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Sample records for deforested amazonian regions

  1. Isotopes as validation tools for predictions of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate and regional hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Chambers, S.; McGuffie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic analysis and modelling of the Amazon Basin have both been reported for about thirty years. Isotopic data have been used to explain important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of simple models. To date there has been no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models employed to predict the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. This paper reviews the history of isotopic analysis and simulations of deforestation in the Amazon and initiates isotopic evaluation of GCMs. It is shown that one widely reported simulation set gives seasonal transpiration and re-evaporated canopy interception budgets different from those derived from isotopic analysis. It is found that temporal changes (1965 to 1990) in wet season deuterium excess differences between Belem and Manaus are consistent with GCM results only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. We propose synergistic future interactions among the climate/hydrological modelling and isotopic analysis communities in order to improve confidence in simulations of Amazonian deforestation. (author)

  2. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

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    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  3. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

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    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  4. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

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    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  5. Impact of Amazonian deforestation on atmospheric chemistry

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    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2004-01-01

    A single-column chemistry and climate model has been used to study the impact of deforestation in the Amazon Basin on atmospheric chemistry. Over deforested areas, daytime ozone deposition generally decreases strongly except when surface wetness decreases through reduced precipitation, whereas

  6. The Impact of Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

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    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Li-Ming; Surratt, Jason; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, deep convective cloudiness, as well as rainfall occurrence, all increase over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions. This is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region's varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift toward afternoon hours in the deforested and savanna regions, compared to the forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that only in August did rainfall amounts increase over the deforested region.

  7. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

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    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

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    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  9. Costs and benefits of simulating the hydro-climatological effects of Amazonian deforestation at different resolutions

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    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hydro-climatological effects of Amazonian deforestation have been found to be scale dependent. On one hand GCM studies of deforestation at resolutions >1° and scales 1000 km simulate reduced precipitation over deforested areas, while some observations and RCM studies show an increase in convective activity and precipitation over cleared patches of scales less than 10 km. It is suggested that mesoscale circulations, called ';land breezes', that develop at these small scales of deforestation are responsible for the significant increase in cloud cover and rain. This phenomenon is not captured at the coarse resolution in GCMs. This scale mismatch between GCMs and observed physical processes has to be addressed in modeling studies in order to make realistic inferences for contemporary and future deforestation. One solution is to simulate land breezes in the Amazon at high resolutions exploiting the power of modern high performance computing. But the spatial scales and model resolutions at which mesoscale circulations start to appear and disappear are not well understood. Therefore it is desirable to systematically study the trade off between the computational cost of increased resolution and the resultant information gain. The present study, the first of its kind, formally delves into this problem. The variable resolution Ocean-Land-Atmosphere-Model (OLAM) is used to simulate the hydro-climatic effects of Amazonian deforestation. A cost-benefit analysis is done using different atmospheric initializations to drive the model over a suite of spatial resolutions. High-resolution simulations, informed by the cost-benefit analysis, are performed to estimate the climatically important spatial scales of Amazonian deforestation. Preliminary results from this analysis will be presented.

  10. Soil microbiome responses to the short-term effects of Amazonian deforestation.

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    Navarrete, Acacio A; Tsai, Siu M; Mendes, Lucas W; Faust, Karoline; de Hollander, Mattias; Cassman, Noriko A; Raes, Jeroen; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2015-05-01

    Slash-and-burn clearing of forest typically results in increase in soil nutrient availability. However, the impact of these nutrients on the soil microbiome is not known. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic DNA, we compared the structure and the potential functions of bacterial community in forest soils to deforested soils in the Amazon region and related the differences to soil chemical factors. Deforestation decreased soil organic matter content and factors linked to soil acidity and raised soil pH, base saturation and exchangeable bases. Concomitant to expected changes in soil chemical factors, we observed an increase in the alpha diversity of the bacterial microbiota and relative abundances of putative copiotrophic bacteria such as Actinomycetales and a decrease in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa such as Chlamydiae, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia in the deforested soils. We did not observe an increase in genes related to microbial nutrient metabolism in deforested soils. However, we did observe changes in community functions such as increases in DNA repair, protein processing, modification, degradation and folding functions, and these functions might reflect adaptation to changes in soil characteristics due to forest clear-cutting and burning. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bacterial groups associated with metabolism-related functions. Co-occurrence microbial network analysis identified distinct phylogenetic patterns for forest and deforested soils and suggested relationships between Planctomycetes and aluminium content, and Actinobacteria and nitrogen sources in Amazon soils. The results support taxonomic and functional adaptations in the soil bacterial community following deforestation. We hypothesize that these microbial adaptations may serve as a buffer to drastic changes in soil fertility after slash-and-burning deforestation in the Amazon region. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of the ongoing Amazonian deforestation on local precipitation: A GCM simulation study

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    Walker, G. K.; Sud, Y. C.; Atlas, R.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation experiments were conducted to delineate the influence of in situ deforestation data on episodic rainfall by comparing two ensembles of five 5-day integrations performed with a recent version of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres General Circulation Model (GCM) that has a simple biosphere model (SiB). The first set, called control cases, used the standard SiB vegetation cover (comprising 12 biomes) and assumed a fully forested Amazonia, while the second set, called deforestation cases, distinguished the partially deforested regions of Amazonia as savanna. Except for this difference, all other initial and prescribed boundary conditions were kept identical in both sets of integrations. The differential analyses of these five cases show the following local effects of deforestation. (1) A discernible decrease in evapotranspiration of about 0.80 mm/d (roughly 18%) that is quite robust in the averages for 1-, 2-, and 5-day forecasts. (2) A decrease in precipitation of about 1.18 mm/d (roughly 8%) that begins to emerge even in 1-2 day averages and exhibits complex evolution that extends downstream with the winds. (3) A significant decrease in the surface drag force (as a consequence of reduced surface roughness of deforested regions) that, in turn, affects the dynamical structure of moisture convergence and circulation. The surface winds increase significantly during the first day, and thereafter the increase is well maintained even in the 2- and 5-day averages.

  12. The Impact of a Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

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    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Liming; Surratt, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect to percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, shallow cumulus cloudiness, deep convective cloudiness, and rainfall occurrence all are larger over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions than over areas of dense jungle. This difference is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region s varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift in the onset of convection toward afternoon hours in the deforested and towards the morning hours in the savanna regions when compared to the neighboring forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of monthly estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that in only in August was there a pattern of higher monthly rainfall amounts over the deforested region.

  13. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology and soil...

  14. Threshold responses of Amazonian stream fishes to timing and extent of deforestation.

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    Brejão, Gabriel L; Hoeinghaus, David J; Pérez-Mayorga, María Angélica; Ferraz, Silvio F B; Casatti, Lilian

    2017-12-06

    Deforestation is a primary driver of biodiversity change through habitat loss and fragmentation. Stream biodiversity may not respond to deforestation in a simple linear relationship. Rather, threshold responses to extent and timing of deforestation may occur. Identification of critical deforestation thresholds is needed for effective conservation and management. We tested for threshold responses of fish species and functional groups to degree of watershed and riparian zone deforestation and time since impact in 75 streams in the western Brazilian Amazon. We used remote sensing to assess deforestation from 1984 to 2011. Fish assemblages were sampled with seines and dip nets in a standardized manner. Fish species (n = 84) were classified into 20 functional groups based on ecomorphological traits associated with habitat use, feeding, and locomotion. Threshold responses were quantified using threshold indicator taxa analysis. Negative threshold responses to deforestation were common and consistently occurred at very low levels of deforestation (impact (70% deforestation and >10 years after impact. Findings were similar at the community level for both taxonomic and functional analyses. Because most negative threshold responses occurred at low levels of deforestation and soon after impact, even minimal change is expected to negatively affect biodiversity. Delayed positive threshold responses to extreme deforestation by a few species do not offset the loss of sensitive taxa and likely contribute to biotic homogenization. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Environmental impacts of the production of cast iron in the Amazonian region; O impacto ambiental da producao de ferro-gusa na Amazonia

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    Luczynski, Estanislau; Sauer, Ildo L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1996-12-31

    The environmental problems created in the Brazilian Amazonian region by the use of wood fuel in the cast iron production plants are presented.The problems are related to air pollution, deforestation, soil erosion as well as the extinction of noble types of wood 10 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

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    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  17. New species of Monostylis Tulasne (Podostemaceae from the Amazonian region

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    Aldalea Sprada Tavares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p15 Until now, Monostylis Tulasne (Podostemaceae was considered monospecific, containing only M. capillacea Tulasne. However, recent field expeditions and an analysis of samples from the Amazonian region revealed three new species, Monostylis aripuanensis, M. goeldiana and M. paraensis. The present paper provides detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations, habitat data, comparative taxonomic comments and a dichotomous key to the species.

  18. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  19. Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions.

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    Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra; Hagen, Stephen C; Saatchi, Sassan S; Petrova, Silvia; Salas, William; Hansen, Matthew C; Potapov, Peter V; Lotsch, Alexander

    2012-06-22

    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation would benefit from clearly derived, spatially explicit, statistically bounded estimates of carbon emissions. Existing efforts derive carbon impacts of land-use change using broad assumptions, unreliable data, or both. We improve on this approach using satellite observations of gross forest cover loss and a map of forest carbon stocks to estimate gross carbon emissions across tropical regions between 2000 and 2005 as 0.81 petagram of carbon per year, with a 90% prediction interval of 0.57 to 1.22 petagrams of carbon per year. This estimate is 25 to 50% of recently published estimates. By systematically matching areas of forest loss with their carbon stocks before clearing, these results serve as a more accurate benchmark for monitoring global progress on reducing emissions from deforestation.

