WorldWideScience

Sample records for deformable 3d organs

  1. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  2. The Skin Deformation of a 3D Virtual Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Zhou; Zheng-Xu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a skin deformation algorithm for creating 3D characters or virtual human models. The algorithm can be applied to rigid deformation, joint dependent localized deformation, skeleton driven deformation, cross contour deformation, and free-form deformation (FFD). These deformations are computed and demonstrated with examples and the algorithm is applied to overcome the difficulties in mechanically simulating the motion of the human body by club-shape models. The techniques described in this article enables the reconstruction of dynamic human models that can be used in defining and representing the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of human motion.

  3. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  4. Geometric Deformations Based on 3D Volume Morphing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiaogang; WAN Huagen; PENG Qunsheng

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new geometric deformation method based on 3D volume morphing by using a new concept called directional polar coordinate. The user specifies the source control object and the destination control object which act as the embedded spaces.The source and the destination control objects determine a 3D volume morphing which maps the space enclosed in the source control object to that of the destination control object. By embedding the object to be deformed into the source control object, the 3D volume morphing determines the deformed object automatically without the tiring moving of control points.Experiments show that this deformation model is efficient and intuitive, and it can achieve some deformation effects which are difficult to achieve for traditional methods.

  5. Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-11-01

    As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ).

  6. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  7. Encryption of 3D Point Cloud Object with Deformed Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D point cloud object encryption method was proposed with this study. With the method, a mapping relationship between 3D coordinates was formulated and Z coordinate was transformed to deformed fringe by a phase coding method. The deformed fringe and gray image were used for encryption and decryption with simulated off-axis digital Fresnel hologram. Results indicated that the proposed method is able to accurately decrypt the coordinates and gray image of the 3D object. The method is also robust against occlusion attacks.

  8. High resolution, large deformation 3D traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; López-Fagundo, Cristina; Reichner, Jonathan; Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a powerful approach for quantifying cell-material interactions that over the last two decades has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In addition, recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and traction force analysis (3D TFM) have highlighted the significance of the third dimension in influencing various cellular processes. Yet irrespective of dimensionality, almost all TFM approaches have relied on a linear elastic theory framework to calculate cell surface tractions. Here we present a new high resolution 3D TFM algorithm which utilizes a large deformation formulation to quantify cellular displacement fields with unprecedented resolution. The results feature some of the first experimental evidence that cells are indeed capable of exerting large material deformations, which require the formulation of a new theoretical TFM framework to accurately calculate the traction forces. Based on our previous 3D TFM technique, we reformulate our approach to accurately account for large material deformation and quantitatively contrast and compare both linear and large deformation frameworks as a function of the applied cell deformation. Particular attention is paid in estimating the accuracy penalty associated with utilizing a traditional linear elastic approach in the presence of large deformation gradients.

  9. High resolution, large deformation 3D traction force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennet Toyjanova

    Full Text Available Traction Force Microscopy (TFM is a powerful approach for quantifying cell-material interactions that over the last two decades has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In addition, recent advances in three-dimensional (3D imaging and traction force analysis (3D TFM have highlighted the significance of the third dimension in influencing various cellular processes. Yet irrespective of dimensionality, almost all TFM approaches have relied on a linear elastic theory framework to calculate cell surface tractions. Here we present a new high resolution 3D TFM algorithm which utilizes a large deformation formulation to quantify cellular displacement fields with unprecedented resolution. The results feature some of the first experimental evidence that cells are indeed capable of exerting large material deformations, which require the formulation of a new theoretical TFM framework to accurately calculate the traction forces. Based on our previous 3D TFM technique, we reformulate our approach to accurately account for large material deformation and quantitatively contrast and compare both linear and large deformation frameworks as a function of the applied cell deformation. Particular attention is paid in estimating the accuracy penalty associated with utilizing a traditional linear elastic approach in the presence of large deformation gradients.

  10. Inference for deformation and interference in 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbaghi, Arman; Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is a promising manufacturing technique marred by product deformation due to material solidification in the printing process. Control of printed product deformation can be achieved by a compensation plan. However, little attention has been paid to interference in compensation, which is thought to result from the inevitable discretization of a compensation plan. We investigate interference with an experiment involving the application of discretized compen...

  11. 3D printing technology used in severe hip deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Li; Liu, Yan; Ren, Yongfang; Jiang, Li; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Jie; Jia, Wenxiao; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of a 3D printing technique in total hip arthroplasty (THA) for severe hip deformities, where new and improved approaches are needed. THAs were performed from January 2015 to December 2016. Bioprosthesis artificial hip joints were used in both conventional and 3D printing hip arthroplasties. A total of 74 patients (57 cases undergoing conventional hip replacements and 17 undergoing 3D printing hip replacements) were followed-up for an average of 24 months. The average age of the patients was 62.7 years. Clinical data between the patients treated with different approaches were compared. Results showed that the time to postoperative weight bearing and the Harris scores of the patients in the 3D printing group were better than those for patients in the conventional hip replacement group. Unfortunately, the postoperative infection and loosening rates were higher in the 3D printing group. However, there were no significant differences in femoral neck anteversion, neck shaft, acetabular or sharp angles between ipsilateral and contralateral sides in the 3D printing group (P>0.05). The femoral neck anteversion angle was significantly different between the two sides in the conventional hip replacement group (P3D printing approach provides a better short-term curative effect that is more consistent with the physiological structure and anatomical characteristics of the patient, and we anticipate that its use will help improve the lives of many patients.

  12. Deformable Surface 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Images

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Being able to recover the shape of 3D deformable surfaces from a single video stream would make it possible to field reconstruction systems that run on widely available hardware without requiring specialized devices. However, because many different 3D shapes can have virtually the same projection, such monocular shape recovery is inherently ambiguous. In this survey, we will review the two main classes of techniques that have proved most effective so far: The template-based methods that rely on establishing correspondences with a reference image in which the shape is already known, and non-rig

  13. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  14. Physically based analysis of deformations in 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastar, Chahab; Ayache, Nicholas

    1993-06-01

    We present a physically based deformable model which can be used to track and to analyze the non-rigid motion of dynamic structures in time sequences of 2-D or 3-D medical images. The model considers an object undergoing an elastic deformation as a set of masses linked by springs, where the natural lengths of the springs is set equal to zero, and is replaced by a set of constant equilibrium forces, which characterize the shape of the elastic structure in the absence of external forces. This model has the extremely nice property of yielding dynamic equations which are linear and decoupled for each coordinate, whatever the amplitude of the deformation. It provides a reduced algorithmic complexity, and a sound framework for modal analysis, which allows a compact representation of a general deformation by a reduced number of parameters. The power of the approach to segment, track, and analyze 2-D and 3-D images is demonstrated by a set of experimental results on various complex medical images.

  15. A 3D Facial Expression Tracking Method Using Piecewise Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new fast method for 3D facial expression tracking based on piecewise non-rigid deformations. Our method takes as input a video-rate sequence of face meshes that record the shape and time-varying expressions of a human face, and deforms a source mesh to match each input mesh to output a new mesh sequence with the same connectivity that reflects the facial shape and expressional variations. In mesh matching, we automatically segment the source mesh and estimate a non-rigid transformation for each segment to approximate the input mesh closely. Piecewise non-rigid transformation significantly reduces computational complexity and improves tracking speed because it greatly decreases the unknowns to be estimated. Our method can also achieve desired tracking accuracy because segmentation can be adjusted automatically and flexibly to approximate arbitrary deformations on the input mesh. Experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  16. Nuclear 3D organization and radiosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Y. A.; Slanina, S. V.; Aleshchenko, A. V.; Sen'ko, O. V.; Kononkova, A. D.; Andreev, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Current mechanisms of radiation-induced chromosomal aberration (CA) formation suggest misrepair of chromosomal lesions being in spatial proximity. In this case CAs have to depend on pattern of chromosomal contacts and on chromosome spatial organization in a cell nucleus. We were interested in whether variation of nucleus 3D organization results in difference of radiation induced CA formation frequency. Experimental data available do not provide information sufficient for definite conclusions. To have more deep insight in this issue we developed the biophysical modeling technique taking into account different levels of chromosome/nuclear organization and radiation damage of DNA and chromosomes. Computer experiments on gamma irradiation were carried out for two types of cells with different 3D organization of nuclei, preferentially peripheral and internal. CA frequencies were found to depend on spatial positioning of chromosomes within a nucleus which determines a pattern of interchromosomal contacts. For individual chromosomes this effect can be more pronounced than for genome averaged. Since significant part of aberrations, for example dicentrics, results in cell death, the proposed technique is capable of evaluating radiosensitivity of cells, both normal and cancer, with the incorporation of 3D genome information. This predictive technology allows to reduce uncertainties of prognosis of biological effects of radiation compared to phenomenological methods and may have variety of biomedical applications, in particular, in cancer radiation therapy.

  17. Distributed deformation and block rotation in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Oona; Nur, Amos; Estevez, Raul

    1990-01-01

    The authors address how block rotation and complex distributed deformation in the Earth's shallow crust may be explained within a stationary regional stress field. Distributed deformation is characterized by domains of sub-parallel fault-bounded blocks. In response to the contemporaneous activity of neighboring domains some domains rotate, as suggested by both structural and paleomagnetic evidence. Rotations within domains are achieved through the contemporaneous slip and rotation of the faults and of the blocks they bound. Thus, in regions of distributed deformation, faults must remain active in spite of their poor orientation in the stress field. The authors developed a model that tracks the orientation of blocks and their bounding faults during rotation in a 3D stress field. In the model, the effective stress magnitudes of the principal stresses (sigma sub 1, sigma sub 2, and sigma sub 3) are controlled by the orientation of fault sets in each domain. Therefore, adjacent fault sets with differing orientations may be active and may display differing faulting styles, and a given set of faults may change its style of motion as it rotates within a stationary stress regime. The style of faulting predicted by the model depends on a dimensionless parameter phi = (sigma sub 2 - sigma sub 3)/(sigma sub 1 - sigma sub 3). Thus, the authors present a model for complex distributed deformation and complex offset history requiring neither geographical nor temporal changes in the stress regime. They apply the model to the Western Transverse Range domain of southern California. There, it is mechanically feasible for blocks and faults to have experienced up to 75 degrees of clockwise rotation in a phi = 0.1 strike-slip stress regime. The results of the model suggest that this domain may first have accommodated deformation along preexisting NNE-SSW faults, reactivated as normal faults. After rotation, these same faults became strike-slip in nature.

  18. Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    2016-11-01

    3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.

  19. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  20. Tensor3D: A computer graphics program to simulate 3D real-time deformation and visualization of geometric bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans

    2008-07-01

    Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.

  1. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Wang; Qiang Ao; Xiaohong Tian; Jun Fan; Yujun Wei; Weijian Hou; Hao Tong; Shuling Bai

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especial...

  2. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Deene, Yves; Skyt, Peter Sandegaard; Hill, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image...... and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence....

  3. 3D brain mapping using a deformable neuroanatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, G.E.; Rabbitt, R.D.; Miller, M.I. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents two different mathematical methods that can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are defined to accommodate shape differences between the textbook and images of other normal neuroanatomies. The transformations are constrained to be consistent with the physical properties of deformable elastic solids in the first method and those of viscous fluids in the second. Results presented in this paper demonstrate how a single deformable textbook can be used to accommodate normal shape variability. (Author).

  4. 3D Porphyrin-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiqing; Ding, Huimin; Chen, Rufan; Peng, Zhengkang; Wang, Baoshan; Wang, Cheng

    2017-06-28

    The design and synthesis of three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (3D COFs) bearing photoelectric units have been considered as a big challenge. Herein, for the first time, we reported the targeted synthesis of two 3D porphyrin-based COFs (3D-Por-COF and 3D-CuPor-COF), starting from tetrahedral (3D-Td) and square (2D-C4) building blocks connected through [4 + 4] imine condensation reactions. On the basis of structural characterizations, 3D-Por-COF and 3D-CuPor-COF are microporous materials with high surface areas, and are proposed to adopt a 2-fold interpenetrated pts topology with Pmc21 space group. Interestingly, both 3D COFs are photosensitive and can be used as heterogeneous catalyst for generating singlet oxygen under photoirradiation. However, 3D-Por-COF shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with 3D-CuPor-COF, indicating the properties of 3D porphyrin-based COFs can be tuned by metalation of porphyrin rings. The results reported here will greatly inspire us to design and synthesize 3D COFs bearing other metalloporphyrins for interesting applications (e.g., catalysis) in the future.

  5. Validation of Continuously Tagged MRI for the Measurement of Dynamic 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    A SPAMM tagged MRI methodology is presented allowing continuous (3.3-3.6 Hz) sampling of 3D dynamic soft tissue deformation using non-segmented 3D acquisitions. The 3D deformation is reconstructed by the combination of 3 mutually orthogonal tagging directions, thus requiring only 3 repeated motion cycles. In addition a fully automatic post-processing framework is presented employing Gabor scale-space and filter-bank analysis for tag extrema segmentation and triangulated surface fitting aided by Gabor filter bank derived surface normals. Deformation is derived following tracking of tag surface triplet triangle intersections. The dynamic deformation measurements were validated using indentation tests (~20 mm deep at 12 mm/s) on a silicone gel soft tissue phantom containing contrasting markers which provide a reference measure of deformation. In addition, the techniques were evaluated in-vivo for dynamic skeletal muscle tissue deformation measurement during indentation of the biceps region of the upper arm in a ...

  6. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D organ model...ontents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D organ mode...| Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  7. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  8. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  9. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  10. 3D Printing of Organs-On-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Lee, Hyungseok; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-25

    Organ-on-a-chip engineering aims to create artificial living organs that mimic the complex and physiological responses of real organs, in order to test drugs by precisely manipulating the cells and their microenvironments. To achieve this, the artificial organs should to be microfabricated with an extracellular matrix (ECM) and various types of cells, and should recapitulate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and functions according to the native organ. A promising strategy is 3D printing, which precisely controls the spatial distribution and layer-by-layer assembly of cells, ECMs, and other biomaterials. Owing to this unique advantage, integration of 3D printing into organ-on-a-chip engineering can facilitate the creation of micro-organs with heterogeneity, a desired 3D cellular arrangement, tissue-specific functions, or even cyclic movement within a microfluidic device. Moreover, fully 3D-printed organs-on-chips more easily incorporate other mechanical and electrical components with the chips, and can be commercialized via automated massive production. Herein, we discuss the recent advances and the potential of 3D cell-printing technology in engineering organs-on-chips, and provides the future perspectives of this technology to establish the highly reliable and useful drug-screening platforms.

  11. 3D Printing of Organs-On-Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Lee, Hyungseok; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Organ-on-a-chip engineering aims to create artificial living organs that mimic the complex and physiological responses of real organs, in order to test drugs by precisely manipulating the cells and their microenvironments. To achieve this, the artificial organs should to be microfabricated with an extracellular matrix (ECM) and various types of cells, and should recapitulate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and functions according to the native organ. A promising strategy is 3D printing, which precisely controls the spatial distribution and layer-by-layer assembly of cells, ECMs, and other biomaterials. Owing to this unique advantage, integration of 3D printing into organ-on-a-chip engineering can facilitate the creation of micro-organs with heterogeneity, a desired 3D cellular arrangement, tissue-specific functions, or even cyclic movement within a microfluidic device. Moreover, fully 3D-printed organs-on-chips more easily incorporate other mechanical and electrical components with the chips, and can be commercialized via automated massive production. Herein, we discuss the recent advances and the potential of 3D cell-printing technology in engineering organs-on-chips, and provides the future perspectives of this technology to establish the highly reliable and useful drug-screening platforms. PMID:28952489

  12. 3D Printing of Organs-On-Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Gyeong Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ-on-a-chip engineering aims to create artificial living organs that mimic the complex and physiological responses of real organs, in order to test drugs by precisely manipulating the cells and their microenvironments. To achieve this, the artificial organs should to be microfabricated with an extracellular matrix (ECM and various types of cells, and should recapitulate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and functions according to the native organ. A promising strategy is 3D printing, which precisely controls the spatial distribution and layer-by-layer assembly of cells, ECMs, and other biomaterials. Owing to this unique advantage, integration of 3D printing into organ-on-a-chip engineering can facilitate the creation of micro-organs with heterogeneity, a desired 3D cellular arrangement, tissue-specific functions, or even cyclic movement within a microfluidic device. Moreover, fully 3D-printed organs-on-chips more easily incorporate other mechanical and electrical components with the chips, and can be commercialized via automated massive production. Herein, we discuss the recent advances and the potential of 3D cell-printing technology in engineering organs-on-chips, and provides the future perspectives of this technology to establish the highly reliable and useful drug-screening platforms.

  13. Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures Based on Artistic Deformation Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lyndsey; Chen, Min; Mora, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    Caricatures are a form of humorous visual art, usually created by skilled artists for the intention of amusement and entertainment. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic generation of digital caricatures from facial photographs, which capture artistic deformation styles from hand-drawn caricatures. We introduced a pseudo stress-strain model to encode the parameters of an artistic deformation style using "virtual" physical and material properties. We have also developed a software system for performing the caricaturistic deformation in 3D which eliminates the undesirable artifacts in 2D caricaturization. We employed a Multilevel Free-Form Deformation (MFFD) technique to optimize a 3D head model reconstructed from an input facial photograph, and for controlling the caricaturistic deformation. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach, which allows ordinary users to apply the captured and stored deformation styles to a variety of facial photographs.

  14. 3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2016-04-04

    In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models.

  15. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Organ 3D Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is a family of enabling technologies that can be used to manufacture human organs with predefined hierarchical structures, material constituents and physiological functions. The main objective of these technologies is to produce high-throughput and/or customized organ substitutes (or bioartificial organs with heterogeneous cell types or stem cells along with other biomaterials that are able to repair, replace or restore the defect/failure counterparts. Gelatin-based hydrogels, such as gelatin/fibrinogen, gelatin/hyaluronan and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen, have unique features in organ 3D bioprinting technologies. This article is an overview of the intrinsic/extrinsic properties of the gelatin-based hydrogels in organ 3D bioprinting areas with advanced technologies, theories and principles. The state of the art of the physical/chemical crosslinking methods of the gelatin-based hydrogels being used to overcome the weak mechanical properties is highlighted. A multicellular model made from adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the predefined 3D constructs is emphasized. Multi-nozzle extrusion-based organ 3D bioprinting technologies have the distinguished potential to eventually manufacture implantable bioartificial organs for purposes such as customized organ restoration, high-throughput drug screening and metabolic syndrome model establishment.

  16. FEMUR SHAPE RECOVERY FROM VOLUMETRIC IMAGES USING 3-D DEFORMABLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for femur shape recovery from volumetric images using deformable models was proposed. First, prior 3-D deformable femur models are created as templates using point distribution models technology. Second, active contour models are employed to segment the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric images of the tibial and femoral joints and the deformable models are initialized based on the segmentation results. Finally, the objective function is minimized to give the optimal results constraining the surface of shapes.

  17. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  18. Development of a 3D modeling algorithm for tunnel deformation monitoring based on terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongyao Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deformation monitoring is vital for tunnel engineering. Traditional monitoring techniques measure only a few data points, which is insufficient to understand the deformation of the entire tunnel. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a newly developed technique that can collect thousands of data points in a few minutes, with promising applications to tunnel deformation monitoring. The raw point cloud collected from TLS cannot display tunnel deformation; therefore, a new 3D modeling algorithm was developed for this purpose. The 3D modeling algorithm includes modules for preprocessing the point cloud, extracting the tunnel axis, performing coordinate transformations, performing noise reduction and generating the 3D model. Measurement results from TLS were compared to the results of total station and numerical simulation, confirming the reliability of TLS for tunnel deformation monitoring. Finally, a case study of the Shanghai West Changjiang Road tunnel is introduced, where TLS was applied to measure shield tunnel deformation over multiple sections. Settlement, segment dislocation and cross section convergence were measured and visualized using the proposed 3D modeling algorithm.

  19. Deformation analysis of 3D tagged cardiac images using an optical flow method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman Robert C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study proposes and validates a method of measuring 3D strain in myocardium using a 3D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR tissue-tagging sequence and a 3D optical flow method (OFM. Methods Initially, a 3D tag MR sequence was developed and the parameters of the sequence and 3D OFM were optimized using phantom images with simulated deformation. This method then was validated in-vivo and utilized to quantify normal sheep left ventricular functions. Results Optimizing imaging and OFM parameters in the phantom study produced sub-pixel root-mean square error (RMS between the estimated and known displacements in the x (RMSx = 0.62 pixels (0.43 mm, y (RMSy = 0.64 pixels (0.45 mm and z (RMSz = 0.68 pixels (1 mm direction, respectively. In-vivo validation demonstrated excellent correlation between the displacement measured by manually tracking tag intersections and that generated by 3D OFM (R ≥ 0.98. Technique performance was maintained even with 20% Gaussian noise added to the phantom images. Furthermore, 3D tracking of 3D cardiac motions resulted in a 51% decrease in in-plane tracking error as compared to 2D tracking. The in-vivo function studies showed that maximum wall thickening was greatest in the lateral wall, and increased from both apex and base towards the mid-ventricular region. Regional deformation patterns are in agreement with previous studies on LV function. Conclusion A novel method was developed to measure 3D LV wall deformation rapidly with high in-plane and through-plane resolution from one 3D cine acquisition.

  20. 3D deformation effect and optimal excavated design of surface mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-ren; FENG Ji-li

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) deformation effect of the slope engineering under the step-by-step excavation for the Antaibao surface mine was analyzed using the FLAC3D technique. An optimal excavated scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle of 47° instead of 30° was successfully implemented at the west wall in the geological section 73200 of the mine area, where the 3D effect of the nonlinear large deformation of the slope was taken into account. Based on the above research conclusion, put forward the countermeasures of shortening mining length, excavating by different regions, timely foot backfilling to protect the excavated slope, and monitoring and feedback adjustment by studying the nonlinear effect. The results show that these countermeasures are effective in controlling maximum deformation and increasing the stability of the slope.

  1. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    OpenAIRE

    Bingxiang Yuan; Rui Chen; Jun Teng; Tao Peng; Zhongwen Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile’s response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around...

  2. 3D geometrical modelling of post-foliation deformations in metamorphic terrains (Syros, Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Caumon, Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Superposed to ductile syn-metamorphic deformations, post-foliation deformations affect metamorphic units during their exhumation. Understanding the role of such deformations in the structuration of metamorphic units is key for understanding the tectonic evolution of convergence zones. We characterize post-foliations deformations using 3D modelling which is a first-order tool to describe complex geological structures, but a challenging task where based only on surface data. We propose a modelling procedure that combines fast draft models (interpolation of orientation data), with more complex ones where the structural context is better understood (implicit modelling), allowing us to build a 3D geometrical model of Syros Island blueschists (Cyclades), based on field data. With our approach, the 3D model is able to capture the complex present-day geometry of the island, mainly controlled by the superposition of three types of post-metamorphic deformations affecting the original metamorphic pile: i) a top-to-South ramp-flat extensional system that dominates the overall island structure, ii) large-scale folding of the metamorphic units associated with ramp-flat extensional system, and iii) steeply-dipping normal faults trending dominantly NNW-SSE and EW. The 3D surfaces produced by this method match outcrop data, are geologically consistent, and provide reasonable estimates of geological structures in poorly constrained areas.

  3. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  4. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival;

    2009-01-01

    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure...... the shape and deformation of 3D objects from the sequential intensity measurements of volume speckle field and phase retrieval based on angular-spectrum propagation technique is described here. The shape of a convex spherical surface was measured directly from the calculated phase map, and micrometer......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  5. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  6. External force back-projective composition and globally deformable optimization for 3-D coronary artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Cong, Weijian; Chen, Yang; Fan, Jingfan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-02-21

    The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm.

  7. Multi-Modality Vertebra Recognition in Arbitrary Views Using 3D Deformable Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunliang; Osman, Said; Sharma, Manas; Landis, Mark; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of spine problems relies on the automatic identification of spine structures in images. The task of automatic vertebra recognition is to identify the global spine and local vertebra structural information such as spine shape, vertebra location and pose. Vertebra recognition is challenging due to the large appearance variations in different image modalities/views and the high geometric distortions in spine shape. Existing vertebra recognitions are usually simplified as vertebrae detections, which mainly focuses on the identification of vertebra locations and labels but cannot support further spine quantitative assessment. In this paper, we propose a vertebra recognition method using 3D deformable hierarchical model (DHM) to achieve cross-modality local vertebra location+pose identification with accurate vertebra labeling, and global 3D spine shape recovery. We recast vertebra recognition as deformable model matching, fitting the input spine images with the 3D DHM via deformations. The 3D model-matching mechanism provides a more comprehensive vertebra location+pose+label simultaneous identification than traditional vertebra location+label detection, and also provides an articulated 3D mesh model for the input spine section. Moreover, DHM can conduct versatile recognition on volume and multi-slice data, even on single slice. Experiments show our method can successfully extract vertebra locations, labels, and poses from multi-slice T1/T2 MR and volume CT, and can reconstruct 3D spine model on different image views such as lumbar, cervical, even whole spine. The resulting vertebra information and the recovered shape can be used for quantitative diagnosis of spine problems and can be easily digitalized and integrated in modern medical PACS systems.

  8. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1 How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2 What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3 How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]. The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals, while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9΀ (angle and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth. Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and

  9. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Gaed, Mena; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Pautler, Stephen; Chin, Joseph L.; Crukley, Cathie; Bauman, Glenn S.; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1) How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2) What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3) How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE) after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]). The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals), while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9° (angle) and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth). Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and should be

  10. Non-rigid registration of 3D point clouds under isometric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuming

    2016-11-01

    An algorithm for pairwise non-rigid registration of 3D point clouds is presented in the specific context of isometric deformations. The critical step is registration of point clouds at different epochs captured from an isometric deformation surface within overlapping regions. Based on characteristics invariant under isometric deformation, a variant of the four-point congruent sets algorithm is applied to generate correspondences between two deformed point clouds, and subsequently a RANSAC framework is used to complete cluster extraction in preparation for global optimal alignment. Examples are presented and the results compared with existing approaches to demonstrate the two main contributions of the technique: a success rate for generating true correspondences of 90% and a root mean square error after final registration of 2-3 mm.

  11. Anomalous Surface Deformation of Sapphire Clarified by 3D-FEM Simulation of the Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Roman; Manninen, Timo; Li, Chunliang; Heiskanen, Kari; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Lindroos, Veikko; Soga, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Fusahito

    This work clarifies the origin of anomalous surface deformation reflected by peculiar surface patterns around indentation impressions on various crystallographic planes of sapphire. The three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D-FEM) of nanoindentation in Al2O3 crystal allowed the authors to localize the regions in which various kinds of twinning and slip are most prone to be activated. The work provides a novel approach to the “hardness anisotropy”, which was modeled so far using a modified uniaxial-stress approximation of this essentially 3D, non-isotropic contact problem. The calculated results enabled the authors to unravel the asymmetric surface deformation detected on prismatic planes by the high-resolution microscopy, which cannot be explained using simple crystallographic considerations.

  12. Deformable 3D-2D registration for guiding K-wire placement in pelvic trauma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerres, J.; Jacobson, M.; Uneri, A.; de Silva, T.; Ketcha, M.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Osgood, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion is a challenging surgical task requiring interpretation of complex 3D anatomical shape from 2D projections (fluoroscopy) and delivery of device trajectories within fairly narrow bone corridors in proximity to adjacent nerves and vessels. Over long trajectories ( 10-25 cm), K-wires tend to curve (deform), making conventional rigid navigation inaccurate at the tip location. A system is presented that provides accurate 3D localization and guidance of rigid or deformable surgical devices ("components" - e.g., K-wires) based on 3D-2D registration. The patient is registered to a preoperative CT image by virtually projecting digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and matching to two or more intraoperative x-ray projections. The K-wire is localized using an analogous procedure matching DRRs of a deformably parametrized model for the device component (deformable known-component registration, or dKC-Reg). A cadaver study was performed in which a K-wire trajectory was delivered in the pelvis. The system demonstrated target registration error (TRE) of 2.1 ± 0.3 mm in location of the K-wire tip (median ± interquartile range, IQR) and 0.8 ± 1.4º in orientation at the tip (median ± IQR), providing functionality analogous to surgical tracking / navigation using imaging systems already in the surgical arsenal without reliance on a surgical tracker. The method offers quantitative 3D guidance using images (e.g., inlet / outlet views) already acquired in the standard of care, potentially extending the advantages of navigation to broader utilization in trauma surgery to improve surgical precision and safety.

  13. 3D Printing of Personalized Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaiming

    2015-03-01

    Authors: Kaiming Ye and Sha Jin, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 Abstract: Creation of highly organized multicellular constructs, including tissues and organs or organoids, will revolutionize tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The development of these technologies will enable the production of individualized organs or tissues for patient-tailored organ transplantation or cell-based therapy. For instance, a patient with damaged myocardial tissues due to an ischemic event can receive a myocardial transplant generated using the patient's own induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Likewise, a type-1 diabetic patient can be treated with lab-generated islets to restore his or her physiological insulin secretion capability. These lab-produced, high order tissues or organs can also serve as disease models for pathophysiological study and drug screening. The remarkable advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering, microfabrication, and materials science in the last decade suggest the feasibility of generating these tissues and organoids in the laboratory. Nevertheless, major challenges still exist. One of the critical challenges that we still face today is the difficulty in constructing or fabricating multicellular assemblies that recapitulate in vivo microenvironments essential for controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and assembly into a biologically functional tissue or organoid structure. These challenges can be addressed through developing 3D organ and tissue printing which enables organizing and assembling cells into desired tissue and organ structures. We have shown that human pluripotent stem cells differentiated in 3D environments are mature and possess high degree of biological function necessary for them to function in vivo.

  14. 3d and 5d gauge theory partition functions as q-deformed CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Nieri, Fabrizio; Passerini, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    3d N=2 partition functions on the squashed three-sphere and on the twisted product S2xS1 have been shown to factorize into sums of squares of solid tori partition functions, the so-called holomorphic blocks. The same set of holomorphic blocks realizes squashed three-sphere and S2xS1 partition functions but the two cases involve different inner products, the S-pairing and the id-pairing respectively. We define a class of q-deformed CFT correlators where conformal blocks are controlled by a deformation of Virasoro symmetry and are paired by S-pairing and id-pairing respectively. Applying the bootstrap approach to a class of degenerate correlators we are able to derive three-point functions. We show that degenerate correlators can be mapped to 3d partition functions while the crossing symmetry of CFT correlators corresponds to the flop symmetry of 3d gauge theories. We explore how non-degenerate q-deformed correlators are related to 5d partition functions. We argue that id-pairing correlators are associated to t...

  15. Deformable 3D-2D registration for CT and its application to low dose tomographic fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Many applications in medical imaging include image registration for matching of images from the same or different modalities. In the case of full data sampling, the respective reconstructed images are usually of such a good image quality that standard deformable volume-to-volume (3D-3D) registration approaches can be applied. But research in temporal-correlated image reconstruction and dose reductions increases the number of cases where rawdata are available from only few projection angles. Here, deteriorated image quality leads to non-acceptable deformable volume-to-volume registration results. Therefore a registration approach is required that is robust against a decreasing number of projections defining the target position. We propose a deformable volume-to-rawdata (3D-2D) registration method that aims at finding a displacement vector field maximizing the alignment of a CT volume and the acquired rawdata based on the sum of squared differences in rawdata domain. The registration is constrained by a regularization term in accordance with a fluid-based diffusion. Both cost function components, the rawdata fidelity and the regularization term, are optimized in an alternating manner. The matching criterion is optimized by a conjugate gradient descent for nonlinear functions, while the regularization is realized by convolution of the vector fields with Gaussian kernels. We validate the proposed method and compare it to the demons algorithm, a well-known 3D-3D registration method. The comparison is done for a range of 4-60 target projections using datasets from low dose tomographic fluoroscopy as an application example. The results show a high correlation to the ground truth target position without introducing artifacts even in the case of very few projections. In particular the matching in the rawdata domain is improved compared to the 3D-3D registration for the investigated range. The proposed volume-to-rawdata registration increases the robustness regarding sparse

  16. Evaluation of dosimetric misrepresentations from 3D conventional planning of liver SBRT using 4D deformable dose integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Unjin A; Taylor, Michael L; Supple, Jeremy R; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Pham, Daniel; Franich, Rick D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dosimetric errors in 3D conventional plan- ning of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by using a 4D deformable image registration (DIR)-based dose-warping and integration technique. Respiratory- correlated 4D CT image sets with 10 phases were acquired for four consecutive patients with five liver tumors. Average intensity projection (AIP) images were used to generate 3D conventional plans of SBRT. Quasi-4D path-integrated dose accumulation was performed over all 10 phases using dose-warping techniques based on DIR. This result was compared to the conventional plan in order to evalu- ate the appropriateness of 3D (static) dose calculations. In addition, we consider whether organ dose metrics derived from contours defined on the average intensity projection (AIP), or on a reference phase, provide the better approximation of the 4D values. The impact of using fewer (3D planning approach overestimated doses to targets by 1.4% to 8.7% (mean 4.2%) and underestimated dose to normal liver by up to 8% (mean -5.5%; range -2.3% to -8.0%), compared to the 4D methodology. The homogeneity of the dose distribution was overestimated when using conventional 3D calculations by up to 24%. OAR doses estimated by 3D planning were, on average, within 10% of the 4D calculations; however, differences of up to 100% were observed. Four-dimensional dose calculation using 3 phases gave a reasonable approximation of that calculated from the full 10 phases for all patients, which is potentially useful from a workload perspective. 4D evaluation showed that conventional 3D planning on an AIP can significantly overestimate target dose (ITV and GTV+5mm), underestimate normal liver dose, and overestimate dose homogeneity. Implementing nonadaptive quasi- 4D dose calculation can highlight the potential limitation of 3D conventional SBRT planning and the resultant misrepresentations of dose in some regions affected by motion and deformation. Where the 4D

  17. Should Society Encourage The Development Of 3D Printing Particularly 3D Bioprinting Of Tissues And Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviana Pavlovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My aim is to discover moral and ethical sides of 3D printing which is a new technology and paradoxically a new phenomenon of the twenty-first century. Particularly 3D bioprinted organs and tissues is a controversial issue because this technological advancement may be viewed by society as a servant or it can even potentially become its master. For example in the health care system doctors may change their attitude to patients by using 3D bioprinted organs and tissues whenever it is needed also taking away responsibility from patients. Thus there can be great social and psychological consequences from 3D bioprinting in a long term. Furthermore Pete Basiliere an analyst in a worlds leading information technology research company suggests that 3D printing can also bring economic consequences resulting in the loss of at least 100 billion in intellectual property theft per year by 2018 globally. By analysing the economic psychological and social impact of the 3D printing technologies I want to research whether anyone is going be responsible for the 3D printing production and who is going to give a right to 3D bioprint.

  18. 3D visualization of deformation structures and potential fluid pathways at the Grimsel Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; Kober, Florian; Berger, Alfons; Spillmann, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the ability of fluids to infiltrate subsurface rocks is of major importance for underground constructions, geothermal or radioactive waste disposal projects. In this study, we focus on the characterization of water infiltration pathways, their 3D geometries and origins. Based on surface and subsurface mapping in combination with drill core data, we developed by the use of MoveTM (Midland Valley Exploration Ltd.) a 3D structural model of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). GTS is an underground laboratory operated by NAGRA, the Swiss organisation responsible for the management of nuclear waste. It is located within a suite of post-Variscan magmatic bodies comprising former granitic and granodioritic melts, which are dissected by mafic and aplitic dikes. During Alpine orogeny, the suite was tectonically overprinted within two stages of ductile deformation (Wehrens et al., in prep.) followed by brittle overprint of some of the shear zones during the retrograde exhumation history. It is this brittle deformation, which controls today's water infiltration network. However, the associated fractures, cataclasites and fault gouges are controlled themselves by aforementioned pre-existing mechanical discontinuities, whose origin ranges back as far as to the magmatic stage. For example, two sets of vertically oriented mafic dikes (E-W and NW-SE striking) and compositional heterogeneities induced by magmatic segregation processes in the plutonic host rocks served as nucleation sites for Alpine strain localization. Subsequently, NE-SW, E-W and NW-SE striking ductile shear zones were formed, in combination with high temperature fracturing while dissecting the host rocks in a complex 3D pattern (Wehrens et al, in prep.). Whether the ductile shear zones have been subjected to brittle reactivation and can serve as infiltration pathways or not, depends strongly on their orientations with respect to the principal stress field. Especially where deformation structures intersect

  19. Simulation of a true-triaxial deformation test on anisotropic gneiss using FLAC3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shenghua; Sehizadeh, Mehdi; Nasseri, Mohammad; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A series of true-triaxial experiments have been carried out at the University of Toronto's Rock Fracture Dynamics Laboratory. Isotropic pegmatite and gneiss have been used to systematically study the effect of anisotropy on the strength, behaviour and seismic response. Samples were loaded under true-triaxial stress conditions and subjected to complex loading and unloading histories associated with rock deformation around underground openings. The results show expected patterns of weakness from preferentially oriented samples and highlight the importance of unloading history under true-triaxial conditions on the deformation and seismic response of the samples. These tests have been used to validate a synthetic simulation using the Itasca FLAC3D numerical code. The paper describes the FLAC3D simulations of the complex true-triaxial loading and unloading history of the different anisotropic samples. Various parameters were created to describe the physico-mechanical properties of the synthetic rock samples. Foliation planes of preferential orientations with respect to the primary loading direction were added to the synthetic rock samples to reflect the anisotropy of the gneiss. These synthetic rock samples were subjected to the same loading and unloading paths as the real rock samples, and failed in the same mechanism as what was observed from the experiments, and thus it proved the validity of this numerical simulation with FLAC3D.

  20. 3d Quantum Gravity: Coarse-Graining and q-Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2016-01-01

    The Ponzano-Regge state-sum model provides a quantization of 3d gravity as a spin foam, providing a quantum amplitude to each 3d triangulation defined in terms of the 6j-symbol (from the spin-recoupling theory of SU(2) representations). In this context, the invariance of the 6j-symbol under 4-1 Pachner moves, mathematically defined by the Biedenharn-Elliot identity, can be understood as the invariance of the Ponzano-Regge model under coarse-graining or equivalently as the invariance of the amplitudes under the Hamiltonian constraints. Here we look at length and volume insertions in the Biedenharn-Elliot identity for the 6j-symbol, derived in some sense as higher derivatives of the original formula. This gives the behavior of these geometrical observables under coarse-graining. These new identities turn out to be related to the Biedenharn-Elliot identity for the q-deformed 6j-symbol and highlight that the q-deformation produces a cosmological constant term in the Hamiltonian constraints of 3d quantum gravity.

