seen with several stents. We reported a case of longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment with a Promus Element(®) and we perform a short review of this complication.

  13. Complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yuchen

    2006-01-01

    Using the "base forces" as the fundamental unknowns to determine the state of an elastic system, the complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation is constructed for the conjugate quantities being displacement gradients, which possesses exactly the same form as that of classical linear elasticity. It is revealed that the complementary energy contains deformation part and rotation part.

  14. Some deformations of U[sl(2)] and their representations

    CERN Document Server

    Ky, N A

    2003-01-01

    Some one- and two-parametric deformations of U[sl(2)] and their representations are considered. Interestingly, a newly introduced two-parametric deformation admits a class of infinite - dimensional representations which have no classical (non-deformed) and one-parametric deformation analogues, even at generic deformation parameters.

  15. The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min

    1996-01-01

    By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.

  16. Large deformations of a soft porous material

    CERN Document Server

    MacMinn, Christopher W; Wettlaufer, John S

    2015-01-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material can drive mechanical deformation, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity and then further linearizing in the strain. This is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate as deformations grow larger, and moderate to large deformations are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling or damage, or for materials that are extremely soft. Here, we first review a rigorous Eulerian framework for large-deformation poromechanics. We then compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of fully nonlinear poromechanics in the context of two uniaxial model problems: Fluid outflow driven by an applied mec...

  17. (120) and (122-bar) monazite deformation twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R.S

    2003-10-20

    Unusual features of (120) and (122-bar) deformation twins in monazite (monoclinic LaPO{sub 4}) are described and analyzed. These features are kinks and other irregularities in (120) twins, and V-shaped indentations on (120) and (122-bar) twin planes. Twinning shear analysis suggests that the kinks are a type II deformation twin mode with shear direction ({eta}{sub 1}) of [21-bar0]. This complements previous analysis based on atom shuffling considerations. Shear strain compatibility requires extensive plastic deformation in the kink. The V-shaped indentations may be analogous to similar structures in b.c.c metal deformation twins. Deformation mechanisms that may be associated with these structures are discussed.

  18. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  19. Hot deformation behavior of FGH96 superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiantao Liu; Guoquan Liu; Benfu Hu; Yuepeng Song; Ziran Qin; Yiwen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of FGH96 superalloys at 1070-1170℃ and 5×10-4-2×10-1 s-1 were investigated by means of the isothermal compression tests at a Gleeble-1500 thermal mechanical simulator. The results show that dynamic recovery acts as the main softening mechanism below 2×10-3 s-1, whereas dynamic recrystallization acts as the main softening mechanism above 2×10-3 s-1during deformation; the temperature increase caused by the deformation and the corresponding softening stress is negligible; the thermal-mechanical constitutive model to describe the hot deformation behavior is given, and the value of the apparent deformation activation energy (Qdef) is determined to be 354.93 kJ/mol.

  20. M-theory and Deformation Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Minic, D

    1999-01-01

    We discuss deformation quantization of the covariant, light-cone and conformal gauge-fixed p-brane actions (p>1) which are closely related to the structure of the classical and quantum Nambu brackets. It is known that deformation quantization of the Nambu bracket is not of the usual Moyal type. Yet the Nambu bracket can be quantized using the Zariski deformation quantization (discovered by Dito, Flato, Sternheimer and Takhtajan) which is based on factorization of polynomials in several real variables. We discuss a particular application of the Zariski deformed quantization in M-theory by considering the problem of a covariant formulation of Matrix theory. We propose that the problem of a covariant formulation of Matrix theory can be solved using the formalism of Zariski deformed quantization of the triple Nambu bracket.

  1. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deta, U. A., E-mail: utamaalan@yahoo.co.id, E-mail: utamadeta@unesa.ac.id [Department of Physics, the State University of Surabaya (Unesa), Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia); Suparmi [Departmet of Physics, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Kentingan, Surakarta 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  2. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor causes esophageal epithelial hyperplasia in pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C O; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for maintaining the esophageal functional integrity. Goettingen minipigs were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (30 micrograms/kg/day) for four weeks. Wistar rats were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (150 microgram...