  20. The Mission of the Amazonian Universities in Economic Development and Environmental Preservation.

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    Lourenco, Jose Seixas

    The Association of Amazonian Universities (UNAMAZ) was created in September 1987 and is involved in a collective effort to find ways to promote the Amazonian region's nonpredatory development, recognizing its limitations and taking into account its potential. With deforestation taking place at ever-increasing speed, it has become necessary to…

  1. Land use and land cover change impacts on the regional climate of non-Amazonian South America: A review

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    Salazar, Alvaro; Baldi, Germán; Hirota, Marina; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive

    2015-05-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) affects regional climate through modifications in the water balance and energy budget. These impacts are frequently expressed by: changes in the amount and frequency of precipitation and alteration of surface temperatures. In South America, most of the studies of the effects of LUCC on the local and regional climate have focused on the Amazon region (54 studies), whereas LUCC within non-Amazonian regions have been largely undermined regardless their potential importance in regulating the regional climate (19 studies). We estimated that 3.6 million km2 of the original natural vegetation cover in non-Amazonian South America were converted into other types of land use, which is about 4 times greater than the historical Amazon deforestation. Moreover, there is evidence showing that LUCC within such fairly neglected ecosystems cause significant reductions in precipitation and increases in surface temperatures, with occasional impacts affecting neighboring or remote areas. We explore the implications of these findings in the context of water security, climatic extremes and future research priorities.

  2. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

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    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These

  3. Sources of water vapor to economically relevant regions in Amazonia and the effect of deforestation

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    Pires, G. F.; Fontes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest helps regulate the regional humid climate. Understanding the effects of Amazon deforestation is important to preserve not only the climate, but also economic activities that depend on it, in particular, agricultural productivity and hydropower generation. This study calculates the source of water vapor contributing to the precipitation on economically relevant regions in Amazonia according to different scenarios of deforestation. These regions include the state of Mato Grosso, which produces about 9% of the global soybean production, and the basins of the Xingu and Madeira, with infrastructure under construction that will be capable to generate 20% of the electrical energy produced in Brazil. The results show that changes in rainfall after deforestation are stronger in regions nearest to the ocean and indicate the importance of the continental water vapor source to the precipitation over southern Amazonia. In the two more continental regions (Madeira and Mato Grosso), decreases in the source of water vapor in one region were offset by increases in contributions from other continental regions, whereas in the Xingu basin, which is closer to the ocean, this mechanism did not occur. As a conclusion, the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the less climate changes after deforestation.

  4. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

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    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil

  5. Effects of large-scale deforestation on precipitation in the monsoon regions: Remote versus local effects

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    Devaraju, N.; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using idealized climate model simulations, we investigate the biogeophysical effects of large-scale deforestation on monsoon regions. We find that the remote forcing from large-scale deforestation in the northern middle and high latitudes shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward. This results in a significant decrease in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions (East Asia, North America, North Africa, and South Asia) and moderate precipitation increases in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions (South Africa, South America, and Australia). The magnitude of the monsoonal precipitation changes depends on the location of deforestation, with remote effects showing a larger influence than local effects. The South Asian Monsoon region is affected the most, with 18% decline in precipitation over India. Our results indicate that any comprehensive assessment of afforestation/reforestation as climate change mitigation strategies should carefully evaluate the remote effects on monsoonal precipitation alongside the large local impacts on temperatures. PMID:25733889

  6. Effects of large-scale deforestation on precipitation in the monsoon regions: remote versus local effects.

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    Devaraju, N; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, using idealized climate model simulations, we investigate the biogeophysical effects of large-scale deforestation on monsoon regions. We find that the remote forcing from large-scale deforestation in the northern middle and high latitudes shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward. This results in a significant decrease in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions (East Asia, North America, North Africa, and South Asia) and moderate precipitation increases in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions (South Africa, South America, and Australia). The magnitude of the monsoonal precipitation changes depends on the location of deforestation, with remote effects showing a larger influence than local effects. The South Asian Monsoon region is affected the most, with 18% decline in precipitation over India. Our results indicate that any comprehensive assessment of afforestation/reforestation as climate change mitigation strategies should carefully evaluate the remote effects on monsoonal precipitation alongside the large local impacts on temperatures.

  7. Gold-rush in a forested El Dorado: deforestation leakages and the need for regional cooperation

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    Dezécache, Camille; Faure, Emmanuel; Gond, Valéry; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Tropical forests of the Guiana Shield are the most affected by gold-mining in South America, experiencing an exponential increase in deforestation since the early 2000’s. Using yearly deforestation data encompassing Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and the Brazilian State of Amapá, we demonstrated a strong relationship between deforestation due to gold-mining and gold-prices at the regional scale. In order to assess additional drivers of deforestation due to gold-mining, we focused on the national scale and highlighted the heterogeneity of the response to gold-prices under different political contexts. Deforestation due to gold-mining over the Guiana Shield occurs mainly in Guyana and Suriname. On the contrary, past and current repressive policies in Amapá and French Guiana likely contribute to the decorrelation of deforestation and gold prices. In this work, we finally present a case study focusing on French Guiana and Suriname, two neighbouring countries with very different levels of law enforcement against illegal gold-mining. We developed a modelling framework to estimate potential deforestation leakages from French Guiana to Suriname in the border areas. Based on our assumptions, we estimated a decrease in deforestation due to gold-mining of approx. 4300 hectares in French Guiana and an increase of approx. 12 100 hectares in Suriname in response to the active military repression of illegal gold-mining launched in French Guiana. Gold-mining in the Guiana Shield provides challenging questions regarding REDD+ implementation. These questions are discussed at the end of this study and are important to policy makers who need to provide sustainable alternative employment to local populations in order to ensure the effectiveness of environmental policies.

  8. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha −1  y −1 . Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g −1 was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m −2  yr −1 . This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. - Highlights: • Based on published data we estimated the litterfall in the Amazonian rainforest. • All the published data on Hg concentration in leaves and litter from the region and some unpublished data are presented. • We calculated the litter mercury deposition. • We estimated the contribution of dry, wet and litter Hg deposition in the Amazonian rainforest. • We also discussed the impact of Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle. - The Amazonian rainforest is responsible for removing at least 268 Mg Hg y −1 , 8% of the total atmospheric mercury deposition to land.

  9. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of malaria in extra-Amazonian regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Virginio, Flávia; Aguiar, Breno S; Suesdek, Lincoln; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2015-10-15

    Mosquitoes, Plasmodium parasites, and humans live in sympatry in some extra-Amazonian regions of Brazil. Recent migrations of people from Amazonia and other countries to extra-Amazonian regions have led to many malaria outbreaks. Lack of relevant expertise among health professionals in non-endemic areas can lead to a neglect of the disease, which can be dangerous given its high fatality rate. Therefore, understanding the spatial and temporal epidemiology of malaria is essential for developing strategies for disease control and elimination. This study aimed to characterize imported (IMP) and autochthonous/introduced (AU/IN) cases in the extra-Amazonian regions and identify risk areas and groups. Epidemiological data collected between 2007 and 2014 were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System of the Ministry of Health (SINAN) and from the Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). High malaria risk areas were determined using the Local Indicator of Spatial Association. IMP and AU/IN malaria incidence rates were corrected by Local Empirical Bayesian rates. A total of 6092 malaria cases (IMP: 5416, 88.9 %; AU/IN: 676, 11.1 %) was recorded in the extra-Amazonian regions in 2007-2014. The highest numbers of IMP and AU/IN cases were registered in 2007 (n = 862) and 2010 (n = 149), respectively. IMP cases were more frequent than AU/IN cases in all states except for Espírito Santo. Piauí, Espírito Santo, and Paraná states had high incidences of AU/IN malaria. The majority of infections were by Plasmodium falciparum in northeast and southeast regions, while Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in the south and mid-west showed cases of dual infection. AU/IN malaria cases were concentrated in the coastal region of Brazil, which contains the Atlantic Forest and hosts the Anopheles transmitters. Several malaria clusters were also associated with the Brazilian Pantanal biome and regions bordering the Amazonian biome. Malaria is widespread

  10. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  11. Increasing deforestation at the Arc of Deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elisa; Pereira, Gabriel; Rocha, Rosmeri

    2013-04-01

    In this study we investigated the impact on regional climate due to the deforestation of Amazonian region. The deforestation was applied specifically to the area at the edge of the Amazonian region in Brazil, named Arc of Deforestation, where the deforestation actually occurs. The numerical experiments were conducted with the regional climate model RegCM3, used by many scientific groups around the world. The simulations performed by the model were conducted for the Brazil's central-southeast region rainy season, which can be defined between October and March. Each rainy season was separately simulated, being July-1st always the first day and March-31th the last one. Some alterations were made in the model specifications in order to better simulate the climate over South America. Land cover information was updated by more recent data. The older data compiled for 1992 was replaced by that compiled for 2005 (GLCC2005). Besides the global coverage updating, Cerrado information over Brazil obtained from the Brazilian Environmental Ministry was included to cover information. Based on results from others studies, carried out to South America, we changed the root and total soil layers depth, they were enlarged to 3.0 and 4.5 meters, respectively. This change can provide more humidity to the atmosphere and then increase the amount of convective precipitation. The spatial and time resolution considered for all simulations were, respectively, 50 km and 30 min. The domain was defined considering the South America region centered in 55W e 22S, with 160 and 120 points in longitudinal and latitudinal directions, respectively. The vertical resolution was described by 18 levels. The convective precipitation was computed by Grell scheme. Initial and boundary conditions were defined by Reanalysis I dataset. Sea surface temperature was those compiled by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, and was obtained from their Web site. Spatial patterns of simulated air temperature at low

  12. Perceptions of Amazonian deforestation in the British and Brazilian media Percepções do desmatamento da Amazônia na mídia Britânica e Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ladle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon rainforest stretches across more than six million square kilometers and nine countries. Of the original forest area it is thought that 18 per cent has been cleared, mainly for farming purposes. In Brazil, the main drivers of deforestation are beef ranching and soya production that together occupy more than 75 per cent of newly deforested land. The situation in the Amazon illustrates a fundamental dilemma facing environmentalists around the world: how to reconcile economic development with biodiversity conservation. In this paper the representation of this dilemma in the British and Brazilian news media is assessed. The results indicate that there were far more articles referring to deforestation in the Brazilian press (816 Brazilian to 29 UK but that many of these make no mention of what factors are responsible for deforestation. The patterns of representation of the proximate (direct causes of Amazonian deforestation were very similar in the two countries, with soya and beef cattle ranching commanding the most press attention. The ultimate (indirect causes of deforestation, however, are treated very differently, with the Brazilian media seemingly far more aware of the role of economic development needs than the UK press. Interestingly, the role of international demand for soya, beef, and forest products in driving deforestation was highlighted primarily in the UK press. These findings are critically discussed in the context of media influence on public understandings of Amazonian deforestation.A floresta Amazônica abrange mais de 6 milhões de km² e engloba 9 países. Acredita-se que 18% da superficie florestal já tenha sido desmatada principalmente para usos agropecuários. No Brasil, a pecuária e a produção de soja encabeçam as causas do desmatamento, sendo estes responsáveis por 75% das terras desmatadas. A situação da Amazônia ilustra o principal dilema que enfrentam os ambientalistas em todo o mundo: como permitir um

  13. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  14. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  15. Pervasive Rise of Small-scale Deforestation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Mitchard, Edward; Quincey, Duncan; Ziv, Guy; Spracklen, Dominick; Spracklen, Benedict; Adami, Marcos; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David

    2018-01-25

    Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.