  1. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanrong; Shao, Yeqin [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong; Price, True [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Oto, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    different patches of the prostate surface and trained to adaptively capture the appearance in different prostate zones, thus achieving better local tissue differentiation. For each local region, multiple classifiers are trained based on the randomly selected samples and finally assembled by a specific fusion method. In addition to this nonparametric appearance model, a prostate shape model is learned from the shape statistics using a novel approach, sparse shape composition, which can model nonGaussian distributions of shape variation and regularize the 3D mesh deformation by constraining it within the observed shape subspace. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on two datasets consisting of T2-weighted MR prostate images. For the first (internal) dataset, the classification effectiveness of the authors' improved dictionary learning has been validated by comparing it with three other variants of traditional dictionary learning methods. The experimental results show that the authors' method yields a Dice Ratio of 89.1% compared to the manual segmentation, which is more accurate than the three state-of-the-art MR prostate segmentation methods under comparison. For the second dataset, the MICCAI 2012 challenge dataset, the authors' proposed method yields a Dice Ratio of 87.4%, which also achieves better segmentation accuracy than other methods under comparison. Conclusions: A new magnetic resonance image prostate segmentation method is proposed based on the combination of deformable model and dictionary learning methods, which achieves more accurate segmentation performance on prostate T2 MR images.

  2. Coordinates calibration in precision detection of 3D optical deformation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang; Wu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    In order to validate the detection precision of a three Dimensions Optical Deformation Measure System (3D-OMS), a calibration method of auxiliary coordinate and the optical coordinate base on theodolites has been proposed. The installation method by using theodolites to calibrate the auxiliary coordinate and the optical coordinate has been proposed. Specifically, after the auxiliary mirrors installed, the installation accuracy is detected, then we analyzed the influence of Axis-Error of theodolite under the practical condition of our experiment. Furthermore, the influence of validation precision for the 3D-OMS caused by the misalignment of auxiliary coordinate and optical coordinate is analyzed. According to our theoretical analysis and experiments results, the validation precision of the 3D-OMS can achieve an accuracy of 1″ at the conditions of the coordinate alignment accuracy is no more than 10' and the measuring range of 3D-OMS within +/-3'. Therefore, the proposed method can meet our high accuracy requirement while not sensitive to the installation error of auxiliary mirrors. This method is also available for other similar work.

  3. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  4. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  5. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D...data contents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D...ata file File name: partof_parts_list_e.txt (PART-OF Tree) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts3d.../LATEST/partof_parts_list_e.txt File size: 58 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/bodyparts3d...item Description concept id ID of the corresponding FMA (Foundational Model of Anatomy). representation id I

  6. Deformation of a 3D granular media caused by fluid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that the competition between capillary and friction forces can lead to different regimes of deformation, from frictional fingering to hydro-capillary fracturing. Most of these investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a fully 3D granular bed and measure the fluid pressure while controlling the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We extract the deformation the whole granular bulk as well as at the particle level. Our results show the existence of different regimes of invasion patterns depending on key dimensionless groups that control the system.

  7. Deformation of a 3D granular media caused by fluid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, M. J.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that the competition between capillary and friction forces can lead to different regimes of deformation, from frictional fingering to hydro-capillary fracturing (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011, Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a fully 3D granular bed and measure the fluid pressure while controlling the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We extract the deformation the whole granular bulk as well as at the particle level. Our results show the existence of different regimes of invasion patterns depending on key dimensionless groups that control the system.

  8. Application of ANSYS 3D FEM in Studies of Surface Deformation Caused by Pipe Jacking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fabin; FANG Kun; LI Hechao

    2007-01-01

    By using site observation data and establishing 3D model using ANSYS software, this paper has discussed the strain change of stratum stress during process of jacking-in and the impact of machine head on ground surface under different frontal resistances. Analysis of the two cases shows that soil pressure reaches its maximum point when the soil is right above machine head, and soil stress will gradually decline when machine head passes over it. It also shows that impact brought by pipe-jacking construction on stress change of the surrounding soil is limited. The thesis suggest that road surface should be consolidated and soil condition be improved before construction to prevent loss and disaster caused by road surface deformation, jacking force can be increased so that jacking efficiency can be enhanced when ground stratum is well filled with soil, but the frontal resistance facing machine head should be equal to surrounding soil pressure in order to avoid rise of ground surface.

  9. Computed Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is carried with the macro-flow of the weld metal. By using CT images, a 3-dimensional (3D) image of the lead flow pattern can be reconstructed. CT imaging was found to be a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  10. Softworms: the design and control of non-pneumatic, 3D-printed, deformable robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, T; Vikas, V; Trimmer, B A

    2016-03-10

    Robots that can easily interact with humans and move through natural environments are becoming increasingly essential as assistive devices in the home, office and hospital. These machines need to be safe, effective, and easy to control. One strategy towards accomplishing these goals is to build the robots using soft and flexible materials to make them much more approachable and less likely to damage their environment. A major challenge is that comparatively little is known about how best to design, fabricate and control deformable machines. Here we describe the design, fabrication and control of a novel soft robotic platform (Softworms) as a modular device for research, education and public outreach. These robots are inspired by recent neuromechanical studies of crawling and climbing by larval moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera, caterpillars). Unlike most soft robots currently under development, the Softworms do not rely on pneumatic or fluidic actuators but are electrically powered and actuated using either shape-memory alloy microcoils or motor tendons, and they can be modified to accept other muscle-like actuators such as electroactive polymers. The technology is extremely versatile, and different designs can be quickly and cheaply fabricated by casting elastomeric polymers or by direct 3D printing. Softworms can crawl, inch or roll, and they are steerable and even climb steep inclines. Softworms can be made in any shape but here we describe modular and monolithic designs requiring little assembly. These modules can be combined to make multi-limbed devices. We also describe two approaches for controlling such highly deformable structures using either model-free state transition-reward matrices or distributed, mechanically coupled oscillators. In addition to their value as a research platform, these robots can be developed for use in environmental, medical and space applications where cheap, lightweight and shape-changing deformable robots will provide new

  11. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  12. SIMULATION OF 3-D DEFORMATION AND MATERIAL FLOW DURING ROLL FORGING PROCESS USING SYSTEM OF OVAL-ROUND GROOVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Basing on the analysis of the traits of the roll forging process, a system-model of computer simulation has been established. Three-dimensional rigid-plastic FEM has been used for the simulation of the deformation process in the oval and round pass rolling, including the entering, rolling, and separating stages. The analysis was conducted using the Deform-3D ver. 5.0 code.The important information concerned with the deformation area characteristic, material fiow, and velocity field has been presented. Otherwise, the location of the neutral plane in the deformation area was shown clearly.

  13. 3D deformation and dynamics of the human cadaver abdomen under seatbelt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamielle, Sophie; Vezin, Philippe; Verriest, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallancien, Guy

    2008-11-01

    According to accident analysis, submarining is responsible for most of the frontal car crash AIS 3+ abdominal injuries sustained by restrained occupants. Submarining is characterized by an initial position of the lap belt on the iliac spine. During the crash, the pelvis slips under the lap belt which loads the abdomen. The order of magnitude of the abdominal deflection rate was reported by Uriot to be approximately 4 m/s. In addition, the use of active restraint devices such as pretensioners in recent cars lead to the need for the investigation of Out-Of-Position injuries. OOP is defined by an initial position of the lap belt on the abdomen instead of the pelvis resulting in a direct loading of the abdomen during pretensioning and the crash. In that case, the penetration speed of the belt into the abdomen was reported by Trosseille to be approximately 8 to 12 m/s. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the human abdomen in submarining and OOP. A total of 8 PMHS abdomens were loaded using a lap belt. In order to investigate the injury mechanisms, the abdominal deflection rate and the compression were imposed such that they were not correlated. The specimens were seated upright in a fixed back configuration. The lap belt was placed at the level of the mid-umbilicus, between the iliac crest and the 12th rib. The belt was pulled horizontally along the sides of the specimens causing a symmetrical loading of the abdomen. In addition to the local parameters such as the belt and back forces or the belt displacements, the 3D external deformation of the abdomen was recorded. The forces measured between the back of the cadaver and the seat showed that a mass effect should be taken into account in the abdominal behaviour in addition to viscosity. The back force was greater than the belt force in low speed (submarining like) tests while it was lower for high-speed (OOP like) tests. A lumped parameter model was developed to confirm the experimental results and

  14. Tsunamis generated by 3D deformable landslides in various scenarios: laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Horrillo, J. J.; Mohammed, F.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide generated tsunamis such as Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models. Two 3D Navier-Stokes models were tested, the commercial code FLOW-3D

  15. Large deformation inelastic analysis of impact for shipping casks. [DYNA3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charman, C.M.; Grenier, R.M. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA (USA))

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes the use of two- and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element computer programs to design a radioative material transportation cask to withstand a drop of 30 feet onto an unyielding surface. Because of recent advancement in the area of non-linear finite element code development, the use of such codes for an iterative design process is becoming practicable. The paper begins with a section dealing with a two-dimensional side drop analysis and is followed by a discussion of the general capabilities of DYNA3D and a brief discussion of the implementation of the code on a computational mainframe unlike any for which the developer had intended. Then, a section on three-dimensional models of center-of-gravity over a corner impact follows, which introduces design features such as bolted closures, internal impact limiter, seals and shear rings. Figs. showing the deformed model grids are included. Stress and strain results are given in the subsequent section. Finally, we interpret these results in terms of possible rules being developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code committees.

  16. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured.

  17. A 3D Analysis of Rock Block Deformation and Failure Mechanics Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emily; Hutchinson, D. Jean; Kromer, Ryan A.; Edwards, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Many natural geological hazards are present along the Thompson River corridor in British Columbia, Canada, including one particularly hazardous rocky slope known as the White Canyon. Railway tracks used by Canadian National (CN) and Canadian Pacific (CP) Railway companies pass through this area at the base of the Canyon slope. The geologically complex and weathered rock face exposed at White Canyon is prone to rockfalls. With a limited ditch capacity, these falling rocks have the potential to land on the tracks and therefore increase the risk of train derailment. Since 2012, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data has been collected at this site on a regular basis to enable researchers at Queen's University to study these rockfalls in greater detail. In this paper, the authors present a summary of an analysis of these TLS datasets including an examination of the pre-failure deformation patterns exhibited by failed rock blocks as well as an investigation into the influence of structural constraints on the pre-failure behavior of these blocks. Aligning rockfall source zones in an early point cloud dataset to a later dataset generates a transformation matrix describing the movement of the block from one scan to the next. This process was repeated such that the motion of the block over the entire TLS data coverage period was measured. A 3D roto-translation algorithm was then used to resolve the motion into translation and rotation components (Oppikofer et al. 2009; Kromer et al. 2015). Structural information was plotted on a stereonet for further analysis. A total of 111 rockfall events exceeding a volume of 1 m3 were analyzed using this approach. The study reveals that although some rockfall source blocks blocks do not exhibit detectable levels of deformation prior to failure, others do experience cm-level translation and rotation on the order of 1 to 6 degrees before detaching from the slope. Moreover, these movements may, in some cases, be related to the discontinuity

  18. Estimation of 3D cardiac deformation using spatio-temporal elastic registration of non-scanconverted ultrasound data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, An; Loeckx, Dirk; Choi, Hon Fai; Gao, Hang; Claus, Piet; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; D'hooge, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Current ultrasound methods for measuring myocardial strain are often limited to measurements in one or two dimensions. Spatio-temporal elastic registration of 3D cardiac ultrasound data can however be used to estimate the 3D motion and full 3D strain tensor. In this work, the spatio-temporal elastic registration method was validated for both non-scanconverted and scanconverted images. This was done using simulated 3D pyramidal ultrasound data sets based on a thick-walled deforming ellipsoid and an adapted convolution model. A B-spline based frame-to-frame elastic registration method was applied to both the scanconverted and non-scanconverded data sets and the accuracy of the resulting deformation fields was quantified. The mean accuracy of the estimated displacement was very similar for the scanconverted and non-scanconverted data sets and thus, it was shown that 3D elastic registration to estimate the cardiac deformation from ultrasound images can be performed on non-scanconverted images, but that avoiding of the scanconversion step does not significantly improve the results of the displacement estimation.

  19. Quantifying the contribution of pincer deformity to femoro-acetabular impingement using 3D computerised tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandachli, Wael; Najefi, Ali; Iranpour, Farhad; Lenihan, Jonathan; Hart, Alister; Cobb, Justin [Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    To provide a simple, reliable method for the three-dimensional quantification of pincer-type hip deformity. Computerised tomography scans of 16 normal female hips and 15 female hips with clinical femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) and radiographic signs of pincer secondary to acetabular protrusio were analysed. After orientating the pelvis in the anterior pelvic plane, the acetabular centre was determined, and the ratios of its coordinates to the corresponding pelvic dimensions were calculated. Acetabular coverage of the femoral head and centre-edge angles were also measured for the two groups. In hips with a pincer, the hip was medialised by 37 % (p = 0.03), more proximal by 5 % (p = 0.05) and more posterior by 9 % (p = 0.03) compared with the normal hips. Coverage of the femoral head in protrusio hips was significantly greater than normal (average 71 % vs 82 %, p = 0.0001). Both the lateral centre-edge angle and the combined anterior-posterior centre-edge angle were greater in protrusio hips than in the normal ones (48 vs 37 , p < 0.001; and 216 vs 176 , p < 0.0001 respectively). Displacement in acetabular protrusio occurs in all planes. This CT-based method allows for the accurate and standardised quantification of the extent of displacement, as well as 3D measurement of femoral head coverage. In the adult female population, a combined centre-edge angle of over 190 suggests an acetabulum that is too deep and a potential cause of symptoms of femoro-acetabular impingement. Conversely, an acetabulum that has a combined centre-edge angle of less than 190 may be considered to be of normal depth, and therefore not contributing a pincer to FAI should it occur. (orig.)

  20. Pilot study of 3D image correlation photogrammetry to assess strain and deformation of mouthguard materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Mendel, Deborah A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the use of 3D image correlation photogrammetry (3DIC) in comparing strain characteristics of three commercially available mouthguard materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. 3DIC was used to measure strain and deformation on the surface of a mouthguard and a resin model. A computed tomographic scan of a maxilla of a patient was used to fabricate a resin test model. Three mouthguard materials were tested: conventional ethylene vinyl acetate; Proform TM, a thermoplastic material; and Polyshok TM, an EVA product containing polyurethane. Three mouthguards of each of the three materials were fabricated and fitted to the acrylic model for testing. A speckle pattern was applied to the external surfaces of each of the mouthguards. Static mechanical tests using a servohydraulic load frame at 10, 25, and 50 pounds of force were applied to the mouthguards while on the resin model. Strains were measured in both the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes using (3DIC). Measured strains were analysed by 4-way anova. For all three materials tested, the difference in strain between two measured directions (X and Y) was found to be statistically significant for all regions evaluated. The analysis indicated that each direction, region, and load was involved in a statistically significant effect (P materials. Differences in strains in two directions were found to be significant for the materials studied (P materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. Materials, along with larger sample sizes, may improve confidence levels of the results. Further testing is indicated before clinical claims can be made. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dynamic tracking of a deformable tissue based on 3D-2D MR-US image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marami, Bahram; Sirouspour, Shahin; Fenster, Aaron; Capson, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Real-time registration of pre-operative magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) images with intra-operative Ultrasound (US) images can be a valuable tool in image-guided therapies and interventions. This paper presents an automatic method for dynamically tracking the deformation of a soft tissue based on registering pre-operative three-dimensional (3D) MR images to intra-operative two-dimensional (2D) US images. The registration algorithm is based on concepts in state estimation where a dynamic finite element (FE)- based linear elastic deformation model correlates the imaging data in the spatial and temporal domains. A Kalman-like filtering process estimates the unknown deformation states of the soft tissue using the deformation model and a measure of error between the predicted and the observed intra-operative imaging data. The error is computed based on an intensity-based distance metric, namely, modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND), and no segmentation or feature extraction from images is required. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by dynamically deforming 3D pre-operative MR images of a breast phantom tissue based on real-time 2D images obtained from an US probe. Experimental results on different registration scenarios showed that deformation tracking converges in a few iterations. The average target registration error on the plane of 2D US images for manually selected fiducial points was between 0.3 and 1.5 mm depending on the size of deformation.

  2. Using the 3D active fault model to estimate the surface deformation, a study on HsinChu area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. K.; Ke, M. C.; Ke, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    An active fault is commonly considered to be active if they have moved one or more times in the last 10,000 years and likely to have another earthquake sometime in the future. The relationship between the fault reactivation and the surface deformation after the Chi-Chi earthquake (M=7.2) in 1999 has been concerned up to now. According to the investigations of well-known disastrous earthquakes in recent years, indicated that surface deformation is controlled by the 3D fault geometric shape. Because the surface deformation may cause dangerous damage to critical infrastructures, buildings, roads, power, water and gas lines etc. Therefore it's very important to make pre-disaster risk assessment via the 3D active fault model to decrease serious economic losses, people injuries and deaths caused by large earthquake. The approaches to build up the 3D active fault model can be categorized as (1) field investigation (2) digitized profile data and (3) build the 3D modeling. In this research, we tracked the location of the fault scarp in the field first, then combined the seismic profiles (had been balanced) and historical earthquake data to build the underground fault plane model by using SKUA-GOCAD program. Finally compared the results come from trishear model (written by Richard W. Allmendinger, 2012) and PFC-3D program (Itasca) and got the calculated range of the deformation area. By analysis of the surface deformation area made from Hsin-Chu Fault, we concluded the result the damage zone is approaching 68 286m, the magnitude is 6.43, the offset is 0.6m. base on that to estimate the population casualties, building damage by the M=6.43 earthquake in Hsin-Chu area, Taiwan. In the future, in order to be applied accurately on earthquake disaster prevention, we need to consider further the groundwater effect and the soil structure interaction inducing by faulting.

  3. A workflow for sub-/seismic structure and deformation quantification of 3-D reflection seismic data sets across different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, C.M.; Lohr, T.; Oncken, O. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Tanner, D.C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). GZG; Endres, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)]|[TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Trappe, H.; Kukla, P. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The evolution of a sedimentary basin is mostly affected by deformation. Large-scale, subsurface deformation is typically identified by seismic data, sub-seismic small-scale fractures by well data. Between these two methods, we lack a deeper understanding of how deformation scales. We analysed a 3-D reflection seismic data set in the North German Basin, in order to determine the magnitude and distribution of deformation and its accumulation in space and time. A five-step approach is introduced for quantitative deformation and fracture prediction. An increased resolution of subtle tectonic lineaments is achieved by coherency processing, allowing to unravel the kinematics in the North German Basin from structural interpretation. Extensional events during basin initiation and later inversion are evident. 3-D retrodeformation shows major-strain magnitudes between 0-20% up to 1.3 km away from a fault trace, and variable deviations of associated extensional fractures. Good correlation of FMI data, strain distribution from retro-deformation and from geostatistic tools (see also Trappe et al., this volume) allows the validation of the results and makes the prediction of small-scale faults/fractures possible. The temporal component will be gained in the future by analogue models. The suggested workflow is applicable to reflection seismic surveys and yields in great detail both the tectonic history of a region as well as predictions for hydrocarbon plays or deep groundwater or geothermal reservoirs. (orig.)

  4. Speckle-interferometric measurement system of 3D deformation to obtain thickness changes of thin specimen under tensile loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarsch, Robert; Zhang, Jiajun; Sguazzo, Carmen; Hartmann, Stefan; Rembe, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of materials and geometries in tensile tests and the extraction of mechanic parameters is an important field in solid mechanics. Especially the measurement of thickness changes is important to obtain accurate strain information of specimens under tensile loads. Current optical measurement methods comprising 3D digital image correlation enable thickness-change measurement only with nm-resolution. We present a phase-shifting electronic speckle-pattern interferometer in combination with speckle-correlation technique to measure the 3D deformation. The phase-shift for the interferometer is introduced by fast wavelength tuning of a visible diode laser by injection current. In a post-processing step, both measurements can be combined to reconstruct the 3D deformation. In this contribution, results of a 3Ddeformation measurement for a polymer membrane are presented. These measurements show sufficient resolution for the detection of 3D deformations of thin specimen in tensile test. In future work we address the thickness changes of thin specimen under tensile loads.

  5. Analysis of mitochondrial 3D-deformation in cardiomyocytes during active contraction reveals passive structural anisotropy of orthogonal short axes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available The cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton, composed of rigid and elastic elements, maintains the isolated cell in an elongated cylindrical shape with an elliptical cross-section, even during contraction-relaxation cycles. Cardiomyocyte mitochondria are micron-sized, fluid-filled passive spheres distributed throughout the cell in a crystal-like lattice, arranged in pairs sandwiched between the sarcomere contractile machinery, both longitudinally and radially. Their shape represents the extant 3-dimensional (3D force-balance. We developed a novel method to examine mitochondrial 3D-deformation in response to contraction and relaxation to understand how dynamic forces are balanced inside cardiomyocytes. The variation in transmitted light intensity induced by the periodic lattice of myofilaments alternating with mitochondrial rows can be analyzed by Fourier transformation along a given cardiomyocyte axis to measure mitochondrial deformation along that axis. This technique enables precise detection of changes in dimension of ∼1% in ∼1 µm (long-axis structures with 8 ms time-resolution. During active contraction (1 Hz stimulation, mitochondria deform along the length- and width-axes of the cell with similar deformation kinetics in both sarcomere and mitochondrial structures. However, significant deformation anisotropy (without hysteresis was observed between the orthogonal short-axes (i.e., width and depth of mitochondria during electrical stimulation. The same degree of deformation anisotropy was also found between the myocyte orthogonal short-axes during electrical stimulation. Therefore, the deformation of the mitochondria reflects the overall deformation of the cell, and the apparent stiffness and stress/strain characteristics of the cytoskeleton differ appreciably between the two cardiomyocyte orthogonal short-axes. This method may be applied to obtaining a better understanding of the dynamic force-balance inside cardiomyocytes and of changes in the

  6. Real-time 3D visualization of the thoraco-abdominal surface during breathing with body movement and deformation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšič, K; Jezeršek, M; Možina, J

    2015-07-01

    Real-time 3D visualization of the breathing displacements can be a useful diagnostic tool in order to immediately observe the most active regions on the thoraco-abdominal surface. The developed method is capable of separating non-relevant torso movement and deformations from the deformations that are solely related to breathing. This makes it possible to visualize only the breathing displacements. The system is based on the structured laser triangulation principle, with simultaneous spatial and color data acquisition of the thoraco-abdominal region. Based on the tracking of the attached passive markers, the torso movement and deformation is compensated using rigid and non-rigid transformation models on the three-dimensional (3D) data. The total time of 3D data processing together with visualization equals 20 ms per cycle.In vitro verification of the rigid movement extraction was performed using the iterative closest point algorithm as a reference. Furthermore, a volumetric evaluation on a live subject was performed to establish the accuracy of the rigid and non-rigid model. The root mean square deviation between the measured and the reference volumes shows an error of  ±0.08 dm(3) for rigid movement extraction. Similarly, the error was calculated to be  ±0.02 dm(3) for torsional deformation extraction and  ±0.11 dm(3) for lateral bending deformation extraction. The results confirm that during the torso movement and deformation, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to visualize only the displacements related to breathing. The method can be used, for example, during the breathing exercise on an indoor bicycle or a treadmill.

  7. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.

  8. 3D modeling of organic haze in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, François

    2017-05-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto on July 14, 2015, revealed the presence of haze in Pluto's atmosphere that were formed by CH4/N2 photochemistry at high altitudes in Pluto's atmosphere, as on Titan and Triton. In order to help the analysis of the observations and further investigate the formation of organic haze and its evolution at global scales, we have implemented a simple parameterization of the formation of organic haze in our Pluto General Circulation Model. The production of haze in our model is based on the different steps of aerosol formation as understood on Titan and Triton: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by Lyman-α UV radiation, production of various gaseous species, and conversion into solid particles through accumulation and aggregation processes. The simulations use properties of aerosols similar to those observed in the detached haze layer on Titan. We compared two reference simulations ran with a particle radius of 50 nm: with, and without South Pole N2 condensation. We discuss the impact of the particle radius and the lifetime of the precursors on the haze distribution. We simulate CH4 photolysis and the haze formation up to 600 km above the surface. Results show that CH4 photolysis in Pluto's atmosphere in 2015 occurred mostly in the sunlit summer hemisphere with a peak at an altitude of 250 km, though the interplanetary source of Lyman-α flux can induce some photolysis even in the Winter hemisphere. We obtained an extensive haze up to altitudes comparable with the observations, and with non-negligible densities up to 500 km altitude. In both reference simulations, the haze density is not strongly impacted by the meridional circulation. With No South Pole N2 condensation, the maximum nadir opacity and haze extent is obtained at the North Pole. With South Pole N2 condensation, the descending parcel of air above the South Pole leads to a latitudinally more homogeneous haze density with a slight density peak at the South

  9. 3D FEM simulations of the rolling of stator vanes, including tool deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tool deformation is an important issue in the shape rolling of stator vanes as it directly influences the thickness of the rolled vane. This means that for the design of an accurate production process the deformation of the tools has to be accounted for. The shape rolling of symmetrical straight van

  10. Comparative Analysis of Bulge Deformation between 2D and 3D Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulge deformation of the slab is one of the main factors that affect slab quality in continuous casting. This paper describes an investigation into bulge deformation using ABAQUS to model the solidification process. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of the slab solidification process has been first established because the bulge deformation is closely related to slab temperature distributions. Based on slab temperature distributions, a three-dimensional thermomechanical coupling model including the slab, the rollers, and the dynamic contact between them has also been constructed and applied to a case study. The thermomechanical coupling model produces outputs such as the rules of bulge deformation. Moreover, the three-dimensional model has been compared with a two-dimensional model to discuss the differences between the two models in calculating the bulge deformation. The results show that the platform zone exists in the wide side of the slab and the bulge deformation is affected strongly by the ratio of width-to-thickness. The indications are also that the difference of the bulge deformation for the two modeling ways is little when the ratio of width-to-thickness is larger than six.

  11. 3D Quaternary deformation pattern in the central Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, G.; Mueller, K.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Berlusconi, A.; Carcano, C.; Rogledi, S.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    have been identified. We interpreted them as N-verging fault propagation folds with low angle ramps that detach the Gonfolite Lombarda clastics (Oligo - Miocene; Bernoulli et al., 1989; Gelati et al., 1991) from the underlying Upper Cretaceous carbonates. The present-day geomorphic evidence of these two structures are represented by the Pievedizio, Capriano, Castenedolo and Ciliverghe Hills South of Brescia (Livio et al, 2008; Michetti et al., 2008). On the basin floor domain nine structures have been identified. Six of them belong to the Southern Alps and we interpreted them as S-verging fault propagation folds. All these structures have a double plunging termination (Burbank & Anderson, 2001) that mark the endpoints of actively slipping blind thrusts. These structures range from 11 to 16 km long with an average strike of N 110° E. The remaining three structures record shortening at the leading edge of the Apennines; their axial lengths range from 8 to 28 km and the average axial strike is 110°. These structures thus define the 3D architecture of blind thrusts hidden beneath the basin floor; these collectively define the two active, facing fronts of the Apennines and Southern Alps thrust belts (Fantoni et al. 2004). ‘R' Surface The second analyzed surface is the ‘R' surface (0.9 Myr.); strain measured across this sequence stratigraphic boundary confirmed and further defines the magnitude and timing of shortening accommodated by fault propagation folds described on the ‘A' surface. Differences between the basin between "A" and "R" surface time include the arrangement of the structures on the basin floor and by the number of the identified structures. The Alpine platform domain in "R" time is in fact more extended than on the ‘A' surface, and a less steep slope links it with a wider but less deep basin domain; the Apennines platform is smaller, because it has been involved in the deformation of the more internal Apennines structures. The basin floor is ca. 30

  12. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  13. The mechanisms of driving lithospheric deformation in India-Asia collision zone: a perspective from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.

  14. Calculation of the Slip System Activity in Deformed Zinc Single Crystals Using Digital 3-D Image Correlation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florando, J; Rhee, M; Arsenlis, A; LeBlanc, M; Lassila, D

    2006-02-21

    A 3-D image correlation system, which measures the full-field displacements in 3 dimensions, has been used to experimentally determine the full deformation gradient matrix for two zinc single crystals. Based on the image correlation data, the slip system activity for the two crystals has been calculated. The results of the calculation show that for one crystal, only the primary slip system is active, which is consistent with traditional theory. The other crystal however, shows appreciable deformation on slip systems other than the primary. An analysis has been conducted which confirms the experimental observation that these other slip system deform in such a manner that the net result is slip which is approximately one third the magnitude and directly orthogonal to the primary system.

  15. Fabrication, Characterization, And Deformation of 3D Structural Meta-Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Lauren C.

    Current technological advances in fabrication methods have provided pathways to creating architected structural meta-materials similar to those found in natural organisms that are structurally robust and lightweight, such as diatoms. Structural meta-materials are materials with mechanical properties that are determined by material properties at various length scales, which range from the material microstructure (nm) to the macro-scale architecture (mum -- mm). It is now possible to exploit material size effect, which emerge at the nanometer length scale, as well as structural effects to tune the material properties and failure mechanisms of small-scale cellular solids, such as nanolattices. This work demonstrates the fabrication and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional hollow nanolattices in both tension and compression. Hollow gold nanolattices loaded in uniaxial compression demonstrate that strength and stiffness vary as a function of geometry and tube wall thickness. Structural effects were explored by increasing the unit cell angle from 30° to 60° while keeping all other parameters constant; material size effects were probed by varying the tube wall thickness, t, from 200nm to 635nm, at a constant relative density and grain size. In-situ uniaxial compression experiments reveal an order-of-magnitude increase in yield stress and modulus in nanolattices with greater lattice angles, and a 150% increase in the yield strength without a concomitant change in modulus in thicker-walled nanolattices for fixed lattice angles. These results imply that independent control of structural and material size effects enables tunability of mechanical properties of 3-dimensional architected meta-materials and highlight the importance of material, geometric, and microstructural effects in small-scale mechanics. This work also explores the flaw tolerance of 3D hollow-tube alumina kagome nanolattices with and without pre-fabricated notches, both in experiment and simulation

  16. Deformed phase space for 3d loop gravity and hyperbolic discrete geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzom, Valentin; Girelli, Florian; Livine, Etera R

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the loop gravity space phase for 3D Riemannian gravity by algebraically constructing the phase space $T^*\\mathrm{SU}(2)\\sim\\mathrm{ISO}(3)$ as the Heisenberg double of the Lie group $\\mathrm{SO}(3)$ provided with the trivial cocyle. Tackling the issue of accounting for a non-vanishing cosmological constraint $\\Lambda \

  17. 3D High Resolution Mesh Deformation Based on Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Naziha; Elkefi, Akram; Bellil, Wajdi; Amar, Chokri Ben

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the features of a novel technique for large Laplacian boundary deformations using estimated rotations. The proposed method is based on a Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network structure founded on several mother wavelet families (MLWNN). The objective is to align features of mesh and minimize distortion with a fixed feature that minimizes the sum of the distances between all corresponding vertices. New mesh deformation method worked in the domain of Region of Interest (ROI). Our approach computes deformed ROI, updates and optimizes it to align features of mesh based on MLWNN and spherical parameterization configuration. This structure has the advantage of constructing the network by several mother wavelets to solve high dimensions problem using the best wavelet mother that models the signal better. The simulation test achieved the robustness and speed considerations when developing deformation methodologies. The Mean-Square Error and the ratio of deformation are low compared to other works from the state of the art. Our approach minimizes distortions with fixed features to have a well reconstructed object.

  18. Multi-stage 3D-2D registration for correction of anatomical deformation in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Jacobson, M. W.; Goerres, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A multi-stage image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented that maps annotations in a 3D image (e.g. point labels annotating individual vertebrae in preoperative CT) to an intraoperative radiograph in which the patient has undergone non-rigid anatomical deformation due to changes in patient positioning or due to the intervention itself. The proposed method (termed msLevelCheck) extends a previous rigid registration solution (LevelCheck) to provide an accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of spinal deformation. The method employs a multi-stage series of rigid 3D-2D registrations performed on sets of automatically determined and increasingly localized sub-images, with the final stage achieving a rigid mapping for each label to yield a locally rigid yet globally deformable solution. The method was evaluated first in a phantom study in which a CT image of the spine was acquired followed by a series of 7 mobile radiographs with increasing degree of deformation applied. Second, the method was validated using a clinical data set of patients exhibiting strong spinal deformation during thoracolumbar spine surgery. Registration accuracy was assessed using projection distance error (PDE) and failure rate (PDE  >  20 mm—i.e. label registered outside vertebra). The msLevelCheck method was able to register all vertebrae accurately for all cases of deformation in the phantom study, improving the maximum PDE of the rigid method from 22.4 mm to 3.9 mm. The clinical study demonstrated the feasibility of the approach in real patient data by accurately registering all vertebral labels in each case, eliminating all instances of failure encountered in the conventional rigid method. The multi-stage approach demonstrated accurate mapping of vertebral labels in the presence of strong spinal deformation. The msLevelCheck method maintains other advantageous aspects of the original LevelCheck method (e.g. compatibility with standard clinical workflow, large

  19. From 3D Bioprinters to a fully integrated Organ Biofabrication Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamai, V. E.; Dernowsek, J. A.; Nogueira, J.; Lara, V.; Vilalba, F.; Mironov, V. A.; Rezende, R. A.; da Silva, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    About 30 years ago, the 3D printing technique appeared. From that time on, engineers in medical science field started to look at 3D printing as a partner. Firstly, biocompatible and biodegradable 3D structures for cell seeding called “scaffolds” were fabricated for in vitro and in vivo animal trials. The advances proved to be of great importance, but, the use of scaffolds faces some limitations, such as low homogeneity and low density of cell aggregates. In the last decade, 3D bioprinting technology emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and as one potential solution to the challenge of organ fabrication, to obtain very similar 3D human tissues, not only for transplantation, but also for drug discovery, disease research and to decrease the usage of animals in laboratory experimentation. 3D bioprinting allowed the fabrication of 3D alive structures with higher and controllable cell density and homogeneity. Other advantage of biofabrication is that the tissue constructs are solid scaffold-free. This paper presents the 3D bioprinting technology; equipment development, stages and components of a complex Organ Bioprinting Line (OBL) and the importance of developing a Virtual OBL.

  20. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell-matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S; Franck, Christian

    2016-03-15

    Mechanobiology relates cellular processes to mechanical signals, such as determining the effect of variations in matrix stiffness with cell tractions. Cell traction recorded via traction force microscopy (TFM) commonly takes place on materials such as polyacrylamide- and polyethylene glycol-based gels. Such experiments remain limited in physiological relevance because cells natively migrate within complex tissue microenvironments that are spatially heterogeneous and hierarchical. Yet, TFM requires determination of the matrix constitutive law (stress-strain relationship), which is not always readily available. In addition, the currently achievable displacement resolution limits the accuracy of TFM for relatively small cells. To overcome these limitations, and increase the physiological relevance of in vitro experimental design, we present a new approach and a set of associated biomechanical signatures that are based purely on measurements of the matrix's displacements without requiring any knowledge of its constitutive laws. We show that our mean deformation metrics (MDM) approach can provide significant biophysical information without the need to explicitly determine cell tractions. In the process of demonstrating the use of our MDM approach, we succeeded in expanding the capability of our displacement measurement technique such that it can now measure the 3D deformations around relatively small cells (∼10 micrometers), such as neutrophils. Furthermore, we also report previously unseen deformation patterns generated by motile neutrophils in 3D collagen gels.

  1. A cubic interpolation pipeline for fast computation of 3D deformation fields modeled using B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Shekhar, Raj

    2006-02-01

    Fast computation of 3D deformation fields is critical to bringing the application of automated elastic image registration algorithms to routine clinical practice. However, it lies beyond the computational power of current microprocessors; therefore requiring implementations using either massively parallel computers or application-specific hardware accelerators. The use of massively parallel computers in a clinical setting is not practical or cost-effective, therefore making the use of hardware accelerators necessary. We present a hardware pipeline that allows accelerating the computation of 3D deformation fields to speeds up to two orders of magnitude faster than software implementations on current workstations and about 64 times faster than other previously reported architectures. The pipeline implements a version of the free-form deformation calculation algorithm, which is optimized to minimize the number of arithmetic operations required to calculate the transformation of a given set of neighboring voxels, thereby achieving an efficient and compact implementation in hardware which allows its use as part of a larger system.

  2. 3D reconstruction and analysis of wing deformation in free-flying dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Christopher; Liang, Zongxian; Gaston, Zachary; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo

    2012-09-01

    Insect wings demonstrate elaborate three-dimensional deformations and kinematics. These deformations are key to understanding many aspects of insect flight including aerodynamics, structural dynamics and control. In this paper, we propose a template-based subdivision surface reconstruction method that is capable of reconstructing the wing deformations and kinematics of free-flying insects based on the output of a high-speed camera system. The reconstruction method makes no rigid wing assumptions and allows for an arbitrary arrangement of marker points on the interior and edges of each wing. The resulting wing surfaces are projected back into image space and compared with expert segmentations to validate reconstruction accuracy. A least squares plane is then proposed as a universal reference to aid in making repeatable measurements of the reconstructed wing deformations. Using an Eastern pondhawk (Erythimus simplicicollis) dragonfly for demonstration, we quantify and visualize the wing twist and camber in both the chord-wise and span-wise directions, and discuss the implications of the results. In particular, a detailed analysis of the subtle deformation in the dragonfly's right hindwing suggests that the muscles near the wing root could be used to induce chord-wise camber in the portion of the wing nearest the specimen's body. We conclude by proposing a novel technique for modeling wing corrugation in the reconstructed flapping wings. In this method, displacement mapping is used to combine wing surface details measured from static wings with the reconstructed flapping wings, while not requiring any additional information be tracked in the high speed camera output.

  3. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka Jayaratne

    Full Text Available 1 To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2 To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients.Cone-beam CT (CBCT scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG and retropalatal (RP compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom.The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3 compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3. The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities.Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency.

  4. 3D-printed biological organs: medical potential and patenting opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has emerged as a new disruptive technology that may address the ever-increasing demand for organ transplants. 3D bioprinting offers many technical features that allow for building functional biological tissue constructs by dispensing the individual or group of cells into specific locations along with various types of bio-scaffold materials and extracellular matrices, and thus, may provide flexibility needed for on-demand individualized construction of biological organs. Several key classes of 3D bioprinting techniques are reviewed, including potential medical and industrial applications. Several unanswered engineering components for the ultimate creation of printed biological organs are also discussed. The complicated nature of the human organs, in addition to the legal and ethical requirements for safe implantation into the human body, would require significant research and development to produce marketable bioprinted organs. This also suggests the possibility for further patenting and licensing opportunities from different sectors of the economy.

  5. 3D plant phenotyping in sunflower using architecture-based organ segmentation from 3D point clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gélard, William; Burger, Philippe; Casadebaig, Pierre; Langlade, Nicolas; Debaeke, Philippe; Devy, Michel; Herbulot, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a 3D phenotyping method applied to sunflower, allowing to compute the leaf area of an isolated plant. This is a preliminary step towards the automated monitoring of leaf area and plant growth through the plant life cycle. First, a model-based segmentation method is applied to 3D data derived from RGB images acquired on sunflower plants grown in pots. The RGB image acquisitions are made all around the isolated plant with a single hand-held standard c...

  6. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsworth Kevin; Block Steve; Glatt Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illu...