  3. International ring trial of the epidermal equivalent sensitizer potency assay: reproducibility and predictive-capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, M.A.T.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Smits, M.; Adriaens, E.; Eltze, T.; Galbiati, V.; Krul, C.A.M.; Landsiedel, R.; Pieters, R.; Reinders, J.; Roggen, E.; Corsini, E.; Gibbs, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the international ring trial of the epidermal-equivalent (EE) sensitizer potency assay. This assay does not distinguish a sensitizer from a non-sensitizer, but may classify known skin sensitizers according to their potency. It assesses the chemical concentration resulting in 50%

  4. The epidermal melanocyte system in individuals of Scandinavian origin, determined by DOPA-staining and TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drzewiecki, K T; Piltz-Drzewiecka, J

    1979-01-01

    in some specimens. This is due partly to the preparation procedure and partly to normal biological variations. We believe that we have demonstrated a cyclic function of the melanocyte in the epidermis. The varying density of cells in epidermal sheets as well as their varying morphology support the theory...

  5. The dermis contains langerin+ dendritic cells that develop and function independently of epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Lionel Franz; Henri, Sandrine; de Bovis, Béatrice; Devilard, Elisabeth; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Malissen, Bernard

    2007-12-24

    Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute a subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that express the lectin langerin and that reside in their immature state in epidermis. Paradoxically, in mice permitting diphtheria toxin (DT)-mediated ablation of LCs, epidermal LCs reappeared with kinetics that lagged behind that of their putative progeny found in lymph nodes (LNs). Using bone marrow (BM) chimeras, we showed that a major fraction of the langerin(+), skin-derived DCs found in LNs originates from a developmental pathway that is independent from that of epidermal LCs. This pathway, the existence of which was unexpected, originates in the dermis and gives rise to langerin(+) dermal DCs (DDCs) that should not be confused with epidermal LCs en route to LNs. It explains that after DT treatment, some langerin(+), skin-derived DCs reappear in LNs long before LC-derived DCs. Using CD45 expression and BrdU-labeling kinetics, both LCs and langerin(+) DDCs were found to coexist in wild-type mice. Moreover, DT-mediated ablation of epidermal LCs opened otherwise filled niches and permitted repopulation of adult noninflammatory epidermis with BM-derived LCs. Our results stress that the langerin(+) DC network is more complex than originally thought and have implications for the development of transcutaneous vaccines and the improvement of humanized mouse models.

  6. Adrenergic effects on exocrine secretion of rat submandibular epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1984-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat submandibular glands and to test the possibility of intestinal absorption of EGF. Alpha-adrenergic agonists increased the concentration...

  7. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.; Corsini, E.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Galbiati, V.; Fuchs, H.W.; Degeorge, G.; Troese, M.; Hayden, P.; Deng, W.; Roggen, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low

  8. Perforator Flaps after Excision of Large Epidermal Cysts in the Buttocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wha Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Epidermal cysts are commonly occurring masses usually less than 5 cm in diameter, but in predisposed patients, epidermal cysts can grow relatively large due to chronic infection. Methods From June 2002 to July 2010, 17 patients received 19 regional perforator-based island flaps to cover defects due to the excision of large epidermal cysts (diameter >5 cm in the buttocks. Eight patients had diabetes, and seven had rheumatoid arthritis. The pedicles were not fully isolated to prevent spasms or twisting. Results All the flaps survived completely, except for one case with partial necrosis of the flap, which necessitated another perforator-based island flap for coverage. There were two cases of wound dehiscence, which were re-closed after meticulous debridement. There were no recurrences of the masses during follow-up periods of 8.1 months (range, 6-12 months. Conclusions In patients with large epidermal cysts and underlying medical disorders, regional perforator-based island flaps can be the solution to coverage of the defects after excision.