  16. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  17. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-02-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001-2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF) runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year-1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74%) with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19%) and pasture fires (7%). In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation and from maintenance fires did not covary, although

  18. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001–2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year−1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74% with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19% and pasture fires (7%. In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation

  19. Deforestation impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in the Semiarid Chaco Region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Sebastián Horacio; Studdert, Guillermo Alberto; Baldassini, Pablo; Cendoya, María Gabriela; Ciuffoli, Lucía; Mastrángelo, Matias; Piñeiro, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    Land use change affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and generates CO 2 emissions. Moreover, SOC depletion entails degradation of soil functions that support ecosystem services. Large areas covered by dry forests have been cleared in the Semiarid Chaco Region of Argentina for cropping expansion. However, deforestation impacts on the SOC stock and its distribution in the soil profile have been scarcely reported. We assessed these impacts based on the analysis of field data along a time-since-deforestation-for-cropping chronosequence, and remote sensing indices. Soil organic C was determined up to 100cm depth and physically fractionated into mineral associated organic carbon (MAOC) and particulate organic C (POC). Models describing vertical distribution of SOC were fitted. Total SOC, POC and MAOC stocks decreased markedly with increasing cropping age. Particulate organic C was the most sensitive fraction to cultivation. After 10yr of cropping SOC loss was around 30%, with greater POC loss (near 60%) and smaller MAOC loss (near 15%), at 0-30cm depth. Similar relative SOC losses were observed in deeper soil layers (30-60 and 60-100cm). Deforestation and subsequent cropping also modified SOC vertical distribution. Soil organic C loss was negatively associated with the proportion of maize in the rotation and total crop biomass inputs, but positively associated with the proportion of soybean in the rotation. Without effective land use polices, deforestation and agricultural expansion can lead to rapid soil degradation and reductions in the provision of important ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  1. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  2. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....

  3. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes.

  4. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  5. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  7. Facing operational problems in a biodigester in Yuvientsa - Amazonian region of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragundy, J.

    2007-07-01

    Yuvientsa is a Shuar indigenous community located in the Morona Santiago Province in the southwestern part of the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Two types of alternative energies have being implemented in Yuvientsa to satisfy people's needs. Solar panels provide electricity to the community. A biodigester to treat the school lavatories' brown-water (fecal water) and to provide gas for cooking to the communal kitchen was built as well. During the operational phase the biodigester faced some difficulties as: being perforated by people of the community as started inflating, being fumigated against malaria, and not having enough organic matter to produce biogas. As a result in this time the biodigester did not operate satisfactorily and the community did not believe that it could work and produce biogas. A biodigester should not be built without an awareness campaign or showing a direct benefit to the community that ensures its adequate operation and maintenance. Before constructing the reactor the organic matter source to operate the biodigester should be clearly identified and its amount should be enough. (orig.)

  8. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Dahmer; Maria Teresa Schifino Wittmann; Paulo Emilio Kaminski

    2009-01-01

    Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentr...

  9. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  10. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A; Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H

    2011-01-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  11. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  12. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  13. Parasitism of the isopod Artystone trysibia in the fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum from the Tena River (Amazonian region, Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junoy, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deforestation in Gola Forest Region, Sierra Leone: Geospatial Evidence and a Rice Farmer's Expected Utility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Kpawoh, John Christian

    classification suggests that the community forests in the Gola region (seven Gola chiefdoms) are losing forest cover at an annual rate of 4.18%, while the Park is increasing its forest cover at a rate of 0.03% per year. Even though the park appears to increase its forest cover, classification details reveal encroachment to just within the park from the boundary, compromising the quality and integrity of the park. Adapting the theoretical poaching model in Messer (2010), we model the farmer's decision to engage in a profitable illegal farming (deforestation), as a function of expected returns and the cost of punishment. In this context, the farmer decides on the amount of hectares to illegally cultivate subject to a time constraint, and taking the risk of being caught as given, the latter being function of government law enforcement. We develop two cost studies, one for legal and one for illegal rice cultivation, and obtain the revenue parameters. Revenue parameters are validated through reports of the Planning, Evaluation, Monitoring and Statistics Division (PEMSD) of Sierra Leone's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry & Food Security. Our simulation results suggest that increasing the amount of fines imposed and/or lengthy imprisonment is not a feasible or realistic policy to dis-incentivize deforestation and illegal farming. The probability of being caught committing crime and the fine have to be both unrealistically large to deter a risk neutral farmer. Another policy relates to reducing the net-benefit from illegal farming, and increasing the risk of being caught. We find that a policy that increases the risk is most effective in reducing illegal farming with minimal policy change. We then compare the potential of these policies in reducing the incentives to illegally farm with the current policy consisting solely of law enforcement. We expect the results to be relevant to the authorities in Sierra Leone and other countries facing the responsibility of safeguarding natural

  15. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  16. Regional Deforestation Trends within Local Realities: Land-Cover Change in Southeastern Peru 1996–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chávez Michaelsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating deforested areas and deforestation rates have become key steps for quantifying environmental services of tropical rain forests, particularly as linked to programs such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD. In Southeastern Peru, reliable estimates of land-cover change (LCC are important for monitoring changes in the landscape due to agricultural expansion, pasture creation and other socio-economic influences triggered by the Inter-Oceanic Highway (IOH. Our study reports a land-use/land-cover change (LULCC analysis during a 15-year period from 1996 to 2011 in the Province of Tahuamanu, Madre de Dios. We draw on multiple years of observations of LULCC to relate changes in land cover to the use of natural resources (pasture, timber, crops and forest products and tenure types based on their distances from the highway and the Tahuamanu River. We are able to distinguish titled areas for agriculture close to the IOH from other land tenure types such as timber concessions. The findings show that LULCC varies among different types of land tenure and by distance from the highway. Agricultural areas close to transportation infrastructure within 1 km to 5 km buffers have gradually increased in non-forest areas, whereas timber concession areas away from 1 km buffer of secondary roads have maintained forest cover. Riverine settlements show a similar distance effect in forest clearance along rivers as along roads.

  17. Implications for changes in Anopheles darlingi biting behaviour in three communities in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon P; Bickersmith, Sara A; Lainhart, William; Tong, Carlos; Alava, Freddy; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-07-30

    Malaria transmission in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru has been designated as seasonal and hypo-endemic with recently described hyper-endemic hotspots. Despite relatively recent distribution of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs), malaria in Amazonian Peru persists and increased substantially in 2014 compared to previous years. Anopheles darlingi, identified as the main malaria vector, is known for its variable behaviour depending on locality and environment. To evaluate vector biology metrics in relation to seasonality and malaria transmission, mosquito collections were carried out in three localities in the peri-Iquitos region, Loreto, Peru in 2011-2012. Human landing catch (HLC) collection method, Shannon (SHA) and CDC trap types were compared for effectiveness in a neotropical setting. Abundance, human biting rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) were measured to provide an updated view of transmission patterns post-LLIN distribution. HLC collected significantly more anopheline mosquitoes than SHA and CDC light traps. Anopheles darlingi was the most prevalent species in all three villages (84% overall). Biting patterns varied depending on trap type, season and village. EIR varied temporally (monthly) and spatially and the highest (2.52) occurred during the 2012 malaria outbreak in Cahuide. Unexpectedly there was a high infection rate (1.47 and 1.75) outside the normal malaria transmission season, coincident with a second local outbreak in Cahuide. The first identification of Anopheles dunhami and Anopheles oswaldoi C in Peru, using molecular markers, is also reported in this study. These data underscore the importance of HLC as the most meaningful collection method for measuring vector biology indices in this region. The highest monthly EIR provides additional evidence of seasonal transmission in riverine localities correlated with high river levels, and An. darlingi as the only contributor to transmission. The trend of an increase in

  18. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  19. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  20. Characterization of the deforestation effect in a semi-arid region by the use of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhanifia, Khatir; Haddouche, Driss; Smahi, Zakaria; Bensaid, Abdelkrim; Hamimed, Abderrahmane

    2004-02-01

    In Algeria, arid and semi-arid regions occupy over than 95% of whole territory. Forests in the semi arid zone constitutes a front face to the advance of the desert towards northern sides. Like in other regions of the world, deforestation phenomenon have a serious consequences on the fragile ecosystem. Severe continuous drought, fires, pasture, insects as well as the absence of a clear forest politics are so many factors that reduced forest areas in this country. However, the conservation of this patrimony must be a priority of any regional development project. This paper describes an evaluating study of the deforestation impact on forests in the region of Djelfa situated in the Saharian Atlas using multitemporal satellite remote sensing data. In order to establish a forest change map, a methodology based on the comparison between normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVI) generated from satellite images was adopted. For this purpose, a pair of Landsat and (ETM+) images acquired over the region on April 11th, 1987 and march 24th, 2001 have been used. Until being processed, data used have been geometrically and atmospherically corrected. Then, an (NDVI) have been produced for each date. Resulting from compared (NDVI) image presents the forest change map in the study area. Radiometric values of resulting image have been regrouped into three classes according to change types as follow : Increased radiometry = more active vegetation Decreased radiometry = deterioration in vegetation activity Non changed areas = Non changed Investigations made on the terrain permitted to interpret many causes of detected evolutions. Regressive changes were considerable and demonstrates however, the degradation effect on the vegetation state. Some of regressed radiometry are related to forest fires that affected the region in 1994. Almost of regressive changes are due to a deterioration of vegetation caused by multiple factors. Drought, deceases, pasture and infection are considered