  7. Metastatic liver tumour segmentation with a neural network-guided 3D deformable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Eugene; Tang, An; Roy, David; Pal, Christopher J; Kadoury, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The segmentation of liver tumours in CT images is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer. Furthermore, an accurate assessment of tumour volume aids in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response. Currently, segmentation is performed manually by an expert, and because of the time required, a rough estimate of tumour volume is often done instead. We propose a semi-automatic segmentation method that makes use of machine learning within a deformable surface model. Specifically, we propose a deformable model that uses a voxel classifier based on a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to interpret the CT image. The new deformable model considers vertex displacement towards apparent tumour boundaries and regularization that promotes surface smoothness. During operation, a user identifies the target tumour and the mesh then automatically delineates the tumour from the MLP processed image. The method was tested on a dataset of 40 abdominal CT scans with a total of 95 colorectal metastases collected from a variety of scanners with variable spatial resolution. The segmentation results are encouraging with a Dice similarity metric of [Formula: see text] and demonstrates that the proposed method can deal with highly variable data. This work motivates further research into tumour segmentation using machine learning with more data and deeper neural networks.

  8. Computer Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding, a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld such as aluminum alloys. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and thus tracks the aluminum deformation flow paths in a unique 3-dimensional manner. CT scanning is a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  9. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900

  10. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-11-14

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.

  11. Strong light absorption of self-organized 3-D nanospike arrays for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Ching, Kwong-Lung; Lin, Qingfeng; Leung, Siu-Fung; Arcrossito, Diaz; Fan, Zhiyong

    2011-11-22

    Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructures have been widely explored for efficient light trapping; however, many of the nanostructure fabrication processes reported have high cost and/or limited scalability. In this work, self-organized 3-D Al nanospike arrays were successfully fabricated on thin Al foils with controlled nanospike geometry such as height and pitch. Thereafter, photovoltaic materials of a-Si and CdTe thin films were conformally deposited on the nanospikes structures thus forming 3-D nanostructures with strong light absorption over a broad wavelength range and photon incident angle. Specifically, 100 nm-thick CdTe film on nanospikes showed 97% peak absorption, and up to 95% day-integrated sunlight absorption. These results indicate that self-organized 3-D Al nanospike arrays can serve as lightweight and low cost substrates for cost-effective thin film photovoltaics.

  12. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan

    2009-01-01

    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  13. A Simulation of crustal deformation around sourthwest Japan using 3D Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, T.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.

    2015-12-01

    In southwest Japan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian plate at the Nankai Trough. Megathrust earthquakes have been occurred with recurrence intervals of about 100-150 years. Previous studies have estimated co-seismic slip distribution at the 1944 Tokankai and the 1946 Nankai earthquakes and interplate plate coupling along the Nankai Trough. Many of previous studies employed a homogeneous elastic half space or elastic and viscoelastic layers structure. However, these assumptions as mentioned above are inadequate, since inhomogeneous structure is exceled in the real earth result from subducting plate. Therefore, in order to estimate the effect of inhomogeneous structure on the crustal deformation, we calculate crustal deformation due to Megathrust earthquake using 3-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). We use FEM software PyLith v2.1. In this study, we construct a finite element mesh with the region of 3000km(SW) × 2300km(NS) × 400km(depth) cover Japanese Islands, using Cubit 13.0. This mesh is considered topography, the Philippine Sea plate, the Pacific plate, Moho discontinuity, and curvature of the earth. In order to examine differences of surface displacement between inhomogeneous and homogeneous structures, we use co-seismic slip distribution of the 1944 and 1946 earthquakes estimated by Sagiya and Thatcher (1999). In result, surface elastic response under inhomogeneous structure becomes 30% larger than it's homogeneous structure at the Muroto cape. This difference indicates that co-seismic slip or plate coupling distribution estimated from Green's function under an assumption of homogeneous structure is overestimated. Then, we calculate viscoelastic response assuming Maxwell rheology model and viscosity as 1×1019. As a result, predicted horizontal velocity of viscoelastic response due to the events corresponds to 10 % of observed present deformation. It suggest that spatial pattern of plate coupling might be change when we

  14. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping registration of reconstructed 3D histological section images and in vivo MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ceritoglu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of neuroanatomical abnormalities in neuropsychiatric diseases is based largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and post mortem histological analyses of the brain. Further advances in elucidating altered brain structure in these human conditions might emerge from combining MRI and histological methods. We propose a multistage method for registering 3D volumes reconstructed from histological sections to corresponding in vivo MRI volumes from the same subjects: (1 manual segmentation of white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments in histological sections, (2 alignment of consecutive histological sections using 2D rigid transformation to construct a 3D histological image volume from the aligned sections, (3 registration of reconstructed 3D histological volumes to the corresponding 3D MRI volumes using 3D affine transformation, (4 intensity normalization of images via histogram matching and (5 registration of the volumes via intensity based Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric (LDDMM image matching algorithm. Here we demonstrate the utility of our method in the transfer of cytoarchitectonic information from histological sections to identify regions of interest in MRI scans of nine adult macaque brains for morphometric analyses. LDDMM improved the accuracy of the registration via decreased distances between GM/CSF surfaces after LDDMM (0.39±0.13 mm compared to distances after affine registration (0.76±0.41 mm. Similarly, WM/GM distances decreased to 0.28±0.16 mm after LDDMM compared to 0.54±0.39 mm after affine registration. The multistage registration method may find broad application for mapping histologically based information, e.g., receptor distributions, gene expression, onto MRI volumes.

  15. 3D EBSD charactyerization of deformation structures in commercial purity aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengxiang, Lin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    diffraction. Techniques to carefully align the sample and to accurately measure the thickness of the material removed in each serial section are described. A new method for stacking the two dimensional maps together to produce a three dimensional visualization of the microstructure is presented. The data...... are analyzed in terms of the deformation-induced orientation spread within each grain. In particular the advantage of using three dimensional data, as opposed to two dimensional data, is illustrated, by inclusion of information about the three dimensional morphology of a grain and its neighbors....

  16. Corotational formulation for 3d solids. An analysis of geometrically nonlinear foam deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarczyk, Łukasz; Pearce, Chris J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theory for the Lagrange co-rotational (CR) formulation of finite elements in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of 3D structures. In this paper strains are assumed to be small while the magnitude of rotations from the reference configuration is not restricted. A new best fit rotator and consistent spin filter are derived. Lagrange CR formulation is applied with Hybrid Trefftz Stress elements, although presented methodology can be applied to arbitrary problem formulation and discretization technique, f.e. finite volume methods and lattice models, discreet element methods. Efficiency of CR formulation can be utilized in post-buckling stability analysis, damage and fracture mechanics, modelling of dynamic fragmentation of bodies made from quasi-brittle materials, solid fluid interactions and analysis of post-stressed structures, discreet body dynamics.

  17. Towards Single-Step Biofabrication of Organs on a Chip via 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yenilmez, Bekir; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-09-01

    Organ-on-a-chip engineering employs microfabrication of living tissues within microscale fluid channels to create constructs that closely mimic human organs. With the advent of 3D printing, we predict that single-step fabrication of these devices will enable rapid design and cost-effective iterations in the development stage, facilitating rapid innovation in this field.

  18. 3 D FEM analysis of welding residual stress and deformation of aero-engine blisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 周号; 雷靖; 方洪渊; 张学秋; 曲伸

    2014-01-01

    Aero-engine blisk welded by electron beam welding(EBW)method is a complicated structure.Fixtures were used to control the deformation ofblisk during its manufacturing process.Finite element method was utilized to study the evolution of the welding residual stress and deformation of this structure.In which an attenuation function was applied to the double ellipsoid heat source model based on the characteristic ofEBW,and the effects offixtures on the welding residual stresses and deforamtion were also reserached.The simulation results showed that the temperature contour ofweld cross section vertical to the weld centerline followed a “V”shape.Moreover,large welding residual stress and distortion were found in the interface between blisk and fixtures.The stress concentration was reduced sufficiently in starting and end part ofweldment as the fixtures were removed after welding process,while the removing operation had almost no effects on the welding residual stress in the middle section ofweld bead.

  19. 3D Finite Element Modeling of the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Deformation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, M.; Casarotti, E.; Piersanti, A.

    2009-12-01

    The L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) occurred on April 6th at 01:32 UTC in the Central Appennines at a depth of about 9 km and was felt all over Central Italy. The main shock was preceded by a long seismic sequence started several months before and was followed by thousands of aftershocks, some of them with Mw>4. We built up a high resolution three-dimensional model, incorporating surface topography, which was discretized using 20-nodes brick elements. The element horizontal size is biased from 500 m to 2 km using the paving meshing algorithm in combination with an appropriate adaptive sizing function. A realistic rheology was introduced from a vp/vpvs travel time tomographic model. We computed the co-seismic deformation induced by the earthquake by means of a recently developed finite elements simulation tool, FEMSA (Finite Element Modeling for Seismic Applications). We used different seismic source models obtained from fault inversion of GPS measurements, joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data and from inversion of DInSAR displacements. The synthetic deformation patterns were compared with the experimental results in order to evaluate which source model better reconciles the data and quantify the trade off introduced by 1D simulations.

  20. Evaluation of deformable image registration between external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer with a 3D-printed deformable pelvis phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Miyasaka, Yuya; Nakajima, Yujiro; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Kengo; Chiba, Mizuki; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Kubozono, Masaki; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a 3D-printed deformable pelvis phantom for evaluating spatial DIR accuracy. We then evaluated the spatial DIR accuracies of various DIR settings for cervical cancer. A deformable female pelvis phantom was created based on patient CT data using 3D printing. To create the deformable uterus phantom, we first 3D printed both a model of uterus and a model of the internal cavities of the vagina and uterus. We then made a mold using the 3D printed uterus phantom. Finally, urethane was poured into the mold with the model of the internal cavities in place, creating the deformable uterus phantom with a cavity into which an applicator could be inserted. To create the deformable bladder phantom, we first 3D printed models of the bladder and of the same bladder scaled down by 2 mm. We then made a mold using the larger bladder model. Finally, silicone was poured into the mold with the smaller bladder model in place to create the deformable bladder phantom with a wall thickness of 2 mm. To emulate the anatomical bladder, water was poured into the created bladder. We acquired phantom image without applicator for EBRT. Then, we inserted the applicator into the phantom to simulate BT. In this situation, we scanned the phantom again to obtain the phantom image for BT. We performed DIR using the two phantom images in two cases: Case A, with full bladder (170 ml) in both EBRT and BT images; and Case B with full bladder in the BT image and half-full bladder (100 ml) in the EBRT image. DIR was evaluated using Dice similarity coefficients (DSCs) and 31 landmarks for the uterus and 25 landmarks for the bladder. A hybrid intensity and structure DIR algorithm implemented in RayStation with four DIR settings was evaluated. On visual inspection, reasonable agreement in shape of the uterus between the phantom and patient CT images was observed for both EBRT and BT, although some regional disagreements in shape of the bladder and rectum were apparent. The created

  1. 3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Dragone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.

  2. 3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products. PMID:23766811

  3. Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frederic; O'Connell, Cathal D; Mladenovska, Tajanka; Dodds, Susan

    2017-02-09

    Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments. Accordingly, this article (1) considers whether there is a limit as to what should be bioprinted in medicine; (2) examines key risks of significant harm associated with testing 3D bioprinting for humans; (3) investigates the clinical trial paradigm used to test 3D bioprinting; (4) analyses ethical questions of irreversibility, loss of treatment opportunity and replicability; (5) explores the current lack of a specific framework for the regulation and testing of 3D bioprinting treatments.

  4. Supersymmetric deformations of 3D SCFTs from tri-sasakian truncation

    CERN Document Server

    Karndumri, Parinya

    2016-01-01

    We holographically study supersymmetric deformations of $N=3$ and $N=1$ superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in three dimensions using four-dimensional $N=4$ gauged supergravity coupled to three-vector multiplets with non-semisimple $SO(3)\\ltimes (\\mathbf{T}^3,\\hat{\\mathbf{T}}^3)$ gauge group. This gauged supergravity can be obtained from a truncation of eleven-dimensional supergravity on a tri-sasakian manifold and admits both $N=1,3$ supersymmetric and stable non-supersymmetric $AdS_4$ critical points. We analyze the BPS equations for $SO(3)$ singlet scalars in details and study possible supersymmetric RG flows to non-conformal field theories. Apart from these "flat" domain wall solutions, we also consider $AdS_3$-sliced domain wall solutions. In the $N=1$ case, a supersymmetric Janus solution, corresponding to a two-dimensional conformal defect with $N=(1,0)$ supersymmetry, exists while this type of solutions is not possible in the $N=3$ case.

  5. Supersymmetric deformations of 3D SCFTs from tri-Sasakian truncation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karndumri, Parinya [Chulalongkorn University, String Theory and Supergravity Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-02-15

    We holographically study supersymmetric deformations of N = 3 and N = 1 superconformal field theories in three dimensions using four-dimensional N = 4 gauged supergravity coupled to three-vector multiplets with non-semisimple SO(3) x (T{sup 3},T{sup 3}) gauge group. This gauged supergravity can be obtained from a truncation of 11-dimensional supergravity on a tri-Sasakian manifold and admits both N = 1,3 supersymmetric and stable non-supersymmetric AdS{sub 4} critical points. We analyze the BPS equations for SO(3) singlet scalars in detail and study possible supersymmetric solutions. A number of RG flows to non-conformal field theories and half-supersymmetric domain walls are found, and many of them can be given analytically. Apart from these ''flat'' domain walls, we also consider AdS{sub 3}-sliced domain wall solutions describing two-dimensional conformal defects with N = (1,0) supersymmetry within the dual N = 1 field theory while this type of solutions does not exist in the N = 3 case. (orig.)

  6. Implicit Shape Reconstruction of Unorganized Points Using PDE-Based Deformable 3D Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena

    2010-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem of shape reconstruction from an unorganized data set which has many important applications in medical imaging, scientific computing, reverse engineering and geometric modelling. The reconstructed surface is obtained by continuously deforming an initial surface following the Partial Differential Equation (PDE)-based diffusion model derived by a minimal volume-like variational formulation. The evolution is driven both by the distance from the data set and by the curvature analytically computed by it. The distance function is computed by implicit local interpolants defined in terms of radial basis functions. Space discretization of the PDE model is obtained by finite co-volume schemes and semi-implicit approach is used in time/scale. The use of a level set method for the numerical computation of the surface reconstruction allows us to handle complex geometry and even changing topology,without the need of user-interaction. Numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to produce high quality reconstructions. Moreover, we show the effectiveness of the new approach to solve hole filling problems and Boolean operations between different data sets.

  7. Towards real-time MRI-guided 3D localization of deforming targets for non-invasive cardiac radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, S.; Blanck, O.; Lowther, N. J.; Liney, G. P.; Rai, R.; Bode, F.; Dunst, J.; Schweikard, A.; Keall, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum in the left atrium (LA) has recently been proposed for non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Precise real-time target localization during treatment is necessary due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion and high radiation doses. To determine the 3D position of the LA for motion compensation during radiosurgery, a tracking method based on orthogonal real-time MRI planes was developed for AF treatments with an MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Four healthy volunteers underwent cardiac MRI of the LA. Contractile motion was quantified on 3D LA models derived from 4D scans with 10 phases acquired in end-exhalation. Three localization strategies were developed and tested retrospectively on 2D real-time scans (sagittal, temporal resolution 100 ms, free breathing). The best-performing method was then used to measure 3D target positions in 2D-2D orthogonal planes (sagittal-coronal, temporal resolution 200-252 ms, free breathing) in 20 configurations of a digital phantom and in the volunteer data. The 3D target localization accuracy was quantified in the phantom and qualitatively assessed in the real data. Mean cardiac contraction was  ⩽  3.9 mm between maximum dilation and contraction but anisotropic. A template matching approach with two distinct template phases and ECG-based selection yielded the highest 2D accuracy of 1.2 mm. 3D target localization showed a mean error of 3.2 mm in the customized digital phantoms. Our algorithms were successfully applied to the 2D-2D volunteer data in which we measured a mean 3D LA motion extent of 16.5 mm (SI), 5.8 mm (AP) and 3.1 mm (LR). Real-time target localization on orthogonal MRI planes was successfully implemented for highly deformable targets treated in cardiac radiosurgery. The developed method measures target shifts caused by respiration and cardiac contraction. If the detected motion can be compensated accordingly, an MRI-guided radiotherapy

  8. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case. PMID:28220752

  9. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsworth Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  10. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  11. Tsunami Generation and Propagation by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in

  12. 3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki; Haddow, Gill; Seymour, Tirion; Faulkner-Jones, Alan; Shu, Wenmiao

    2017-03-20

    In this article, we review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting has the potential to be a 'game-changer', printing human organs on demand, no longer necessitating the need for living or deceased human donation or animal transplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing. Despite a lack of current socioethical engagement with the consequences of the technology, we outline what we see as some preliminary practical, ethical and regulatory issues that need tackling. These relate to managing public expectations and the continuing reliance on technoscientific solutions to diseases that affect high-income countries. Avoiding prescribing a course of action for the way forward in terms of research agendas, we do briefly outline one possible ethical framework 'Responsible Research Innovation' as an oversight model should 3D bioprinting promises are ever realised. 3D bioprinting has a lot to offer in the course of time should it move beyond a conceptual therapy, but is an area that requires ethical oversight and regulation and debate, in the here and now. The purpose of this article is to begin that discussion.

  13. 3D Visual Data-Driven Spatiotemporal Deformations for Non-Rigid Object Grasping Using Robot Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Carlos M.; Gil, Pablo; Torres, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Sensing techniques are important for solving problems of uncertainty inherent to intelligent grasping tasks. The main goal here is to present a visual sensing system based on range imaging technology for robot manipulation of non-rigid objects. Our proposal provides a suitable visual perception system of complex grasping tasks to support a robot controller when other sensor systems, such as tactile and force, are not able to obtain useful data relevant to the grasping manipulation task. In particular, a new visual approach based on RGBD data was implemented to help a robot controller carry out intelligent manipulation tasks with flexible objects. The proposed method supervises the interaction between the grasped object and the robot hand in order to avoid poor contact between the fingertips and an object when there is neither force nor pressure data. This new approach is also used to measure changes to the shape of an object’s surfaces and so allows us to find deformations caused by inappropriate pressure being applied by the hand’s fingers. Test was carried out for grasping tasks involving several flexible household objects with a multi-fingered robot hand working in real time. Our approach generates pulses from the deformation detection method and sends an event message to the robot controller when surface deformation is detected. In comparison with other methods, the obtained results reveal that our visual pipeline does not use deformations models of objects and materials, as well as the approach works well both planar and 3D household objects in real time. In addition, our method does not depend on the pose of the robot hand because the location of the reference system is computed from a recognition process of a pattern located place at the robot forearm. The presented experiments demonstrate that the proposed method accomplishes a good monitoring of grasping task with several objects and different grasping configurations in indoor environments. PMID

  14. 3D Visual Data-Driven Spatiotemporal Deformations for Non-Rigid Object Grasping Using Robot Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensing techniques are important for solving problems of uncertainty inherent to intelligent grasping tasks. The main goal here is to present a visual sensing system based on range imaging technology for robot manipulation of non-rigid objects. Our proposal provides a suitable visual perception system of complex grasping tasks to support a robot controller when other sensor systems, such as tactile and force, are not able to obtain useful data relevant to the grasping manipulation task. In particular, a new visual approach based on RGBD data was implemented to help a robot controller carry out intelligent manipulation tasks with flexible objects. The proposed method supervises the interaction between the grasped object and the robot hand in order to avoid poor contact between the fingertips and an object when there is neither force nor pressure data. This new approach is also used to measure changes to the shape of an object’s surfaces and so allows us to find deformations caused by inappropriate pressure being applied by the hand’s fingers. Test was carried out for grasping tasks involving several flexible household objects with a multi-fingered robot hand working in real time. Our approach generates pulses from the deformation detection method and sends an event message to the robot controller when surface deformation is detected. In comparison with other methods, the obtained results reveal that our visual pipeline does not use deformations models of objects and materials, as well as the approach works well both planar and 3D household objects in real time. In addition, our method does not depend on the pose of the robot hand because the location of the reference system is computed from a recognition process of a pattern located place at the robot forearm. The presented experiments demonstrate that the proposed method accomplishes a good monitoring of grasping task with several objects and different grasping configurations in indoor

  15. 3D Visual Data-Driven Spatiotemporal Deformations for Non-Rigid Object Grasping Using Robot Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Carlos M; Gil, Pablo; Torres, Fernando

    2016-05-05

    Sensing techniques are important for solving problems of uncertainty inherent to intelligent grasping tasks. The main goal here is to present a visual sensing system based on range imaging technology for robot manipulation of non-rigid objects. Our proposal provides a suitable visual perception system of complex grasping tasks to support a robot controller when other sensor systems, such as tactile and force, are not able to obtain useful data relevant to the grasping manipulation task. In particular, a new visual approach based on RGBD data was implemented to help a robot controller carry out intelligent manipulation tasks with flexible objects. The proposed method supervises the interaction between the grasped object and the robot hand in order to avoid poor contact between the fingertips and an object when there is neither force nor pressure data. This new approach is also used to measure changes to the shape of an object's surfaces and so allows us to find deformations caused by inappropriate pressure being applied by the hand's fingers. Test was carried out for grasping tasks involving several flexible household objects with a multi-fingered robot hand working in real time. Our approach generates pulses from the deformation detection method and sends an event message to the robot controller when surface deformation is detected. In comparison with other methods, the obtained results reveal that our visual pipeline does not use deformations models of objects and materials, as well as the approach works well both planar and 3D household objects in real time. In addition, our method does not depend on the pose of the robot hand because the location of the reference system is computed from a recognition process of a pattern located place at the robot forearm. The presented experiments demonstrate that the proposed method accomplishes a good monitoring of grasping task with several objects and different grasping configurations in indoor environments.

  16. 基于Deform 3D的钻削过程模拟%Drilling Simulation Based on Software Deform 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广晨

    2015-01-01

    采用有限元分析软件Deform 3D对钻削过程进行了模拟仿真 ,建立了适应于钻削过程的三维有限元模型 ,给出了仿真中相关参数的设置原则 ,分析预测了钻削过程中工件的载荷、温度变化.将仿真数据和传统经验公式计算结果进行了对比与分析 ,验证了Deform 3D对钻削过程仿真的有效性和正确性 ,也为钻削工艺参数的优化奠定了基础.%The drilling process is simulated by the finite element software Deform 3D .The three-dimensional finite element model of drilling process is set up ,the setting principles for parameters in the simulation are given ,and the stress and temperature distribution of the work pieces are predicted by the drilling simulation .The simulation data and the data from calculation using the conventional empirical formulae are compared ,the results proves the validity and the correctness of the simulation .This work has laid a base for drilling technological parameter optimization .

  17. Robust 3D-2D image registration: application to spine interventions and vertebral labeling in the presence of anatomical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Webster Stayman, J.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Khanna, A. Jay; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2013-12-01

    We present a framework for robustly estimating registration between a 3D volume image and a 2D projection image and evaluate its precision and robustness in spine interventions for vertebral localization in the presence of anatomical deformation. The framework employs a normalized gradient information similarity metric and multi-start covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy optimization with local-restarts, which provided improved robustness against deformation and content mismatch. The parallelized implementation allowed orders-of-magnitude acceleration in computation time and improved the robustness of registration via multi-start global optimization. Experiments involved a cadaver specimen and two CT datasets (supine and prone) and 36 C-arm fluoroscopy images acquired with the specimen in four positions (supine, prone, supine with lordosis, prone with kyphosis), three regions (thoracic, abdominal, and lumbar), and three levels of geometric magnification (1.7, 2.0, 2.4). Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) between the estimated and true target points in the projection image, including 14 400 random trials (200 trials on the 72 registration scenarios) with initialization error up to ±200 mm and ±10°. The resulting median PDE was better than 0.1 mm in all cases, depending somewhat on the resolution of input CT and fluoroscopy images. The cadaver experiments illustrated the tradeoff between robustness and computation time, yielding a success rate of 99.993% in vertebral labeling (with ‘success’ defined as PDE registration could be solved with 99.993% success in 6.3 s. The ability to register CT to fluoroscopy in a manner robust to patient deformation could be valuable in applications such as radiation therapy, interventional radiology, and an assistant to target localization (e.g., vertebral labeling) in image-guided spine surgery.

  18. Coseismic deformation due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: influence of 3-D elastic structure around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten W.; Freed, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiroshi; Okaya, David A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of elastic heterogeneity on coseismic deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan, using a 3-D finite element model, incorporating the geometry of regional plate boundaries. Using a forward approach, we computed displacement fields for different elastic models with a given slip distribution. Three main structural models are considered to separate the effects of different kinds of heterogeneity: a homogeneous model, a two-layered model with crust-mantle stratification, and a crust-mantle layered model with a strong subducting slab. We observed two counteracting effects: (1) On large spatial scales, elastic layering with increasing rigidity with depth leads to a decrease in surface displacement. (2) An increase in rigidity from above the slab interface to below causes an increase in surface displacement, because the weaker hanging wall deforms to accommodate coseismic slip. Results for slip inversions associated with the Tohoku-oki earthquake show that slip patterns are modified when comparing homogeneous and heterogeneous models. However, the maximum slip only changes slightly: It increases from 38.5 m in the homogeneous to 39.6 m in the layered case and decreases to 37.3 m when slabs are introduced. Potency, i.e., the product of slip and fault area, changes accordingly. Layering leads to inferred slip distributions that are broader and deeper compared to the homogeneous case, particularly to the south of the overall slip maximum. The introduction of a strong slab leads to a reduction in slip around the slip maximum near the trench. We also find that details of the vertical deformation patterns for heterogeneous models are sensitive to the Poisson's ratio. While elastic heterogeneity does therefore not have a dramatic effect on bulk quantities such as inferred potency, the mechanical response of a layered medium with a slab does lead to a systematically modified slip response, and such effects may bias studies of

  19. Evolution of the Genome 3D Organization: Comparison of Fused and Segregated Globin Gene Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovina, Anastasia P; Petrova, Natalia V; Gushchanskaya, Ekaterina S; Dolgushin, Konstantin V; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Penin, Alexey A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Ioudinkova, Elena S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Vassetzky, Yegor S; Ulianov, Sergey V; Iarovaia, Olga V; Razin, Sergey V

    2017-06-01

    The genomes are folded in a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure. Some features of this organization are common for all eukaryotes, but little is known about its evolution. Here, we have studied the 3D organization and regulation of zebrafish globin gene domain and compared its organization and regulation with those of other vertebrate species. In birds and mammals, the α- and β-globin genes are segregated into separate clusters located on different chromosomes and organized into chromatin domains of different types, whereas in cold-blooded vertebrates, including Danio rerio, α- and β-globin genes are organized into common clusters. The major globin gene locus of Danio rerio is of particular interest as it is located in a genomic area that is syntenic in vertebrates and is controlled by a conserved enhancer. We have found that the major globin gene locus of Danio rerio is structurally and functionally segregated into two spatially distinct subloci harboring either adult or embryo-larval globin genes. These subloci demonstrate different organization at the level of chromatin domains and different modes of spatial organization, which appears to be due to selective interaction of the upstream enhancer with the sublocus harboring globin genes of the adult type. These data are discussed in terms of evolution of linear and 3D organization of gene clusters in vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Trans-Hudsonian far-field deformation effects in the Rae foreland: An integrated geological-3D magnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, J. A.; Tschirhart, V.

    2017-03-01

    The intracratonic Rae cover sequence, deposited ca. 2.2-1.9 Ga, forms a useful marker for unravelling tectonic events that affected the Archean Rae Province at ca.2.0, 1.9 and 1.85 Ga. Polyphase deformation is recognized within the Rae cover rocks, including the 70 × 10 km Montresor belt, and attributed to distal effects of the ca. 1.85 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny. In this contribution we explore the 3D geometry and structural history of the Montresor belt, previously considered to be a simple syncline lying unconformably on Archean basement. New geological, geophysical and geochronological results define a more complex history in which lower Montresor units were thrust-imbricated with basement gneisses and metamorphosed to the amphibolite facies. Mid-to upper greenschist facies upper Montresor units, exposed in an open synform, are superficially less deformed. However, using high-resolution aeromagnetic data and distinct magnetic marker units considered proxies for bedding, we constructed a set of forward models to explore the three-dimensional geometry of the belt. The re-analysis outlines a set of pre-synform structures defined by low-angle truncations of the magnetic markers. Geometric relationships indicate the presence of at least three faults at low angles to bedding, interpreted as D1 piggy-back thrusts, and bracketed by available geochronology between 1.924 and 1.87 Ga. D1 strain in the upper Montresor strata is significantly less intense than that further south in Rae cover rocks, consistent with a more distal foreland setting during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. The Montresor belt preserves a record of the Trans-Hudson tectonic style at relatively shallow crustal levels as a result of its foreland setting and structural history including a syn-orogenic extensional detachment event.

  1. Full-field wing deformation measurement scheme for in-flight cantilever monoplane based on 3D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei-Gang; Liang, Jin; Guo, Xiang; Guo, Cheng; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zheng-Zong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a new non-contact scheme, based on 3D digital image correlation technology, is presented to measure the full-field wing deformation of in-flight cantilever monoplanes. Because of the special structure of the cantilever wing, two conjugated camera groups, which are rigidly connected and calibrated to an ensemble respectively, are installed onto the vertical fin of the aircraft and record the whole measurement. First, a type of pre-stretched target and speckle pattern are designed to adapt the oblique camera view for accurate detection and correlation. Then, because the measurement cameras are swinging with the aircraft vertical trail all the time, a camera position self-correction method (using control targets sprayed on the back of the aircraft), is designed to orientate all the cameras’ exterior parameters to a unified coordinate system in real time. Besides, for the excessively inclined camera axis and the vertical camera arrangement, a weak correlation between the high position image and low position image occurs. In this paper, a new dual-temporal efficient matching method, combining the principle of seed point spreading, is proposed to achieve the matching of weak correlated images. A novel system is developed and a simulation test in the laboratory was carried out to verify the proposed scheme.

  2. Revealing the z~2.5 Cosmic Web With 3D Lyman-Alpha Forest Tomography: A Deformation Tensor Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Khee-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low-redshifts ($z1$, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest absorption in closely-separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into $z\\sim2-3$ large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic $z=2.5$ Ly$\\alpha$ forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments and nodes in the flux, which is compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with $70\\%$ of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the dark matter web, and $99\\%$ classified to within 1 eigenvalue. Thi...

  3. Effect of magnetic perturbations on the 3D MHD self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglio, D; Veranda, M; Chacón, L; Escande, D F

    2016-01-01

    The effect of magnetic perturbations (MPs) on the helical self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas is discussed in the framework of the nonlinear 3D MHD model. Numerical simulations performed in toroidal geometry with the \\textsc{pixie3d} code [L. Chac\\'on, Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 15}, 056103 (2008)] show that $n=1$ MPs significantly affect the spontaneous quasi-periodic sawtoothing activity of such plasmas. In particular, the mitigation of sawtooth oscillations is induced by $m/n=1/1$ and $2/1$ MPs. These numerical findings provide a confirmation of previous circular tokamak simulations, and are in agreement with tokamak experiments in the RFX-mod and DIII-D devices. Sawtooth mitigation via MPs has also been observed in reversed-field pinch simulations and experiments. The effect of MPs on the stochastization of the edge magnetic field is also discussed.

  4. High-resolution 3D imaging of whole organ after clearing: taking a new look at the zebrafish testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétaud, Maxence; Rivière, Laurie; Job, Élodie De; Gay, Stéphanie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Affaticati, Pierre; Thermes, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. Several protocols have thus been developed to enhance sample transparency, a limiting step for imaging large biological samples. However, none of these methods has been applied to the zebrafish testis. We tested five clearing protocols to determine if some of them could be applied with only small modifications to the testis. We compared clearing efficiency at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. CUBIC and PACT were suitable for an efficient transparency, an optimal optical penetration, the GFP fluorescence preservation and avoiding meaningful tissue deformation. Finally, we succeeded in whole testis 3D capture at a cellular resolution with both CUBIC and PACT, which will be valuable in a standard workflow to investigate the 3D architecture of the testis and its cellular content. This paves the way for further development of high content phenotyping studies in several fields including development, genetic or toxicology. PMID:28211501

  5. Spatial 3D distribution of soil organic carbon under different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian Chakan, A; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R; Kerry, R; Kumar, S; Khordehbin, S; Yusefi Khanghah, S

    2017-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) has been assessed in three dimension (3D) in several studies, but little is known about the combined effects of land use and soil depth on SOC stocks in semi-arid areas. This paper investigates the 3D distribution of SOC to a depth of 1 m in a 4600-ha area in southeastern Iran with different land uses under the irrigated farming (IF), dry farming (DF), orchards (Or), range plants on the Gachsaran formation (RaG), and range plants on a quaternary formation (RaQ). Predictions were made using the artificial neural networks (ANNs), regression trees (RTs), and spline functions with auxiliary covariates derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), the Landsat 8 imagery, and land use types. Correlation analysis showed that the main predictors for SOC in the topsoil were covariates derived from the imagery; however, for the lower depths, covariates derived from both the DEM and imagery were important. ANNs showed more efficiency than did RTs in predicting SOC. The results showed that 3D distribution of SOC was significantly affected by land use types. SOC stocks of soils under Or and IF were significantly higher than those under DF, RaG, and RaQ. The SOC below 30 cm accounted for about 59% of the total soil stock. Results showed that depth functions combined with digital soil mapping techniques provide a promising approach to evaluate 3D SOC distribution under different land uses in semi-arid regions and could be used to assess changes in time to determine appropriate management strategies.

  6. Structural and property studies on metal–organic compounds with 3-D supramolecular network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi-Ying; Ma, Ke-Fang; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Li, Xin-Hua; Shi, Qian, E-mail: shiq@wzu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Two carboxylato-bridged allomeric compounds, ([Cu{sub 2}(dbsa){sub 2}(hmt) (H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 1/2}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Ni(dbsa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 1/2}[Ni(dbsa)(hmt)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 1/2}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}dbsa=meso-2,3-dibromosuccinic acid, hmt=hexamethylenetetramine) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray structral analyses. The metal ions have two kinds of coordination fashion in one unit, and bridged by carboxylate and hmt ligands along with weak interactions existing in the solid structure, forming a 3-D supramolecular network. Variable-temperature magnetic property studies reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 2 with g=2.2, J{sub 1}=−3.5 cm{sup −1}, J{sub 2}=−2.8 cm{sup −1} for 1, and g=2.1, J=−3.5 cm{sup −1} for 2. - Graphical abstract: Variable-temperature magnetic property studies of two 3-D supramolecular compounds reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the metal ions, through the effective super-exchange media. - Highlights: • Two 3-D allomeric Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal–organic compounds have been prepared. • The 3-D networks were constructed by coordination bonds, weak interactions and hydrogen bond interactions. • There are antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between the metal ions.

  7. 2D→3D polycatenated and 3D→3D interpenetrated metal–organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erer, Hakan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Yeşilel, Okan Zafer, E-mail: yesilel@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Arıcı, Mürsel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Keskin, Seda [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, İstanbul (Turkey); Büyükgüngör, Orhan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of

  8. Role of nanotopography in the development of tissueengineered 3D organs and tissues using mesenchymal stemcells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shima Salmasi; Deepak M Kalaskar; Wai-Weng Yoon; Gordon W Blunn; Alexander M Seifalian

    2015-01-01

    Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineeringstrategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devicesand gene therapy) have led to fascinating progressof translation of basic research towards clinicalapplications. In the past decade, great deal of researchhas focused on developing various three dimensional(3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear,using such strategies in order to replace or regeneratedamaged organs for the purpose of maintaining orrestoring organs' functions that may have been lost dueto aging, accident or disease. The surface properties ofa material or a device are key aspects in determining thesuccess of the implant in biomedicine, as the majorityof biological reactions in human body occur on surfacesor interfaces. Furthermore, it has been established inthe literature that cell adhesion and proliferation are,to a great extent, influenced by the micro- and nanosurfacecharacteristics of biomaterials and devices. Inaddition, it has been shown that the functions of stemcells, mesenchymal stem cells in particular, could beregulated through physical interaction with specificnanotopographical cues. Therefore, guided stem cellproliferation, differentiation and function are of greatimportance in the regeneration of 3D tissues and organsusing tissue engineering strategies. This review willprovide an update on the impact of nanotopography onmesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of developinglaboratory-based 3D organs and tissues, as well as themost recent research and case studies on this topic.

  9. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top...... and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester...

  10. Revealing the z ~ 2.5 Cosmic Web with 3D Lyα Forest Tomography: a Deformation Tensor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; White, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Studies of cosmological objects should take into account their positions within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. Unfortunately, the cosmic web has only been extensively mapped at low redshifts (z\\lt 1), using galaxy redshifts as tracers of the underlying density field. At z\\gt 1, the required galaxy densities are inaccessible for the foreseeable future, but 3D reconstructions of Lyα forest absorption in closely separated background QSOs and star-forming galaxies already offer a detailed window into z˜ 2-3 large-scale structure. We quantify the utility of such maps for studying the cosmic web by using realistic z = 2.5 Lyα forest simulations matched to observational properties of upcoming surveys. A deformation tensor-based analysis is used to classify voids, sheets, filaments, and nodes in the flux, which are compared to those determined from the underlying dark matter (DM) field. We find an extremely good correspondence, with 70% of the volume in the flux maps correctly classified relative to the DM web, and 99% classified to within one eigenvalue. This compares favorably to the performance of galaxy-based classifiers with even the highest galaxy densities from low-redshift surveys. We find that narrow survey geometries can degrade the recovery of the cosmic web unless the survey is ≳ 60 {h}-1 {Mpc} or ≳ 1 deg on the sky. We also examine halo abundances as a function of the cosmic web, and find a clear dependence as a function of flux overdensity, but little explicit dependence on the cosmic web. These methods will provide a new window on cosmological environments of galaxies at this very special time in galaxy formation, “high noon,” and on overall properties of cosmological structures at this epoch.

  11. The effects of 3D channel geometry on CTC passing pressure--towards deformability-based cancer cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Xu, Jie; Hong, Bin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2014-07-21

    Various lab on a chip devices have been developed recently to detect and separate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) for early stage cancer detection. Because CTCs are extremely rare in the blood, next generation CTC microfilters aim at significant improvement in both efficiency and throughput. CTC microfilters based on cell deformability seem to be a promising direction. In the present research, we study a CTC passing event through a micro-filtering channel with various 3D geometries. The pressure signatures for different types of cells passing through different channels are characterized numerically. Specifically, five kinds of cross-sections, circular, square, triangular and two kinds of rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 2 and 5, are studied in this work. The total pressures for cells passing through the channels are calculated and reveal different behaviour from what is predicted by the static surface tension model. Among all five cross-sections studied, the circular cross-section features the highest critical pressure and thus is most suitable for high efficiency CTC separation. The square filtering channel provides the second largest critical pressure, and the triangular cross-section provides the least critical pressure among these three cross-sections. All these three cross-sections are better than the rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 2 and 5. For the rectangular channel, a high aspect ratio channel may lead to cell splitting at high speed, which will result in a periodic pressure signature. Our findings will provide valuable information for the design of next generation CTC microfilters.