  9. Pig epidermal growth factor precursor contains segments that are highly conserved among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Jensen, L.G.; Sørensen, B S

    1998-01-01

    The 53-aa polypeptide epidermal growth factor (EGF) is synthesized as a 1200-aa precursor. The non-EGF part of the precursor is very long compared with EGF, and can therefore be expected to have a biological role of its own. We have sequenced cDNA of the pig EGF precursor and compared a 668-aa se...

  10. The role of group IIF-secreted phospholipase A2 in epidermal homeostasis and hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Mariko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Nishito, Yasumasa; Taya, Choji; Muramatsu, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Kambe, Naotomo; Kabashima, Kenji; Lambeau, Gérard; Gelb, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal lipids are important for skin homeostasis. However, the entire picture of the roles of lipids, particularly nonceramide lipid species, in epidermal biology still remains obscure. Here, we report that PLA2G2F, a functionally orphan-secreted phospholipase A2 expressed in the suprabasal epidermis, regulates skin homeostasis and hyperplasic disorders. Pla2g2f−/− mice had a fragile stratum corneum and were strikingly protected from psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer. Conversely, Pla2g2f-overexpressing transgenic mice displayed psoriasis-like epidermal hyperplasia. Primary keratinocytes from Pla2g2f−/− mice showed defective differentiation and activation. PLA2G2F was induced by calcium or IL-22 in keratinocytes and preferentially hydrolyzed ethanolamine plasmalogen-bearing docosahexaenoic acid secreted from keratinocytes to give rise to unique bioactive lipids (i.e., protectin D1 and 9S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid) that were distinct from canonical arachidonate metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes). Ethanolamine lysoplasmalogen, a PLA2G2F-derived marker product, rescued defective activation of Pla2g2f−/− keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight PLA2G2F as a previously unrecognized regulator of skin pathophysiology and point to this enzyme as a novel drug target for epidermal-hyperplasic diseases. PMID:26438362

  11. Lack of upregulation of epidermal fatty acid binding protein in dithranol induced irritation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kucharekova, M.; Vissers, W.H.P.M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    The exact role of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in skin is unknown. A restoration of the barrier function may be associated with an upregulation of E-FABP. Moreover, E-FABP is upregulated in a variety of cells in response to oxidative stress. A recent observation that dithranol induc

  12. Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, Peter; El-Hariry, Iman; Powles, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may be of prognostic value in renal cell cancer (RCC). Gene amplification of EGFR was investigated in a cohort of 315 patients with advanced RCC from a previously reported randomised study. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, only 2...

  13. Epidermal Differentiation Complex: A Review on Its Epigenetic Regulation and Potential Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Abhishek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary feature of the mammalian skin includes the hair follicle, inter-follicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands, all of which form pilo-sebaceous units. The epidermal protective layer undergoes an ordered/programmed process of proliferation and differentiation, ultimately culminating in the formation of a cornified envelope consisting of enucleated corneocytes. These terminally differentiated cells slough off in a cyclic manner and this process is regulated via induction or repression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC genes. These genes, spanning 2 Mb region of human chromosome 1q21, play a crucial role in epidermal development, through various mechanisms. Each of these mechanisms employs a unique chromatin re-modelling factor or an epigenetic modifier. These factors act to regulate epidermal differentiation singly and/or in combination. Diseases like psoriasis and cancer exhibit aberrations in proliferation and differentiation through, in part, dysregulation in these epigenetic mechanisms. Knowledge of the existing mechanisms in the physiological and the aforesaid pathological contexts may not only facilitate drug development, it also can make refinements to the existing drug delivery systems.

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Nanoparticle uptake in cells may be an important determinant of their potential cytotoxic and inflammatory effects. Six commercial TiO2 NP (A=Alfa Aesar,10nm, A*=Alfa Aesar 32nm, B=P25 27...