  1. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  2. The impact of smoke from forest fires on the spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distributions in the Amazonian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, J A [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Silva Dias, M A F [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jmartins@utfpr.edu.br

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, the main microphysical characteristics of clouds developing in polluted and clean conditions in the biomass-burning season of the Amazon region are examined, with special attention to the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution and its potential impact on climate modeling applications. The dispersion effect has been shown to alter the climate cooling predicted by the so-called Twomey effect. In biomass-burning polluted conditions, high concentrations of low dispersed cloud droplets are found. Clean conditions revealed an opposite situation. The liquid water content (0.43 {+-} 0.19 g m{sup -3}) is shown to be uncorrelated with the cloud drop number concentration, while the effective radius is found to be very much correlated with the relative dispersion of the size distribution (R{sup 2} = 0.81). The results suggest that an increase in cloud condensation nuclei concentration from biomass-burning aerosols may lead to an additional effect caused by a decrease in relative dispersion. Since the dry season in the Amazonian region is vapor limiting, the dispersion effect of cloud droplet size distributions could be substantially larger than in other polluted regions.

  3. Os processos de desenvolvimento e desmatamento da Amazônia The process of development and deforestation in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Coelho Prates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa - com base na revisão da literatura existente e por meio da análise de dados secundários, realizando uma análise histórica desde a Colonização Portuguesa - as etapas de desenvolvimento da Região Amazônica e sua associação com a prática do desmatamento, destacando as políticas públicas que fomentaram o desenvolvimento da região e o atual avanço de sistemas produtivos orientados pelo estímulo econômico. Demonstra-se que o desenvolvimento populacional e econômico da Amazônia, citados como as principais causas do desmatamento e estimulados, em boa parte, por políticas econômicas, é um processo desuniforme no tempo e no espaço, gerando o desmatamento desigual entre os estados que compõem essa região e dentro de cada estado.Basing on the literature review and on published dataset and following the time chronology of the events since the Portuguese colonization, this paper analyzes the stages of Amazonian region development and its impacts on deforestation, highlighting the policies addressing to foster the Amazon's development and the current stage of economic activities. The population growth and the economic activities, pointed out as the main causes of the Amazonian deforestation and stimulated by economic policies, have been unequally developed inside the Amazonian region, generating the unequal deforestation process among the Amazonian states and inside each state.

  4. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree ...

  5. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  6. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-05-27

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all variables analysed, except deforestation. For the annual cycle, we found correlations above 90% with a time lag between variables. Deforestation and fires reach the highest values three and six months, respectively, after the peak of the rainy season. The cumulative number of hot pixels was linearly related to the size of the area deforested annually from 1998 to 2004 (r2=0.84, p=0.004). During the 2005 drought, the number of hot pixels increased 43% in relation to the expected value for a similar deforested area (approx. 19000km2). We demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as land-use change, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region even with decreased deforestation rates. We may expect that the ongoing deforestation, currently based on slash and burn procedures, and the use of fires for land management in Amazonia will intensify the impact of droughts associated with natural climate variability or human-induced climate change and, therefore, a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires.

  7. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position.

  8. Exploring eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under climate and land-use changes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Castanho, A. D.; Moghim, S.; Bras, R. L.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; McKnight, S.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation and drought have imposed regional-scale perturbations onto Amazonian ecosystems and are predicted to cause larger negative impacts on the Amazonian ecosystems and associated regional carbon dynamics in the 21st century. However, global climate models (GCMs) vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia, giving rise to uncertainty in the expected fate of the Amazon over the coming century. In this study, we explore the possible eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under projected climate and land-use changes in the 21st century using two state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models—Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1(ED2.1) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS)—driven by three representative, bias-corrected climate projections from three IPCC GCMs (NCARPCM1, NCARCCSM3 and HadCM3), coupled with two land-use change scenarios (a business-as-usual and a strict governance scenario). We also analyze the relative roles of climate change, CO2 fertilization, land-use change and fire in driving the projected composition and structure of the Amazonian ecosystems. Our results show that CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation productivity and above-ground biomass (AGB) in the region, while land-use change and fire cause AGB loss and the replacement of forests by the savanna-like vegetation. The impacts of climate change depend strongly on the direction and severity of projected precipitation changes in the region. In particular, when intensified water stress is superimposed on unregulated deforestation, both ecosystem models predict large-scale dieback of Amazonian rainforests.

  9. Predicting Deforestation Patterns in Loreto, Peru from 2000-2010 Using a Nested GLM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, V.; Jenkins, C.; Finer, M.; Pimm, S.

    2013-12-01

    Loreto is the largest province in Peru, covering about 370,000 km2. Because of its remote location in the Amazonian rainforest, it is also one of the most sparsely populated. Though a majority of the region remains covered by forest, deforestation is being driven by human encroachment through industrial activities and the spread of colonization and agriculture. The importance of accurate predictive modeling of deforestation has spawned an extensive body of literature on the topic. We present a nested GLM approach based on predictions of deforestation from 2000-2010 and using variables representing the expected drivers of deforestation. Models were constructed using 2000 to 2005 changes and tested against data for 2005 to 2010. The most complex model, which included transportation variables (roads and navigable rivers), spatial contagion processes, population centers and industrial activities, performed better in predicting the 2005 to 2010 changes (75.8% accurate) than did a simpler model using only transportation variables (69.2% accurate). Finally we contrast the GLM approach with a more complex spatially articulated model.

  10. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  11. Stratigraphic review of the Parecis Basin, Amazonian Region; Revisao estratigrafica da Bacia dos Parecis - Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Ruy B.C. [Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais (CPRM/REPO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Servico Geologico do Brasil. Residencia de Porto Velho], email: ruybahia@pv.cprm.gov.br; Martins-Neto, Marcelo A.; Barbosa, Maria Silvia C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (DEGEO/UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia], emails: marcelo@nupetro.com.br, silvia@nupetro.com.br; Pedreira, Augusto J. [Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais (CPRM/Sureg-SA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Servico Geologico do Brasil. Superintendencia de Salvador], email: ajpedreira@terra.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The Parecis basin is located in central-western Brazil, on the southwestern part of the Amazon Craton, between the Rondonia and Guapore fold belts. From west to east, the Parecis basin can be divided into three tectonic-sedimentary domains: a tectonic low to the west, a central compartment characterized by a negative gravimetric anomaly, and a interior sag to the east. During the Paleozoic (Ordovician to Early Permian), the Amazon region was affected by an extensional event, when the Cacoal, Furnas, Ponta Grossa, Pimenta Bueno e Fazenda da Casa Branca formations were deposited in the Parecis basin. The Cacoal Formation is composed of conglomerates, wackes, shales and dolomites, interpreted as deposited in alluvial fans, deltas and lakes. The pebbly sandstones and shales of the Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations are interpreted as deposited, respectively, in tidal flats and marine environments. Glacial or glacial-influenced environments are suggested for the conglomerates, sandstones and shales of the Pimenta Bueno and Fazenda da Casa Branca formations. The sedimentary record of Parecis basin shows a stratigraphic gap from Permian to Triassic. Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary successions record another extensional event in the Amazon region. This event is represented in the Parecis basin by the eolian sandstones of the Jurassic Rio Avila Formation and the basalts of the Anari and Tapirapua formations. The sandstones of the Parecis Group have been deposited during the Cretaceous in fluvial and eolian environments. Cretaceous kimberlite bodies cut the sediments in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the Parecis basin. Cenozoic sandstones and mud stones cover unconformably the deposits of the Parecis basin. (author)

  12. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  14. Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on the climate of Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.H.; Foley, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: (1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and (2) concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO{sub 2} concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate. In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day{sup {minus}1} over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day{sup {minus}1}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day{sup {minus}1}. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations both tent to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO{sub 2}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5 C.

  15. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  16. Soil and deforestation use standards in Amazon and its global impacts: a regional dynamics economic and ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, Elisabeth I.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was to introduce a simulation model to analyze the deforestation causes in Amazon. The work describes the basic parameters and fundamental concepts to the performed modeling comprehension. The several agents soil utilization standards were going observed and the economic and ecological interactions simulated. The global impact aspects are also analyzed

  17. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen considerable deforestation due to a complex web of interconnected and interdependent causes, which include agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, social demographics and governmental policies and activity. It is necessary for successful and efficient policy development to understand how variability in these causes can potentially result in increased or decreased deforestation. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool that can quantify the risk, as in the threat or pressure, of potential deforestation, whilst identifying the key indicators that contribute to this risk. This tool will take the form of a composite index that will provide spatial and temporal trends of deforestation risk across Latin America and the Caribbean. The development of the Deforestation Risk Index (DRI) was based upon work performed in the EU project ROBIN1. Indicators of deforestation included in the index were identified based upon the multi-scalar approach adopted in ROBIN- nationally from principal component analysis and econometric modelling, provincially from extensive interviews with experts and farmers (subsistence and commercial) in Amazonian regions of Bolivia and Brazil, and locally from stakeholder workshops in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. The identification process was supported by an extensive literature review. In total, 11 indicators were identified and grouped into four components (biophysical, economic, governance and social) capable of explaining the risk of deforestation in Latin America and Caribbean countries. The DRI was calculated for 24 Latin American and Caribbean countries in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 using national-level data collected from open access databases (FAOStat, WorldBank and UNDP). The DRI was subjected to two weighting schemes; the first based upon the opinions of experts from ROBIN (weighted biophysical and governance components heavily), and the second developed from the results of

  18. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  19. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  20. Land Use Induced Hydroclimatic Variability Over Large Deforested Areas in Southern Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary Amazonian deforestation, which occurs at scales of a few hundreds of kilometers, has been found to induce systematic changes in the regional dry season precipitation. The replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture induces a low level atmospheric convergence and uplift in the downwind and divergence and subsidence in the upwind deforested areas. The resulting precipitation change is about ±30% of the deforested area mean in the two regions respectively. Compared with the increase in non-precipitating cloudiness triggered by small scale clearings prevalent in the early phases of deforestation, this `dynamical mesoscale circulation' can have regional ecological impacts by altering precipitation seasonality and in turn ecosystem dynamics. However, the seasonality and variability of this phenomenon hasn't been studied. Using observations and numerical simulations this study investigates the relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions to understand the physical controls on this phenomenon on the inter-annual, inter-seasonal and daily time scales. We find that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is controlled mostly by regional scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer and not the continental and global scale atmospheric state. The lifting condensation level (thermodynamic control) and wind speed (dynamic control) within the boundary layer have the largest and positive correlations with the dipole strength, which is true although not always significant across time scales. Due to this dependence it is found to be strongest during parts of the year when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, overall this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially spring), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.