  12. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bioengineered 3D integumentary organ system was fully functional following transplantation into nude mice and could be properly connected to surrounding host tissues, such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscles, and nerve fibers, without tumorigenesis. The bioengineered hair follicles in the 3D integumentary organ system also showed proper hair eruption and hair cycles, including the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. Potential applications of the 3D integumentary organ system include an in vitro assay system, an animal model alternative, and a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.

  13. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  14. Pore - to - Core Modeling of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in 3D Soil Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, R. E.; Battaia, G.; Baveye, P.; Otten, W.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of literature supporting the need for microbial contributions to be considered explicitly in carbon-climate models. There is also overwhelming evidence that physical protection within aggregates can play a significant role in organic matter dynamics. Yet current models of soil organic matter dynamics divide soil organic matter into conceptual pools with distinct turnover times, assuming that a combination of biochemical and physical properties control decay without explicit description. Albeit robust in their application, such models are not capable to account for changes in soil structure or microbial populations, or accurately predict the effect of wetness or priming. A spatially explicit model is presented that accounts for microbial dynamics and physical processes, permitting consideration of the heterogeneity of the physical and chemical microenvironments at scales relevant for microbes. Exemplified for fungi, we investigate how micro-scale processes manifest at the core scale with particular emphasis on evolution of CO2 and biomass distribution. The microbial model is based upon previous (Falconer et al, 2012) and includes the following processes: uptake, translocation, recycling, enzyme production, growth, spread and respiration. The model is parameterised through a combination of literature data and parameter estimation (Cazelles et al., 2012).The Carbon model comprises two pools, particulate organic matter which through enzymatic activity is converted into dissolved organic matter. The microbial and carbon dynamics occur within a 3D soil structure obtained by X-ray CT. We show that CO2 is affected not only by the amount of Carbon in the soil but also by microbial dynamics, soil structure and the spatial distribution of OM. The same amount of OM can result in substantially different respiration rates, with surprisingly more CO2 with increased clustering of OM. We can explain this from the colony dynamics, production of enzymes and

  15. Contribution of Topological Domains and Loop Formation to 3D Chromatin Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuthy Ea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations on 3D chromatin folding revealed that the eukaryote genomes are both highly compartmentalized and extremely dynamic. This review presents the most recent advances in topological domains’ organization of the eukaryote genomes and discusses the relationship to chromatin loop formation. CTCF protein appears as a central factor of these two organization levels having either a strong insulating role at TAD borders, or a weaker architectural role in chromatin loop formation. TAD borders directly impact on chromatin dynamics by restricting contacts within specific genomic portions thus confining chromatin loop formation within TADs. We discuss how sub-TAD chromatin dynamics, constrained into a recently described statistical helix conformation, can produce functional interactions by contact stabilization.

  16. 2D and 3D Ground Penetrating Radar monitoring of a reinforced concrete asphalt plate affected by mechanical deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, M.; Dumoulin, J.; Loperte, A.; Rizzo, E.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    , a zero setting acquisition was carried out before perturbing the plate. Described experience demonstrates the GPR is a reliable technique for the: • foundation soil characterization and monitoring • Reinforced structural elements monitoring • asphalt/reinforced concrete characterization and monitoring • detection of water infiltration, structural elements, defects • evaluation of restoration intervention. In fact, the GPR technique was able to investigate the layers beyond the asphalt and provides a spatial resolution complying with the needs of the technical problem at hand by use of different antennas. Moreover noticeable performances of this technique can be further improved by implementing 3D processing and MT inversion procedures in order to increase the amount of information by the survey [2]. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n. 225663 Joint Call FP7-ICT-SEC-2007-1 [1] Lapenna, V.; Cuomo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Fiore, S.; Troisi, S.; Straface, S. (2006). A new Large Lab-scale Facility for Hydro-Geophysical Experiments: Hydrogeosite. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006, abstract #H31B-1422 [2] Bavusi M., Soldovieri F., Di Napoli R., Loperte A., Di Cesare A., Ponzo F.C and Lapenna V. (2011). Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy. J. Geophys. Eng. 8 S33 doi:10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/S04

  17. Implementing a Matrix-free Analytical Jacobian to Handle Nonlinearities in Models of 3D Lithospheric Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The analytical expression for the Jacobian is a key component to achieve fast and robust convergence of the nonlinear Newton-Raphson iterative solver. Accomplishing this task in practice often requires a significant algebraic effort. Therefore it is quite common to use a cheap alternative instead, for example by approximating the Jacobian with a finite difference estimation. Despite its simplicity it is a relatively fragile and unreliable technique that is sensitive to the scaling of the residual and unknowns, as well as to the perturbation parameter selection. Unfortunately no universal rule can be applied to provide both a robust scaling and a perturbation. The approach we use here is to derive the analytical Jacobian for the coupled set of momentum, mass, and energy conservation equations together with the elasto-visco-plastic rheology and a marker in cell/staggered finite difference method. The software project LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is primarily developed for the thermo-mechanically coupled modeling of the 3D lithospheric deformation. The code is based on a staggered grid finite difference discretization in space, and uses customized scalable solvers form PETSc library to efficiently run on the massively parallel machines (such as IBM Blue Gene/Q). Currently LaMEM relies on the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) nonlinear solver, which approximates the Jacobian-vector product using a simple finite difference formula. This approach never requires an assembled Jacobian matrix and uses only the residual computation routine. We use an approximate Jacobian (Picard) matrix to precondition the Krylov solver with the Galerkin geometric multigrid. Because of the inherent problems of the finite difference Jacobian estimation, this approach doesn't always result in stable convergence. In this work we present and discuss a matrix-free technique in which the Jacobian-vector product is replaced by analytically-derived expressions and compare results

  18. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Paulus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0:99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored.

  19. Quantified effects of chromosome-nuclear envelope attachments on 3D organization of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Nicholas Allen; Onufriev, Alexey V; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We use a combined experimental and computational approach to study the effects of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) attachments on the 3D genome organization of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) salivary gland nuclei. We consider 3 distinct models: a Null model - without specific Chr-NE attachments, a 15-attachment model - with 15 previously known Chr-NE attachments, and a 48-attachment model - with 15 original and 33 recently identified Chr-NE attachments. The radial densities of chromosomes in the models are compared to the densities observed in 100 experimental images of optically sectioned salivary gland nuclei forming "z-stacks." Most of the experimental z-stacks support the Chr-NE 48-attachment model suggesting that as many as 48 chromosome loci with appreciable affinity for the NE are necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed distribution of chromosome density in fruit fly nuclei. Next, we investigate if and how the presence and the number of Chr-NE attachments affect several key characteristics of 3D genome organization: chromosome territories and gene-gene contacts. This analysis leads to novel insight about the possible role of Chr-NE attachments in regulating the genome architecture. Specifically, we find that model nuclei with more numerous Chr-NE attachments form more distinct chromosome territories and their chromosomes intertwine less frequently. Intra-chromosome and intra-arm contacts are more common in model nuclei with Chr-NE attachments compared to the Null model (no specific attachments), while inter-chromosome and inter-arm contacts are less common in nuclei with Chr-NE attachments. We demonstrate that Chr-NE attachments increase the specificity of long-range inter-chromosome and inter-arm contacts. The predicted effects of Chr-NE attachments are rationalized by intuitive volume vs. surface accessibility arguments.

  20. Self-Organization of Polarized Cerebellar Tissue in 3D Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Muguruma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During cerebellar development, the main portion of the cerebellar plate neuroepithelium gives birth to Purkinje cells and interneurons, whereas the rhombic lip, the germinal zone at its dorsal edge, generates granule cells and cerebellar nuclei neurons. However, it remains elusive how these components cooperate to form the intricate cerebellar structure. Here, we found that a polarized cerebellar structure self-organizes in 3D human embryonic stem cell (ESC culture. The self-organized neuroepithelium differentiates into electrophysiologically functional Purkinje cells. The addition of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 promotes spontaneous generation of dorsoventrally polarized neural-tube-like structures at the level of the cerebellum. Furthermore, addition of SDF1 and FGF19 promotes the generation of a continuous cerebellar plate neuroepithelium with rhombic-lip-like structure at one end and a three-layer cytoarchitecture similar to the embryonic cerebellum. Thus, human-ESC-derived cerebellar progenitors exhibit substantial self-organizing potential for generating a polarized structure reminiscent of the early human cerebellum at the first trimester.

  1. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm–printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro. PMID:27694985

  2. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-03

    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm-printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro.

  3. 2D→3D polycatenated and 3D→3D interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erer, Hakan; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Arıcı, Mürsel; Keskin, Seda; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H2O produced three new metal-organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(μ-tdc)(H2O)(μ-dib)]n (1), [Cd(μ-tdc)(H2O)(μ-dib)]n (2), and {[Cd2(μ3-tdc)2(μ-dimb)2]·(H2O)}n(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 66. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H2 storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  4. A 3-d laser scanning system and scan data processing method for the monitoring of tunnel deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelina, Klaus; Jansa, Josef; Hesina, Gerd; Traxler, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents the mobile multi-sensor system Orthos Plus for the monitoring and mapping of tunnel walls, a scan data processing method for the evaluation of 3-d tunnel wall displacements from subsequent wall scans and, finally, a virtual reality tool supporting the interpretation of data. The measuring system consists of a 3-d laser scanner, a motorised total station and a digital camera that are integrated on a light metal frame that is installed on a mobile platform. It has been designed to perform tunnel measurements most efficiently and to meet the special requirements of tunnels under construction. The evaluation of 3-d displacements is based on a 3-d matching algorithm that takes advantage of the particular conditions of tunnel (shotcrete) surfaces. The virtual reality tool allows viewing of data in a 3-d virtual reality tunnel model and their animation in time and space in order supports understanding in an optimal way. The measuring system Orthos Plus has been developed in the course of a national research project, the 3-d matching method in the frame of the Austrian Christian Doppler Laboratory Spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing and the VR tool in the Austrian COMET K1 Competence Center VRVis Center (www.vrvis.at).

  5. FEM analysis of deformation localization mechanisms in a 3-D fractured medium under rotating compressive stress orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, G.; Beekman, F.; Bertotti, G.; Luthi, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress distributions and deformation patterns in a medium with a pre-existing fracture set are analyzed as a function of the remote compressive stress orientation (σH) using finite element models with increasingly complex fracture configurations. Slip along the fractures causes deformation localizat

  6. FEM analysis of deformation localization mechanisms in a 3-D fractured medium under rotating compressive stress orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, G.; Beekman, F.; Bertotti, G.; Luthi, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress distributions and deformation patterns in a medium with a pre-existing fracture set are analyzed as a function of the remote compressive stress orientation (σH) using finite element models with increasingly complex fracture configurations. Slip along the fractures causes deformation

  7. 3D building modeling,organization and application in digital city system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The real world is a three-dimensional(3D)space requiring that 3D geospatial information applications be developed in alignment with the observer’s visual and perceptive habits.Particularly,3D building model data are required in a wide range of areas such as urban planning,environmental protection,real estate management and emergency response.At the same time,the development of Web service[LU1]technologies allows the possibility of the widely distributed 3D geospatial data on the web.3D city building model with its related information is an important part in the construction of a digital city system,and has become a staple resource on the web nowadays.In view of the hierarchical representation of a 3D building model,an abstract of a 3D building model based on structure details is studied,and a novel representation approach named 3D transparent building hierarchical model is presented in this paper.This approach fully uses both the existing 3D modeling technologies and CAD constructing mapping data.By the spatial relationship description,structural components inside a building can be represented and integrated as hierarchical models in a unified 3D space.In addition,based on the characteristics of the 3D building model data,a service-oriented architecture and Web service technologies for 3D city building models are discussed.The aim of the approach is that 3D city building models can be used as a kind of data resource service on the web,and can also exist independently in various different web applications.

  8. Optochemically Responsive 2D Nanosheets of a 3D Metal-Organic Framework Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Abhijeet K; Kim, Ha Jin; Han, Intaek; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2017-07-01

    Outstanding functional tunability underpinning metal-organic framework (MOF) confers a versatile platform to contrive next-generation chemical sensors, optoelectronics, energy harvesters, and converters. A rare exemplar of a porous 2D nanosheet material constructed from an extended 3D MOF structure is reported. A rapid supramolecular self-assembly methodology at ambient conditions to synthesize readily exfoliatable MOF nanosheets, functionalized in situ by adopting the guest@MOF (host) strategy, is developed. Nanoscale confinement of light-emitting molecules (as functional guest) inside the MOF pores generates unusual combination of optical, electronic, and chemical properties, arising from the strong host-guest coupling effects. Highly promising photonics-based chemical sensing opened up by the new guest@MOF composite systems is shown. By harnessing host-guest optochemical interactions of functionalized MOF nanosheets, detection of an extensive range of volatile organic compounds and small molecules important for many practical applications has been accomplished. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  11. SKULL-STRIPPING WITH DEFORMABLE ORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Anand A; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Shattuck, David W; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2011-01-01

    Segmenting brain from non-brain tissue within magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human head, also known as skull-stripping, is a critical processing step in the analysis of neuroimaging data. Though many algorithms have been developed to address this problem, challenges remain. In this paper, we apply the "deformable organism" framework to the skull-stripping problem. Within this framework, deformable models are equipped with higher-level control mechanisms based on the principles of artificial life, including sensing, reactive behavior, knowledge representation, and proactive planning. Our new deformable organisms are governed by a high-level plan aimed at the fully-automated segmentation of various parts of the head in MR imagery, and they are able to cooperate in computing a robust and accurate segmentation. We applied our segmentation approach to a test set of human MRI data using manual delineations of the data as a reference "gold standard." We compare these results with results from three widely used methods using set-similarity metrics.

  12. 三维模型近刚性保体变形%3D Model Quasi-rigid Deformation with Volume Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炯宙; 李基拓; 陆国栋

    2013-01-01

    为保持三维模型表面细节和模型体积,提高模型变形的真实感效果,提出一种基于能量最小化的近刚性保体变形方法.首先对模型进行Laplacian变形,在此基础上,通过极分解求解曲面局部区域三角形的旋转变形,构建模型刚性变形能;然后通过模型体积积分离散化将模型体积变形约束转化为模型曲面变形约束,构建体积变形能;再通过衡量约束点的位置变形误差构建约束变形能.在最小二乘意义下最小化上述加权变形能,获得模型变形结果.实例结果表明,文中方法能够在线性的算法效率下获得近刚性保体变形效果,为模型的真实感变形提供了一条有效的途径.%Surface detail preservation and model volume preservation are two important aspects for 3D model realistic deformation. A large number of methods for preserving both of the above two aspects have been developed in the past few years. However neither sole detail preserved method nor sole volume preserved method can well preserve them. In this paper, a 3D quasi-rigid deformation integrated with volume preservation approach is proposed. Model deformation is achieved by iteratively minimizing a combined deformation energy: the surface rigidity energy measures the deviation degree of the local surface deformation from its ideal rigid deformation and is computed by polar decomposing the Laplacian surface deformation result; the volume deformation energy measures the volume changing during deformation and is expressed through discretizing the model surface volumetric integration; the constraint energy measures how well the customer's interactive constraints being met. Experimental results show that our approach can obtain quasi-rigid and volume-preserved model deformation results within linear algorithm complexity.

  13. A tetraphenylethylene core-based 3D structure small molecular acceptor enabling efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhang; Mu, Cheng; Jiang, Kui; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Yunke; Zhang, Lu; Li, Zhengke; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Hu, Huawei; Ma, Tingxuan; Hu, Rongrong; Yu, Demei; Huang, Xuhui; Tang, Ben Zhong; Yan, He

    2015-02-01

    A tetraphenylethylene core-based small molecular acceptor with a unique 3D molecular structure is developed. Bulk-heterojunction blend films with a small feature size (≈20 nm) are obtained, which lead to non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) with 5.5% power conversion efficiency. The work provides a new molecular design approach to efficient non-fullerene OSCs based on 3D-structured small-molecule acceptors.

  14. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Woo Jung; Jung-Seob Lee; Dong-Woo Cho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the ...

  15. Architectural protein subclasses shape 3-D organization of genomes during lineage commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E.; Sauria, Michael E. G.; Sanyal, Amartya; Gerasimova, Tatiana I.; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Bell, Joshua S. K.; Ong, Chin-Tong; Hookway, Tracy A.; Guo, Changying; Sun, Yuhua; Bland, Michael J.; Wagstaff, William; Dalton, Stephen; McDevitt, Todd C.; Sen, Ranjan; Dekker, Job; Taylor, James; Corces, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Understanding the topological configurations of chromatin may reveal valuable insights into how the genome and epigenome act in concert to control cell fate during development. Here we generate high-resolution architecture maps across seven genomic loci in embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells. We observe a hierarchy of 3-D interactions that undergo marked reorganization at the sub-Mb scale during differentiation. Distinct combinations of CTCF, Mediator, and cohesin show widespread enrichment in looping interactions at different length scales. CTCF/cohesin anchor long-range constitutive interactions that form the topological basis for invariant sub-domains. Conversely, Mediator/cohesin together with pioneer factors bridge shortrange enhancer-promoter interactions within and between larger sub-domains. Knockdown of Smc1 or Med12 in ES cells results in disruption of spatial architecture and down-regulation of genes found in cohesin-mediated interactions. We conclude that cell type-specific chromatin organization occurs at the sub-Mb scale and that architectural proteins shape the genome in hierarchical length scales. PMID:23706625

  16. One-step fabrication of an organ-on-a-chip with spatial heterogeneity using a 3D bioprinting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungseok; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-07-05

    Although various types of organs-on-chips have been introduced recently as tools for drug discovery, the current studies are limited in terms of fabrication methods. The fabrication methods currently available not only need a secondary cell-seeding process and result in severe protein absorption due to the material used, but also have difficulties in providing various cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM) environments for spatial heterogeneity in the organs-on-chips. Therefore, in this research, we introduce a novel 3D bioprinting method for organ-on-a-chip applications. With our novel 3D bioprinting method, it was possible to prepare an organ-on-a-chip in a simple one-step fabrication process. Furthermore, protein absorption on the printed platform was very low, which will lead to accurate measurement of metabolism and drug sensitivity. Moreover, heterotypic cell types and biomaterials were successfully used and positioned at the desired position for various organ-on-a-chip applications, which will promote full mimicry of the natural conditions of the organs. The liver organ was selected for the evaluation of the developed method, and liver function was shown to be significantly enhanced on the liver-on-a-chip, which was prepared by 3D bioprinting. Consequently, the results demonstrate that the suggested 3D bioprinting method is easier and more versatile for production of organs-on-chips.

  17. Technology for 3D fashion distortion based on free-form deformation algorithm%基于FFD算法的三维服装变形技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊; 刘正东

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the deformation efficiency in the garment and virtual display industry, a set of intelligent system is developed which is suitable for the garment deformation. 3D fashion distortion is completed by taking VB.NET and Managed DirectX for development tools, 3DSmax for model-making tools, combining with a core algorithm named FFD (free-form deformation). This system could reduce the complicated manual operation and achieve the automatic mode of the three-dimensional garment deformation.%为提高服装及其虚拟展示行业的变形效率问题,研究开发了一套适合服装变形的智能系统.以VB.NET和Managed DirectX为开发工具,以3DSmax为模型工具,以FFD自由变形算法(free-form deformation,FFD)为核心算法来实现三维服装变形.减少了服装变形的手工繁复操作,实现了三维服装变形的自动化模式.

  18. Computer-aided classification of liver tumors in 3D ultrasound images with combined deformable model segmentation and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Moon Ho; Kim, Ye-Hoon; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Cho, Baek Hwan; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we propose a computer-aided classification scheme of liver tumor in 3D ultrasound by using a combination of deformable model segmentation and support vector machine. For segmentation of tumors in 3D ultrasound images, a novel segmentation model was used which combined edge, region, and contour smoothness energies. Then four features were extracted from the segmented tumor including tumor edge, roundness, contrast, and internal texture. We used a support vector machine for the classification of features. The performance of the developed method was evaluated with a dataset of 79 cases including 20 cysts, 20 hemangiomas, and 39 hepatocellular carcinomas, as determined by the radiologist's visual scoring. Evaluation of the results showed that our proposed method produced tumor boundaries that were equal to or better than acceptable in 89.8% of cases, and achieved 93.7% accuracy in classification of cyst and hemangioma.

  19. Simulations of a rotor with active deformable trailing edge flaps in half-wake inflow: Comparison of EllipSys 3D with HAWC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2012-01-01

    . In this study, a comparison between aerodynamic predictions of the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and the Navier-Stokes code EllipSys3D for the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine rotor in a stiff configuration equipped with a deformable trailing edge flap is performed. A case where the half rotor plane experiences...... an inflow resembling the wake from an upstream wind turbine is investigated, which is appropriate for comparing the predictions of the two codes related to the abrupt aerodynamic response and the influence of the controllable flap. The trailing edge flap is actuated to alleviate the added loads from a non...

  20. Ore body shapes versus regional deformation patterns as a base for 3D prospectivity mapping in the Skellefte Mining District, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, T.; Skyttä, P.; Hermansson, T.; Weihed, P.

    2012-04-01

    The current work in progress is based on detailed structural analysis carried out during the last years, which unravels the crustal evolution of the ore bearing Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte District in northern Sweden. The shape and orientation of the volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VMS) ore bodies through the district is modeled in three dimensions and reflected against the regional deformation patterns. By doing this we aim to understand the coupling between the transposition of the ore bodies and the deformation structures in the host rocks, honoring both local deformation features and regional structural transitions. The VMS ore bodies are modeled in gOcad (Paradigm) visualizing both the strike and dip of the ore lenses as well as their dimensions. 25 deposits are currently available in 3D and modelling of the remaining 55 deposits is planned or partly in progress. The ore deposits and mineralizations are classified according to their shape and size. The complexly deformed ore bodies are described each independently. Subsequently, the VMS deposits are plotted on the structural map of the Skellefte district displaying their size and strike, dip and plunge values in order to show their spatial distribution and their relationship with shear zones. The preliminary results show a good correlation between the shape and orientation of the ore bodies and the related structures. Plotting the VMS deposits on a structural map clearly demonstrates the close spatial relation of the ore deposits and regional scale shear zones. Furthermore, the deformation style within the ore deposits generally mimics the deformation style of the shear zones, e.g. the plunge of elongate ore bodies parallels the mineral lineation of the related shear zone. Based on these results, the location and shape of ore deposits may be estimated, which is an important tool for prospectivity mapping and near mine exploration of ore districts.

  1. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  2. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  3. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  4. Illustrating Concepts in Physical Organic Chemistry with 3D Printed Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael J.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital theory provides a powerful tool for rationalizing and understanding many phenomena in chemistry. In most introductory chemistry courses, students are introduced to atomic and molecular orbitals in the form of two-dimensional drawings. In this work, we describe a general method for producing 3D printing files of orbital models that can be…

  5. Polymorphism of iron at high pressure: A 3D phase-field model for displacive transitions with finite elastoplastic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattré, A.; Denoual, C.

    2016-07-01

    A thermodynamically consistent framework for combining nonlinear elastoplasticity and multivariant phase-field theory is formulated at large strains. In accordance with the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the Helmholtz free energy and time-dependent constitutive relations give rise to displacive driving forces for pressure-induced martensitic phase transitions in materials. Inelastic forces are obtained by using a representation of the energy landscape that involves the concept of reaction pathways with respect to the point group symmetry operations of crystal lattices. On the other hand, additional elastic forces are derived for the most general case of large strains and rotations, as well as nonlinear, anisotropic, and different elastic pressure-dependent properties of phases. The phase-field formalism coupled with finite elastoplastic deformations is implemented into a three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element approach and is applied to analyze the iron body-centered cubic (α-Fe) into hexagonal close-packed (ɛ-Fe) phase transitions under high hydrostatic compression. The simulations exhibit the major role played by the plastic deformation in the morphological and microstructure evolution processes. Due to the strong long-range elastic interactions between variants without plasticity, a forward α → ɛ transition is energetically unfavorable and remains incomplete. However, plastic dissipation releases considerably the stored strain energy, leading to the α ↔ ɛ ↔α‧ (forward and reverse) polymorphic phase transformations with an unexpected selection of variants.

  6. COMPUTER MODELING IN DEFORM-3D FOR ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC FLOW IN HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION OF BIMETALLIC FORMATIVE PARTS OF DIE TOOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of industrial production is closely connected with the use of science-based and high technologies to ensure competitiveness of the manufactured products on the world market. There is also much tension around an energy- and resource saving problem which can be solved while introducing new technological processes and  creation of new materials that provide productivity increase through automation and improvement of tool life. Development and implementation of such technologies are rather often considered as time-consuming processes  which are connected with complex calculations and experimental investigations. Implementation of a simulation modelling for materials processing using modern software products serves an alternative to experimental and theoretical methods of research.The aim of this paper is to compare experimental results while obtaining bimetallic samples of a forming tool through the method of speed hot extrusion and the results obtained with the help of computer simulation using DEFORM-3D package and a finite element method. Comparative analysis of plastic flow of real and model samples has shown that the obtained models provide high-quality and reliable picture of plastic flow during high-speed hot extrusion. Modeling in DEFORM-3D make it possible to eliminate complex calculations and significantly reduce a number of experimental studies while developing new technological processes.

  7. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  8. Role of nanotopography in the development of tissue engineered 3D organs and tissues using mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Salmasi, Shima; Kalaskar, Deepak M.; Yoon, Wai-Weng; Blunn, Gordon W.; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devices and gene therapy) have led to fascinating progress of translation of basic research towards clinical applications. In the past decade, great deal of research has focused on developing various three dimensional (3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear, using such strategies in order to replace or regenerate damaged organs for the purpose of maintaining or restoring organs’ func...

  9. A 3D in vitro bone organ model using human progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Papadimitropoulos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D organotypic culture models based on human cells may reduce the use of complex and costly animal models, while gaining clinical relevance. This study aimed at developing a 3D osteoblastic-osteoclastic-endothelial cell co-culture system, as an in vitro model to mimic the process of bone turnover. Osteoprogenitor and endothelial lineage cells were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF of human adipose tissue, whereas CD14+ osteoclast progenitors were derived from human peripheral blood. Cells were co-cultured within 3D porous ceramic scaffolds using a perfusion-based bioreactor device, in the presence of typical osteoclastogenic factors. After 3 weeks, the scaffolds contained cells with endothelial (2.0 ±0.3%, pre/osteoclastic (14.0 ±1.4% and mesenchymal/osteoblastic (44.0 ±8.4% phenotypes, along with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+ osteoclastic cells in contact with deposited bone-like matrix. Supernatant analysis demonstrated sustained matrix deposition (by C-terminus procollagen-I propeptides, resorption (by N-terminus collagen-I telopeptides and phosphate levels and osteoclastic activity (by TRAP-5b only when SVF and CD14+ cells were co-cultured. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the pattern of matrix deposition and resorption. The effectiveness of Vitamin D in replacing osteoclastogenic factors indicated a functional osteoblast-osteoclast coupling in the system. The formation of human-origin bone-like tissue, blood vessels and osteoclasts upon ectopic implantation validated the functionality of the developed cell types. The 3D co-culture system and the associated non-invasive analytical tools can be used as an advanced model to capture some aspects of the functional coupling of bone-like matrix deposition and resorption and could be exploited toward the engineering of multi-functional bone substitute implants.

  10. Role of nanotopography in the development of tissue engineered 3D organs and tissues using mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shima; Kalaskar, Deepak M; Yoon, Wai-Weng; Blunn, Gordon W; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-03-26

    Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devices and gene therapy) have led to fascinating progress of translation of basic research towards clinical applications. In the past decade, great deal of research has focused on developing various three dimensional (3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear, using such strategies in order to replace or regenerate damaged organs for the purpose of maintaining or restoring organs' functions that may have been lost due to aging, accident or disease. The surface properties of a material or a device are key aspects in determining the success of the implant in biomedicine, as the majority of biological reactions in human body occur on surfaces or interfaces. Furthermore, it has been established in the literature that cell adhesion and proliferation are, to a great extent, influenced by the micro- and nano-surface characteristics of biomaterials and devices. In addition, it has been shown that the functions of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells in particular, could be regulated through physical interaction with specific nanotopographical cues. Therefore, guided stem cell proliferation, differentiation and function are of great importance in the regeneration of 3D tissues and organs using tissue engineering strategies. This review will provide an update on the impact of nanotopography on mesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of developing laboratory-based 3D organs and tissues, as well as the most recent research and case studies on this topic.

  11. New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imagery of Deformation and Fault Architecture Along Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon Fault in the Inner California Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Bormann, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    The tectonic deformation and geomorphology of the Inner California Borderlands (ICB) records the transition from a convergent plate margin to a predominantly dextral strike-slip system. Geodetic measurements of plate boundary deformation onshore indicate that approximately 15%, or 6-8 mm/yr, of the total Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by faults offshore. The largest near-shore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon (NI/RC) fault complex, has a Holocene slip rate estimate of 1.5-2.0 mm/yr, according to onshore trenching, and current models suggest the potential to produce an Mw 7.0+ earthquake. The fault zone extends approximately 120 km, initiating from the south near downtown San Diego and striking northwards with a constraining bend north of Mt. Soledad in La Jolla and continuing northwestward along the continental shelf, eventually stepping onshore at Newport Beach, California. In late 2013, we completed the first high-resolution 3D seismic survey (3.125 m bins) of the NI/RC fault offshore of San Onofre as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. We present new constraints on fault geometry and segmentation of the fault system that may play a role in limiting the extent of future earthquake ruptures. In addition, slip rate estimates using piercing points such as offset channels will be explored. These new observations will allow us to investigate recent deformation and strain transfer along the NI/RC fault system.

  12. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber.

  13. The SCEC 3D Community Fault Model (CFM-v5): An updated and expanded fault set of oblique crustal deformation and complex fault interaction for southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C.; Plesch, A.; Sorlien, C. C.; Shaw, J. H.; Hauksson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Southern California represents an ideal natural laboratory to investigate oblique deformation in 3D owing to its comprehensive datasets, complex tectonic history, evolving components of oblique slip, and continued crustal rotations about horizontal and vertical axes. As the SCEC Community Fault Model (CFM) aims to accurately reflect this 3D deformation, we present the results of an extensive update to the model by using primarily detailed fault trace, seismic reflection, relocated hypocenter and focal mechanism nodal plane data to generate improved, more realistic digital 3D fault surfaces. The results document a wide variety of oblique strain accommodation, including various aspects of strain partitioning and fault-related folding, sets of both high-angle and low-angle faults that mutually interact, significant non-planar, multi-stranded faults with variable dip along strike and with depth, and active mid-crustal detachments. In places, closely-spaced fault strands or fault systems can remain surprisingly subparallel to seismogenic depths, while in other areas, major strike-slip to oblique-slip faults can merge, such as the S-dipping Arroyo Parida-Mission Ridge and Santa Ynez faults with the N-dipping North Channel-Pitas Point-Red Mountain fault system, or diverge with depth. Examples of the latter include the steep-to-west-dipping Laguna Salada-Indiviso faults with the steep-to-east-dipping Sierra Cucapah faults, and the steep southern San Andreas fault with the adjacent NE-dipping Mecca Hills-Hidden Springs fault system. In addition, overprinting by steep predominantly strike-slip faulting can segment which parts of intersecting inherited low-angle faults are reactivated, or result in mutual cross-cutting relationships. The updated CFM 3D fault surfaces thus help characterize a more complex pattern of fault interactions at depth between various fault sets and linked fault systems, and a more complex fault geometry than typically inferred or expected from

  14. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  15. Mimicking Cartilage Tissue Zonal Organization by Engineering Tissue-Scale Gradient Hydrogels as 3D Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danqing; Tong, Xinming; Trinh, Pavin; Yang, Fan

    2017-08-22

    Zonal organization plays an important role in cartilage structure and function, whereas most tissue-engineering strategies developed to date have only allowed the regeneration of cartilage with homogeneous biochemical and mechanical cues. To better restore tissue structure and function, there is a strong need to engineer materials with biomimetic gradient niche cues that recapitulate native tissue organization. To address this critical unmet need, in this study, we report a method for rapid formation of tissue-scale gradient hydrogels as a three-dimensional (3D) cell niche with tunable biochemical and physical properties. When encapsulated in stiffness gradient hydrogels, both chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated zone-specific response and extracellular deposition that mimics zonal organization of articular cartilage. Blocking cell mechanosensing using blebbistatin abolished the zonal response of chondrocytes in 3D hydrogels with a stiffness gradient. Such tissue-scale gradient hydrogels can provide a 3D artificial cell niche to enable tissue engineering of various tissue types with zonal organizations or tissue interfaces.

  16. Derivation of 3-D surface deformation from an integration of InSAR and GNSS measurements based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haipeng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ting; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to derive 3-D surface deformation from an integration of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), considering relationship between deformations of neighbouring locations. This method avoids interpolated errors by excluding the interpolation of GNSS into the same spatial resolution as InSAR images and harnesses the data sets and the prior smooth constraints of surface deformation objectively and simultaneously by using ABIC, which were inherently unresolved in previous studies. In particular, we define surface roughness measuring smoothing degree to evaluate the performance of the prior constraints and deduce the formula of the covariance for the estimation errors to estimate the uncertainty of modelled solution. We validate this method using synthetic tests and the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We find that the optimal weights associated with ABIC minimum are generally at trade-off locations that balance contributions from InSAR, GNSS data sets and the prior constraints. We use this method to evaluate the influence of the interpolated errors from the Ordinary Kriging algorithm on the derivation of surface deformation. Tests show that the interpolated errors may contribute to biasing very large weights imposed on Kriged GNSS data, suggesting that fixing the relative weights is required in this case. We also make a comparison with SISTEM method, indicating that our method allows obtaining better estimations even with sparse GNSS observations. In addition, this method can be generalized to provide a solution for situations where some types of data sets are lacking and can be exploited further to account for data sets such as the integration of displacements along radar lines and offsets along satellite tracks.

  17. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Alépée, N.; Bahinski, A.; Daneshian, M.; B. de Wever; Fritsche, E.; Goldberg, A.; Hansmann, J.; Hartung, T; Haycock, J; Hogberg, H.; Hoelting, L.; Kelm, J M; Kadereit, S.; McVey, E.; Landsiedel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. An important building block of this strategy that has emerged during the last years are threedimensional (3D) cell culture models. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ ...

  18. Structural and property studies on metal-organic compounds with 3-D supramolecular network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Ying; Ma, Ke-Fang; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Li, Xin-Hua; Shi, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Two carboxylato-bridged allomeric compounds, {[Cu2(dbsa)2(hmt) (H2O)4]1/2·2H2O}n (1), {[Ni(dbsa)(H2O)2]1/2[Ni(dbsa)(hmt)(H2O)2]1/2·2H2O}n (2) (H2dbsa=meso-2,3-dibromosuccinic acid, hmt=hexamethylenetetramine) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray structral analyses. The metal ions have two kinds of coordination fashion in one unit, and bridged by carboxylate and hmt ligands along with weak interactions existing in the solid structure, forming a 3-D supramolecular network. Variable-temperature magnetic property studies reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 2 with g=2.2, J1=-3.5 cm-1, J2=-2.8 cm-1 for 1, and g=2.1, J=-3.5 cm-1 for 2.

  19. Using three-dimensional 3D grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) analysis to probe pore deformation in mesoporous silica films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, Elvia Anabela Chavez; Granlund, Håvard; Sztucki, Michael; Konovalov, Oleg; Breiby, Dag W; Gibaud, Alain

    2014-02-26

    In the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in studying nanoscale objects deposited on surfaces by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). However, unravelling the structural properties of mesostructured thin films containing highly organized internal three-dimensional (3D) structures remains a challenging issue, because of the lack of efficient algorithms that allow prediction of the GISAXS intensity patterns. Previous attempts to calculate intensities have mostly been limited to cases of two-dimensional (2D) assemblies of nanoparticles at surfaces, or have been adapted to specific 3D cases. Here, we demonstrate that highly organized 3D mesoscale structures (for example, porous networks) can be modeled by the combined use of established crystallography formalism and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Taking advantage of the near-zero intensity of symmetry-allowed Bragg reflections, the casual extinction or existence of certain reflections related to the anisotropy of the form factor of the pores can be used as a highly sensitive method to extract structural information. We employ this generic method to probe the slightly compressed anisotropic shape and orientation of pores in a mesoporous silica thin film having P63/mmc symmetry.

  20. The 3D reconstruction of greenhouse tomato plant based on real organ samples and parametric L-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Longjiao; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Fu, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a fast and effective 3D reconstruction method for the growth of greenhouse tomato plant is proposed by using real organ samples and a parametric L-system. By analyzing the stereo structure of tomato plant, we extracts rules and parameters to assemble an L-system that is able to simulate the plant growth, and then the components of the L-system are translated into plant organ entities via image processing and computer graphics techniques. This method can efficiently and faithfully simulate the growing process of the greenhouse tomato plant.

  1. A 3D imaging system for the non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation of an aircraft propeller and a helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight deformation measurement and the resulting local pitch of an aircraft propeller or helicopter rotor blade is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the air-craft propeller has already been presented at the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as in-flight on the Cobra VUT100 of Evektor Aerotechnik, Kunovice (CZ). The major aim of the EU FP7 project AIM2 ("Advanced In-flight Measurement techniques 2" - contract No. 266107) was to ascertain the feasibility of this technique under extreme conditions - vibration and large centrifugal forces - to real flight testing. Based on the gained experience a new rotating system for the application on helicopter rotors has recently been constructed and tested on the whirl tower of Airbus Helicopters, Donauwoerth (D). In this paper the principle of the applied Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT), a specialized type of Digital Image Correlation (DIC), is outlined and the construction of both rotating 3D image acquisition systems dedicated to the in-flight deformation measurement of the aircraft propeller and helicopter rotor are described. Furthermore, the results of the ground and in-flight tests of these systems will be shown and discussed. The obtained results will be helpful for manufacturers in the design of their future aircrafts.

  2. An elastic/viscoelastic finite element analysis method for crustal deformation using a 3-D island-scale high-fidelity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, 3-D high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretization size because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.

  3. 3D printed, bio-inspired prototypes and analytical models for structured suture interfaces with geometrically-tuned deformation and failure behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Erica; Li, Yaning; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.