  15. Cost-efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts in massive pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Wolf, SE; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Objective To assess the efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) for closure of burn wounds in pediatric burn patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% total body surface area. Summary Background Data Paucity of donor sites in massive burns makes the use of expanded skin of

  16. Lipid synthesis inhibitors: effect on epidermal lipid conformational changes and percutaneous permeation of levodopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, Kumar; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2005-10-24

    A combination of lipid synthesis inhibitors was used to enhance the in vitro and in vivo permeation of levodopa (LD) across rat epidermis, and their influence on epidermal lipids was investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Rat epidermis was treated with ethanol and a combination of atorvastatin (750 microg/7 cm2), cerulenin (20 microg/7 cm2), and beta-chloroalanine (600 microg/7 cm2) for sustaining the reduced content of epidermal cholesterol, fatty acids (as triglycerides), and ceramide (as sphingosine), respectively, in viable rat skin. This treatment resulted in significant (P < .05) synthesis inhibition of skin lipids up to 48 hours and 6-fold enhancement in the in vitro permeation of LD. The effective plasma concentration of LD was achieved within 1 hour and maintained over 48 hours after topical application to rat epidermis treated with a combination of these lipid synthesis inhibitors. ATR-FTIR studies of inhibitor(s)-treated rat epidermis revealed a significant decrease (P < .05) in peak height and area for both asymmetric and symmetric C-H stretching absorbances, suggesting extraction of lipids. However, an insignificant (P < .05) shift in the frequency of these peaks suggested no fluidization of epidermal lipids by lipid synthesis inhibitors. A direct correlation was observed between epidermal lipid synthesis inhibition, decrease in peak height or area, and percutaneous permeation of LD. Skin lipid synthesis inhibition by a combination of lipid synthesis inhibitors seems to offer a feasible approach for enhancing the transcutaneous delivery of LD.

  17. International ring trial of the epidermal equivalent sensitizer potency assay: reproducibility and predictive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, M.A.T.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Smits, M.; Adriaens, E.; Eltze, T.; Galbiati, V.; Krul, C.; Landsiedel, R.; Pieters, R.; Reinders, J.; Roggen, E.; Corsini, E.; Gibbs, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the international ring trial of the epidermal-equivalent (EE) sensitizer potency assay. This assay does not distinguish a sensitizer from a non-sensitizer, but may classify known skin sensitizers according to their potency. It assesses the chemical concentration resulting in 50%

  18. Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by cefadroxil in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sartori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-year-old, spayed female, indoor-only domestic shorthair cat was referred with an acute history of multifocal cutaneous and mucocutaneous erosive-ulcerative lesions and skin detachment. The lesions occurred on the seventh day of therapy with cefadroxil. Erosive-ulcerative and occasionally crusted lesions were apparent on the medial and lateral canthus of both eyes, ventral neck, abdomen, perivulvar region, periungual skin and medial aspect of the front and hindlimbs. Diffuse and severe exfoliation was present on the dorsum and tail base and in both external ear canals. The cat was also dehydrated, tachycardic and febrile. Histopathological examination revealed extensive epidermal ulceration, interface dermatitis with vacuolar degeneration, apoptosis at multiple epidermal levels and basal, suprabasal and spinous dermoepidermal detachment. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN. The recently reported Algorithm of Drug Causality in Epidermal Necrolysis (ALDEN, currently used in human medicine, was applied and a score of +6 was calculated; this supported the view that SJS/TEN in this cat was very likely to be associated with cefadroxil administration. Relevance and novel information This clinical communication reports cefadroxil as a very probable cause of SJS/TEN in a cat; the ALDEN was applied in this case and supported diagnosis.

  19. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs induces ductal proliferations in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Teglbjaerg, P S;

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and the EGF receptor are often overexpressed in chronic pancreatitis and in malignant pancreatic growth. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-alpha develop tissue changes in the pancrease resembling changes found in chronic...... pancreatitis. The effects of systemic treatment with EGF on the porcine pancrease were investigated in this study....

  20. Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Nanoparticle uptake in cells may be an important determinant of their potential cytotoxic and inflammatory effects. Six commercial TiO2 NP (A=Alfa Aesar,10nm, A*=Alfa Aesar 32nm, B=P25 27...