  1. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    OpenAIRE

    ter Steege, H.; et al., [Unknown; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  2. A study of the hydrothermal alteration in Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers, São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian Craton, Brazil, using short-wave infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; de Almeida, Teodoro Isnard Ribeiro; Lagler, Bruno; de Carvalho Carneiro, Cleyton; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri

    2015-10-01

    Hypogene hydrothermal minerals have been identified by short-wave infrared spectroscopy in hydrothermally altered rocks from the Sobreiro and Santa Rosa formations, which belong to a Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic system in Amazonian craton. Three clay minerals are spectrally recognized: montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite. The integration of these data with those available in the literature, including gold occurrences, suggests that those rocks are hydrothermal products of both volcanic thermal sources and later crustal intrusions, as evidenced by variable styles of propylitic, sericitic, potassic, and intermediate argillic alteration. The influence of meteoric fluids is emphasized. This low cost exploratory technique, which can be applied to hand samples, seems to be promising in the separation of hydrothermally altered volcano-plutonic centers in regions submitted to severe weathering conditions, in addition to aid elaborating models for prospecting mineral deposits.

  3. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation are known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent do changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? The Amazon rainforest is threatened by many factors including climate change and clearing for agricultural reasons. Forest fires and dieback are more likely due to increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the region. It is possible that extensive Amazon deforestation can enhance El Nino conditions by weakening the Walker circulation. Correlations between annual rainfall rates over the Amazon and other atmospheric parameters (global precipitation, surface air temperature, low cloud amount, 500 hPa vertical velocity, surface winds, and 200 hPa winds) over the eastern Pacific indicate strong relationships among these fields. Maps of these correlations (teleconnection maps) reveal that when the Amazon is rainy SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific are cold, rainfall is suppressed over the central and eastern Pacific, low clouds are prominent over the eastern and southeastern Pacific, and subsidence over the central and eastern Pacific is enhanced. Precipitation in the Amazon is also consistent with a strong Walker circulation (La Nina conditions), manifest as strong correlations with the easterly surface and westerly 200 hPa zonal winds. Coupling between Amazon rainfall and these fields are seen in observations and model data. Correlations were calculated using data from observations, reanalysis data, two models under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), and an AMIP run with the model used in this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.1.1). Although the correlations between Amazon precipitation and the aforementioned fields are strong, they do not show causality. In order to investigate the impact of tropical South American deforestation on the

  4. Regional variation in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections by age cohort and sex: effects of market integration among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildner, Theresa E; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Urlacher, Samuel S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-11-24

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-Cutucú (CC) region. Kato-Katz fecal smears were examined for parasite presence and infection intensity. Factorial ANOVAs and post hoc simple effects analyses were performed by sex to compare infection intensity between regions and age categories (infant/child, juvenile/adolescent, adult). Significant age and regional differences in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection were detected. Overall, infants/children and juveniles/adolescents displayed higher parasite loads than adults. CC females exhibited higher A. lumbricoides loads than UV females, while the opposite pattern was observed for T. trichiura infection in males. Regional infection patterns varied by sex and parasite species, perhaps due to MI-linked environmental and lifestyle changes. These results have public health implications for the identification of individuals at risk for infection and contribute to ongoing efforts to track changes and alleviate STH infection in indigenous populations undergoing MI.

  5. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Roberts, J Timmons; Betts, Richard A; Killeen, Timothy J; Li, Wenhong; Nobre, Carlos A

    2008-01-11

    The forest biome of Amazonia is one of Earth's greatest biological treasures and a major component of the Earth system. This century, it faces the dual threats of deforestation and stress from climate change. Here, we summarize some of the latest findings and thinking on these threats, explore the consequences for the forest ecosystem and its human residents, and outline options for the future of Amazonia. We also discuss the implications of new proposals to finance preservation of Amazonian forests.

  6. Environmental Concerns of Deforestation in Myanmar 2001–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Chuyuan Wang; Soe W. Myint

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation in Myanmar has recently attracted much attention worldwide. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns of deforestation and forest carbon flux in Myanmar from 2001 to 2010 and environmental impacts at the regional scale using land products of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The results suggest that the total deforestation area in Myanmar was 21,178.8 km2, with an annual deforestation rate of 0.81%, and that the total forest carbon release was 20.06 m...

  7. Behavioural and seminal characteristics of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in the Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando S. Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in an Amazonian climate. Four rams were subjected to successive ejaculations during a maximum period of three hours. This procedure was repeated three times at 15-day intervals. Sexual and behavioural (libido and andrological (testicular and seminal assessments were performed. A total of 81 ejaculates were collected. Libido and semen vigour, volume, appearance and concentration decreased as the ejaculation frequency increased (P<0.05 and sperm motility showed a decreasing trend (P=0.06. The seminal pH increased over the sequence of collections (P<0.05. The only significant differences observed between individual rams were the variable scrotal circumference and the percentages of live sperm and sperm abnormalities (P<0.05. All the parameters of the first ejaculation were within the normal range for this species, which suggests that the local climatic conditions (high temperature and humidity did not affect the behavioural, testicular or seminal parameters of experimental rams. Our findings indicate that the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams could be affected by the intensification of ejaculation frequency; however, individual male variation needs to be taken into consideration.

  8. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Dahmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentric, three submetacentric (one with a satellite on the short arm, three acrocentric and onesubacrocentric chromosome pairs. Other Centrolobium species and populations should be analyzed in order to assess theextent of intraspecific and interspecific variation in chromosome number and morphology, if any.

  9. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: The effect of population and land tenure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    LANDSAT data for 1978 and 1988-1991 indicate that by 1991 the area of forest cleared had reached 426 000 km 2 (10.5% of the 4 million km 2 originally forested portion of Brazil's 5 million km 2 Legal Amazon Region). Over the 1978-1988 period, forest was lost at a rate of 22 000 km 2 /yr (including hydroelectric flooding), while the rate was 19 000 km 2 /yr for 1988-1989, 14 000 km 2 /yr for 1989-1990 and 11 000 km 2 /yr for 1990-1991. The reduction in the rate since 1987 has mostly been due to Brazil's economic recession rather than to any policy changes. The number of properties censused in each size class explains 74% of the variation in deforestation rate among the 9 Amazonian states. Multiple regressions indicate that 30% of the clearing in 1991 can be attributed to small farmers (properties <100 ha in area), and the remaining 70% to either medium or large ranchers. The social cost of reducing deforestation rates would therefore be much less than is implied by frequent pronouncements that blame 'poverty' for environmental problems in the region. 46 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  10. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  11. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-08-07

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species' habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

  12. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  13. Environmental Concerns of Deforestation in Myanmar 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation in Myanmar has recently attracted much attention worldwide. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns of deforestation and forest carbon flux in Myanmar from 2001 to 2010 and environmental impacts at the regional scale using land products of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The results suggest that the total deforestation area in Myanmar was 21,178.8 km2, with an annual deforestation rate of 0.81%, and that the total forest carbon release was 20.06 million tons, with an annual rate of 0.37%. Mangrove forests had the highest deforestation and carbon release rates, and deciduous forests had both the largest deforestation area and largest amount of carbon release. During the study period, the south and southwestern regions of Myanmar, especially Ayeyarwady and Rakhine, were deforestation hotspots (i.e., the highest deforestation and carbon release rates occurred in these regions. Deforestation caused significant carbon release, reduced evapotranspiration (ET, and increased land surface temperatures (LSTs in deforested areas in Myanmar during the study period. Constructive policy recommendations are put forward based on these research results.

  14. Deforestation imperils Ambuklao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M C

    1990-01-01

    Due to a massive accumulation of sedimentation, the Ambuklao Dam may have to cease operation, a problem that is the result of the rampant destruction of the surrounding environment. The Ambuklao Dam is located in the Benguet region of the Philippines. Completed in 1956, Ambuklao is the biggest earth-and-rockfill dam in the Far East, build to provide electricity and serve as an irrigation source for the region. The dam was supposed to service the region until 2006, but it may now suspend operation in 1995. When the dam was built, the designers anticipated that 2.6 million cu. m. silt would accumulate each year for the 1st 10 years, but recently, the accumulation rate has hovered around 3.6 million cu. m. Already an estimated 110 million cubic meters of silt has piled up in the water reservoir. Experts blame the problem on massive erosion, the result of the deforestation of the surrounding environment caused by the practices of people: slash-and-burn farming, grazing, logging, mining, quarrying, road-building, and forest fires started by humans. Despite a ban on the cutting of the Benguet pine, a valuable timber for construction, logging has continued. And although mining companies are required to set up impounding ponds and siltation dams, few of them actually comply. These problems have been compounded by the growing numbers of migrants to the region, who come because of the region's work opportunities. Between 1980 and 2000, the population of the watershed region is expected to increase from 134,496 to 231,307 -- a 71.9% increase. Unless the destructive practices are curbed, the Ambuklao dam will soon cease to operate.