    2014-12-01

    Geometrically structured interfaces in nature possess enhanced, and often surprising, mechanical properties, and provide inspiration for materials design. This paper investigates the mechanics of deformation and failure mechanisms of suture interface designs through analytical models and experiments on 3D printed polymer physical prototypes. Suture waveforms with generalized trapezoidal geometries (trapezoidal, rectangular, anti-trapezoidal, and triangular) are studied and characterized by several important geometric parameters: the presence or absence of a bonded tip region, the tip angle, and the geometry. It is shown that a wide range (in some cases as great as an order of magnitude) in stiffness, strength, and toughness is achievable dependent on tip bonding, tip angle, and geometry. Suture interfaces with a bonded tip region exhibit a higher initial stiffness due to the greater load bearing by the skeletal teeth, a double peak in the stress-strain curve corresponding to the failure of the bonded tip and the failure of the slanted interface region or tooth, respectively, and an additional failure and toughening mechanism due to the failure of the bonded tip. Anti-trapezoidal geometries promote the greatest amplification of properties for suture interfaces with a bonded tip due the large tip interface area. The tip angle and geometry govern the stress distributions in the teeth and the ratio of normal to shear stresses in the interfacial layers, which together determine the failure mechanism of the interface and/or the teeth. Rectangular suture interfaces fail by simple shearing of the interfaces. Trapezoidal and triangular suture interfaces fail by a combination of shear and tensile normal stresses in the interface, leading to plastic deformation, cavitation events, and subsequent stretching of interface ligaments with mostly elastic deformation in the teeth. Anti-trapezoidal suture interfaces with small tip angles have high stress concentrations in the teeth

  4. Thrust faulting and 3D ground deformation of the 3 July 2015 Mw 6.4 Pishan, China earthquake from Sentinel-1A radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbao; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Li, Tao; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Boosted by the launch of Sentinel-1A radar satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA), we now have the opportunity of fast, full and multiple coverage of the land based deformation field of earthquakes. Here we use the data to investigate a strong earthquake struck Pishan, western China on July 3, 2015. The earthquake fault is blind and no ground break features are found on-site, thus Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data give full play to its technical advantage for the recovery of coseismic deformation field. By using the Sentinel-1A radar data in the Interferometric Wide Swath mode, we obtain 3 tracks of InSAR data over the struck region, and resolve the 3D ground deformation generated by the earthquake. Then the Line-of-Sight (LOS) InSAR data are inverted for the slip-distribution of the seismogenic fault. The final model shows that the earthquake is completely blind with pure-thrust motion. The maximum slip is 0.48 m at a depth of 7 km, consistent with the depth estimate from seismic reflection data. In particular, the inverted model is also compatible with a south-dipping fault ramp among a group of fault interfaces detected by the seismic reflection profile over the region. The seismic moment obtained equals to a Mw 6.4 earthquake. The Pishan earthquake ruptured the frontal part of the thrust ramps under the Slik anticline, and unloaded the coulomb stress of them. However, it may have loaded stress to the back-thrust above the thrust ramps by 1-4 bar, and promoted it for future failure. Moreover, the stress loading on the west side of the earthquake fault is much larger than that on the east side, indicating a higher risk for failure to the west of the Zepu fault.

  5. Bi–Mn mixed metal organic oxide: A novel 3d-6p mixed metal coordination network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fa-Nian, E-mail: fshi@ua.pt [School of Science, Shenyang University of Technology, 110870 Shenyang (China); Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rosa Silva, Ana [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bian, Liang [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China)

    2015-05-15

    A new terminology of metal organic oxide (MOO) was given a definition as a type of coordination polymers which possess the feature of inorganic connectivity between metals and the direct bonded atoms and show 1D, 2D or 3D inorganic sub-networks. One such compound was shown as an example. A 3d-6p (Mn–Bi. Named MOOMnBi) mixed metals coordination network has been synthesized via hydrothermal method. The new compound with the molecular formula of [MnBi{sub 2}O(1,3,5-BTC){sub 2}]{sub n} (1,3,5-BTC stands for benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) was characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction technique that revealed a very interesting 3-dimensional (3D) framework with Bi{sub 4}O{sub 2}(COO){sub 12} clusters which are further connected to Mn(COO){sub 6} fragments into a 2D MOO. The topology study indicates an unprecedented topological type with the net point group of (4{sup 13}.6{sup 2})(4{sup 13}.6{sup 8})(4{sup 16}.6{sup 5})(4{sup 18}.6{sup 10})(4{sup 22}.6{sup 14})(4{sup 3}) corresponding to 3,6,7,7,8,9-c hexa-nodal net. MOOMnBi shows catalytic activity in the synthesis of (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones. - Graphical abstract: This metal organic framework (MOF) is the essence of a 2D metal organic oxide (MOO). - Highlights: • New concept of metal organic oxide (MOO) was defined and made difference from metal organic framework. • New MOO of MOOMnBi was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Crystal structure of MOOMnBi was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. • The catalytic activity of MOOMnBi was studied showing reusable after 2 cycles.

  6. 3D hybrid-porous carbon derived from carbonization of metal organic frameworks for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhai; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chengyin; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-09-01

    We report a rational design and synthesis of 3D hybrid-porous carbon with a hierarchical pore architecture for high performance supercapacitors. It contains micropores (<2 nm diameter) and mesopores (2-4 nm), derived from carbonization of unique porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Owning to the synergistic effect of micropores and mesopores, the hybrid-porous carbon has exceptionally high ion-accessible surface area and low ion diffusion resistance, which is desired for supercapacitor applications. When applied as electrode materials in supercapacitors, 3D hybrid-porous carbon demonstrates a specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a constant charge/discharge current of 500 mA g-1. The supercapacitors can endure more than 10,000 cycles without degradation of capacitance.

  7. Data describing the inclusion relationships between two organs (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts...adable 3D organ models. Data file File name: isa_inclusion_relation_list.txt File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts...togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/bodyparts3d_isa_inclusion_relation_list#en Da...act Us Data describing the inclusion relationships between two organs (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Dosimetric treatment course simulation based on a statistical model of deformable organ motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhn, M; Sobotta, B; Alber, M

    2012-06-21

    We present a method of modeling dosimetric consequences of organ deformation and correlated motion of adjacent organ structures in radiotherapy. Based on a few organ geometry samples and the respective deformation fields as determined by deformable registration, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to create a low-dimensional parametric statistical organ deformation model (Söhn et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 5893-908). PCA determines the most important geometric variability in terms of eigenmodes, which represent 3D vector fields of correlated organ deformations around the mean geometry. Weighted sums of a few dominating eigenmodes can be used to simulate synthetic geometries, which are statistically meaningful inter- and extrapolations of the input geometries, and predict their probability of occurrence. We present the use of PCA as a versatile treatment simulation tool, which allows comprehensive dosimetric assessment of the detrimental effects that deformable geometric uncertainties can have on a planned dose distribution. For this, a set of random synthetic geometries is generated by a PCA model for each simulated treatment course, and the dose of a given treatment plan is accumulated in the moving tissue elements via dose warping. This enables the calculation of average voxel doses, local dose variability, dose-volume histogram uncertainties, marginal as well as joint probability distributions of organ equivalent uniform doses and thus of TCP and NTCP, and other dosimetric and biologic endpoints. The method is applied to the example of deformable motion of prostate/bladder/rectum in prostate IMRT. Applications include dosimetric assessment of the adequacy of margin recipes, adaptation schemes, etc, as well as prospective 'virtual' evaluation of the possible benefits of new radiotherapy schemes.

  9. New insights into the organic carbon export in the Mediterranean Sea from 3-D modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guyennon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most oligotrophic regions of the oceans, and nutrients have been shown to limit both phytoplankton and bacterial activities. This has direct implications on the stock of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, whose high variability has already been well-documented even if measurements are still sparse and are associated with important uncertainties. We here propose a Mediterranean Basin-scale view of the export of organic carbon, under its dissolved and particulate forms. For this purpose, we have used a coupled model combining a mechanistic biogeochemical model (Eco3M-MED and a high-resolution (eddy-resolving hydrodynamic simulation (NEMO-MED12. This is the first Basin-scale application of the biogeochemical model Eco3M-MED and is shown to reproduce the main spatial and seasonal biogeochemical characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea. Model estimations of carbon export are of the same order of magnitude as estimations from in situ observations, and their respective spatial patterns are consistent with each other. As for surface chlorophyll, nutrient concentrations, and productivity, strong differences between the Western and Eastern Basins are evidenced by the model for organic carbon export, with only 39% of organic carbon (particulate and dissolved export taking place in the Western Basin. The major result is that except for the Alboran Sea, dissolved organic carbon (DOC contribution to organic carbon export is higher than that of particulate (POC in the whole Basin, especially in the Eastern Basin. This paper also investigates the seasonality of DOC and POC exports as well as the differences in the processes involved in DOC and POC exports.

  10. 3D Bioprinting of Developmentally Inspired Templates for Whole Bone Organ Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Andrew C; Cunniffe, Gráinne M; Sathy, Binulal N; Jeon, Oju; Alsberg, Eben; Kelly, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    The ability to print defined patterns of cells and extracellular-matrix components in three dimensions has enabled the engineering of simple biological tissues; however, bioprinting functional solid organs is beyond the capabilities of current biofabrication technologies. An alternative approach would be to bioprint the developmental precursor to an adult organ, using this engineered rudiment as a template for subsequent organogenesis in vivo. This study demonstrates that developmentally inspired hypertrophic cartilage templates can be engineered in vitro using stem cells within a supporting gamma-irradiated alginate bioink incorporating Arg-Gly-Asp adhesion peptides. Furthermore, these soft tissue templates can be reinforced with a network of printed polycaprolactone fibers, resulting in a ≈350 fold increase in construct compressive modulus providing the necessary stiffness to implant such immature cartilaginous rudiments into load bearing locations. As a proof-of-principal, multiple-tool biofabrication is used to engineer a mechanically reinforced cartilaginous template mimicking the geometry of a vertebral body, which in vivo supported the development of a vascularized bone organ containing trabecular-like endochondral bone with a supporting marrow structure. Such developmental engineering approaches could be applied to the biofabrication of other solid organs by bioprinting precursors that have the capacity to mature into their adult counterparts over time in vivo.

  11. Modeling of DNA and Protein Organization Levels with Cn3D Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinakis, Panagiotis K.; Nicolaou, Despoina

    2017-01-01

    The molecular structure of living organisms and the complex interactions amongst its components are the basis for the diversity observed at the macroscopic level. Proteins and nucleic acids are some of the major molecular components, and play a key role in several biological functions, such as those of development and evolution. This article…

  12. 3D organization of high-speed compressible jets by tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Ceglia, G.; Tuinstra, M.; Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the three dimensional organization of compressible jets at high-speed regime by tomographic particle image velocimetry (TOMO PIV). Experiments are conducted at Mach numbers 0.3, 0.9 and 1.1 (underexpanded regime) across the end of the potential core within a large cylindrica

  13. A 3-D mathematical model to identify organ-specific risks in rats during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, Vineet; Stallings, Jonathan D; Helwig, Bryan G; Leon, Lisa R; Jackson, David A; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-12-01

    Early prediction of the adverse outcomes associated with heat stress is critical for effective management and mitigation of injury, which may sometimes lead to extreme undesirable clinical conditions, such as multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and death. Here, we developed a computational model to predict the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in a rat exposed to heat stress in an attempt to understand the correlation between heat load and differential organ dysfunction. The model includes a three-dimensional representation of the rat anatomy obtained from medical imaging and incorporates the key mechanisms of heat transfer during thermoregulation. We formulated a novel approach to estimate blood temperature by accounting for blood mixing from the different organs and to estimate the effects of the circadian rhythm in body temperature by considering day-night variations in metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion. We validated the model using in vivo core temperature measurements in control and heat-stressed rats and other published experimental data. The model predictions were within 1 SD of the measured data. The liver demonstrated the greatest susceptibility to heat stress, with the maximum temperature reaching 2°C higher than the measured core temperature and 95% of its volume exceeding the targeted experimental core temperature. Other organs also attained temperatures greater than the core temperature, illustrating the need to monitor multiple organs during heat stress. The model facilitates the identification of organ-specific risks during heat stress and has the potential to aid in the development of improved clinical strategies for thermal-injury prevention and management.

  14. Deformation of forearcs caused by subduction of aseismic ridges: The role of ridge orientation and convergence direction investigated with 3D finite-element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeumann, Stefanie; Hampel, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Subduction of aseismic oceanic ridges causes considerable deformation of the forearc region. To investigate the role of ridge orientation relative to the margin and convergence direction on the style of forearc deformation, we developed a series of 3D finite-elemente models, in which a rigid oceanic plate carrying the model ridge subducts beneath a deformable forearc wedge. Experiments were carried out for angles of 30°, 60° and 90° between the ridge axis and the trench and for different convergence directions. In the experiments, in which the ridge axis is parallel to the convergence direction, the ridge is stationary; in all other experiments, the ridge migrates along the margin and thus affects different regions of the forearc. Our results show that the ridge indents and uplifts the forearc in all models. For obliquely subducting ridges the displacement and strain fields become highly asymmetric regardless if the ridge is stationary or migrates along the forearc. Only if the ridge is stationary and oriented perpendicular to the margin, the deformation is symmetric relative to the ridge axis. Stationary ridges show uplift only above the ridge tip, whereas a migrating ridge causes a wave of uplift above the leading flank of the ridge followed by subsidence above the trailing flank. Horizontal strain components show domains of both extension and shortening, with extension occurring above the ridge tip and shortening above the ridge flanks. To compare our results with natural case studies, we computed additional models reflecting the setting of the stationary Cocos Ridge subducting beneath southern Costa Rica and of the Nazca Ridge, which migrates along the Peruvian margin. The results of these adjusted models are in good agreement with field observations. For the model of the Cocos Ridge the highest degree of shortening occurs normal to the margin, which coincides with the location of a thrust belt in the forearc of Costa Rica with its maximum shortening inboard

  15. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal–organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradpour, Tahereh [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, Alireza, E-mail: aabbassi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Hecke, Kristof [XStruct, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krigslaan 281-S3, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    A new 3D nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF), [[Zn{sub 4}O(C{sub 24}H{sub 15}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·DMF]{sub n} (1) based on 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single–crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Absorption of two typical aldehydes (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) by solvothermally synthesized of a 3D nano-porous MOF based on TATAB tricarboxylate ligand and Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • We present a 3D Zn(II)-MOF with TATAB linker by solvothermal method. • The framework possesses a new kvh1 topology. • The framework displays formaldehyde and benzaldehyde absorption property. • Conformational analysis was performed to determine the stable linker geometry.

  16. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  17. High throughput 3D super-resolution microscopy reveals Caulobacter crescentus in vivo Z-ring organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Seamus J; Pengo, Thomas; Meibom, Karin L; Fernandez Fernandez, Carmen; Collier, Justine; Manley, Suliana

    2014-03-25

    We created a high-throughput modality of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) that enables automated 3D PALM imaging of hundreds of synchronized bacteria during all stages of the cell cycle. We used high-throughput PALM to investigate the nanoscale organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus. We observed that FtsZ predominantly localizes as a patchy midcell band, and only rarely as a continuous ring, supporting a model of "Z-ring" organization whereby FtsZ protofilaments are randomly distributed within the band and interact only weakly. We found evidence for a previously unidentified period of rapid ring contraction in the final stages of the cell cycle. We also found that DNA damage resulted in production of high-density continuous Z-rings, which may obstruct cytokinesis. Our results provide a detailed quantitative picture of in vivo Z-ring organization.

  18. Analysis of nuclear organization with TANGO, software for high-throughput quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollion, Jean; Cochennec, Julien; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boudier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized cellular organelle that contains the genome. An important step to understand the relationships between genome positioning and genome functions is to extract quantitative data from three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging. However, such approaches are limited by the requirement for processing and analyzing large sets of images. Here we present a practical approach using TANGO (Tools for Analysis of Nuclear Genome Organization), an image analysis tool dedicated to the study of nuclear architecture. TANGO is a generic tool able to process large sets of images, allowing quantitative study of nuclear organization. In this chapter a practical description of the software is drawn in order to give an overview of its different concepts and functionalities. This description is illustrated with a precise example that can be performed step-by-step on experimental data provided on the website http://biophysique.mnhn.fr/tango/HomePage.

  19. From condiment to metal-organic framework and its derived 3D architecture nanoporous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Lu, Xiaowang; Chen, Zhidong

    2017-02-01

    The crystalline metal-organic-framework (MOF) microrods from monosodium glutamate and zinc acetate dihydrate were spontaneously formed by mixing their solution at room temperature. After carbonization in an inert atmosphere, these MOF microrods are evolved into N and O co-doped nanoporous carbon with 3D-architecture. The model of gas bubbles is elucidated for the formation of these interconnected porous structure. As the electrode material for supercapacitor, the derived nanoporous carbon at the temperature of 800 °C exhibits good capacitance performance in alkali aqueous electrolyte.

  20. CONTROLLING THE 3D NANOSCALE ORGANIZATION OF BULK HETEROJUNCTION POLYMER SOLAR CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Svetlana S. Van Bavel; Erwan Sourty; Gijsbertus de With; Joachim Loos

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the three dimensional nanoscale organization in the photoactive layers of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) and a methanofullerene derivative (PCBM) is revealed by transmission electron tomography.After annealing treatment,either at elevated temperature or during slow solvent evaporation,nanoscale interpenetrating networks are formed with high crystalline order and favorable concentration gradients of both components through the thickness of the photoactive layer.Such a tailored morphology accounts for the considerable increase of the power conversion efficiency in corresponding solar cell devices.

  1. Synthesis, structure and luminescent property of a new 3D porous metal organic framework with rutile topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Zhu, Guang-Shan; Zou, Yong-Cun; Fang, Qian-Rong; Xue, Ming; Li, Zhong-Yue; Qiu, Shi-Lun

    2007-12-01

    A new 3D porous metal-organic framework (MOF), Cd(CTC)(HPDA)·(H 2O) ( 1) (CTC = cis, cis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylate and PDA = 1,3-propanediamine) has been synthesized by using an organic amine, PDA, as a template. X-ray crystallography reveals that two cadmium centers are coordinated by six different carboxylate groups to construct a dinuclear octahedral secondary building unit (SBU), and these octahedral SBUs are further interconnected by the cyclohexane rings of CTC to generate a 3D network with quadrangular channel dimensions of ca. 10 × 17 Å 2. In this structure, the dinuclear octahedral SBU can be defined as a 6-connected node, and CTC ligating with three SBUs can act as a 3-connected node. So the resulting structure of 1 is a binodal (3,6)-connected net with rutile topology. Additionally, polymer 1 exhibits intense fluorescence at 364 nm with the excitation peak at 240 nm in the solid state at room temperature.

  2. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  3. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g‑1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g‑1 to 40 A g‑1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g‑1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  4. The application of in-situ 3D X-ray diffraction in annealing experiments: First interpretation of substructure development in deformed NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borthwick, Verity; Schmidt, Søren; Piazolo, Sandra;

    2012-01-01

    In-situ 3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) annealing experiments were conducted at the ID-11 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. This allowed us to nondestructively document and subsequently analyse the development of substructures during heating, without the influence...... of surface effects. A sample of deformed single crystal halite was heated to between 260-400 °. Before and after heating a volume of 500 by 500 by 300 μm was mapped using a planar beam, which was translated over the sample volume at intervals of 5-10 μm in the vertical dimension. In the following we present...... partially reconstructed orientation maps over one layer before and after heating for 240min at 260 °. Additional small syn-heating "maps" over a constrained sample rotation of 12-30°. The purpose of this was to illuminate a few reflections from 1 or 2 subgrains and follow their evolution during heating...

  5. A Parallel 3D Spectral Difference Method for Solutions of Compressible Navier Stokes Equations on Deforming Grids and Simulations of Vortex Induced Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Andrew

    Numerical models of fluid-structure interaction have grown in importance due to increasing interest in environmental energy harvesting, airfoil-gust interactions, and bio-inspired formation flying. Powered by increasingly powerful parallel computers, such models seek to explain the fundamental physics behind the complex, unsteady fluid-structure phenomena. To this end, a high-fidelity computational model based on the high-order spectral difference method on 3D unstructured, dynamic meshes has been developed. The spectral difference method constructs continuous solution fields within each element with a Riemann solver to compute the inviscid fluxes at the element interfaces and an averaging mechanism to compute the viscous fluxes. This method has shown promise in the past as a highly accurate, yet sufficiently fast method for solving unsteady viscous compressible flows. The solver is monolithically coupled to the equations of motion of an elastically mounted 3-degree of freedom rigid bluff body undergoing flow-induced lift, drag, and torque. The mesh is deformed using 4 methods: an analytic function, Laplace equation, biharmonic equation, and a bi-elliptic equation with variable diffusivity. This single system of equations -- fluid and structure -- is advanced through time using a 5-stage, 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Message Passing Interface is used to run the coupled system in parallel on up to 240 processors. The solver is validated against previously published numerical and experimental data for an elastically mounted cylinder. The effect of adding an upstream body and inducing wake galloping is observed.

  6. 3D metal-organic framework as highly efficient biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Lu, Xianbo; Wu, Lidong; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-15

    As is well known, bisphenol A (BPA), usually exists in daily plastic products, is one of the most important endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this work, copper-centered metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) was synthesized, which was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and electrochemical method. The resultant Cu-MOF was explored as a robust electrochemical biosensing platform by choosing tyrosinase (Tyr) as a model enzyme for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA. The Cu-MOF provided a 3D structure with a large specific surface area, which was beneficial for enzyme and BPA absorption, and thus improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Furthermore, Cu-MOF as a novel sorbent could increase the available BPA concentration to react with tyrosinase through π-π stacking interactions between BPA and Cu-MOF. The Tyr biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 0.2242A M(-1) for BPA, a wide linear range from 5.0×10(-8) to 3.0×10-6moll(-1), and a low detection limit of 13nmoll(-1). The response time for detection of BPA is less than 11s. The proposed method was successfully applied to rapid and selective detection of BPA in plastic products with satisfactory results. The recoveries are in the range of 94.0-101.6% for practical applications. With those remarkable advantages, MOFs-based 3D structures show great prospect as robust biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA.

  7. 3D reconstruction modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells: Effect of the complexity of the boundary on the morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Jeong, Daun; Kim, SeongMin; Choi, Yeong Suk; Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Yun, Sungyoung; Lim, Younhee; Lee, Eunha; Park, Gyeong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Although the morphology of the active layer in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ-OPV) cells is critical for determining the quantum efficiency (QE), predicting the real QE for a 3-dimensional (3D) morphology has long been difficult because structural information on the composition complexity of donor (D): acceptor (A) blends with small domain size is limited to 2D observations via various image-processing techniques. To overcome this, we reconstruct the 3D morphology by using an isotropic statistical approach based on 2D energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) images. This new reconstruction method is validated to obtain the internal QE by using a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation in the BHJ-OPV system with different additives such as 4 vol% 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) and 4 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) (compared to the case of no additive); the resulting trend is compared with the experimental QE. Therefore, our developed method can be used to predict the real charge transport performance in the OPV system accurately.

  8. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal-organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    A new 3D nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), [[Zn4O(C24H15N6O6)2(H2O)2]·6H2O·DMF]n (1) based on 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  9. Left Atrial Deformation Analysis in Patients with Corrected Tetralogy of Fallot by 3D Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography (from the MAGYAR-Path Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Havasi

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Three-dimensional (3D echocardiography coupled with speckle-tracking echocardiographic (STE capability is a novel methodology which has been demontrated to be useful for the assessment of left atrial (LA volumes and functional properties. There is increased scientific interest on myocardial deformation analysis in adult patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (cTOF. Objectives: To compare LA volumes, volume-based functional properties and strain parameters between cTOF patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methods: The study population consisted of 19 consecutive adult patients with cTOF in sinus rhythm nursing at the University of Szeged, Hungary (mean age: 37.9 ± 11.3 years, 8 men, who had repair at the age of 4.1 ± 2.5 years. They all had undergone standard transthoracic two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic study extended with 3DSTE. Their results were compared to 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 39.2 ± 10.6 years, 14 men. Results: Increased LA volumes and reduced LA emptying fractions respecting cardiac cycle could be demonstrated in cTOF patients compared to controls. LA stroke volumes featuring all LA functions showed no differences between the 2 groups examined. LA global and mean segmental uni- and multidirectional peak strains featuring LA reservoir function were found to be diminished in adult patients with cTOF as compared to controls. Similarly to peak strains reduced global and mean segmental LA strains at atrial contraction characterizing atrial booster pump function could be demonstrated in cTOF patients as compared to controls. Conclusions: Significant deterioration of all LA functions could be demonstrated in adult patients with cTOF late after repair.

  10. 3-D magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on SMP computers - Part I: forward problem and parameter Jacobians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm, which we call HexMT, for 3-D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permit incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used throughout, including the forward solution, parameter Jacobians and model parameter update. In Part I, the forward simulator and Jacobian calculations are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequencies or small material admittivities, the E-field requires divergence correction. With the help of Hodge decomposition, the correction may be applied in one step after the forward solution is calculated. This allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization and source vector solutions are computed using the MKL PARDISO library, which shows good scalability through 24 processor cores. The factorized matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the Jacobians of electromagnetic (EM) field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure, several synthetic topographic models and the natural topography of Mount Erebus in Antarctica. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of EM waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run-time tests of the parallelized algorithm indicate that for meshes as large as 176 × 176 × 70 elements, MT forward responses and Jacobians can be calculated in ˜1.5 hr per frequency. Together with an efficient inversion parameter step described in Part II, MT inversion problems of 200-300 stations are computable with total run times

  11. Left Atrial Deformation Analysis in Patients with Corrected Tetralogy of Fallot by 3D Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography (from the MAGYAR-Path Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havasi, Kálmán; Domsik, Péter; Kalapos, Anita; McGhie, Jackie S.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Forster, Tamás; Nemes, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography coupled with speckle-tracking echocardiographic (STE) capability is a novel methodology which has been demontrated to be useful for the assessment of left atrial (LA) volumes and functional properties. There is increased scientific interest on myocardial deformation analysis in adult patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (cTOF). Objectives To compare LA volumes, volume-based functional properties and strain parameters between cTOF patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methods The study population consisted of 19 consecutive adult patients with cTOF in sinus rhythm nursing at the University of Szeged, Hungary (mean age: 37.9 ± 11.3 years, 8 men, who had repair at the age of 4.1 ± 2.5 years). They all had undergone standard transthoracic two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic study extended with 3DSTE. Their results were compared to 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 39.2 ± 10.6 years, 14 men). Results Increased LA volumes and reduced LA emptying fractions respecting cardiac cycle could be demonstrated in cTOF patients compared to controls. LA stroke volumes featuring all LA functions showed no differences between the 2 groups examined. LA global and mean segmental uni- and multidirectional peak strains featuring LA reservoir function were found to be diminished in adult patients with cTOF as compared to controls. Similarly to peak strains reduced global and mean segmental LA strains at atrial contraction characterizing atrial booster pump function could be demonstrated in cTOF patients as compared to controls. Conclusions Significant deterioration of all LA functions could be demonstrated in adult patients with cTOF late after repair. PMID:28198938

  12. The microenvironment determines the breast cancer cells' phenotype: organization of MCF7 cells in 3D cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal-epithelial interactions mediate breast development, and the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we developed 3-dimensional (3D in vitro models to study breast cancer tissue organization and the role of the microenvironment in phenotypic determination. Methods The human breast cancer MCF7 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with primary human breast fibroblasts. Cells were embedded in matrices containing either type I collagen or a combination of reconstituted basement membrane proteins and type I collagen. The cultures were carried out for up to 6 weeks. For every time point (1-6 weeks, the gels were fixed and processed for histology, and whole-mounted for confocal microscopy evaluation. The epithelial structures were characterized utilizing immunohistochemical techniques; their area and proliferation index were measured using computerized morphometric analysis. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA, Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test and chi-square. Results Most of the MCF7 cells grown alone within a collagen matrix died during the first two weeks; those that survived organized into large, round and solid clusters. The presence of fibroblasts in collagen gels reduced MCF7 cell death, induced cell polarity, and the formation of round and elongated epithelial structures containing a lumen. The addition of reconstituted basement membrane to collagen gels by itself had also survival and organizational effects on the MCF7 cells. Regardless of the presence of fibroblasts, the MCF7 cells both polarized and formed a lumen. The addition of fibroblasts to the gel containing reconstituted basement membrane and collagen induced the formation of elongated structures. Conclusions Our results indicate that a matrix containing both type I collagen and reconstituted basement membrane, and the presence of normal breast fibroblasts constitute the minimal permissive microenvironment to

  13. Simplifying volumes-of-interest (VOIs) definition in quantitative SPECT: Beyond manual definition of 3D whole-organ VOIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esther M; Lodge, Martin A; Rowe, Steven P; Wahl, Richard L; Frey, Eric C

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using simpler methods than manual whole-organ volume-of-interest (VOI) definition to estimate the organ activity concentration in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in cases where the activity in the organ can be assumed to be uniformly distributed on the scale of the voxel size. In particular, we investigated an anatomic region-of-interest (ROI) defined in a single transaxial slice, and a single sphere placed inside the organ boundaries. The evaluation was carried out using Monte Carlo simulations based on patient indium (111) In pentetreotide SPECT and computed tomography (CT) images. We modeled constant activity concentrations in each organ, validating this assumption by comparing the distribution of voxel values inside the organ VOIs of the simulated data with the patient data. We simulated projection data corresponding to 100, 50, and 25% of the clinical count level to study the effects of noise level due to shortened acquisition time. Images were reconstructed using a previously validated quantitative SPECT reconstruction method. The evaluation was performed in terms of the accuracy and precision of the activity concentration estimates. The results demonstrated that the non-uniform image intensity observed in the reconstructed images in the organs with normal uptake was consistent with uniform activity concentration in the organs on the scale of the voxel size; observed non-uniformities in image intensity were due to a combination of partial-volume effects at the boundaries of the organ, artifacts in the reconstructed image due to collimator-detector response compensation, and noise. Using an ROI defined in a single transaxial slice produced similar biases compared to the three-dimensional (3D) whole-organ VOIs, provided that the transaxial slice was near the central plane of the organ and that the pixels from the organ boundaries were not included in the ROI. Although this slice method was sensitive to noise

  14. 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks constructed from 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate ligand: synthesis, structure, luminescence and dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yajing; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Pengcheng; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Ping

    2017-07-01

    A series of novel isostructural 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks {[Ln2(NDC)3(H2O)4]·(DMF)4}n (Ln=Eu(1), Gd(2), Tb(3), Er(4), Yb(5), Dy(6), Y(7), Lu(8), H2NDC =2,6-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide) with a rhombic channel along the b axis and high thermal stabilities, have been successfully synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The network can be described as 2, 4, 5-connected net with Schäfli symbol of (42.62.82)2(42.63.85)2(6). Luminescent studies illustrate that 1, 2, 7 and 8 exhibit strong luminescent emitting of the corresponding Ln(III) centers in the visible range, while 5 shows near-infrared range (NIR) luminescence. Further studies of 1 and 2A (activated product of 2) show that 1 displays good stability in different solvents and excellent fluorescence sensing for organic solvent small molecules and 2A ([Gd2(NDC)3(H2O)4]n) exhibits good adsorption capacity for organic dyes in water, especially for crystal violet.

  15. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  16. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Juergen; Robbins, Justin B.; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Presnell, Sharon C.; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian B.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI). This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM). Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level. PMID:27387377

  17. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  18. Alterations of left ventricular deformation and cardiac sympathetic derangement in patients with systolic heart failure: a 3D speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Pagano, Gennaro; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Bevilacqua, Agnese; Formisano, Roberto; Ferro, Gaetana; De Lucia, Claudio; Ferrara, Nicola [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Science, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa [Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); Paolillo, Stefania [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Prastaro, Maria; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); Rengo, Giuseppe [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Science, Naples (Italy); Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Istituto di Telese, Benevento, BN (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial contractile function is under the control of cardiac sympathetic activity. Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) and cardiac imaging with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) are two sophisticated techniques for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) deformation and sympathetic innervation, respectively, which offer important prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this investigation was to explore, in patients with systolic HF, the relationship between LV deformation assessed by 3D-STE and cardiac sympathetic derangement evaluated by {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging. We prospectively studied 75 patients with systolic HF. All patients underwent a 3D-STE study (longitudinal, circumferential, area and radial) and {sup 123}I-MIBG planar and SPECT cardiac imaging. 3D-STE longitudinal, circumferential and area strain values were correlated with {sup 123}I-MIBG late heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio and late SPECT total defect score. After stratification of the patients according to ischaemic or nonischaemic HF aetiology, we observed a good correlation of all 3D-STE measurements with late H/M ratio and SPECT data in the ischaemic group, but in patients with HF of nonischaemic aetiology, no correlation was found between LV deformation and cardiac sympathetic activity. At the regional level, the strongest correlation between LV deformation and adrenergic innervation was found for the left anterior descending coronary artery distribution territory for all four 3D-STE values. In multivariate linear regression analyses, including age, gender, LV ejection fraction, NYHA class, body mass index, heart rate and HF aetiology, only 3D-STE area and radial strain values significantly predicted cardiac sympathetic derangement on {sup 123}I-MIBG late SPECT. This study indicated that 3D-STE measurements are correlated with {sup 123}I-MIBG planar and SPECT data. Furthermore, 3D-STE area and radial strain values

  19. Research on the Performance of Solid Lubricating Coating Tool Based on DEFORM-3 D%基于 DEFORM-3 D的固体润滑涂层刀具性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯锁霞; 高辉; 贾晓鸣

    2013-01-01

    基于固体润滑技术、刀具热传导理论以及网格重划技术,建立了刀具-工件的DEFORM-3D有限元模型,对MoS2、WS2、Sb2 O3固体润滑涂层的高速钢刀具切削加工过程进行仿真。通过与切削试验的对比,验证了不同进给量、切削深度下的切削力、切削温度变化规律的仿真结果的准确性。结果表明:该固体润滑涂层应用于中低速干切削中,可有效降低切削热和切削力、延长刀具使用寿命。%Basing on solid lubrication technology,tool thermal conduction theory and remeshing technique,DEFORM-3D finite element model of tool-part was established,and the cutting processes of new coated high-speed steel tools with MoS2 ,WS2 and Sb2 O3 were simulated. By contrast with the cutting test,the accuracies of the variations of cutting force and cutting temperature in different feed rate or back cutting depth were verified. Simulation results show that the new type of coating can reduce the cutting heat and cut-ting force of tools and extend tool life in dry cutting at middle-low speed effectively.

  20. Optimization and comparison of two different 3D culture methods to prepare cell aggregates as a bioink for organ printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Rana; Hojjati Emami, Shahriar; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Sharifi, Ali M

    2012-04-01

    The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to design and fabricate functional human tissues that are similar to natural cells and are capable of regeneration. Preparation of cell aggregates is one of the important steps in 3D tissue engineering technology, particularly in organ printing. Two simple methods, hanging drop (HD) and conical tube (CT) were utilized to prepare cell aggregates. The size and viability of the aggregates obtained at different initial cell densities and pre-culture duration were compared. The proliferative ability of the cell aggregates and their ability to spread in culture plates were also investigated. In both methods, the optimum average size of the aggregates was less than 500 microm. CT aggregates were smaller than HD aggregates. 5,000 cells per drop HD aggregates showed a marked ability to attach and spread on the culture surface. The proliferative ability reduced when the initial cell density was increased. Comparing these methods, we found that the HD method having better size controlling ability as well as enhanced ability to maintain higher rates of viability, spreading, and proliferation. In conclusion, smaller HD aggregates might be a suitable choice as building blocks for making bioink particles in bioprinting technique.

  1. The clustering of CpG islands may constitute an important determinant of the 3D organization of interphase chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushchanskaya, Ekaterina S; Artemov, Artem V; Ulyanov, Sergey V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Kotova, Elena S; Akopov, Sergey B; Nikolaev, Lev G; Iarovaia, Olga V; Sverdlov, Eugene D; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V

    2014-07-01

    We used the 4C-Seq technique to characterize the genome-wide patterns of spatial contacts of several CpG islands located on chromosome 14 in cultured chicken lymphoid and erythroid cells. We observed a clear tendency for the spatial clustering of CpG islands present on the same and different chromosomes, regardless of the presence or absence of promoters within these CpG islands. Accordingly, we observed preferential spatial contacts between Sp1 binding motifs and other GC-rich genomic elements, including the DNA sequence motifs capable of forming G-quadruplexes. However, an anchor placed in a gene/CpG island-poor area formed spatial contacts with other gene/CpG island-poor areas on chromosome 14 and other chromosomes. These results corroborate the two-compartment model of the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes and suggest that the clustering of CpG islands constitutes an important determinant of the 3D organization of the eukaryotic genome in the cell nucleus. Using the ChIP-Seq technique, we mapped the genome-wide CTCF deposition sites in the chicken lymphoid and erythroid cells that were used for the 4C analysis. We observed a good correlation between the density of CTCF deposition sites and the level of 4C signals for the anchors located in CpG islands but not for an anchor located in a gene desert. It is thus possible that CTCF contributes to the clustering of CpG islands observed in our experiments.

  2. Deformation Measurement of 3D Printing Model Based on Laser Speckle Method%基于激光散斑法的模型变形测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕纯洁

    2015-01-01

    本文采用激光散斑法测量模型在不同承载状态下的变形数据,并与理论数据进行比较分析,为研究3D打印技术中成品的力学性能提供了实验参考。%It is one of the effective indicators for the performance of 3D printing technology whether or not its products can fully retain inherent mechanics parameters of the materials.A method to measure the deformation of 3D printing models in different load conditions by laser speckle is presented in this paper in comparison with some theoretical data,thus to offer an experimental reference for researches on mechanical property of materials in 3D technology.