  15. Global models of ant diversity suggest regions where new discoveries are most likely are under disproportionate deforestation threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R

    2012-05-08

    Most of the described and probably undescribed species on Earth are insects. Global models of species diversity rarely focus on insects and none attempt to address unknown, undescribed diversity. We assembled a database representing about 13,000 records for ant generic distribution from over 350 regions that cover much of the globe. Based on two models of diversity and endemicity, we identified regions where our knowledge of ant diversity is most limited, regions we have called "hotspots of discovery." A priori, such regions might be expected to be remote and untouched. Instead, we found that the hotspots of discovery are also the regions in which biodiversity is the most threatened by habitat destruction. Our results not only highlight the immediate need for conservation of the remaining natural habitats in these regions, but also the extent to which, by focusing on well-known groups such as vertebrates, we may fail to conserve the far greater diversity of the smaller species yet to be found.

  16. Deforestation, Leakage and Avoided Deforestation Policies: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...

  17. Governance, decentralisation and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the decentralisation policies in Indonesia, which started in 2000, has fundamentally changed the country's forest governance framework. This study investigates how decentralisation has influenced forest governance, and links the forest governance to deforestation rates at

  18. Deforestation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Branco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is not a new problem although world-wide population awareness is increasing. This issue has terrible environmental, social and economic consequences due to the over-exploitation of the natural resources and to alternative land uses which are more profitable in the short term. The combat and mitigation of deforestation is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century in order to achieve the Millennium Goals and a global sustainable development at all levels of human activities. Therefore, this paper will address this concerns focusing on the causes and consequences of deforestation as well as on the actions carried out by the decision makers in order to provide solutions for this increasingly and alarming problem. This paper will also approach the concepts of sustainability as well as the economy and management of the natural resources aiming an insight of the past deforestation in Portugal, the present situation and a sustainable perspective regarding the future.

  19. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  20. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  1. The Perplex of Deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    A.W Yalew

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation has been a complex phenomenon to study in sub-Saharan Africa. The average annual deforestation rate in the region is by far higher than the world average. What causes and drives deforestation in the region are debated to date. The present paper is motivated by this debate. It attempts to test whether the maintained hypotheses on the causes of deforestation can give answer to the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It used average cross-national data of forty eight countries in the re...

  2. Deforestation in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    João Branco; Márcia Oliveira; Orlanda Povoa

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation is not a new problem although world-wide population awareness is increasing. This issue has terrible environmental, social and economic consequences due to the over-exploitation of the natural resources and to alternative land uses which are more profitable in the short term. The combat and mitigation of deforestation is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century in order to achieve the Millennium Goals and a global sustainable development at all levels of human activiti...

  3. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  4. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  5. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  6. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F; Carr, David L

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  7. Recent and future impacts of climate and land-use changes on the Amazonian ecosystems inferred from an ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The impact of drought-induced disturbances and deforestation on the Amazonian ecosystems has been substantial and is predicted to increase due to future land-use and climate changes. The resulting fate of the Amazon forests and the carbon stored within them has important implications for both the future climate of the region and the global climate system. We evaluate the impacts of recent and future climate and land-use changes on the Amazonian ecosystems and the sensitivities of these ecosystems to these changes using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1. The model simulation comprises two parts: simulation from 1800 to present day with observed CO2 increase and land use change, and prediction from present day to 2050 driven by changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate under two different land-use scenarios. The model's prediction of present day ecosystem dynamics compares favorably with the field observations and remote sensing-based estimates of biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations exert a positive influence on the vegetation productivity in this region. However, land-use change shows the largest impact on the ecosystems and offsets the potential benefits of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the past decades. Land-use change is also the largest uncertain factor for the future carbon stocks in the Amazon: biomass loss by 2050 under the business-as-usual land-use scenario is double that under the strict governance land-use scenario. Future climate change, especially changes in the spatial pattern of precipitation, also substantially impacts the composition, structure and functioning of Amazonian ecosystems. By coupling the land-use and climate changes, the model predicts that the savanna-like vegetation and seasonal forests will replace many of the current rainforests in the southern and eastern Amazon.

  8. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical

  9. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Poulter, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21. Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990's mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990's and early 2000's to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) PgCyear-1 in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP=-0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) PgCyear -1 ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. (authors)

  10. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  11. Environmental concerns of deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The loss of forests as a result of deforestation is a serious problem in Pakistan as well as in other developing world. The forests play important role in environmental protection through soil conservation, regulation of hydrological cycles and micro climate amelioration. At the global scale, forests act as carbon sinks, maintain biodiversity and regulate climate, especially in the context of greenhouse effect. The deforestation should be countered through enforcement of strict laws and elaborating environmental role of forests through media and local councils. Various economic analysis indicate that tropical forests have greater overall benefits if left intact, rather than destroying them for timber. (author)

  12. Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, D.C.; de Fries, R.S.; Randerson, J.T; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; van der Werf, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Fire-driven deforestation is the major source of carbon emissions from Amazonia. Recent expansion of mechanized agriculture in forested regions of Amazonia has increased the average size of deforested areas, but related changes in fire dynamics remain poorly characterized. We estimated the

  13. Contribution of Agriculture to Deforestation in the Tropics: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the deforestation path taken by profit maximizing agricultural firms in tropical regions to the path that will maximize social welfare based on optimal control techniques. We set up a theoretical problem where the socially optimal deforestation path that maximizes the discounted sum of net benefit of forest ...

  14. Contribution of Agriculture to Deforestation in the Tropics: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper compares the deforestation path taken by profit maximizing agricultural firms in tropical regions to the path that will maximize social welfare based on optimal control techniques. We set up a theoretical problem where the socially optimal deforestation path that maximizes the discounted sum of net ...

  15. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Arag?o, Luiz Eduardo O.C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all var...

  16. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCAS PEREIRA MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community structure of fruit-feeding butterflies, a well-known bioindicator group, in a threatened remnant of an eastern Amazonian forest located on Maranhão Island, northeastern Brazil. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled monthly for one year. Diversity and evenness indices, richness estimators, rarefaction curve, and rank-abundance plot were used to describe community structure in the study area. We captured 529 fruit-feeding butterflies in four subfamilies, 23 genera and 34 species. The three most abundant species, Hamadryas februa, Hamadryas feronia, and Hermeuptychia cf. atalanta are indicators of disturbed habitats and represented more than half of the collected individuals. Richness estimators revealed that between 87 and 94% of the fruit-feeding butterfly species were sampled, suggesting few additional records would be made for the area. Our results indicate that human-caused disturbances have altered local community patterns and provide baseline data for future research in threatened regions of the eastern Amazon.

  17. The Perplex of Deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Yalew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has been a complex phenomenon to study in sub-Saharan Africa. The average annual deforestation rate in the region is by far higher than the world average. What causes and drives deforestation in the region are debated to date. The present paper is motivated by this debate. It attempts to test whether the maintained hypotheses on the causes of deforestation can give answer to the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It used average cross-national data of forty eight countries in the region. The data are retrieved from international sources. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between two deforestation indicators and five often-cited causes of deforestation were computed. The role of public forest ownership, share of forest and agricultural products in total exports, and the year of forest laws enacted are also discussed. However, it finds no clear, strong, and systematic pattern to argue that population density, rural population, rural poverty, industrial logging for exports, economic growth, late enactment of forest laws, and public ownership of forests are underlying causes of deforestation in the region. The trends of forestland in Rwanda and Zimbabwe vividly present the finding. Therefore, future studies related to the topic in the region shall focus on sub-national panel data.

  18. [Deforestation and overpopulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A A

    1995-07-01

    Ecological damage and irrational deforestation in El Salvador are very serious problems with potentially catastrophic consequences in the near future. Each year the amount of rainfall declines precipitously, the rivers lose volume, temperatures rise to levels unheard of in the rainy season, and ecological balance is disturbed, with disappearance of entire species of plants and animals. Desertification threatens future generations of Salvadorans. The causes of deforestation are multiple, but ill-conceived urbanization policy and immoderate population growth are two important factors. The increased population requires new housing, electric lines, aqueducts, clinics, and schools. When conditions are unfavorable, marginal zones or squatter settlements lacking all these basic services proliferate. With their concentrations of waste and environmental degradation, they are converted into foci of infectious disease and social pathology. Much scarce agricultural land has been lost to urban development as the population grows uncontrollably in the nation's small area.

  19. Deforestation reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on major adverse effects of global warming predicted for the United States and other mid- latitude countries. Within that, 15 to 25% of global warming results from clearing of tropical rainforests. Third world population growth forces landless rural populations to migrate and over exploit tropical rainforests, a problem exacerbated by government colonization policies in such countries as Brazil, Peru, and Indonesia. The resulting agriculture is unsustainable and leads to further deforestation and migration to urban centers. Research has shown that these trends can be reversed. An integrated approach consisting of development and application of sustainable management technologies for tropical soils and appropriate government policies will eliminate the pressure for further deforestation. Some management technologies are available and other evolving which allow continuous production. For every hectare put under sustainable management five to ten hectares of forest are saved each year

  20. The consequences of rapid deforestation: A North African example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaimeche, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the consequences of deforestation in Algeria. It focuses on the Wilaya region of Jijel, in the eastern part of the country, which has some of the last, dense, sub-humid Mediterranean forests. The issue of a possible connection between the recent widespread deforestation and the drier conditions affecting the region is discussed. It is also shown how rapid social and economic changes have induced deforestation on such a large scale that erosion and soil losses are reaching unprecedented levels. The paper also points to the loss of economic potential for Algeria's forests. 38 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs, 3 photos

  1. Changing patterns of fire occurrence in proximity to forest edges, roads and rivers between NW Amazonian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Armenteras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests in NW Amazonia are highly threatened by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and subsequent deforestation. Fire is used, both directly and indirectly, in Brazilian Amazonia to propagate deforestation and increase forest accessibility. Forest fragmentation, a measure of forest degradation, is also attributed to fire occurrence in the tropics. However, outside the Brazilian Legal Amazonia the role of fire in increasing accessibility and forest fragmentation is less explored. In this study, we compared fire regimes in five countries that share this tropical biome in the most north-westerly part of the Amazon Basin (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. We analysed spatial differences in the timing of peak fire activity and in relation to proximity to roads and rivers using 12 years of MODIS active fire detections. We also distinguished patterns of fire in relation to forest fragmentation by analysing fire distance to the forest edge as a measure of fragmentation for each country. We found significant hemispheric differences in peak fire occurrence with the highest number of fires in the south in 2005 vs. 2007 in the north. Despite this, both hemispheres are equally affected by fire. We also found difference in peak fire occurrence by country. Fire peaked in February in Colombia and Venezuela, whereas it peaked in September in Brazil and Peru, and finally Ecuador presented two fire peaks in January and October. We confirmed the relationship between fires and forest fragmentation for all countries and also found significant differences in the distance between the fire and the forest edge for each country. Fires were associated with roads and rivers in most countries. These results can inform land use planning at the regional, national and subnational scales to minimize the contribution of road expansion and subsequent access to the Amazonian natural resources to fire occurrence and the associated deforestation and

  2. Changing patterns of fire occurrence in proximity to forest edges, roads and rivers between NW Amazonian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Barreto, Joan Sebastian; Tabor, Karyn; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Retana, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Tropical forests in NW Amazonia are highly threatened by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and subsequent deforestation. Fire is used, both directly and indirectly, in Brazilian Amazonia to propagate deforestation and increase forest accessibility. Forest fragmentation, a measure of forest degradation, is also attributed to fire occurrence in the tropics. However, outside the Brazilian Legal Amazonia the role of fire in increasing accessibility and forest fragmentation is less explored. In this study, we compared fire regimes in five countries that share this tropical biome in the most north-westerly part of the Amazon Basin (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil). We analysed spatial differences in the timing of peak fire activity and in relation to proximity to roads and rivers using 12 years of MODIS active fire detections. We also distinguished patterns of fire in relation to forest fragmentation by analysing fire distance to the forest edge as a measure of fragmentation for each country. We found significant hemispheric differences in peak fire occurrence with the highest number of fires in the south in 2005 vs. 2007 in the north. Despite this, both hemispheres are equally affected by fire. We also found difference in peak fire occurrence by country. Fire peaked in February in Colombia and Venezuela, whereas it peaked in September in Brazil and Peru, and finally Ecuador presented two fire peaks in January and October. We confirmed the relationship between fires and forest fragmentation for all countries and also found significant differences in the distance between the fire and the forest edge for each country. Fires were associated with roads and rivers in most countries. These results can inform land use planning at the regional, national and subnational scales to minimize the contribution of road expansion and subsequent access to the Amazonian natural resources to fire occurrence and the associated deforestation and carbon emissions.

  3. Amazonian foods and implications for human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Darna L; Piperata, Barbara A; Murrieta, Rui S S; Wilson, Warren M; Williams, Drake D

    2016-07-01

    Diets of subsistence-based Amazonian populations have been linked to local resources, but are changing with market penetration. To review the available data on traditional Amazonian foods and diets and evaluate their implications for human biology as a step toward understanding nutrition transitions in the region. This study used the Human Relations Area Files for information on the diets of Amerindian groups in the Amazon Basin from 1950 to the present, and used other published sources and the authors' own data. Data on food use was identified for only nine groups and dietary intake data for individuals in only three of the groups. A diet based on starchy staples (manioc and plantains) and fish, supplemented with a limited variety of other plant and animal foods, was found. Bitter manioc-based foods were associated with the consumption of cyanogens and fish with the consumption of mercury. Diets of adults appear to be adequate in energy and protein and low in fats. Children's diets were not well documented. Based on the limited available data, Amazonian diets are restricted in variety, but appear to be adequate in energy and protein for adults, but likely insufficiently nutrient-dense for children.

  4. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  5. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  6. The influence of particles recycling on the geochemistry of sediments in a large tropical dam lake in the Amazonian region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rita; Pinho, Catarina; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of over-erosion of soils, the fine particles, which contain the majority of nutrients, are easily washed away from soils, which become deficient in a host of components, accumulating in lakes. On one hand, the accumulation of nutrients-rich sediments are a problem, as they affect the quality of the overlying water and decrease the water storage capacity of the system; on the other hand, sediments may constitute an important resource, as they are often extremely rich in organic and inorganic nutrients in readily available forms. In the framework of an extensive work on the use of rock related materials to enhance the fertility of impoverish soils, this study aimed to evaluate the role on the nutrients cycle, of particles recycling processes from the watershed to the bottom of a large dam reservoir, at a wet tropical region under high weathering conditions. The study focus on the mineralogical transformations that clay particles undergo from the soils of the drainage basin to their final deposition within the reservoir and their influence in terms of the geochemical characteristics of sediments. We studied the bottom sediments that accumulate in two distinct seasonal periods in Tucuruí reservoir, located in the Amazonian Basin, Brazil, and soils from its drainage basin. The surface layers of sediments in twenty sampling points with variable depths, are representative of the different morphological sections of the reservoir. Nineteen soil samples, representing the main soil classes, were collected near the margins of the reservoir. Sediments and soils were subjected to the same array of physical, mineralogical and geochemical analyses: (1) texture, (2) characterization and semi-quantification of the clay fraction mineralogy and (3) geochemical analysis of the total concentration of major elements, organic compounds (organic C and nitrogen), soluble fractions of nutrients (P and K), exchangeable fractions (cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases and

  7. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  8. The Effects of Amazon Deforestation on Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor); Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Surratt, Jason

    2002-01-01

    This study begins with the hypothesis that heavily deforested regions will experience increased surface heating, leading to local circulations that will ultimately enhance the rainfall, or at least, change the pattern of diurnal evolution of rainfall. This would be an important finding because several modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation would lead to decreased rainfall. Towards that end rain estimates from a combined GOES infrared/TRMM microwave technique were analyzed with respect to percent forest cover from Landsat data (courtesy of TRFIC at Michigan State University) and GOES visible channel data over a deforested area in Rondonia (southwest Brazil). Five 1" x 1" areas of varying forest cover were examined during the onset of the wet season in Amazonia (Aug-Sept), when the effects of the surface would not be dominated by large-scale synoptic weather patterns. Preliminary results revealed that: maximum rainfall fell in most deforested area; heavily forested areas received the least rainfall; cumulus cloud development initiated at borders; the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation was a function of th surface cover. Further work will be presented detailing effects of land surface cover on the GOES infrared-measured surface heating, GOES visible observed cumulus development, thunderstorm initiation based on the location of temperature minima in the infrared data, and estimated rainfall and its diurnal cycle from a combined GOES/TRMM technique. Rainfall estimates derived from non-geosynchronous microwave observations (i.e. Goddard Profiling Algorithm, GPROF) will also be examined.

  9. Examining the Reliability of Survey Data with Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Improve Deforestation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglia-Harris, Jill L.; Harris, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Tropical deforestation has environmental consequences at local, regional and global scales. The Brazilian Amazon's deforestation resulted largely from conversion to farmland by landholders. These conversions caused deforestation that researchers have examined locally by interviews with landowners and regionally by satellite remote sensing. This paper merges data from these methods to validate survey-based deforestation levels with remote-sensing information. We determine household characteris...

  10. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  11. Researching illegal logging and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various

  12. Ecology: The Tropical Deforestation Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ken

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation is a significant cause of global carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. A new study shows that deforestation today leaves a carbon and biodiversity debt to be paid over subsequent years. This has potentially profound implications for forest conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tropical deforestation : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to increase insight in the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation by analysing the factors that induce unsustainable land use. Several types of actors involved in the deforestation process are taken into account: the decision-making processes of

  14. The drivers of tropical deforestation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. J.; Boucher, D.; Elias, P.; Lininger, K.; May-Tobin, C.; Roquemore, S.; Saxon, E.; Martin, J.; Mulik, K.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are disappearing around the world. This clearing causes around 15% of global carbon emissions, leads to the rapid loss of biodiversity, and destroys the livelihoods of many indigenous peoples. We comprehensively reviewed the literature on drivers of tropical deforestation and found a number of trends. While deforestation was predominately driven by small farmers and government action in the 1970s and 1980s, since the 1990s most deforestation has been driven by large scale commercial agriculture. In Latin America, and Brazil in particular, forest clearing has mostly been due to expansion of cattle pastures and for a period in the late 1990s and early 2000s soy bean expansion. In Southeast Asia, deforestation has mainly been due to expansion of oil palm plantations and timber harvesting. In Africa small farmers and wood fuel collection still play a role, although deforestation rates are considerably lower there than in other regions. Additionally, increased urbanization and trends toward a diet based on meat, particularly beef, have help drive deforestation. Biofuels policies around the world are also adding demand, both directly for vegetable oil, and by expanding demand for competing crops such as corn. We examine the extent to which biofuels demand directly and indirectly acts as a driver of deforestation, and the policies that can mitigate this problem by analyzing alternative scenarios of biofuel expansion and their impact on land use change, commodity prices and green house gas emissions.

  15. Forest deforestation dynamics and drivers in Latin America: a review since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there have been a considerable number of studies on deforestation in Latin America. Deforestation rates reported up to the 2000s are generally lower in the region than in other tropical areas. The causes of deforestation in Latin America are similar to those identified in other regions. In general, studies of deforestation are regional or very localized and do not permit comparison of intraregional variability within the American tropics. In this paper we present results obtained from a meta-analysis of 283 articles on deforestation rates for different types of forests in Latin America (Atlantic, Montane , Dry, Lowland and others. Causes of deforestation identified in the literature and published at the national or subnational level since 1990 are also analyzed. There is an overall deforestation rate of -1.54 for the region, but results indicate a high variability of deforestation rates between countries and that there are even cases of forest cover gains, e.g. in El Salvador. The highest deforestation rates are in dry forest followed by montane forests. Most countries identify agricultural and livestock expansion as the main cause of deforestation.