  3. 3D deformation in strike-slip systems: Analogue modelling and numerical restoration Deformación 3D en sistemas de rumbo: modelación analógica y restauración numérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local strike-slip systems in Chile are complex and pose interesting questions, such as the interaction between strike-slip and reverse faults, how they evolve, and the relationship between shortening, rotation and uplift. Within this context, we developed a new analytical method based on analogue and numerical modelling applied to 3D, pure and transtensional-transpressional strike-slip systems. Analogue modelling results indicate that in restraining stepovers of strike-slip fault systems, where antiformal pop-up structures are usually formed, pre-existent basement structures with a high angle to the main strike-slip fault will generate a higher rotation of blocks. However, when these structures are oriented at a high angle with respect to the main stress convergence vector, the rotation will be less and therefore a higher tendency to uplift will be produced. These results were applied to NW- and SE-striking basement faults oblique to N-S mega-thrust faults in central Chile (32°-35°S, for which we propose a simultaneous development based on the analogue model results. Moreover, we propose that strike-slip movement occurred on thrust faults in central Chile. Furthermore, we performed a numerical restoration of an analogue experiment which modeled a pure strike-slip system, and concluded that the restoration is very sensitive to shortening data as well as to rotational data. These results are extremely important for future numerical and regional analysis of strike-slip systems.Los sistemas de rumbo regionales y locales en Chile son complejos y plantean interesantes preguntas, tales como la interacción entre fallas de rumbo y fallas inversas, cómo evolucionan ellas, y la relación entre acortamiento, rotación y alzamiento. En este contexto, desarrollamos un nuevo método analítico basado en modelamiento analógico y numérico de sistemas de rumbo de cizalle puro y sistemas transpresionales-trantensionales en 3D. Los resultados del

  4. Acquired experience on organizing 3D S.UN.COP: international course to support nuclear license by user training in the areas of scaling, uncertainty, and 3D thermal-hydraulics/neutron-kinetics coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D' Auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado (Italy). Nuclear Research Group San Piero a Grado (GRNSPG); Galetti, Regina, E-mail: regina@cnen.gov.b [National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bajs, Tomislav [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Fac. of Electrical Engineering and Computing. Dept. of Power Systems; Reventos, Francesc [Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers, vendors, and research organizations. Computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that may significantly affect the results of system code calculations. Code user training and qualification represent an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes the experience in applying a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In addition, this paper presents the organization and the main features of the 3D S.UN.COP (scaling, uncertainty, and 3D coupled code calculations) seminars during which particular emphasis is given to practical applications in connection with the licensing process of best estimate plus uncertainty methodologies, showing the designer, utility and regulatory approaches. (author)

  5. Data describing the definition of compound organs (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts...ing the definition of compound organs (IS-A Tree) Description of data contents In BodyParts3D, only atomic o...ined as a sum of atomic ones are not provided in the form of the meshes. This file describes which ELEMENT parts... consistute each COMPOUND organ. Data file File name: isa_element_parts.txt File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodypart...s3d/LATEST/isa_element_parts.txt File size: 1.1 MB Simpl

  6. Data describing the definition of compound organs (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us BodyParts...ribing the definition of compound organs (PART-OF Tree) Description of data contents In BodyParts3D, only at...D) defined as a sum of atomic ones are not provided in the form of the meshes. This file describes which ELEMENT parts... consistute each COMPOUND organ. Data file File name: partof_element_parts.txt File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts3d/LATEST/partof_element_parts.txt File size:

  7. 基于Deform-3D的65Mn硬态切削加工仿真研究%Simulation Study on Hard Cutting Machining Based on Deform-3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶晶; 覃寿同; 林强; 王栋; 张银霞; 李松涛; 段闪闪; 李荣鑫

    2014-01-01

    以淬硬钢65Mn为原料,采用有限元分析软件Deform⁃3D构建了硬态切削加工模型。模拟了不同切削速度下淬硬钢65Mn的车削加工过程,对车削加工的切削力、温度随切削速度的提高的变化以及工件表面应力变化的仿真结果给出了分析,为实现工艺参数的优化提供了指导。结果表明:硬态切削加工3个切削力中径向力Fy 最大,第二变形区的切削温度较高,硬态切削加工过程中工件表面应力呈现拉压交替变换且最终表现为压应力。%With hardened steel 65Mn as raw material, by using the finite element analysis ( FEA) software Deform⁃3D, the hard machining of hardened steel model was constructed. The different cutting speeds for turning hardened steel 65Mn process were simula⁃ted, and the simulation results of cutting forces and cutting temperature and surface stress were analyzed in changes with increasing of the cutting speed and temperature during turning machining, which provided guidance for realizing optimization of process parameters. The results show that the maximum cutting force is the radial cutting force Fy in hard machining among three. The second deformation zone shows higher temperature. During the hard machining process, the tensile and compressive stress alternate on the surface of the workpiece. Finally, the surface of the workpiece presents compressive stress.

  8. The 3-D surface deformation, coseismic fault slip and after-slip of the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu earthquake, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohong; Shan, Xinjian; Feng, Guangcai

    2016-07-01

    Using SAR interferometry on C band Envisat descending track and L band ALOS ascending track SAR images, respectively, we firstly obtain two coseismic deformation fields and one postseismic deformation of the 2010 Yushu earthquake, Tibet, China. In the meanwhile, we also obtain the azimuthal coseismic deformation of the Yushu event by Multi Aperture Interferometry (MAI) technique. With the 3 components of one-dimensional coseismic InSAR measurements, we resolve the complete 3-dimensional deformation of the 2010 Yushu event, which shows conformity and complexity to left lateral slip mechanism. The horizontal deformation is basically consistent with a sinistral slip event; whereas the vertical displacement does show certain level of complexity, which we argue is indicative of local fault geometry variation. Based on the InSAR data and elastic dislocation assumption, we invert for coseismic fault slip and early after-slip of the Yushu event. Our inversion results show major coseismic left lateral strike slip with only minor thrust component. The after-slip model fills most of the slip gaps left by the coseismic fault slip and finds a complementary slip distribution to the coseismic fault slip, which is a good indicator that future earthquake potential on the Yushu segment has been significantly reduced.

  9. Unusual Transformation from a Solvent-Stabilized 1D Coordination Polymer to a Metal-Organic Framework (MOF)-Like Cross-Linked 3D Coordination Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Beom; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kwon, O-Pil

    2015-10-26

    An unusual 1D-to-3D transformation of a coordination polymer based on organic linkers containing highly polar push-pull π-conjugated side chains is reported. The coordination polymers are synthesized from zinc nitrate and an organic linker, namely, 2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]butoxy}terephthalic acid, which possesses highly polar (4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine groups, with high dipole moments of about 7 D. The coordination polymers exhibit an unusual transformation from a soluble, solvent-stabilized 1D coordination polymer into an insoluble, metal-organic framework (MOF)-like 3D coordination polymer. The coordination polymer exhibits good film-forming ability, and the MOF-like films are insoluble in conventional organic solvents.

  10. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  11. Nanoengineered implant as a new platform for regenerative nanomedicine using 3D well-organized human cell spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Idoux-Gillet, Ysia; Wagner, Quentin; Eap, Sandy; Brasse, David; Schwinté, Pascale; Arruebo, Manuel; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In tissue engineering, it is still rare today to see clinically transferable strategies for tissue-engineered graft production that conclusively offer better tissue regeneration than the already existing technologies, decreased recovery times, and less risk of complications. Here a novel tissue-engineering concept is presented for the production of living bone implants combining 1) a nanofibrous and microporous implant as cell colonization matrix and 2) 3D bone cell spheroids. This combination, double 3D implants, shows clinical relevant thicknesses for the treatment of an early stage of bone lesions before the need of bone substitutes. The strategy presented here shows a complete closure of a defect in nude mice calvaria after only 31 days. As a novel strategy for bone regenerative nanomedicine, it holds great promises to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of living bone implants. PMID:28138241

  12. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  13. The 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS): A universally applicable coordinate system for isovolumetric imaging measurements, tested in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Caecilia S; Williamson, Tom; Winklehner, Thomas; Lisse, Sean; Fink, Daniel; DeLancey, John O L; Betschart, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the organs are pushed downward along the lines of gravity, so measurements along this longitudinal body axis are desirable. We propose a universally applicable 3D coordinate system that corrects for changes in pelvic inclination and that allows the localization of any point in the pelvis at rest or under dynamic conditions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) of pelvic floor disorders in a scanner- and software independent manner. The proposed 3D coordinate system called 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS) is constructed utilizing four bony landmark points, with the origin set at the inferior pubic point, and three additional points at the sacrum (sacrococcygeal joint) and both ischial spines, which are clearly visible on MRI images. The feasibility and applicability of the moving frame was evaluated using MRI datasets from five women with pelvic organ prolapse, three undergoing static MRI and two undergoing dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor in a supine position. The construction of the coordinate system was performed utilizing the selected landmarks, with an initial implementation completed in MATLAB. In all cases the selected landmarks were clearly visible, with the construction of the 3D PICS and measurement of pelvic organ positions performed without difficulty. The resulting distance from the organ position to the horizontal PICS plane was compared to a traditional measure based on standard measurements in 2D slices. The two approaches demonstrated good agreement in each of the cases. The developed approach makes quantitative assessment of pelvic organ position in a physiologically relevant 3D coordinate system possible independent of pelvic movement relative to the scanner. It allows the accurate study of the physiologic range of organ location along the body axis ("up or down") as well as defects of the pelvic sidewall or birth-related pelvic floor injuries outside the midsagittal plane, not possible before in a 2D

  14. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  15. Lithospheric deformation and mantle/crust coupling related to slab roll-back and tearing processes: the role of magma-related rheological weakening highlighted by 3D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    Active convergent margins are the locus of various large-scale lithospheric processes including subduction, back-arc opening, lithospheric delamination, slab tearing and break-off. Coexistence of such processes results in a complex lithospheric deformation pattern through the rheological stratification of the overriding lithosphere. In this context, another major feature is the development of an intense arc- and back-arc-related magmatism whose effects on lithospheric deformation by rheological weakening are largely unknown. Quantifying this magma-related weakening effect and integrating the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction system is however challenging because of the large number of physico-chemical processes involved (e.g. heat advection, dehydration of subducted material, partial melting of the mantle wedge). We present here a set of 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to assess the role of low-viscosity magmatic phases on lithospheric deformation associated with coeval oceanic and continental subduction, followed by slab retreat and tearing processes. Results in terms of crustal kinematics, patterns of lithospheric deformation and distribution and composition of magmatic phases are then compared to a natural example displaying a similar geodynamical evolution: the eastern Mediterranean subduction zone. Our modeling results suggest that the asthenospheric flow controls the ascending trajectories of mantle-derived magmatic sources developed in the mantle wedge in response to dehydration of oceanic slab. Once stored at the base of the overriding continental crust, low-viscosity mantle- and crustal-derived magmatic phases allow to decrease the lithospheric strength. This weakening then enhances the propagation of localized extensional and strike-slip deformation in response to slab roll-back and extrusion tectonics respectively. In addition, we show that storage of large amounts of low-viscosity magmas

  16. A mapping of an ensemble of mitochondrial sequences for various organisms into 3D space based on the word composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    To visualize a bird's-eye view of an ensemble of mitochondrial genome sequences for various species, we recently developed a novel method of mapping a biological sequence ensemble into Three-Dimensional (3D) vector space. First, we represented a biological sequence of a species s by a word-composition vector x(s), where its length [absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the sequence length, and its unit vector x(s)/[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the relative composition of the K-tuple words through the sequence and the size of the dimension, N=4(K), is the number of all possible words with the length of K. Second, we mapped the vector x(s) to the 3D position vector y(s), based on the two following simple principles: (1) [absolute value]y(s)[absolute value]=[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] and (2) the angle between y(s) and y(t) maximally correlates with the angle between x(s) and x(t). The mitochondrial genome sequences for 311 species, including 177 Animalia, 85 Fungi and 49 Green plants, were mapped into 3D space by using K=7. The mapping was successful because the angles between vectors before and after the mapping highly correlated with each other (correlation coefficients were 0.92-0.97). Interestingly, the Animalia kingdom is distributed along a single arc belt (just like the Milky Way on a Celestial Globe), and the Fungi and Green plant kingdoms are distributed in a similar arc belt. These two arc belts intersect at their respective middle regions and form a cross structure just like a jet aircraft fuselage and its wings. This new mapping method will allow researchers to intuitively interpret the visual information presented in the maps in a highly effective manner.

  17. 3-D refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Songyi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Nab, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions for fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed of RBCs from cord blood of newborn infants, and of adult RBCs from mothers or non-pregnant women, employing optical holographic micro-tomography. Optical measurements of 3-D refractive index distributions, and of dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs, enabled retrieval of the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significant larger than those of RBCs from non-pregnant women, and cord RBCs have more flattened shapes than RBCs in adults. In addition, the Hb content in the cord RBCs of newborns was significantly greater. The Hb concentration in cord RBCs was higher than for non-pregnant women or maternal RBCs, but t...

  18. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo; Lokoregionaere Deformationsmuster im Patellarknorpel nach unterschiedlichen Belastungsparadigmen. Hochaufloesende 3-D-MR-Volumetrie bei 3 T in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie [University Hospital LMU Munich, Muenchen (Germany). Radiology; Raya, J. [New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Center of Biomedical Imaging; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Zscharn, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm{sup 3}) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2{sigma}-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D {>=} 1 mm the RF was < 0.31 mm (< voxel size), and for D {>=} 2 mm, the RF was < 0.22 mm. The global PR was 83 mm{sup 3} (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm{sup 2} (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee

  19. 3D 打印模型辅助后路内固定治疗儿童颈椎畸形%Individualized 3D printing model-assisted posterior screw fixation for the treatment of the cervical de-formity of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 李承鑫; 张学军; 郭东; 范敬一; 刘虎; 孙记航; 潘少川

    2016-01-01

    Objetive To study the method and effect of individualized 3D printing model—assisted pos-terior screw fixation for the treatment of the cervical deformity of children.Methods 22 patients with cervical deformity associated with upper cervical instability diagnosed by CT were retrospectively analyzed in Department of Orthopedics at Beijing Children’s Hospital.First,a 3D printing model of cervical was made with 3D printing technology,then simulated screw insertion and fixation operation on the model to obtain the individual screw in-sertion data to assist the real operation.At last implemented one-stage posterior orthomorphia combined with in-ternal fixation.Results 22 patients with cervical deformity successfully underwent the posterior screw fixation operation assisted by individual 3D printing models,without injury to the vertebral artery and nerve root,without internal fixation loosening and fracture,postoperative follow-up time ranged from 3 to 23 months,average 13.5 months.Postoperative ADI was significantly reduced,CMA increased significantly,the medulla oblongata ventral compression significantly reduced or disappeared,no death in operation,1 case with two times the fusion of bone graft,1 case underwent sternocleidomastoid muscle amputation lysis,1 case of foramen magnum decompression, 1 cases of posterior arch of atlas decompression. Conclusions Posterior screw fixation operation assisted by individualized 3D printing model can improve the success rate and safety of screw insertion,and effectively pro-tect the vertebral artery and nerve root avoiding damage,especially is of great help to the treatment of children with cervical deformity.%目的:研究个体化3D 打印模型辅助后路内固定治疗儿童颈椎畸形的方法和效果。方法对北京儿童医院骨科 CT 确诊的22例颈椎畸形伴上颈椎不稳患儿进行回顾性分析。采用3D 打印技术建立颈椎个体化3D 打印模型,在模型上进行模拟置钉及内固定手

  20. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  1. Fabrication of Light Extraction Efficiency of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 3D Aspherical Microlens by Using Dry Etching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available organic light-emitting diode (OLED can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio and viewing angle compared to liquid crystal display (LCD because OLED pixels directly emit light. There is a shortcoming that the internal quantum efficiency can reach values close to 100%, but about 80% light disperses because of the difference among the refractive indices of the substrate, anode, indium tin oxide (ITO film, and air. In this paper, three dimensions aspherical microlens arrays (3D A-MLAs with substrate modifications are developed to simulate the optical luminous field by using FRED software. This study modified parameters of 3D A-MLAs such as the diameter, fill-factor, aspect ratio, dry etching parameters, and electroforming rates of microlens to improve the extraction efficiency of the OLED. In dry etching, not only the aspect ratio with better extraction rate can be obtained by reactive ion etching (RIE dry etching, but also an undercutting phenomenon can be avoided. The dimensions of 3D A-MLAs can be accurately controlled in the electroforming process used to make a nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co metal mold to achieve the designed dimensions. According to the measured results, the average luminance efficacy of the OLEDs with 3D A-MLAs can be enhanced.

  2. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  3. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  4. Nanoengineered implant as a new platform for regenerative nanomedicine using 3D well-organized human cell spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller L

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laetitia Keller,1,2,* Ysia Idoux-Gillet,1,2,* Quentin Wagner,1,2,* Sandy Eap,1,2,* David Brasse,3 Pascale Schwinté,1,2 Manuel Arruebo,4 Nadia Benkirane-Jessel1,2 1INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, “Osteoarticular and Dental Regenerative Nanomedicine” Laboratory, UMR 1109, Faculté de Médecine, FMTS, 2University of Strasbourg, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, 3CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7178, IPHC (Hubert Curien Multidisciplinary Institute, Strasbourg, France; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, INA (Aragon Nanoscience Institute, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In tissue engineering, it is still rare today to see clinically transferable strategies for tissue-engineered graft production that conclusively offer better tissue regeneration than the already existing technologies, decreased recovery times, and less risk of complications. Here a novel tissue-engineering concept is presented for the production of living bone implants combining 1 a nanofibrous and microporous implant as cell colonization matrix and 2 3D bone cell spheroids. This combination, double 3D implants, shows clinical relevant thicknesses for the treatment of an early stage of bone lesions before the need of bone substitutes. The strategy presented here shows a complete closure of a defect in nude mice calvaria after only 31 days. As a novel strategy for bone regenerative nanomedicine, it holds great promises to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of living bone implants. Keywords: bioengineering, implants, osteoblasts, matrix mineralization, microtissues

  5. 3d-4f Metal-Organic Framework with Dual Luminescent Centers That Efficiently Discriminates the Isomer and Homologues of Small Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Xing, Shanghua; Wang, Xiuru; Yang, Yulin; Ma, Dingxuan; Liang, Hongwei; Gao, Lu; Hua, Jia; Li, Guanghua; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-02-01

    A 3d-4f luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF), [Tb2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (4), and three analogues {[La2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(C4H8O2)2(H2O)2]·3C4H8O2·2H2O (1), [Ce2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (2), and [Eu2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (3)}, were self-assembled from copper(I) halide clusters and lanthanide metal ions with an organic linker [3-(pyridin-4-yl)benzoic acid] under solvothermal conditions. Compound 4 with high quantum yield (Φ = 68%) exhibits reversible luminescence behavior, accompanying the removal and recovery of guest molecules (1,4-dioxane). Because of the unique porous structure and dual luminescent centers of compound 4, it can efficiently differentiate benzene series with different sizes and provide readouts in corresponding optical signals. Furthermore, it also can unambiguously discriminate the isomers, homologues, and other small molecules with similar structural motifs from one another. The luminescent color of the MOF sensor in different guest solvents has obvious changes that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. This multicolor luminescence originates from emissions of the dual luminescent centers, and the emissions have shifted, enhanced, weakened, or quenched to different degrees.

  6. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  7. 3D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  8. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  9. 3D Deformation Forecast and Analysis of Xiaolangdi Dam Based on GA-LMBP Network Model%基于GA-LMBP网络模型的小浪底大坝3维变形预报分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新志; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    BP神经网络在大坝监测资料分析处理中有广泛的应用,本文针对改进的BP神经网络:LM-BP网络模型的不足,采用遗传算法加以改进,建立了一种基于遗传算法和LM-BP网络模型的大坝3维变形预报模型GA-LMBP网络模型.将GA-LMBP网络模型应用于小浪底大坝3维变形预报分析中,取得了很好的预报效果,证明了GA-LMBP网络模型是一种行之有效的大坝变形分析预报模型.%The BP neural network is widely used in the analysis and processing of the dam monitoring data. Aiming at solving the insufficiencies of the improved BP neural - network — GA — LMBP model, this paper used the genetic algorithm to improve it, and develops the GA - LMBP network model which can be used in the three - dimensional deformation forecast of the dam. The GA - LMBP network model is applied to the 3D deformation forecast and analysis of Xiaolangdi dam and achieves a very good prediction effect, which proves that the GA - LMBP is an effective network model for the forecast and analysis of the dam deformation.

  10. QSAR modeling of toxicity of diverse organic chemicals to Daphnia magna using 2D and 3D descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Supratik [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Kunal, E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2010-05-15

    One of the major economic alternatives to experimental toxicity testing is the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) which are used in formulating regulatory decisions of environmental protection agencies. In this background, we have modeled a large diverse group of 297 chemicals for their toxicity to Daphnia magna using mechanistically interpretable descriptors. Three-dimensional (3D) (electronic and spatial) and two-dimensional (2D) (topological and information content indices) descriptors along with physicochemical parameter log K{sub o/w} (n-octanol/water partition coefficient) and structural descriptors were used as predictor variables. The QSAR models were developed by stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), genetic function approximation (GFA), and genetic PLS (G/PLS). All the models were validated internally and externally. Among several models developed using different chemometric tools, the best model based on both internal and external validation characteristics was a PLS equation with 7 descriptors and three latent variables explaining 67.8% leave-one-out predicted variance and 74.1% external predicted variance. The PLS model suggests that higher lipophilicity and electrophilicity, less negative charge surface area and presence of ether linkage, hydrogen bond donor groups and acetylenic carbons are responsible for greater toxicity of chemicals. The developed model may be used for prediction of toxicity, safety and risk assessment of chemicals to achieve better ecotoxicological management and prevent adverse health consequences.

  11. A rare 3D chloro-laced Mn(II) metal-organic framework to show sensitive probing effect to Hg2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Mei; Bai, Na

    2017-10-01

    Two 3D Mn(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Mn(L-Cl)(DMA)](H2O) (1) and Mn(L-CH3)(DMA) (2) (H2L-Cl = 2,2'-dichloro-4,4'-azodibenzoic acid, H2L-CH3 = 2,2'-dimethyl-4,4'-azodibenzoic acid) were synthesized under similar solvothermal condition. Both MOFs crystallize in the orthorhombic system and show the 3D rod-packing networks in 2-fold interpenetrated pattern with sra topology. Due to the different substituent laces of MOFs (-Cl vs -CH3), only MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive fluorescence sensing effect for detecting Hg2+ ion.

  12. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    to produce high quality 3-D images. Because of the large matrix transducers with integrated custom electronics, these systems are extremely expensive. The relatively low price of ultrasound scanners is one of the factors for the widespread use of ultrasound imaging. The high price tag on the high quality 3-D......The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...

  13. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  14. A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand: Solvothermal synthesis, crystal structure, gas adsorption and magnetic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingfu, E-mail: zhangqingfu@lcu.edu.cn; Zhang, Haina; Geng, Aijing; Wang, Suna; Zhang, Chong

    2014-04-01

    A new cobalt(II)–organic framework, [Co{sub 2}(L)(py){sub 2}(DMSO)]{sub n}• 0.5nDMF• 2nDMSO (1) [H{sub 4}L=5,5'-((naphthalene-2,6-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid, py=pyridine, DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide], has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, PXRD and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 is a 3D framework built from nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligands (L{sup 4−}) and dinuclear [Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] secondary building units (SBUs), exhibiting a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4• 6{sup 5}). The desolvated complex (1a) displays higher adsorption capability for CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}, which may be due to the relatively strong binding affinity between the CO{sub 2} molecules and acylamide groups in the framework. The magnetic investigation shows that the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction is observed in complex 1. - Graphical abstract: A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, its thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied. - Highlights: • A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. • Complex 1 exhibits a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology. • The thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied.

  15. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  16. Gain in cellular organization of inflammatory breast cancer: A 3D in vitro model that mimics the in vivo metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaugh Mary L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial step of metastasis in carcinomas, often referred to as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, occurs via the loss of adherens junctions (e.g. cadherins by the tumor embolus. This leads to a subsequent loss of cell polarity and cellular differentiation and organization, enabling cells of the embolus to become motile and invasive. However highly malignant inflammatory breast cancer (IBC over-expresses E-cadherin. The human xenograft model of IBC (MARY-X, like IBC, displays the signature phenotype of an exaggerated degree of lymphovascular invasion (LVI in situ by tumor emboli. An intact E-cadherin/α, β-catenin axis mediates the tight, compact clump of cells found both in vitro and in vivo as spheroids and tumor emboli, respectively. Methods Using electron microscopy and focused ion beam milling to acquire in situ sections, we performed ultrastructural analysis of both an IBC and non-IBC, E-cadherin positive cell line to determine if retention of this adhesion molecule contributed to cellular organization. Results Here we report through ultrastructural analysis that IBC exhibits a high degree of cellular organization with polar elements such as apical/lateral positioning of E-cadherin, apical surface microvilli, and tortuous lumen-like (canalis structures. In contrast, agarose-induced spheroids of MCF-7, a weakly invasive E-cadherin positive breast carcinoma cell line, do not exhibit ultrastructural polar features. Conclusions This study has determined that the highly metastatic IBC with an exaggerated malignant phenotype challenges conventional wisdom in that instead of displaying a loss of cellular organization, IBC acquires a highly structured architecture. These findings suggest that the metastatic efficiency might be linked to the formation and maintenance of these architectural features. The comparative architectural features of both the spheroid and embolus of MARY-X provide an in vitro model with

  17. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  18. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  19. Temperature-stable and optically transparent thin-film zinc oxide aerogel electrodes as model systems for 3D interpenetrating organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Michael; Pawlitzek, Fabian; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Polarz, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    Novel, nanostructured electrode materials comprising porous ZnO films with aerogel morphology are presented. Almost any substrate including polymers, metals, or ceramics can be coated using a method that is suitable for mass production. The thin, porous films can be prepared from the wet gels via conventional drying, supercritical drying is not necessary. The filigree ZnO network is thermally very stable and exhibits sufficient electrical conductivity for advanced electronic applications. The latter was tested by realizing a highly desired architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. After sensitizing of the ZnO with a purely organic squarine dye (SQ2), a nanostructured, interpenetrating 3D network of the inorganic semiconductor (ZnO) and organic semiconductor (P3HT) was prepared. The solar cell device was tested under illumination with AM 1.5G solar light (100 mW/cm(2)) and exhibited an energy conversion efficiency (η(eff)) of 0.69%.

  20. The Patentability of 3D Printed Human Organs%3D打印人体器官可专利性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 沈伟

    2015-01-01

    3D printing human organ technology is an organic combination of 3D printing technology and biotechnology. This technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and it has also raised the issue of social ethics in the process of solving the problem of life science. The patentability of the technology faces challenge. The legal attribute of 3D printing organs, which should be deemed as property with personality, is to resolve the ethical risks. The human organs acquired by 3D printing and its method are patentability, and the application of novelty, non-obviousness and usefulness standards should reflect its special nature. Our country should develop biotechnology patent protection policy with a positive attitude, but need a strict patent standard, in order to alleviate the contradiction between technology development and ethics in the ifeld of patent granting.%3D打印人体器官技术是3D打印技术与生物技术的有机结合。该技术近年来发展迅速,在解决生命科学中诸多问题的同时,也引发了社会伦理问题,并且其获得专利授权的正当性面临挑战。将3D打印人体器官的法律属性界定为人格物,是对其存在的伦理风险的化解之道。3D打印所得到的人体器官本身及其方法具有可专利性,在适用专利“三性”授权标准时应当体现该技术的特殊性。我国应当对制定生物技术领域的专利授权政策采取积极态度,但又需对审查标准严加把握,以缓解专利授权中技术发展与伦理规范之间的矛盾。

  1. 基于形变模型和有限元的3D表面重建%3D Surface Reconstrucition Based-On a Deformable Model and Finite Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 谷士文

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,we present a method for 3D surface reconstruction using an elastic de formable model,which progressively carries out deformation under the action of simulatedexternal forces,which in turn drives the model profile toward the object profile extractiedfrom an image. Meanwhile, the internal forces made the surface smooth. We derive dynamicfinite element equation of 3D surface reconstruction by means of dynamic principle and finiteelement. Experimental results also show the feasibility of our newly presented method.%提出了一种利用弹性形变模型重建3 D表面的方法,该形变模型在模拟的外力作用下朝着从图像数据抽取的物体表面变形,内力维持模型的光滑性.利用动力学原理和有限元导出了表面重建的动态有限元方程.实验结果表明该方法的有效性

  2. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  3. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jodi L. Connell; Eric T. Ritschdorff; Marvin Whiteley; Jason B. Shear

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a microscopic threedimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating...

  4. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a 3D Mn(II)-organic framework with ABW-zeolite topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Qin, Lan; Yu, Lei; Han, Lei

    2013-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional metal-organic framework, [Mn(pydc)(DMF)]n (1) (pydc = pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, which consists of one-dimension Mn(COO)2 chains and rhombic channels. The porous complex 1 displays a 4-connected ABW-zeolite topology with vertex symbols of 4.6.4.6.6.82, and exhibits high thermal stability (315 °C) and anti-ferromagnetic properties.

  5. Perfusion-decellularized pancreas as a natural 3D scaffold for pancreatic tissue and whole organ engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Saik-Kia; Bertera, Suzanne; Olsen, Phillip; Candiello, Joe; Halfter, Willi; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Johnson, Scott; Sicari, Brian; Kollar, Elizabeth; Badylak, Stephen F.; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, with insulin supplementation as the most common treatment measure. Regenerative medicine approaches such as a bioengineered pancreas has been proposed as potential therapeutic alternatives. A bioengineered pancreas will benefit from the development of a bioscaffold that supports and enhances cellular function and tissue development. Perfusion-decellularized organs are a likely candidate for use in such scaffolds since they mimic compositional, architectural and biomechanical nature of a native organ. In this study, we investigate perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas and the feasibility to recellularize the whole pancreas scaffold with pancreatic cell types. Our result demonstrates that perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas effectively removes cellular and nuclear material while retaining intricate three-dimensional microarchitecture with perfusable vasculature and ductal network and crucial extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To mimic pancreatic cell composition, we recellularized the whole pancreas scaffold with acinar and beta cell lines and cultured up to 5 days. Our result shows successful cellular engraftment within the decellularized pancreas, and the resulting graft gave rise to strong up-regulation of insulin gene expression. These findings support biological utility of whole pancreas ECM as a biomaterials scaffold for supporting and enhancing pancreatic cell functionality and represent a step toward bioengineered pancreas using regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:23787110

  6. Simulating microbial degradation of organic matter in a simple porous system using the 3-D diffusion-based model MOSAIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, O.; Garnier, P.; Pot, V.; Coucheney, E.; Nunan, N.; Otten, W.; Chenu, C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of microbial degradation of organic matter in soil within the pore space at a microscopic scale. Pore space was analysed with micro-computed tomography and described using a sphere network coming from a geometrical modelling algorithm. The biological model was improved regarding previous work in order to include the transformation of dissolved organic compounds and diffusion processes. We tested our model using experimental results of a simple substrate decomposition experiment (fructose) within a simple medium (sand) in the presence of different bacterial strains. Separate incubations were carried out in microcosms using five different bacterial communities at two different water potentials of -10 and -100 cm of water. We calibrated the biological parameters by means of experimental data obtained at high water content, and we tested the model without changing any parameters at low water content. Same as for the experimental data, our simulation results showed that the decrease in water content caused a decrease of mineralization rate. The model was able to simulate the decrease of connectivity between substrate and microorganism due the decrease of water content.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of 3D hollow porous Fe3O4 microspheres towards catalytic removal of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiansong; Huang, He; Li, Guoqing; Liu, Yi; Huang, Jiale; Yang, Da-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional hollow porous superparamagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process. A series of characterizations done with X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the production of Fe3O4 microspheres possessed good monodispersity, uniform size distribution, hollow and porous structural characters, and strong superparamagnetic behavior. The obtained Fe3O4 microspheres have a diameter of ca. 300 nm, which is composed of many interconnected nanoparticles with a size of ca. 20 nm. The saturation magnetization is 80.6 emu·g(-1). The as-prepared products had promising applications as novel catalysts to remove organic pollutants (methylene blue) from wastewater in the presence of H2O2 and ultrasound irradiation.

  8. Marine Heat Waves Hazard 3D Maps and the Risk for Low Motility Organisms in a Warming Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and severity of heat waves is expected to increase as a consequence of climate change with important impacts on human and ecosystems health. However, while many studies explored the projected occurrence of hot extremes on terrestrial systems, few studies dealt with marine systems, so that both the expected change in marine heat waves occurrence and the effects on marine organisms and ecosystems remain less understood and surprisingly poorly quantified. Here we: (i assess how much more frequent, severe, and depth-penetrating marine heat waves will be in the Mediterranean area in the next decades by post-processing the output of an ocean general circulation model; and (ii show that heat waves increase will impact on many species that live in shallow waters and have reduced motility, and related economic activities. This information is made available also as a dataset of temperature threshold exceedance indexes that can be used in combination with biological information to produce risk assessment maps for target species or biomes across the whole Mediterranean Sea. As case studies we compared projected heat waves occurrence with thermotolerance thresholds of low motility organisms. Results suggest a deepening of the survival horizon for red coral (Corallium rubrum, a commercially exploited benthic species already subjected to heat-related mass mortality events and coralligenous reefs as well as a reduction of suitable farming sites for the mussel Mythilus galloprovincialis. In recent years Mediterranean circalittoral ecosystems (coralligenous have been severely and repeatedly impacted by marine heat waves. Our results support that equally deleterious events are expected in the near future also for other ecologically important habitats (e.g., seagrass meadows and aquaculture activities (bivalvae, and point at the need for mitigation strategies.

  9. VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY IN CHILDREN AND DISPENSARY CARE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Batrshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the prevalence of spine deformation pathology and the state of vertebral children care screening of 18 500 schoolchildren was conducted by computer optical topography. In 79.5% of them the posture disturbances and in 14.5% - spinal deformity were detected. The multivariate analysis of vertebral deformity was performed. It is established that vertebral deformity till 10° on Coob has usually monoplane form, and more than 10° - only multiplane form. Dispensary health groups were formed, screening program for children with subsequent monitoring was proposed.

  10. 2D and 3D modelling of the Linking Zone between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain): Characterizing basement and cover deformation from geological and geophysical cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Ayala, Concepción; Rubio, Félix Manuel; Pueyo, Emilio; Casas, Antonio; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Rey-Moral, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    reality. Second, the cross sections were imported in Move (by Midland Valley Exploration) and GeoModeller (by Intrepid Geosciences) to create a 3D geological model in accordance with all the geological observations. Finally, a 3D gravimetric inversion using GeoModeller was carried out to obtain the lithological horizons that also honor the petrophysical and gravimetric data. The studied area can be divided in three structural domains: (1) the eastern margin of the Aragonian Branch, (2) the Linking Zone and (3) the transition between the Linking Zone and the Catalan Coastal Ranges. In the Aragonian Branch, the main structures partly correspond to the inversion of basement faults limiting the margins of the Oliete sub-basin, Lower Cretaceous in age. The boundaries of this basin coincide with positive residual gravity anomalies. Structures in the Linking Zone belong to the northern margin of the inverted Morella basin (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) to the South and the thin-skinned Portalrubio-Vandellòs thrust system to the North, both separated by a strongly deformed zone corresponding to inverted structures in the marginal areas of the Mesozoic basin. In the Catalan Coastal Ranges, faults affecting the basement are dominant. Positive residual gravity anomalies match with antiformal structures at the front of the range and negative gravity anomalies to Plio-Quaternary basins superimposed on the Alpine compressional structure. In the foreland of the Iberian and Catalan Coastal ranges, the slightly deformed basement of the Cenozoic Ebro Basin is characterized by positive residual anomalies indicating the location of basement uplifts. From the 3D model we obtained a faulted, deformed basement at a maximum depth of 1700 m but generally found between 350 and 1400 m.

  11. Lasing and macroscopic coherence of periodic 2D and 3D microstructures in organic microcavities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischok, Andreas; Wagner, Tim; Brückner, Robert; Sudzius, Markas; Fröb, Hartmut; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Leo, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Two of the most successful microresonator concepts are the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), comprising a vertical cavity of highly reflective DBRs sandwiching an active layer, and the distributed feedback (DFB) laser, where a periodic optical grating selects laser modes from an active waveguide (WG) layer. Here, an organic microcavity is coupled with in-plane periodic photonic wires or dots to facilitate a coherent interaction between waveguided and vertically emitting modes as well as creating an additional in-plane confinement. The vertical positioning of such patterning plays a crucial role in the observable features. While embedding metallic or dielectric wires directly in the cavity layer leads to a strong lateral confinement as well as the observation of photonic Bloch states [1,2], the deposition of the full VCSEL stack on top of a periodic grating reveals novel features. In such a device, we demonstrate the coherent coupling between parabolic VCSEL and linear WG modes in the angle-resolved far field emission. In this system, lasing occurs not only at the VCSEL parabola apex but also at points of hybridization, when the dispersion of modes cross, showing a drastically enhanced in-plane coherence [3]. The coherent coupling of two conceptually different devices with perpendicular propagation directions paired with the macroscopic coherence facilitate a multitude of new applications. [1] Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 746 (2014) [2] Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 064016 (2015). [3] Adv. Opt. Mater. under review (2016).

  12. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical behavior of a 3D crystalline copper(II) metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hong-Ye; Fan, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Bo; Shi, Wei-Dong; Yan, Yong-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Using an flexible amide-type tripodal ligand N,N‧,N″-tris(3-pyridyl)-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (L) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2bdc), a three-dimensional copper(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) formulated as [Cu(bdc)(L)]n has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, elemental, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and thermal analysis. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic, space group P - 1, a = 8.891(2) Å, b = 11.760(2) Å, c = 15.348(3) Å, α = 96.73(3)°, β = 105.96(3)°, γ = 106.47(3)°, V = 1446.2(5) Å3, Mr = 666.10, Dc = 1.530 g/cm3, Z = 2, F(000) = 682, GOOF = 1.0560, μ(MoKα) = 0.817 mm-1, R = 0.0366 and wR = 0.0885. The structural analyses reveal that the title compound consists of one Cu(II) atom, two halves of bdc, and one L ligand. Each Cu(II) atom is linked by two bdc ligands and three L ligands to form a three-dimensional network. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of title compound has been studied. CCDC No. 990526.

  13. Simulating microbial degradation of organic matter in a simple porous system using the 3-D diffusion based model MOSAIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, O.; Garnier, P.; Pot, V.; Coucheney, E.; Nunan, N.; Otten, W.; Chenu, C.

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of microbial degradation in soil within pore space at microscopic scale. Pore space was described using sphere network coming from a geometrical modeling algorithm. The biological model was improved regarding previous work in order to include transformation of dissolved organic compounds and diffusion processes. Our model was tested using experimental results of a simple substrate decomposition (Fructose) within a simple media (the sand). Diverse microbial communities were inoculated. Separated incubations in microcosms were carried out using 5 different bacterial communities at 2 different water potentials of -10 cm and -100 cm of water. We calibrated the biological parameters by means of experimental data obtained at high water content and we tested the model without any parameters change at low water content. Same as for experimental data, our simulation results showed the decrease in water content involved the decrease of mineralisation. The model was able to simulate the decrease of connectivity between substrate and microorganism due the decrease of water content.

  14. Simulating microbial degradation of organic matter in a simple porous system using the 3-D diffusion based model MOSAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the simulation of microbial degradation in soil within pore space at microscopic scale. Pore space was described using sphere network coming from a geometrical modeling algorithm. The biological model was improved regarding previous work in order to include transformation of dissolved organic compounds and diffusion processes. Our model was tested using experimental results of a simple substrate decomposition (Fructose within a simple media (the sand. Diverse microbial communities were inoculated. Separated incubations in microcosms were carried out using 5 different bacterial communities at 2 different water potentials of −10 cm and −100 cm of water. We calibrated the biological parameters by means of experimental data obtained at high water content and we tested the model without any parameters change at low water content. Same as for experimental data, our simulation results showed the decrease in water content involved the decrease of mineralisation. The model was able to simulate the decrease of connectivity between substrate and microorganism due the decrease of water content.

  15. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  16. B4 2 After, 3D Deformation Field From Matching Pre- To Post-Event Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds, The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah M7.2 Earthquake Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Nissen, E.; Limon-Tirado, J. F.; Arrowsmith, R.; Krishnan, A.; Saripalli, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Arregui, S. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O. J.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial LiDAR surveys reconstruct with amazing fidelity the sinuosity of terrain relief. In this research we explore the 3D deformation field at the surface after a big earthquake (M7.2) by comparing pre- to post-event aerial LiDAR point clouds. The April 4 2010 earthquake produced a NW-SE surface rupture ~110km long with right-lateral normal slip up to 3m in magnitude over a very favorable target: scarcely vegetated and unaltered desert mountain range, sierras El Mayor and Cucapah, in northern Baja California, close to the US-México border. It is a plate boundary region between the Pacific and North American plates. The pre-event LiDAR with lower point density (0.013-0.033 pts m-2) required filtering and post-processing before comparing with the denser (9-18 pts m-2) more accurate post event dataset. The 3D surface displacement field was determined using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, implemented in the open source Point Cloud Library (PCL). The LiDAR datasets are first split into a grid of windows, and for each one, ICP iteratively converges on the rigid body transformation (comprising translations and rotations) that best aligns the pre- to post-event points. Perturbing the pre- and post-event point clouds independently with a synthetic right lateral inverse displacements of known magnitude along a proposed fault, ICP recovered the synthetically introduced translations. Windows with dimensions of 100-200m gave the best results for datasets with these densities. The simplified surface rupture photo interpreted and mapped in the field, delineates very well the vertical displacements patterns unveiled by ICP. The method revealed block rotations, some with clockwise and others counter clockwise direction along the simplified surface rupture. As ground truth, displacements from ICP have similar values as those measured in the field along the main rupture by Fletcher and collaborators. The vertical component was better estimated than the

  17. Image-Based 3D Treatment Planning for Vaginal Cylinder Brachytherapy: Dosimetric Effects of Bladder Filling on Organs at Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Jennifer; Shen Sui; De Los Santos, Jennifer F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kim, Robert Y., E-mail: rkim@uabmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of bladder filling on organs at risk (OARs) using three-dimensional image-based treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent postoperative high-dose rate vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. For three-dimensional planning, patients were simulated by computed tomography with an indwelling catheter in place (empty bladder) and with 180 mL of sterile water instilled into the bladder (full bladder). The bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel (OARs) were contoured, and a prescription dose was generated for 10 to 35 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions at the surface or at 5 mm depth. For each OAR, the volume dose was defined by use of two different criteria: the minimum dose value in a 2.0-cc volume receiving the highest dose (D{sub 2cc}) and the dose received by 50% of the OAR volume (D{sub 50%}). International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectum point doses were calculated for comparison. The cylinder-to-bowel distance was measured using the shortest distance from the cylinder apex to the contoured sigmoid or small bowel. Statistical analyses were performed with paired t tests. Results: Mean bladder and rectum D{sub 2cc} values were lower than their respective ICRU doses. However, differences between D{sub 2cc} and ICRU doses were small. Empty vs. full bladder did not significantly affect the mean cylinder-to-bowel distance (0.72 vs. 0.92 cm, p = 0.08). In contrast, bladder distention had appreciable effects on bladder and small bowel volume dosimetry. With a full bladder, the mean small bowel D{sub 2cc} significantly decreased from 677 to 408 cGy (p = 0.004); the mean bladder D{sub 2cc} did not increase significantly (1,179 cGy vs. 1,246 cGy, p = 0.11). Bladder distention decreased the mean D{sub 50%} for both the bladder (441 vs. 279 cGy, p = 0.001) and the small bowel (168 vs. 132 cGy, p = 0.001). Rectum

  18. A dynamic multi-organ-chip for long-term cultivation and substance testing proven by 3D human liver and skin tissue co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ilka; Materne, Eva-Maria; Brincker, Sven; Süssbier, Ute; Frädrich, Caroline; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Trushkin, Evgeny V; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, to accurately predict drug toxicity. In this study, we present a multi-organ-chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from cell lines, primary cells and biopsies of various human organs. We designed a multi-organ-chip with co-cultures of human artificial liver microtissues and skin biopsies, each a (1)/100,000 of the biomass of their original human organ counterparts, and have successfully proven its long-term performance. The system supports two different culture modes: i) tissue exposed to the fluid flow, or ii) tissue shielded from the underlying fluid flow by standard Transwell® cultures. Crosstalk between the two tissues was observed in 14-day co-cultures exposed to fluid flow. Applying the same culture mode, liver microtissues showed sensitivity at different molecular levels to the toxic substance troglitazone during a 6-day exposure. Finally, an astonishingly stable long-term performance of the Transwell®-based co-cultures could be observed over a 28-day period. This mode facilitates exposure of skin at the air-liquid interface. Thus, we provide here a potential new tool for systemic substance testing.

  19. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  20. 3D打印技术在胫骨畸形矫形手术中的应用%3D Printing Technique in Application of Tibial Deformity Orthomorphia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣伟; 于海龙; 韩天宇; 曹志强; 柳云恩; 周大鹏; 侯明晓

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨3D打印技术在胫骨畸形矫形手术中的应用效果。方法选择沈阳军区总医院骨科2014年8月—2015年8月收治的8例胫骨畸形(观察组),通过CT扫描得到的数据进行计算机三维建模、3D打印导板制作和术前预演,行胫骨畸形矫形术。随机选取8例既往未采用手术导板进行截骨矫形的病例为对照组。记录观察组导板制作时间,比较两组手术时间、术中X线“C”型臂机透视次数即术中X线暴露频次。结果观察组导板制作时间(16.5±3.5)h,患者均成功设计制作了手术导板并进行了应用,术区骨面均能与导板准确帖服并引导摆锯截骨成功,矫形后胫骨对位对线均恢复正常,导板在应用过程中未出现变形、断裂。观察组手术时间及术中X线暴露频次均显著少于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组均获随访,时间为1~16个月,平均4.5个月,截骨端均顺利愈合,无感染,对位对线未出现再次移位。结论3D打印技术用于骨科矫形领域,具有能够实现术前个体化设计、进行手术预演、缩短手术时间、减少医源性损伤、提高手术效率等优点,临床应用价值较高。%Objective To investigate the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology in application of tibia deformity orthomorphia. Methods The 3D modeling, guiding plate manufacture and preoperative rehearsal for the CT scanning data of 8 tibial deformity patients ( observation group) during August 2014 and August 2015 were performed, and then the 8 patients undertook tibial deformity orthomorphia. A total of 8 patients without 3D printing technology were randomly chosen as the control group. The manufacture time of guiding plate was recorded, and values of operation time and intraoperative exposure frequency of C-arm X-ray in the two groups were compared. Results In the observation group, manufacture time of guiding plate was (16. 5 ± 3. 5)h, and all guiding plates were successfully

  1. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto region of Japan is in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands, which is considered to be a significant effect on the tectonics of Kanto. To reveal the present crustal structure and the present internal stress fields in such a complex tectonic setting, it is essential to comprehend them through the long-term tectonic evolution process. In this study, we estimate the temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern along with the geometry of the plate boundary around Kanto by numerical simulation with a kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. This geometry change sensitively affects mechanical interaction at the plate boundary. Then the renewed plate-to-plete interaction alters crustal deformation rates. This feedback system has a large effect on collision zones. Indeed, the plate boundary around the Izu peninsula, the northernmost end of the Izu-Bonin arc, intends landward as large as 100 km. Iterating this effect sequentially

  2. 基于特征映射的义齿表面三维变形设计方法%3D Deformation Design Method for Prosthetic Dental Surface Based on Feature Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑淑贤; 李佳; 孙庆丰

    2011-01-01

    The prosthetic tooth surface design is an important issue in dental computer aided design systems(CAD). The designed tooth shape should fit to the patient's tooth articulation environment and keep the topological features of the generic teeth. Aiming at the problem, a 3D deformation approach for prosthetic dental surface design based on feature mapping is presented. The main idea is by identifying the corresponding feature points between the preparation tooth and the standard tooth firstly, using a suitable radial basis function to define the feature mapping relations in both teeth, then through the corresponding features alignment and the surface interpolation deformation, the prosthetic tooth surface deformation is realized. The result of case study of the first molar in lower jaw shows that the design process is simple, the standard tooth surface deformation is reasonable, the surface distortion can be avoided and the final inlay surface matches well with the preparation tooth. The feature mapping design method provides a new way for clinic application in dental CAD.%义齿表面设计是牙科计算机辅助设计和制造系统的一个重要环节,设计的义齿形状必须符合患者的口腔咬合环境并能保持牙齿的拓扑结构特征.针对这一问题,在此提出一种基于特征映射的义齿表面三维变形设计方法.该方法主要思想是首先识别预备体与同名标准牙的重要特征点,采用径向基函数建立两者的特征映射关系,再通过对应特征点的位置对齐和表面的插值变形,实现义齿表面的变形设计.下颌第一磨牙嵌体的设计案例结果表明,该方法设计程序简单,标准牙曲面变形合理,能有效地避免曲面失真,最终生成的嵌体与预备体匹配良好,为牙科计算机辅助设计和制造系统的临床应用提供一种新的方法.

  3. A multi-organ biomechanical model to analyze prostate deformation due to large deformation of the rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristy K.; Ménard, Cynthia; Hensel, Jennifer; Jaffray, David A.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal receiver coil (ERC) provides superior visualization of the prostate gland and its surrounding anatomy at the expense of large anatomical deformation. The ability to correct for this deformation is critical to integrate the MR images into the CT-based treatment planning for radiotherapy. The ability to quantify and understand the physiological motion due to large changes in rectal filling can also improve the precision of image-guided procedures. The purpose of this study was to understand the biomechanical relationship between the prostate, rectum, and bladder using a finite element-based multi-organ deformable image registration method, 'Morfeus' developed at our institution. Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Gold seed markers were implanted in the prostate and MR scans performed with the ERC in place and its surrounding balloon inflated to varying volumes (0-100cc). The prostate, bladder, and rectum were then delineated, converted into finite element models, and assigned appropriate material properties. Morfeus was used to assign surface interfaces between the adjacent organs and deform the bladder and rectum from one position to another, obtaining the position of the prostate through finite element analysis. This approach achieves sub-voxel accuracy of image co-registration in the context of a large ERC deformation, while providing a biomechanical understanding of the multi-organ physiological relationship between the prostate, bladder, and rectum. The development of a deformable registration strategy is essential to integrate the superior information offered in MR images into the treatment planning process.

  4. A 3D self-organizing multicellular epidermis model of barrier formation and hydration with realistic cell morphology based on EPISIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Thomas; Tsingos, Erika; Bensaci, Jalil; Stamatas, Georgios N.; Grabe, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis and the stratum corneum (SC) as its outermost layer have evolved to protect the body from evaporative water loss to the environment. To morphologically represent the extremely flattened cells of the SC - and thereby the epidermal barrier - in a multicellular computational model, we developed a 3D biomechanical model (BM) based on ellipsoid cell shapes. We integrated the BM in the multicellular modelling and simulation platform EPISIM. We created a cell behavioural model (CBM) with EPISIM encompassing regulatory feedback loops between the epidermal barrier, water loss to the environment, and water and calcium flow within the tissue. This CBM allows a small number of stem cells to initiate self-organizing epidermal stratification, yielding the spontaneous emergence of water and calcium gradients comparable to experimental data. We find that the 3D in silico epidermis attains homeostasis most quickly at high ambient humidity, and once in homeostasis the epidermal barrier robustly buffers changes in humidity. Our model yields an in silico epidermis with a previously unattained realistic morphology, whose cell neighbour topology is validated with experimental data obtained from in vivo images. This work paves the way to computationally investigate how an impaired SC barrier precipitates disease. PMID:28262741

  5. 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-08-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of 'next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

  6. In situ synthesized 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from transition metal cations and tetrazole derivatives: a family of insensitive energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuangang; Liu, Wei; Li, Dongxue; Chen, Houhe; Lu, Ming

    2017-08-22

    The combination of the hydrothermal method with in situ synthesis has been successfully employed to prepare a family of tetrazole-based energetic metal-organic frameworks (EMOFs) ([Ag(Mtta)]n, 1; [Cd5(Mtta)9]n, 2; [Pb3(bta)2(O)2(H2O)]n, 3; and [Pb(tztr)2(H2O)]n, 4) through [2 + 3] cycloaddition of azide anions and nitrile groups. All the synthesized EMOFs were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), different scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TG). Both complexes 1 and 4 consist of reticular two-dimensional (2D) layers that are linked by π-π overlap interactions between the ligands in neighbouring layers to form 3D supramolecular structures. In contrast, complexes 2 and 3 are 3D frameworks. The in situ formation of ligands bta and tztr has been described for the first time. Remarkably, thermogravimetric measurements demonstrated that the EMOFs 1-4 possess excellent thermostabilities with high decomposition temperatures up to 354, 389, and 372 °C for 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Sensitivity tests revealed that all the EMOFs are extremely insensitive.

  7. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  8. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  9. 动态变形表面三维重建方法研究与实现%Research and realization of 3D reconstruction method for dynamic deformable surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史金龙; 刘庆华

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a method of 3D reconstruction for dynamic deformable surfaces. This method first divided the surface in the first frame into lots of small patches, then optimized the correspondences for all patches in every frame, and fi-nally finished the 3D reconstruction for the dynamic surface. After reconstructing one frame, it performed error detection ac-cording to image NCC and local topology, and re-optimized erroneous patches to improve the robustness. The performance and effectiveness were evaluated by simulated and real data experiments.%提出一种对可变性物体表面的动态变形过程进行三维重建的方法.将图像序列第一帧中物体表面划分成多个图像块,利用优化函数寻找每个图像块在所有帧中的对应关系,最终实现物体运动过程的三维重建;完成每一帧的三维重建后,根据图像关联度和局部拓扑结构对结果进行错误检测,并对出错块进行重新优化.模拟实验、实际数据实验以及与同类算法的比较,验证了该方法的有效性和可行性.

  10. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  11. In situ synthesized 3D heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF) as a high-energy-density material shows high heat of detonation, good thermostability and insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaya; Liu, Xiangyu; Duan, Linqiang; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Yang, Xuwu; Gao, Shengli

    2015-02-07

    A reticular 3D heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu4Na(Mtta)5(CH3CN)]n () (N% = 40.08%), has been synthesized, using a 5-methyl tetrazole (Mtta) ligand formed from acetonitrile and azide, through in situ synthesis and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The fluorescence spectra demonstrate that undergoes an interesting structural transformation in aqueous solution, yielding the compound [Cu4Na(Mtta)5H2O]n () as confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR and PXRD. Thermoanalysis showed that possesses excellent thermostability up to 335 °C. The calculated detonation properties and the sensitivity test illustrate that compound could be used as a potential explosive. In addition, the non-isothermal kinetics for were studied using the Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle methods. The enthalpy of formation was obtained from the determination of the constant-volume combustion energy.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and photo luminescent property of a 3D metal-organic hybrid of Cd(II) constructed by two different bridging carboxylate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Bhattacharya; Rajdip Dey; Debajyoti Ghoshal

    2013-05-01

    A solvothermal reaction of cadmium (II) nitrate with succinic acid and isonicotinic acid creates a novel 3D metal-organic framework, [Cd3(isonicotinate)2(suc)2] (1). Single crystal X-ray structure determination reveals that complex 1 posses two crystallographically independent Cd(II) centres. The succinate anion acts here as a heptadented ligand and binds five Cd(II) centre simultaneously. The heptacoordinated Cd(II) centres are oxo-bridged by succinate moiety and the hexacoordinated metal centres are terminally connected through four different succinate moiety to make the overall 2D sheet arrangement. In unit cell, the ratio of hexadented Cd(II) and heptadented Cd(II) is 1:2. The new compound was also characterized by luminescence spectra and compared with the luminescence spectra of the pure isonicotinic acid.

  13. Novel metal-organic and supramolecular 3D frameworks constructed from flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate blocks: Synthesis, structural features and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ze-Min; Zou, Xun-Zhong; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Kirillov, Alexander M.; Chen, Jin-Wei; Chen, Yun-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylic acid (H3L) was selected as an unexplored tricarboxylate building block and applied for the hydrothermal synthesis of three novel coordination compounds, namely a 0D tetramer [Co4(HL)2(μ3-HL)2(phen)6(H2O)2]·3H2O (1) and two 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Cd3(μ5-L)(μ6-L)(py)(μ-H2O)2(H2O)]n·H2O (2) and [Zn3(μ4-L)2(2,2‧-bpy)(μ-4,4‧-bpy)]n·2H2O (3). These products were easily generated in aqueous medium from the corresponding metal(II) chlorides, H3L, and various N-donor ancillary ligands, selected from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyridine (py), 2,2‧-bipyridine (2,2‧-bpy), and 4,4‧-bipyridine (4,4‧-bpy). Compounds 1-3 were isolated as stable crystalline solids and were fully characterized by IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA), powder (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 possesses a discrete tetracobalt(II) structure, which is extended into a 3D H-bonded network with the pcu topology. In contrast, MOF 2 discloses a very complex trinodal 4,5,12-connected net with an undocumented topology, while MOF 3 features the nce/I topological framework. The magnetic (for 1) and luminescence (for 2 and 3) properties were also studied and discussed. The present study thus widens a still very limited family of metal-organic and supramolecular frameworks driven by flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate building blocks.

  14. Finite Element Simulation of Bending Process of Mg-Alloy Sheet Based on Deform-3D%基于Deform-3D的镁合金板材弯曲过程有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱炳芸

    2014-01-01

    运用Deform-3D有限元软件对AZ31镁合金板材的V型弯曲过程进行了模拟,分析了板材在弯曲过程中的应变、应力及流速.结果表明,随着弯曲程度的增加,镁合金板材在变形过程中的应变、应力及流速逐渐增大.几何、应变及应力中性层沿着镁合金板材厚度方向不在同一位置,并且在弯曲变形时应力中性层流动速度比应变中性层的速度要快.同时,板材的应变和应力中性层逐渐向几何中性层靠拢,这说明镁合金沿着板材厚度方向出现不均匀的纵向伸长变形.

  15. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  16. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: A 3D Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of the Current Characteristics in Micrometer-Sized Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan

    2017-01-16

    The electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are usually characterized by applying models initially developed for inorganic-based devices, which often implies the use of approximations that might be inappropriate for organic semiconductors. These approximations have brought limitations to the understanding of the device physics associated with organic materials. A strategy to overcome this issue is to establish straightforward connections between the macroscopic current characteristics and microscopic charge transport in OFETs. Here, a 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed that goes beyond both the conventional assumption of zero channel thickness and the gradual channel approximation to simulate carrier transport and current. Using parallel computing and a new algorithm that significantly improves the evaluation of electric potential within the device, this methodology allows the simulation of micrometer-sized OFETs. The current characteristics of representative OFET devices are well reproduced, which provides insight into the validity of the gradual channel approximation in the case of OFETs, the impact of the channel thickness, and the nature of microscopic charge transport.

  17. Progress in Three-dimensional (3D) Printing of Artificial Organs%人体器官3D打印的最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镓垠; 柴磊; 刘利彪; 赵欣如; 许雨帆; 周新伟; 张伟明; 王小红

    2014-01-01

    三维(3D)打印是当今科研界乃至商业界的一大热点,被认为是第三次工业革命或制造业的新突破点。人体器官打印已被当做概念股炒作上市,吸引了无数人的注意。但器官3D打印还处于刚刚起步阶段,需要做的工作很多。尤其是复杂器官打印面临着巨大的困难和挑战。其中最主要的一个挑战就是分支血管和神经系统的快速构建。近年来已经有大批优秀的科研工作者投入其中,内容涉及人体中各个器官,如骨骼、肾脏、肝脏、心脏、大脑,并取得了一定的成绩。这里分别介绍3D打印技术在大段骨修复材料、血管与血管网、人工肝脏、血管化脂肪组织几方面的最新的研究成果以供大家参考。%Three dimensional (3D) printing is a hot topic in today’s scientific research and commercial areas. It is recognized as the third industry revolution or new breakthrough of manufacture. Human organ printing has been put forward into equity market as a concept stock and attracted a lot of attention. However, organ printing is still in its infancy and a lot of work needs to be done. Especially, complex organ printing encounters enormous difficulties and challenges. Main two of them are rapidly construction of branched vascular and nerve systems. Recently, a large number of outstanding scientists flung them into this area, and have made some headways in nearly every human organs, such as the bone, kidney, liver, heart, and brain. Some novel achievements in the large bone repair material, blood vessel and vascular network, artificial liver and vascular adipose tissue printing fields are introduced for reference.

  18. Dramatic enhancement of organics degradation and electricity generation via strengthening superoxide radical by using a novel 3D AQS/PPy-GF cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Bai, Jing; Li, Linsen; Xia, Ligang; Chen, Shuai; Zhou, Baoxue

    2017-08-24

    A dramatic enhancement of organics degradation and electricity generation has been achieved in a wastewater fuel cell (WFC) system via strengthening superoxide radical with radical chain reaction by using a novel 3D anthraquinone/polypyrrole modified graphite felt (AQS/PPy-GF) cathode. The AQS/PPy-GF was synthesized by one-pot electrochemical polymerization method and used to in-situ generate superoxide radical by reducing oxygen under self-imposed electric field. Results showed that methyl orange (MO) were effectively degraded in AQS/PPy-GF/Fe(2+) system with a high apparent rate constant (0.0677 min(-1)), which was 3.9 times that (0.0174 min(-1)) in the Pt/Fe(2+) system and even 9.4 times that (0.0072 min(-1)) in the traditional WFC system (without Fe(2+)). Meanwhile, it showed a superior performance for electricity generation and the maximum power density output (1.130 mW cm(-2)) was nearly 3.3 times and 5.0 times higher, respectively, when compared with the Pt/Fe(2+) system and traditional WFC. This dramatic advance was attributed to 3D AQS/PPy-GF cathode which produces more O2(-) via one-electron reduction process. The presence of O2(-) cannot only directly contribute to MO degradation, but also promotes the final complete mineralization by turning itself to OH. Additionally, O2(-) accelerates the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) couple cycling, thus avoiding continuous addition of any external ferrous ions. Inhibition and probe studies were conducted to ascertain the role of several radicals (OH and O2(-)) on the MO degradation. Superoxide radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants, and the degradation mechanism of MO was proposed. The proposed WFC system provides a more economical and efficient way for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  20. Self-assembly and morphology change of four organic-polyoxometalate hybrids with different solid structures from 2D lamellar to 3D hexagonal forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAN, Chunxia

    2017-02-01

    A series of organic-polyoxometalate hybrids L-EuW11, L-EuW10, L-EuW22 and L-Mo132 were fabricated by the same organic cations with different polyoxometalate anions from K5[Eu(SiW11O39)(H2O)2], K13[Eu(SiW11O39)2]·15H2O, Na9[EuW10O36]·36H2O to "Keplerate" -type (NH4)72[Mo132O372(SO4)30(H2O)72]. The structures of hybrids were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectra (IR) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Self-assembly behaviors and aggregates morphology of these hybrids in mixed solution of chloroform-methanol are obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). L-EuW11, L-EuW10 and L-EuW22 have different aggregation morphology but the similarly layered structures. Micron-sized vesicular structures of L-Mo132 rupture in solvent and eventually turn into approximate hexagon. SAXS analysis of L-EuW11, L-EuW10 and L-EuW22 shows that these hybrids aggregates change from two-dimensional (2D) lamellar to three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure in solid state.

  1. Budget of organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean open sea over the period 2004-2008 using 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulses, C.; Auger, P.-A.; Soetaert, K.; Marsaleix, P.; Diaz, F.; Coppola, L.; Herrmann, M. J.; Kessouri, F.; Estournel, C.

    2016-09-01

    A 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model has been used to estimate a budget of organic carbon and its interannual variability over the 5 year period 2004-2008 in the North-Western Mediterranean Open Sea (NWMOS). The comparison of its results with in situ and satellite observations reveals that the timing and the magnitude of the convection and bloom processes during the study period, marked by contrasted atmospheric conditions, are reasonably well reproduced by the model. Model outputs show that the amount of nutrients annually injected into the surface layer is clearly linked to the intensity of the events of winter convection. During cold winters, primary production is reduced by intense mixing events but then spectacularly increases when the water column restratifies. In contrast, during mild winters, the primary production progressively and continuously increases, sustained by moderate new production followed by regenerated production. Overall, interannual variability in the annual primary production is low. The export in subsurface and at middepth is however affected by the intensity of the convection process, with annual values twice as high during cold winters than during mild winters. Finally, the estimation of a global budget of organic carbon reveals that the NWMOS acts as a sink for the shallower areas and as a source for the Algerian and Balearic subbasins.

  2. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  3. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  4. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  5. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  6. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results.

  7. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  8. 基于DEFORM和正交试验法的前轴辊锻工艺优化%Research on optimization of front-axle roll forging technique based on DEFORM-3D and orthogonal experimental method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 王志录

    2012-01-01

    正交试验主要用于解决科研和生产中多因素、多水平的问题,运用正交试验法可以在减少试验次数的情况下获得最佳的参数组合,可有效节约人力、物力和时间.在DEFORM-3D有限元数值模拟过程中应用正交试验优化设计方法,对前轴制坯辊锻模具弹簧座截面的圆角值、辊锻模具角速度、摩擦因子及坯料初始温度四因素、三水平问题,进行前轴制坯辊锻模具结构及工艺优化研究,分析影响前轴辊锻成形过程中最大成形载荷的因素,研究结果有利于前轴辊锻模具结构及工艺的优化,而且可有效提高辊锻模具的使用寿命.%The structure of front axle roll forging die and the roll forging process were optimized based on orthogonal experimental design method, using DEF0RM-3D software in finite element numerical simulation, adopting three levels and four factors, the latter including the fillet values of the spring seat section of the front axle roll forging die, the angular velocity of the roll forging die, the friction factor and the initial temperature of billets. The effecting factors of maximal forming load in the roll forging process of front axle were analyzed. The results can also increase the service life of roll forging die.

  9. 3D facial geometric features for constrained local model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Asthana, Akshay; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    We propose a 3D Constrained Local Model framework for deformable face alignment in depth image. Our framework exploits the intrinsic 3D geometric information in depth data by utilizing robust histogram-based 3D geometric features that are based on normal vectors. In addition, we demonstrate the fusi

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  12. GEM/POPs: a global 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants – Part 2: Global transports and budgets of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Barrie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Global transports and budgets of three PCBs were investigated with a 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants – GEM/POPs. Dominant pathways were identified for PCB transports in the atmosphere with a peak transport flux below 8 km and 14 km for gaseous and particulate PCB28, 4 km and 6 km for gaseous and particulate PCB180. The inter-continental transports of PCBs in the Northern Hemisphere (NH are dominated in the zonal direction with their route changes seasonally regulated by the variation of westerly jet. The transport pathways from Europe and North Atlantic to the Arctic contributed the most PCBs over there. Inter-hemispheric transports of PCBs originated from the regions of Europe, Asia and North America in three different flow-paths, accompanying with easterly jet, Asian monsoon winds and trade winds. PCBs from the Southern Hemisphere (SH could export into the NH. According to the PCB emissions of year 2000, Europe, North America and Asia are the three largest sources of the three PCBs, contributing to the global background concentrations in the atmosphere and soil and water. Globally, PCB28 in soil and water has become a comparable source to the anthropogenic emissions while heavier PCBs such as PCB153 and 180 are still transporting into soil and water. It is found that lighter PCBs have more long range transport potentials than their heavier counter-parts in the atmosphere.

  13. pH-dependent assembly of two inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on octamolybdates: an unusual intercalated layer and a 3D 4-connected framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Jin; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2012-09-07

    Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on octamolybdates, namely, [Cu(H(2)L)(2)(γ-Mo(8)O(26))]·(Mo(6)O(19))·2H(2)O (1) and [Cu(H(2)L)(γ-Mo(8)O(26))(H(2)O)(2)]·5H(2)O (2), where L = 1,1'-(1,5-pentanediyl)bis[2-(4-pyridyl)benzimidazole], have been successfully synthesized at different pH values under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1, which is hydrothermally prepared at pH ≈ 3.5, exhibits an entirely new type of intercalated layer. The nanosized hexamolybdate anions as guests are introduced into the layers. When the pH value is adjusted to 2, a structurally-different complex 2 was obtained. Compound 2 shows a unique 3D 4-connected framework constructed by inorganic layers and H(2)L(2+) ligands as bridges. The two compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and TGA. In addition, the electrochemical properties of 1-modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) have also been investigated in 1 M H(2)SO(4) aqueous solution.

  14. 3D origami electrochemical device for sensitive Pb(2+) testing based on DNA functionalized iron-porphyrinic metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Zhu, Shaojun; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-01-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical (EC) biosensor combined with a 3D origami device for detection of Pb(2+)was developed based on novel Au nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE) as sensor platform and DNA functionalized iron-porphyrinic metal-organic framework ((Fe-P)n-MOF-Au-GR) hybrids as signal probes. In the presence of Pb(2+), GR could be specifically cleaved at the ribonucleotide (rA) site, which produced the short (Fe-P)n-MOF-linked oligonucleotide fragment to hybridize with hairpin DNA immobilized on the surface of Au-PWE. Because of the mimic peroxidase property of (Fe-P)n-MOF, enzymatically amplified electrochemical signal was obtained to offer the sensitive detection of Pb(2+). In addition, benefiting from the Pb(2+) dependent GR, the proposed assay could selectively detect Pb(2+) in the presence of other metal ions. This method showed a good linear relationship between the current response and the Pb(2+) concentration ranging from 0.03 to 1000nmolL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02nmolL(-1). The Au-PWE based electrochemical sensor along with the (Fe-P)n-MOF-Au-GR probe exhibited the advantages of low-cost, simple fabrication, high sensitivity and selectivity, providing potential application of real-time Pb(2+) detection both in environmental and biological samples.

  15. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing, E-mail: bliu_1203@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Sciences and Technology, Xi’an, 710021 Shaanxi (China); Yang, Tian-Yi [The High School Affricated to Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710061 Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 Shaanxi (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H{sub 2}O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO{sub 4} as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3{sub 2}21 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of l{sub p}=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr{sup ‒} ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C. - Highlights: • The present 3D chiral MOF is built from achiral Hatr ligand. • Six left-handed helices gather into a honeycomb channel in chiral sp P3{sub 2}21. • Compound 1 shows a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) or qtz-h topological network. • Compound 1 indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction.

  16. Versatile structures of group 13 metal halide complexes with 4,4'-bipy: from 1D coordination polymers to 2D and 3D metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Tatiana N; Bodensteiner, Michael; Maulieva, Albina F; Davydova, Elena I; Virovets, Alexander V; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Balázs, Gábor; Graßl, Christian; Seidl, Michael; Scheer, Manfred; Frenking, Gernot; Berezovskaya, Ekaterina A; Kazakov, Igor V; Khoroshilova, Olesya V; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

    2015-12-21

    A systematic structural study of complexes formed by aluminium and gallium trihalides with 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) in 2 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 2 stoichiometric ratios has been performed. Molecular structures of 11 complexes in the solid state have been determined for the first time. Complexes of 2 : 1 composition are molecular, while complexes of 1 : 1 composition form metal-organic frameworks of different kinds: an ionic 3D network (three interpenetrated lvt nets for AlCl3bipy), an ionic 2D network for AlBr3bipy and GaBr3bipy and a 1D coordination polymer in the case of GaCl3bipy. Thus, the nature of the Lewis acid plays a critical role in the structural type of the complex in the solid state. Incorporation of excess bipy molecules into (GaCl3bipy)∞ (formation of crystallosolvate) leads to an unprecedented change of the molecular structure from a non-ionic 1D coordination polymer to an ionic 2D metal organic framework [GaCl2bipy2](+)[GaCl4](-)·2bipy. As indicated by the temperature-dependent XRD study, removal of bipy by heating in a vacuum restores the non-ionic 1D structure. Quantum chemical computations for simple cluster model systems (up to eight Al and Ga atoms) reveal that ionic forms are slightly favourable, although the energy differences between the ionic and non-ionic structures are not large. These theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental findings. Thus, even relatively simple cluster models may be used to indicate the structural preferences in the solid state. Both experimental and computational IR frequency shifts of the in-plane ring bending mode of bipy upon complexation correlate well with the M-N bond distances in the complexes.

  17. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  18. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  19. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  20. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  1. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  2. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  3. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  4. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  5. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius; Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen; Farsari, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell-material combination in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Real -time 3D ultrasound prenatal diagnosisof the clinical significance of fetal typical facial cleft deformity%实时三维超声产前诊断胎儿典型面裂畸形的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海英; 李琴; 艾明义

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To determine the value of Real - time 3D ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of the clinical significance of fetal for typical facial cleft deformity Improving the diagnosticaccuracy of fetal cleft lipand/or palate cleft. Methods; Application of real - time three dimensional echocardiography prenatal fetal normal fetal cleft lip and palate cleft lip and palate parts of two - dimension control. Result; 10 cases of normal fetal lip display rates 100% , On alveolar show 100% , and palate, 70% (7/10) . 10 cases of fetal cleft lip and palate cleft lip includes 7 simple, merge hard on 1 case of cleft lip and palate and 1 cleft lip patients with cleft of soft palate. Real - time 3D diagnostic all 7 example simple cleft palates, diagnostic rate 100% . Diagnosis of unilateral cleft lip with cleft palate in 1 case. There are 1 case of unilateral cleft lip with cleft palate only diagnosis and missed diagnosis of cleft lip and cleft palate, diagnosed in 70% ( Seven - tenths). 1 cases of cleft lip with cleft of soft palate only soft diagnosis and missed diagnosis of cleft lip and cleft palate. Conclusions: Real - time three dimensional echocardiography prenatal diagnosis of fetal cleft lip, especially hard and alveolar process cleft lip with cleft palate diagnostic has a large value, but on the fetus are not merged alveolar cleft of the soft palate and some of the hard palate to make diagnosis and still has a great deal of difficulty.%目的 探讨实时三维超声产前诊断胎儿面裂畸形的临床意义,寻求提高胎儿唇腭裂诊断准确性的有效方法.方法 应用实时三维超声产前对面裂畸形;唇腭裂胎儿和正常胎儿唇腭部位的二维进行对照.结果 10例正常胎儿面部显示率100%,上牙槽突显示率100%,硬腭显示率70% (7/ 10).10例唇腭裂胎儿包括7例单纯唇裂,2例上唇裂合并硬腭裂和1例唇裂合并软腭裂.实时三维诊断了所有7例单纯唇裂,诊断率100%;诊

  7. Application of 3D printing in treatment of traumatic knee varus deformity: a pilot study%3D打印技术辅助创伤性膝内翻畸形矫正的初步临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王均; 陆声; 周游; 罗浩天; 方学伟; 高心健; 陆维; 韩公斌; 徐永清

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨3D打印技术辅助创伤性膝内翻畸形矫正的临床应用效果.方法 对2010年9月至2013年4月收治的27例创伤性膝内翻畸形患者(男15例,女12例;平均年龄为37.8岁;左侧10例,右侧17例;畸形角度平均为20.1°)行下肢连续螺旋CT扫描,将原始Dicom格式数据导入Mimics 10.01软件,三维重建双下肢骨骼模型,以STL格式保存,导入3-matic 6.1软件,测量下肢内翻角度、胫股角(FTA)、膝关节内侧间隙距离,寻找胫骨最佳截骨角度,设计与截骨部位解剖形态一致的截骨模板,借助3D打印技术制作出实物模板,术中通过模板确定最佳截骨方位进行截骨,最后行钢板及螺钉内固定.术前、术后3个月及术后1年行双下肢全长X线片检查,测量双下肢FTA和膝关节内侧间隙;采用美国特种外科医院(HSS)膝关节评分标准评定膝关节功能. 结果 27例患者术后获7 ~36个月(平均23.4个月)随访.所有患者均获骨性愈合,愈合时间为3~5个月,平均3.3个月.27例患者术后3个月及术后1年的FTA、膝关节内侧间隙距离均大于术前,术后1年的HSS膝关节评分高于术前和术后3个月,术后3个月的HSS膝关节评分又高于术前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).末次随访时根据HSS膝关节评分标准评定疗效:优21例,良4例,可2例,优良率为92.6%.结论 将3D打印技术和计算机辅助设计相结合设计个体化截骨模板,可大大提高截骨的精确性,获得更好的下肢力线,为治疗创伤性膝内翻畸形提供了一种简单、有效的方法.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of using 3D printing in the treatment of genua varus deformity.Methods From September 2010 to April 2013,27 cases of genua varus were admitted.They were 15 men and 12 women,with an average age of 37.8 years.The deformity affected the left side in 10 cases and the right in 17,with an average angle of 20.1°.All patients were examined by lamellar CT scan to

  8. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  11. My Corporis Fabrica Embryo: An ontology-based 3D spatio-temporal modeling of human embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabattu, Pierre-Yves; Massé, Benoit; Ulliana, Federico; Rousset, Marie-Christine; Rohmer, Damien; Léon, Jean-Claude; Palombi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Embryology is a complex morphologic discipline involving a set of entangled mechanisms, sometime difficult to understand and to visualize. Recent computer based techniques ranging from geometrical to physically based modeling are used to assist the visualization and the simulation of virtual humans for numerous domains such as surgical simulation and learning. On the other side, the ontology-based approach applied to knowledge representation is more and more successfully adopted in the life-science domains to formalize biological entities and phenomena, thanks to a declarative approach for expressing and reasoning over symbolic information. 3D models and ontologies are two complementary ways to describe biological entities that remain largely separated. Indeed, while many ontologies providing a unified formalization of anatomy and embryology exist, they remain only descriptive and make the access to anatomical content of complex 3D embryology models and simulations difficult. In this work, we present a novel ontology describing the development of the human embryology deforming 3D models. Beyond describing how organs and structures are composed, our ontology integrates a procedural description of their 3D representations, temporal deformation and relations with respect to their developments. We also created inferences rules to express complex connections between entities. It results in a unified description of both the knowledge of the organs deformation and their 3D representations enabling to visualize dynamically the embryo deformation during the Carnegie stages. Through a simplified ontology, containing representative entities which are linked to spatial position and temporal process information, we illustrate the added-value of such a declarative approach for interactive simulation and visualization of 3D embryos. Combining ontologies and 3D models enables a declarative description of different embryological models that capture the complexity of human

  12. Magnetism in a number of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with 1D and 3D characteristics: An experimental and analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamida, Youcef

    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) exhibit many excellent physical properties including magnetic properties for potential applications in devices. More importantly for the subject of this thesis, MOFs are ideal for the realization of low dimensional magnetism because of the large selection of ligands connecting magnetic centers in making the framework. The materials studied in this thesis include ten magnetic MOFs of the form M(L1)(L2) [M = Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn; L1 = NDC, bpdc, BDC, BODC, N3; L2 = DMF, H2O, TED, bpy]. Polycrystalline powder samples as well as single crystal samples were synthesized. Their crystal structures were determined, and their magnetic and thermodynamic properties were measured and analyzed. Eight of these materials were characterized as 1D magnets and two as 3D magnets. In the 1D case it is found that above Tm [the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility chi(T) has a peak] the magnetic behavior of MOFs (S ≥ 1) can be well described with the Classical Fisher Model (CFM). Near and below TC the spins take a more definite orientation than allowed for in the CFM and hence the Ising Model (IM) was used for fitting. Both CFM and IM yield fairly consistent intrachain couplings ( J) when applied in their appropriate temperature region. To estimate the interchain exchange (J'), the susceptibility for a magnetic chain in the mean field of neighboring chains is used. In all cases, as expected, the ratio of J to J' was less than 10%. The special case of Cu(N3)2bpy ( S = ½) was analyzed with the spin ½ IM. Although the specific heat data (Ctotal) for most of the 1D MOFs showed no clear phase transition, a low temperature fit to the electron-phonon specific heats yielded apparent heavy fermion-like gamma values on the order of several hundred mJ/mol K2. The lattice specific heat (Clattice) was estimated using a Debye-Einstein hybrid model. Subtracting Clattice from Ctotal, magnetic specific heat ( CM) with a broad peak characteristic of low

  13. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  14. Rational design of hyperbranched 3D heteroarrays of SrS/CdS: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic properties for efficient hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziyauddin; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2012-06-07

    Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H(2) generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (k(app)) was 0.136 min(-1). The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity.

  15. Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties of five new praseodymium-antimony oxochlorides: from discrete clusters to 3D inorganic-organic hybrid racemic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Wang, Ze-Ping; Song, Ying; Hu, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-07-14

    Five novel praseodymium-antimony oxochloride (Pr-Sb-O-Cl) cluster-based compounds, namely (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl14.6(OH)2.4(Hsal)]·H2O (1), (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]4{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5](bcpb)2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5]}·42H2O (2), (3-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(H2O)2](bcpb)}·2(3-Mepy)·3H2O (3), [Fe(1,10-phen)3]2{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl10(H2O)2](bcpb)2}·3(3-Mepy)·13H2O (4), and (2-MepyH)6[Fe(1,10-phen)3]10{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(OH)2]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl9][Pr4Sb12O18Cl9(OH)2]2(Hpdc)10(pdc)2}·110H2O (5) (2-Mepy = 2-methylpyridine, 3-Mepy = 3-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, H2sal = salicylic acid, H3bcpb = 3,5-bis(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, H3pdc = 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound 1 is the first zero-dimensional (0D) Pr-Sb-O-Cl cluster decorated by an organic ligand. Compounds 2-4 are constructed from the same H3bcpb ligands but adopt different structures: 2 represents a rare example of a one-dimensional (1D) nanotubular structure based on high-nuclearity clusters; 3 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) mono-layered structure, in which left-handed and right-handed helical chains are alternately arranged, while 4 features a double-layered structure with an unprecedented (3,3,6)-connected 3-nodal topological net. Compound 5 is a unique three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating racemic compound, simultaneously containing three kinds of Pr-Sb-O-Cl-pdc clusters. UV-light photocatalytic H2 evolution activity was observed for compound 3 with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. In addition, the magnetic properties of compounds 1 and 5 are also studied.

  16. Bio-inks for 3D printing of Cartilage Implants : Tailoring gelMA and polyHPMA-lac-PEG hydrogels for the fabrication of spatially organized constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, V.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    A promising approach to treat cartilage defects is the implantation of stratified cell-laden hydrogel implants that mimic native cartilage. To fabricate such constructs, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques are promising, as they allow accurate deposition of (cell-laden) biomaterials, the

  17. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  18. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Liberini, Simone; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Dell'oca, Italo; Faggiano, Elena; Di Muzio, Nadia; Calandrino, Riccardo; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2011-06-07

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac Jac Jac0.5Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  20. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  1. 3D-kompositointi

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi yleisimpiä 3D-kompositointiin liittyviä tekniikoita sekä kompositointiin käytettyjä ohjelmia ja liitännäisiä. Työssä esitellään myös kompositoinnin juuret 1800-luvun lopulta aina nykyaikaiseen digitaaliseen kompositointiin asti. Kompositointi on yksinkertaisimmillaan usean kuvan liittämistä saumattomasti yhdeksi uskottavaksi kokonaisuudeksi. Vaikka prosessi vaatii visuaalista silmää, vaatii se myös paljon teknistä osaamista. Tämän lisäksi perusymmärrys kamera...

  2. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  3. 3D Morphing Using Strain Field Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Bing Yan; Shi-Min Hu; Ralph R Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique based on strain fields to carry out 3D shape morphing for applicationsin computer graphics and related areas.Strain is an important geometric quantity used in mechanics to describe the deformation of objects.We apply it in a novel way to analyze and control deformation in morphing.Using position vector fields, the strain field relating source and target shapes can be obtained.By interpolating this strain field between zero and a final desired value we can obtain the position field for intermediate shapes.This method ensures that the 3D morphing process is smooth.Locally, volumes suffer minimal distortion, and no shape jittering or wobbling happens: other methods do not necessarily have these desirable properties.We also show how to control the method so that changes of shape (in particular, size changes) vary linearly with time.

  4. Data describing the inclusion relationships between two organs (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rent name English name of parent organ child id Concept ID of an organ that is in...cluded in the parent organ child name English name of an organ that included in the parent organ Joomla SEF

  5. Optical 3D shape measurement for dynamic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    3D shape dynamic measurement is essential to the study of machine vision, hydromechanics, high-speed rotation, deformation of material, stress analysis, deformation in impact, explosion process and biomedicine. in recent years. In this paper,the results of our research, including the theoretical analysis, some feasible methods and relevant verifying experiment results, are compendiously reported. At present, these results have been used in our assembling instruments for 3D shape measurement of dynamic process.

  6. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  7. Improved 3D Superresolution Localization Microscopy Using Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Nicolas; Olivier, Nicolas; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new versatile method for 3D super-resolution microscopy by using a deformable mirror to shape the point spread function of our microscope in a continuous and controllable way. We apply this for 3D STORM imaging of microtubules.

  8. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  9. Regional registration for expression resistant 3-D face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alyuz, Nese; Gökberk, B.; Akarun, Lale

    Biometric identification from three-dimensional (3-D) facial surface characteristics has become popular, especially in high security applications. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic expression insensitive 3-D face recognition system. Surface deformations due to facial expressions are a

  10. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  11. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  13. Ferroelectric switchable behavior through fast reversible de/adsorption of water spirals in a chiral 3D metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Yan; Li, Bo; Ma, Bin-Bin; Li, Shi-Jun; Dong, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Song, You; Hou, Hong-Wei; Mak, Thomas C W

    2013-07-17

    A polar homochiral 3D MOF [{Co2(L)(bpe)(H2O)}·5H2O]n constructed with cobalt(II) and a new ligand N-(1,3-dicarboxy-5-benzyl)-carboxymethylglycine (H4L) accommodates ordered helical water streams in its helical grooves. It provides the first example of switchable ferroelectric and optical behavior through two-step reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation (SCSC) upon desorption/adsorption of water spirals and coordinated water molecules, respectively.

  14. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  15. Modeling adsorption properties of structurally deformed metal-organic frameworks using structure-property map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, WooSeok; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Sungjune; Harale, Aadesh; Yoon, Minyoung; Suh, Myunghyun Paik; Kim, Jihan

    2017-07-25

    Structural deformation and collapse in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can lead to loss of long-range order, making it a challenge to model these amorphous materials using conventional computational methods. In this work, we show that a structure-property map consisting of simulated data for crystalline MOFs can be used to indirectly obtain adsorption properties of structurally deformed MOFs. The structure-property map (with dimensions such as Henry coefficient, heat of adsorption, and pore volume) was constructed using a large data set of over 12000 crystalline MOFs from molecular simulations. By mapping the experimental data points of deformed SNU-200, MOF-5, and Ni-MOF-74 onto this structure-property map, we show that the experimentally deformed MOFs share similar adsorption properties with their nearest neighbor crystalline structures. Once the nearest neighbor crystalline MOFs for a deformed MOF are selected from a structure-property map at a specific condition, then the adsorption properties of these MOFs can be successfully transformed onto the degraded MOFs, leading to a new way to obtain properties of materials whose structural information is lost.

  16. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  17. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  18. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  19. 3D GEO: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information...

  20. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  1. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  2. 基于 MOLDEX 3D手机外壳收缩翘曲变形分析及应用%Analysis of warpage deformation of mobile phone shell based on MOLDEX 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦沙沙; 夏建生

    2010-01-01

    用MOLDEX 3D r9.0软件对手机外壳进行模流分析研究,发现流动不平衡、结合线的产生,保压效果不良和翘曲问题,提出三种修改方案并进行模拟对照,找出最佳方案,并在模具厂进行相应的验证.

  3. Preparation of recyclable Pd(Ⅱ organometal catalyst with bicontinuous cubic Ia3d mesostructure for water-medium organic reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Didi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A heterogenous Pd(Ⅱ organometal catalyst with bicontinuous cubic Ia3d mesostructure was synthesized by surfactant-directed co-condensation of Pd[PPh2(CH22Si(OCH2CH33]2Cl2 and (CH3CH2O3SiPhSi(OCH2CH33.In water-medium Sonogashira reaction,the as-prepared Pd(Ⅱ-PMO-KIT-6 exhibited higher catalytic activity than reference catalyst Pd(Ⅱ-KIT-6 and could be used repetitively for more than 4 times,which could reduce the cost and even diminish the environmental pollution from heavy metallic ions,showing a good potential in industrial applications.

  4. An exploration of polymer adhesion on 3D printer bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazan, M. A.; Ramli, F. R.; Alkahari, M. R.; Abdullah, M. A.; Sudin, M. N.

    2017-06-01

    One of the problems in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D Printing process is that the extruded plastic filament tends to shrink and warp from the printing platform. The purpose of this research is to explore the warping deformation problem in four aspects i.e. curling, pincushion effect, trapezoid deformation and blocked shrinkage that usually occur in the process. Epoxy resin based adhesive was applied onto the printing platform to reduce and eliminate the warping deformation. Afterwards, by applying the adhesive, the 3D printed models were measured their curling, pincushion, trapezoid and blocked shrinkage using laser scanner and metrology software. The result shows that the pincushion and trapezoid has low deformation compared to curling and blocked shrinkage. Blocked shrinkage effect shows the highest warping deformation value. In comparison of materials, PLA shows the best geometry result with low warping deformation value and the best surface finish.

  5. Poliarquia em 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Wanderley Guilherme dos

    1998-01-01

    The article takes issue with positions that reduce representative systems to democratic linearity, considering how the latter is restricted to variations in forms of government and electoral systems that do not correspond to the growing complexity of national organizations. It is proposed that a third dimension be added to Robert Dahl?s bidimensional model that is, eligibility from which it is possible to derive minimalist yet strict definitions of authoritarian systems, of representative sys...

  6. Poliarquia em 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Wanderley Guilherme dos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article takes issue with positions that reduce representative systems to democratic linearity, considering how the latter is restricted to variations in forms of government and electoral systems that do not correspond to the growing complexity of national organizations. It is proposed that a third dimension be added to Robert Dahl?s bidimensional model that is, eligibility from which it is possible to derive minimalist yet strict definitions of authoritarian systems, of representative systems in general, and of their oligarchical and polyarchical variations.

  7. Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at Large N

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-01-01

    We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an N = 2 $$ \\mathcal{N}=2 $$ superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS 4 geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large N limit of the p...

  8. A new 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) Zn(DNBPDC)2(BPY) with a dinuclear zinc (II) clusters as SBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Qin, Xiangdong; Deng, Linxin; Liu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    A new 3D framework compound 1 Zn(DNBPDC)2(BPY) (DBDBC =2,2‧-dinitro-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4,4‧-dicarboxylic acid, BPY = 4,4‧-Bipyridine) with a dinuclear zinc (II) clusters as SBU have been synthesized and structurally characterized. This compound crystallizes in Tetragonal, space group I41/acd, with a = 21.2959(10)Å, b = 21.2959(10) Å, c = 27.969(3) Å, α = 90.00°, β = 90.00 (10)°, γ = 90.00°, V =12684.4(16) Å3, Z = 16, Dc = 1.424 mg/cm3, μ = 0.806 mm-1, F(000) = 3792. From the thermogravimetric analysis, the compound can be stabilized up to 380 °C and the skeleton collapsed occurred in about 350-550 °C. The luminescence property test shows that the compound exhibit strong emission at 485 nm. The nitrogen adsorption capacity was 10 cc/g when the compound was activated under the temperature of 77 K and reach to atmospheric pressure.

  9. 3D-TECLMOLOGIES IN FORMING AND FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes metal castings produced using 3D technology. Methods for 3D processing of materials related to the additive method of production, characterized by resource conservation. Frame-cellular casting can inherit the structure of nature with the best combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance. 3D technologies expand the existing range of metal products. Among the new foundry processes at the Institute PTIMA of NAS of Ukraine patented 3D technology of molding sand products through the deformation of granular materials, as well as getting sand shell molds for one-time pattern.

  10. 3D Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images Based on Skeleton Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-dan; LIU Zhi-Yan; SHEN Yi

    2005-01-01

    In order to eliminate displacement and elastic deformation between images of adjacent frames in course of 3D ultrasonic image reconstruction, elastic registration based on skeleton feature was adopt in this paper. A new automatically skeleton tracking extract algorithm is presented, which can extract connected skeleton to express figure feature. Feature points of connected skeleton are extracted automatically by accounting topical curvature extreme points several times. Initial registration is processed according to barycenter of skeleton. Whereafter, elastic registration based on radial basis function are processed according to feature points of skeleton. Result of example demonstrate that according to traditional rigid registration, elastic registration based on skeleton feature retain natural difference in shape for organ's different part, and eliminate slight elastic deformation between frames caused by image obtained process simultaneously. This algorithm has a high practical value for image registration in course of 3D ultrasound image reconstruction.

  11. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo [Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, CNR, Segrate (Italy); Dell' Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2011-06-07

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% ({+-}17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac < 1) and 14% ({+-}17%) shows a local compression >50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 {>=} 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  12. Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Pedersen, Peter; Eiskjær, Søren Peter; Petersen, Asger Greval

    2016-01-01

    leads to tissue damage. It has been documented in large cohort studies that radiographic imaging during childhood for spinal deformities eg. scoliosis, increases the lifetime risk of breast cancer. The EOS biplane x-ray imaging system (EOS Imaging S.A, Paris France) has been developed to produce high...... factors. These findings and image quality will be compared to previously reported findings in standard settings and to conventional digital x-ray(CR) Results: Our preliminary studies have shown a significant reduction in absorbed organ dose. In AP position we found a mean liver organ dose of 0.03m...... year old and an adolescent. Thermoluminiscent detectors are used to measure organ dose. A first time measurement with micro-dose settings in both AP and PA will be performed in addition to standard settings in AP and PA positions. Effective dose is calculated using mean organ doses and tissue weighting...

  13. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained

  14. Estimate of the damage in organs induced by neutrons in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Estimacion del dano en organos inducido por neutrones en radioterapia conformada en 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Uribe, M. del R., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, Calle Leon No. 129, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was considered the damage in the organs, induced by neutrons, of patients with cancer that receive treatment in modality of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with lineal accelerator Varian Ix. The objective of this work was to estimate the damage probability in radiotherapy patients, starting from the effective dose by neutrons in the organs and tissues out of the treatment region. For that a three-dimensional mannequin of equivalent tissue of 30 x 100 x 30 cm{sup 3} was modeled and spherical cells were distributed to estimate the Kerma in equivalent tissue and the absorbed dose by neutrons. With the absorbed dose the effective dose was calculated using the weighting factors for the organ type and radiation type. With the effective dose and the damage factors, considered in the ICRP 103, was considered the probability of damage induction in organs. (Author)

  15. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  16. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  17. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  18. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  19. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  20. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  1. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  2. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  3. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  4. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  5. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  6. New ambient pressure organic superconductor with Tc = 8.1 K : (EDT-TTF)4Hg3-dI8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyubovskaya, R.N.; Zhilyaeva, E.I.; Torunova, S.A.; Mousdis, G.A.; Papavassiliou, G.C.; Perenboom, J.A.A.J.; Pesotskii, S.I.; Lyubovskii, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    New ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF)-based radical cation salts with mercury containing anions of different size and shape have been isolated and studied. Among these compounds the new ambient pressure organic superconductor (EDT-TTF)(4)Hg3-deltaI8, deltasimilar to0.1divided by 0.2, with T

  7. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  8. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  9. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  10. Smaller calcite lattice deformation caused by occluded organic material in coccoliths than in mollusk shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Hakim, Sepideh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    coccoliths. We compare the results with data on chalk from the extensively studied mussel Pinna nobilis that served as a control. Using high resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction combined with in situ heating, the influence of organic compounds on the structure of the inorganic phase was probed...... and the coccolithophorids. These differences were reflected in lattice deformation (macrostrain), structure (microstrain), and atomic disorder distributions (δorganic). The influence of the biological macromolecules on the inorganic phase was consistently smaller in the P. carterae compared to P. nobilis....... Two heating cycles allow us to differentiate the effects of thermal agitation and organic molecules. Single peak analysis and Rietveld refinement were combined to show significant differences resulting from the occluded biomolecules on the mineral phase in biogenic calcite in the mollusk shell...

  11. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  12. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  13. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  14. Spherical 3D Isotropic Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L

    2011-01-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the Fourier-Bessel decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. 2006. We also present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large...

  15. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  16. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-06-07

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.

  17. Deformation of erosive and accretive forearcs during subduction of migrating and non-migrating aseismic ridges: Results from 3-D finite element models and application to the Central American, Peruvian, and Ryukyu margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeumann, Stefanie; Hampel, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Subduction of aseismic oceanic ridges causes considerable uplift and deformation of the upper plate and may lead, for example, to the indentation of the forearc, the formation of marine terraces, or distinct fault patterns in the upper plate. Depending on the orientation of the ridge relative to the plate convergence direction, the ridge may either be stationary or migrate along the margin. Here we use three-dimensional numerical models to investigate the tectonic evolution of forearcs affected by ridge subduction. In different experiments, we distinguish between migrating/non-migrating ridges and accretive/erosive margins, respectively. Our results reveal that displacement and strain fields above migrating and non-migrating ridges are asymmetric with respect to the ridge axis unless both ridge and plate convergence direction are perpendicular to the trench. As the asymmetric deformation pattern shifts along the margin through time, uplift caused by the underthrusting ridge is followed by subsidence when the ridge crest passed by, and regions initially experiencing shortening may subsequently undergo extension and vice versa. If the forearc comprises an accretionary prism, the ridge-induced reentrant is larger than those in models with erosive forearcs and strain localizes in the frontal part of the wedge. Additional models with a setup adjusted to the Cocos and Gagua Ridges provide constraints on the onset of their subduction at the Central American and Ryukyu margins at ~2 Ma and 1 Ma, respectively. Displacement and strain fields from a model for the Nazca Ridge collision zone show good agreement with geological data from marine terraces and Quaternary faulting.

  18. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  19. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  20. 3D vision system assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  1. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  2. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  3. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yang, Tian-Yi; Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H2O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO4 as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3221 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of lp=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr‒ ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal {4.122} (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C.

  4. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  5. Identification of Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains Reveals a Role for the Nucleolus in 3D Organization of the A. thaliana Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Durut, Nathalie; Pavlištová, Veronika; Jaške, Karin; Schořová, Šárka; Parrinello, Hugues; Rohmer, Marine; Pikaard, Craig S; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fajkus, Jiří; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-08-01

    The nucleolus is the site of rRNA gene transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosome biogenesis. However, the nucleolus also plays additional roles in the cell. We isolated nucleoli using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and identified nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs) by deep sequencing, comparing wild-type plants and null mutants for the nucleolar protein NUCLEOLIN 1 (NUC1). NADs are primarily genomic regions with heterochromatic signatures and include transposable elements (TEs), sub-telomeric regions, and mostly inactive protein-coding genes. However, NADs also include active rRNA genes and the entire short arm of chromosome 4 adjacent to them. In nuc1 null mutants, which alter rRNA gene expression and overall nucleolar structure, NADs are altered, telomere association with the nucleolus is decreased, and telomeres become shorter. Collectively, our studies reveal roles for NUC1 and the nucleolus in the spatial organization of chromosomes as well as telomere maintenance.

  6. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  7. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  8. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  9. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  10. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  11. A spiro-bifluorene based 3D electron acceptor with dicyanovinylene substitution for solution-processed non-fullerene organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Debin

    2015-04-20

    A novel electron acceptor, namely 2,2′-(12H,12′H-10,10′-spirobi[indeno[2,1-b]fluorene]-12,12′-diylidene)dimalononitrile (4CN-spiro), exhibiting a three-dimensional molecular structure was synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, crystal, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The novel acceptor exhibits excellent thermal stability with a decomposition temperature of 460 °C, an absorption extending to 600 nm, and a LUMO level of −3.63 eV. Solution processed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells were fabricated using 4CN-spiro as an acceptor and polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) as a donor polymer. The effect of the donor-to-acceptor ratio and processing conditions on the device performance was investigated. A device processed from tetrachloroethane with a donor to acceptor weight ratio of 1 : 1 yielded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.80%.

  12. The organic osmolyte betaine induces keratin 2 expression in rat epidermal keratinocytes - A genome-wide study in UVB irradiated organotypic 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Leena; Hämäläinen, Lasse; Dunlop, Thomas W; Pehkonen, Petri; Bart, Geneviève; Kokkonen, Maarit; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-12-25

    The moisturizing and potentially protective properties of the organic osmolyte betaine (trimethylglycine) have made it an attractive component for skin care products. Its wide use despite the lack of comprehensive studies addressing its specific effects in skin led us to characterize the molecular targets of betaine in keratinocytes and to explore, whether it modifies the effects of acute UVB exposure. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on organotypic cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes, treated either with betaine (10mM), UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) or their combination. Results were verified with qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Among the 89 genes influenced by betaine, the differentiation marker keratin 2 showed the highest upregulation, which was also confirmed at protein level. Expression of Egr1, a transcription factor, and Purkinje cell protein 4, a regulator of Ca(2+)/calmodulin metabolism, also increased, while downregulated genes included several ion-channel components, such as Fxyd2. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that genes modulated by betaine are involved in DNA replication, might counteract UV-induced processes, and include many targets of transcription factors associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results indicate that betaine controls unique gene expression pathways in keratinocytes, including some involved in differentiation.

  13. Identification of Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains Reveals a Role for the Nucleolus in 3D Organization of the A. thaliana Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Pontvianne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the site of rRNA gene transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosome biogenesis. However, the nucleolus also plays additional roles in the cell. We isolated nucleoli using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and identified nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs by deep sequencing, comparing wild-type plants and null mutants for the nucleolar protein NUCLEOLIN 1 (NUC1. NADs are primarily genomic regions with heterochromatic signatures and include transposable elements (TEs, sub-telomeric regions, and mostly inactive protein-coding genes. However, NADs also include active rRNA genes and the entire short arm of chromosome 4 adjacent to them. In nuc1 null mutants, which alter rRNA gene expression and overall nucleolar structure, NADs are altered, telomere association with the nucleolus is decreased, and telomeres become shorter. Collectively, our studies reveal roles for NUC1 and the nucleolus in the spatial organization of chromosomes as well as telomere maintenance.

  14. TEMPO-mediated oxidized winter melon-based carbonaceous aerogel as an ultralight 3D support for enhanced photodegradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Gangling; Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-10-14

    Natural biomass based carbonaceous aerogels are becoming promising lightweight, biodegradable matrices to supersede traditional support materials in realizing future sustainable photochemistry and environmental protection. Herein, flower-like BiOBr loaded onto an ultralight TEMPO-mediated oxidized carbonaceous aerogel (BOB@OWMCA) support was successfully prepared using the edible winter melon as source material via a simple solvothermal method. The three-dimensional sponge-like OWMCA with surface functionalization displayed an ultralow density (17.7 mg cm(-3)) and large special surface area (30.6 m(2) g(-1)). The BiOBr was homogeneously anchored on the surface of the hierarchical porous OWMCA and the material exhibited synergetic properties of the BiOBr photocatalyst and OWMCA support to strengthen its photodegradation capacity. The results indicated that the as-prepared BOB@OWMCA composite demonstrated an outstanding adsorption and photodegradation capacity for organic pollutants (rhodamine B) under visible light irradiation. Of importance here, the BOB@OWMCA composite showed a prominent advantage for easy collection and separation from the aqueous system, making it a promising candidate as a robust visible light responsive photocatalyst for a range of applications.

  15. Solvent- and Pressure-Induced Phase Changes in Two 3D Copper Glutarate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks via Glutarate (+gauche ⇄ -gauche) Conformational Isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Charl X; Smith, Vincent J; Esterhuysen, Catharine; Barbour, Leonard J

    2017-04-26

    Two isoreticular three-dimensional copper(II) glutarate-based pillared-layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with flexible pillars, [Cu2(glu)2(bpa)] and [Cu2(glu)2(bpp)] (bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane; bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), undergo spontaneous phase changes upon solvent loss at room temperature. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (SCXRD), we show that the phase changes result in new narrow-channel forms that experience a large reduction in solvent-accessible volume. Moreover, the [Cu2(glu)2(bpa)] MOF displays a stepped sorption isotherm for the uptake of CO2 at room temperature. This is indicative of reversion of the framework to the wide-channel form under CO2 pressure. Supercritical CO2 was used to isolate the gas-included structures, and by means of SCXRD we were able to determine the positions of the CO2 molecules in the channels of the frameworks. Finally, we report the use of molecular modeling simulations to elucidate the phase-change mechanism, including the energetic changes involved. Structural limitations in both MOFs allow for only direct gauche-gauche enantiomeric interconversion of the glutarate moieties.

  16. The future of 3D printing technology in biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-01-01

    3D printing, one of the hottest cutting-edge interdisciplinary technologies, is projected to have revenue of $8.4 billion in 2020. #D printing technology will implement the concept of personalized medicine in medical healthcare industry and pharmaceutical fabrication. Organ printing, which it is defined as computer-aided, jet based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, is an interesting and challengeable field for 3D printing. Customized implants and prostheses can be produced in any ...

  17. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  18. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  19. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...

  20. 3D FEM Analysis of Stress and Deformation of Jinfoshan Concrete Facing Rockfill Dam%金佛山混凝土面板堆石坝应力变形三维有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁志明; 邓文杰; 刘良军; 王俊杰

    2013-01-01

    以重庆市金佛山混凝土面板堆石坝为例,采用邓肯—张E-B非线性弹性模型对其进行了静力三维有限元应力一应变分析.结果表明,施工期和蓄水期坝体沉降量分别为71.55、73.75 cm,占最大坝高的0.65%和0.67%;面板和趾板的压应力和拉应力均小于混凝土的抗压与抗拉强度;面板最大沉降量分别为0.38、0.64 cm,且位于面板中部;施工期面板顺河向水平位移朝向上游,最大值仅为0.14 cm;蓄水后面板顺河向水平位移朝向下游,最大值为1.09 cm;垂直缝和周边缝的变形量较小,均能满足设计要求.%Taking Jinfoshan Concrete Facing Rockfill Dam(CFRD)in Chongqing city for an example, the E-B model is applied to 3D finite element analysis of stress-strain. The results indicate that the dam settlements in construction and storage periods are 71. 55 cm and 73. 75 cm respectively, which accounts for 0. 65% and 0. 67% of the dam height; the compressive stress and tensile stress in the face slab and toe slab are smaller than the compressive and tensile strength of the concrete; the maximum face slab settlements are 0. 38 cm and 0. 64 cm respectively, which lie in the middle of the face slab; in the construction period, the horizontal displacement along river is toward the upstream side, which the maximum value is 0. 14 cm; while in the storage period, the displacement is toward downstream side, which the maximum value is 1. 09 cm; the vertical joints and perimeter joints are small, and they are both meet the design requirement.

  1. Faulting mechanism of the Campania–Lucania 1980 earthquake, Italy, from high-resolution, 3D velocity structure, aftershock relocation, fault-plane solutions, and post-seismic deformation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scarpa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study performs a detailed reconstruction of the rupture mechanism of the 1980 Campania–Lucania (southern Italy earthquake. This is achieved by relocation of the main event through computation of fault-plane solutions of the aftershocks, P-wave velocity inversion, and analysis of post-seismic ground deformation, which provide an overall picture of the faulting mechanism. All of these data are in favor of a complex rupture mechanism, as already identified by many studies, which consists of three separate events. The present study defines a graben-like rupture, with the first event rupturing a (>20-km-long segment of a large, high-angle, NE-dipping, SE-NW-striking, normal fault. The two successive ruptures occurred separately, the first along the southern segment, and the second along the northern segment, of a complementary SW-dipping, normal fault. This mechanism is well evidenced by the revised location of the hypocenter of the main event, and the location of the aftershocks and their fault-plane solutions, as well as by the underlying three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure. The model proposed by Amoruso et al. [2005a] that was based on the inversion of co-seismic vertical displacement data is confirmed by the present analyses, as it satisfies all of the available experimental observations, and better constrains the location and fault-plane solutions of the aftershocks, the velocity discontinuities, and the rupture observations at the surface. This conclusion is also supported by analyses of the post-seismic data.

  2. Navigation in Orthognathic Surgery: 3D Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, Giovanni; Roncari, Andrea; Bianchi, Alberto; Taddei, Fulvia; Marchetti, Claudio; Schileo, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to determine the absolute accuracy of maxillary repositioning during orthognathic surgery according to simulation-guided navigation, that is, the combination of navigation and three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgery. We retrospectively studied 15 patients treated for asymmetric dentofacial deformities at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from January 2010 to January 2012. Patients were scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography before and after surgery. The virtual surgical simulation was realized with a dedicated software and loaded on a navigation system to improve intraoperative reproducibility of the preoperative planning. We analyzed the outcome following two protocols: (1) planning versus postoperative 3D surface analysis; (2) planning versus postoperative point-based analysis. For 3D surface comparison, the mean Hausdorff distance was measured, and median among cases was 0.99 mm. Median reproducibility orthognathic surgery, if compared with the surgical computer-designed project realized with a dedicated software, particularly for the vertical dimension, which is the most challenging to manage.

  3. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  4. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  5. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  6. Essentials of 3D biofabrication and translation

    CERN Document Server

    Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Essentials of 3D Biofabrication and Translation discusses the techniques that are making bioprinting a viable alternative in regenerative medicine. The book runs the gamut of topics related to the subject, including hydrogels and polymers, nanotechnology, toxicity testing, and drug screening platforms, also introducing current applications in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction. Leaders in clinical medicine and translational science provide a global perspective of the transformative nature of this field, including the use of cells, biomaterials, and macromolecules to create basic building blocks of tissues and organs, all of which are driving the field of biofabrication to transform regenerative medicine. Provides a new and versatile method to fabricating living tissue Discusses future applications for 3D bioprinting technologies, including use in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction Describes current approaches and future challenges for translation...

  7. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-08

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/.

  8. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  9. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Young Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory.

  10. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  11. 3D nuclear organization of telomeres in the Hodgkin cell lines U-HO1 and U-HO1-PTPN1: PTPN1 expression prevents the formation of very short telomeres including "t-stumps"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Bruno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer cells the three-dimensional (3D telomere organization of interphase nuclei into a telomeric disk is heavily distorted and aggregates are found. In Hodgkin's lymphoma quantitative FISH (3D Q-FISH reveals a major impact of nuclear telomere dynamics during the transition form mononuclear Hodgkin (H to diagnostic multinuclear Reed-Sternberg (RS cells. In vitro and in vivo formation of RS-cells is associated with the increase of very short telomeres including "t-stumps", telomere loss, telomeric aggregate formation and the generation of "ghost nuclei". Results Here we analyze the 3D telomere dynamics by Q-FISH in the novel Hodgkin cell line U-HO1 and its non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase N1 (PTPN1 stable transfectant U-HO1-PTPN1, derived from a primary refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Both cell lines show equally high telomerase activity but U-HO1-PTPN differs from U-HO1 by a three times longer doubling time, low STAT5A expression, accumulation of RS-cells (p As expected, multinuclear U-HO1-RS-cells and multinuclear U-HO1-PTPN1-RS-cells differ from their mononuclear H-precursors by their nuclear volume (p Conclusion Abundant RS-cells without additional very short telomeres including "t-stumps", high rate of apoptosis, but low STAT5A expression, are hallmarks of the U-HO1-PTPN1 cell line. These characteristics are independent of telomerase activity. Thus, PTPN1 induced dephosphorylation of STAT5 with consecutive lack of Akt/PKB activation and cellular arrest in G2, promoting induction of apoptosis, appears as a possible pathogenetic mechanism deserving further experimental investigation.

  12. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  13. New software for 3D fracture network analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Noh, Y.; Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Hwang, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents new software to perform analysis and visualization of the fracture network system in 3D. The developed software modules for the analysis and visualization, such as BOUNDARY, DISK3D, FNTWK3D, CSECT and BDM, have been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic.NET and Visualization TookKit (VTK) open-source library. Two case studies revealed that each module plays a role in construction of analysis domain, visualization of fracture geometry in 3D, calculation of equivalent pipes, production of cross-section map and management of borehole data, respectively. The developed software for analysis and visualization of the 3D fractured rock mass can be used to tackle the geomechanical problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  14. Application of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in casting aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Jinwu; Zhang Xiaopeng; Zhang Chi; Liu Baicheng

    2014-01-01

    3D stereoscopic visualization technology is coming into more and more common use in the field of entertainment, and this technology is also beginning to cut a striking ifgure in casting industry and scientiifc research. The history, fundamental principle, and devices of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology are reviewed in this paper. The authors’ research achievements on the 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in the modeling and simulation of the casting process are presented. This technology can be used for the observation of complex 3D solid models of castings and the simulated results of solidiifcation processes such as temperature, lfuid lfow, displacement, stress strain and microstructure, as wel as the predicted defects such as shrinkage/porosity, cracks, and deformation. It can also be used for other areas relating to 3D models, such as assembling of dies, cores, etc. Several cases are given to compare the illustration of simulated results by traditional images and red-blue 3D stereoscopic images. The spatial shape is observed better by the new method. The prospect of 3D stereoscopic visualization in the casting aspect is discussed as wel. The need for aided-viewing devices is stil the most prominent problem of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology. However, 3D stereoscopic visualization represents the tendency of visualization technology in the future; and as the problem is solved in the years ahead, great breakthroughs wil certainly be made for its application in casting design and modeling and simulation of the casting processes.

  15. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltula, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  16. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  17. A new strategy for storage and transportation of sensitive high-energy materials: guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D metal-organic-framework-based energetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Xiangyu; Yang, Qi; Su, Zhiyong; Gao, Wenjuan; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2014-06-23

    Reaction of Co(II) with the nitrogen-rich ligand N,N-bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine (H2bta) leads to a mixed-valence, 3D, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF)-based, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 51.78%, [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n⋅(22 H2O)n (1). Compound 1 was thermohydrated to produce a new, stable, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 59.85% and heat of denotation of 4.537 kcal cm(-3), [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n (2). Sensitivity tests show that 2 is more sensitivity to external stimuli than 1, reflecting guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D, MOF-based, energetic materials. Less-sensitive 1 can be regarded as a more safe form for storage and transformation to sensitive 2. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Application of X3D-based virtual reality technology in the education of organic chemistry%基于X3D的虚拟现实技术在有机化学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴占凯; 张力

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the concept features and classification of the technology of virtual reality, mainly introduces the animation system and interaction mechanism of virtual reality technology based on X3D specification. In this paper, with an instance of electronic transition in organic chemistry,the article describes the methods and procedures for the development of virtual scene with X3D specification in the hope to provide reference for the follow-up development.%分析了虚拟现实技术的概念特征及分类,重点介绍了基于X3D标准的虚拟现实技术中的动画机制及交互机制.结合有机化学中电子跃迁实例,阐述了运用X3D标准开发虚拟场景的方法与步骤,以期对后续的开发工作起到借鉴作用.

  19. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  20. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  1. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  2. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  3. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  4. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  5. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Dongmin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University,Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A{sub N−1} on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T{sub N}[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T{sub N}[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  6. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2, 0) theory of type A N -1 on a 3-manifold M . The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,C) ) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T N [ M ]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T [SU( N )], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N > 2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2 T N [ M ] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper [1], which summarizes our main results.

  7. Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at large N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Dongmin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University,26 Kyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangmin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Liberal Studies,Seoul National University, 1 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-20

    We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an N=2 superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS{sub 4} geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large N limit of the perturbative free energy of a Chern-Simons theory on hyperbolic 3-manifold. The conjecture claims that the tree, one-loop and two-loop terms all share the same N{sup 3} scaling behavior and are proportional to the volume of the 3-manifold, while the three-loop and higher terms are suppressed at large N. Under mild assumptions, we prove the tree and one-loop parts of the conjecture. For the two-loop part, we test the conjecture numerically in a number of examples and find precise agreement. We also confirm the suppression of higher loop terms in a few examples.

  8. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  9. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  10. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  11. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  12. 3D digitization of mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a methodology developed to access to Cultural Heritage information using digital 3d reality-based models as graphic interfaces. The case studies presented belong to the wide repertoire of mosaics of Ravenna. One of the most peculiar characteristics of mosaics that often limits their digital survey is their multi-scale complexity; nevertheless their models could be used in 3d information systems, for digital exhibitions, for reconstruction aims and to document their conservation conditions in order to conduct restoration interventions in digital environments aiming at speeding and performing more reliable evaluations.

  13. 2-D and 3-D phosphotungstate-based TM-Ln heterometallic derivatives constructed from dimeric [Ln({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{sup 11-} fragments and copper-organic complex linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Sensen [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhao, Junwei, E-mail: zhaojunwei@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Lijuan [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Basic Experiment Teaching Center, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Li, Yuye; Zhang, Jingli; Li, Yanzhou [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Niu, Jingyang, E-mail: jyniu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Three organic-inorganic hybrid TM-Ln heterometallic phosphotungstates [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)][Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 3.5}[La({alpha}-HPW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (1) [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 0.5}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 4}[Nd({alpha}-HPW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (2) and [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 3.5}[Eu({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (3) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, optical diffuse reflectance spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their common features are that 1-3 all consist of asymmetric sandwich-type subunits [Ln({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{sup 11-} and [Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} bridges. Both 1 and 2 display the 2-D (4,4)-topological sheets whereas 3 exhibits the 3-D 5-connected (4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}) topological framework. The magnetic properties of 2 and 3 and the luminescence performance of 3 have been measured. - Graphical Abstract: Three TM-Ln heterometallic phosphotungstates 1-3 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, optical diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses magnetic susceptibility and luminescent properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu{sup II}-Ln{sup III} heterometallic polyoxometalates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-D and 3-D organic-inorganic hybrid phosphotungstates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-D and 3-D structures consisting of Cu{sup II}-Ln{sup III} heterometals.

  14. The future of 3D printing technology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing, one of the hottest cutting-edge interdisciplinary technologies, is projected to have revenue of $8.4 billion in 2020. #D printing technology will implement the concept of personalized medicine in medical healthcare industry and pharmaceutical fabrication. Organ printing, which it is defined as computer-aided, jet based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, is an interesting and challengeable field for 3D printing. Customized implants and prostheses can be produced in any imaginable geometry through the translation of radiological images of patients into digital.stl 3D print files. The creation of anatomical models based on the patient’s pathological conditions using 3D printing technologies would provide good models for training and to design surgical approaches. Hence, 3D printing not only will transform medical healthcare industry but also promises new converging technologies in the field of regenerative medicine.