  16. Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper shows that general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land allocation, and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon (region of Brazil). These policies increase the size of land holdings and reduce the chances of the poor to become farmers. The key provisions include: the virtual exemption of agricultural income from income taxation; rules of public land allocation that provide incentives for deforestation beca...

  17. Soil and deforestation use standards in Amazon and its global impacts: a regional dynamics economic and ecological model; Padroes de uso do solo e desmatamento na Amazonia e seus impactos globais: um modelo economico-ecologico de dinamica regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Elisabeth I. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work was to introduce a simulation model to analyze the deforestation causes in Amazon. The work describes the basic parameters and fundamental concepts to the performed modeling comprehension. The several agents soil utilization standards were going observed and the economic and ecological interactions simulated. The global impact aspects are also analyzed.

  18. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  19. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  20. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achard, F; DeFries, R; Eva, H; Hansen, M; Mayaux, P; Stibig, H-J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation from a pan-tropical perspective in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, which is studying the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The successful implementation of such policies requires effective forest monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented from national to pan-tropical levels. Remotely sensed data, supported by ground observations, are crucial to such efforts. Recent developments in global to regional monitoring of forests can contribute to reducing the uncertainties in estimates of emissions from deforestation. Monitoring systems at national levels in developing countries can also benefit from pan-tropical and regional observations, mainly by identifying hot spots of change and prioritizing areas for monitoring at finer spatial scales. A pan-tropical perspective is also required to ensure consistency between different national monitoring systems. Data sources already exist to determine baseline periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Key requirements for implementing such monitoring programs, both at pan-tropical and at national scales, are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standardized, consensus protocols for data interpretation and analysis

  1. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  2. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Fernandes Oliveira Dias

    Full Text Available It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA affected general governance (G positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p < 0.001. Environmental governance (EG was not affected significantly (p = 0.43 by deforestation before 2000 (PD, but increased significantly (p < 0.001 with general governance (G (EG = -0.29 + 0.04 PD+0.98*OG, F2,97 = 42.6, p <0.001. Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82. The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49. It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively.

  3. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lilian Fernandes Oliveira; Dias, David Valentim; Magnusson, William Ernest

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA) affected general governance (G) positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p deforestation before 2000 (PD), but increased significantly (p Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82). The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49). It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively.

  4. Visualizing the Impacts of Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two activities with investigation procedures to aid students in examining the extent and impact of biomass burning and deforestation in Brazil as an example of the global problem. Provides background information, tables, and diagrams. (five references) (MCO)

  5. Researching illegal logging and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnographic visits to the rainforests of the Amazon in the period 2003-2014. Ethnographic methods provide insight into the overlap between the legal and illegal, the functioning (or not) of state instit...

  6. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected.

  7. The Effect of Aerosol-Cloud-Vegetation Interactions and Intraseasonal Meteorological Variability on Warm Cloud Development during the Amazonian Biomass Burning Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of aerosols on the hydrological cycle remains one of the largest uncertainties in our climate system. Biomass burning, from both deforestation and annual agricultural burning, is the largest anthropogenic source of these aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere. Biomass burning aerosols have competing effects on clouds: Depending on the level of aerosol loading and the background cloud characteristics, biomass burning aerosols have been shown in observational studies to invigorate or inhibit cloud formation and/or growth through microphysical and absorptive pathways, respectively. Many of these previous studies have employed all days during the Amazonian burning season months of August through October to formulate aerosol-cloud correlations, assuming relatively constant meteorological conditions exist throughout these months. This study investigates how intraseasonal trends of precipitable water vapor and aerosol loading between August and October impact these aerosol-cloud correlations. Other factors affecting aerosol-cloud relationships, such as atmospheric stability, are also investigated. This study is focused on a small 3 degree NE x 4 degree WE region in Rondonia, Brazil that encompasses extensive, contiguous areas of both forested and deforested land. High resolution aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and atmospheric profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites, as well as aerosol and water vapor data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), are used collectively to explore the effect of aerosols on water vapor loading and warm cloud development over the Amazon. The difference in aerosol effects on the local hydrological cycle over forested and deforested areas is also examined. This final exercise provides insight into the relationship between aerosols, land-atmosphere processes, and warm clouds.

  8. The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples.

  9. Predicting the deforestation-trend under different carbon-prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global carbon stocks in forest biomass are decreasing by 1.1 Gt of carbon annually, owing to continued deforestation and forest degradation. Deforestation emissions are partly offset by forest expansion and increases in growing stock primarily in the extra-tropical north. Innovative financial mechanisms would be required to help reducing deforestation. Using a spatially explicit integrated biophysical and socio-economic land use model we estimated the impact of carbon price incentive schemes and payment modalities on deforestation. One payment modality is adding costs for carbon emission, the other is to pay incentives for keeping the forest carbon stock intact. Results Baseline scenario calculations show that close to 200 mil ha or around 5% of todays forest area will be lost between 2006 and 2025, resulting in a release of additional 17.5 GtC. Today's forest cover will shrink by around 500 million hectares, which is 1/8 of the current forest cover, within the next 100 years. The accumulated carbon release during the next 100 years amounts to 45 GtC, which is 15% of the total carbon stored in forests today. Incentives of 6 US$/tC for vulnerable standing biomass payed every 5 year will bring deforestation down by 50%. This will cause costs of 34 billion US$/year. On the other hand a carbon tax of 12 $/tC harvested forest biomass will also cut deforestation by half. The tax income will, if enforced, decrease from 6 billion US$ in 2005 to 4.3 billion US$ in 2025 and 0.7 billion US$ in 2100 due to decreasing deforestation speed. Conclusion Avoiding deforestation requires financial mechanisms that make retention of forests economically competitive with the currently often preferred option to seek profits from other land uses. Incentive payments need to be at a very high level to be effective against deforestation. Taxes on the other hand will extract budgetary revenues from the regions which are already poor. A combination of

  10. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R; Monteagudo M, Abel; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S; Salomão, Rafael P; Comiskey, James A; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J; Killeen, Timothy J; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G A; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R C; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A; Almeida, Everton C; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Erwin, Terry L; Morandi, Paulo S; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B X; Zagt, Roderick J; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L; Pickavance, Georgia C; Phillips, Oliver L

    2015-04-28

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few 'hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ≈1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region.

  11. HYDROLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION UNDERGROUND: PETROPOLIS, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Magalhães da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion in Petropolis region is due to massive deforestation for housing and other human activities. Deforestation is the main cause ecological imbalances, resulting in: flooding, decrease in porosity and desertification of soil. By AIA semi-qualitative technique analysis it studied possible losses and benefits of urban expansion in the locality, if changes were likely or not of occurrence and their level of impaction. It was observed that the probability of occurrence of damage was much higher than that of benefits. The result corroborates the literature, therefore, has been seen that vegetation plays an important role in water control of the town, and also in the physical and chemical soil. The probability of catastrophic consequences, due to deforestation, is extremely high, and even mid-sized consequences have capacity of environmental impacts that are likely to be irreversible. Deforestation intensifies the consequences of major frequent rainfall in the summer of the State of Rio de Janeiro, so the higher the deforestation, the greater the likelihood of recurrent and intense rainfall events resulting from large. Therefore, it is necessary to control urban sprawl in the region to reduce water environmental impact in the region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.17327

  12. Deforestation in the Amazon: What is illegal and what is not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Hummel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil has succeeded in reducing deforestation rates in the Amazon, but has not succeeded in explaining to the general public how much of this deforestation was illegal and how much was legally authorized. Transparency of deforestation data is limited, and pertinent legislation is little understood and poorly applied in practice. Lack of dissemination of information on authorized clearing of vegetation and lack of implementation of regulatory frameworks are contentious issues when defining strategies to reach zero deforestation in the Amazon region and for building policies related to climate change mitigation. The need to establish the new Forest Code provides an opportunity to establish goals and regulations for zero deforestation. This paper provides recommendations on how to communicate this information to the general public, how to make regulatory instruments effective and how to implement a zero deforestation agenda.

  13. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  14. Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J F; Molyneux, D H; Birley, M H

    1993-01-01

    This review addresses changes in the ecology of vectors and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases which result from deforestation. Selected examples are considered from viral and parasitic infections (arboviruses, malaria, the leishmaniases, filariases, Chagas Disease and schistosomiasis) where disease patterns have been directly or indirectly influenced by loss of natural tropical forests. A wide range of activities have resulted in deforestation. These include colonisation and settlement, transmigrant programmes, logging, agricultural activities to provide for cash crops, mining, hydropower development and fuelwood collection. Each activity influences the prevalence, incidence and distribution of vector-borne disease. Three main regions are considered--South America, West & Central Africa and South-East Asia. In each, documented changes in vector ecology and behaviour and disease pattern have occurred. Such changes result from human activity at the forest interface and within the forest. They include both deforestation and reafforestation programmes. Deforestation, or activities associated with it, have produced new habitats for Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes and have caused malaria epidemics in South America. The different species complexes in South-East Asia (A. dirus, A. minimus, A. balabacensis) have been affected in different ways by forest clearance with different impacts on malaria incidence. The ability of zoophilic vectors to adapt to human blood as an alternative source of food and to become associated with human dwellings (peridomestic behaviour) have influenced the distribution of the leishmaniases in South America. Certain species of sandflies (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani), which were originally zoophilic and sylvatic, have adapted to feeding on humans in peridomestic and even periurban situations. The changes in behaviour of reservoir hosts and the ability of pathogens to adapt to new reservoir hosts in the newly

  15. How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Levis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication of Amazonian forests. The general view is that domesticated forests are recognizable by the presence of forest patches dominated by one or a few useful species favored by long-term human activities. Here, we used three complementary approaches to understand the long-term domestication of Amazonian forests. First, we compiled information from the literature about how indigenous and traditional Amazonian peoples manage forest resources to promote useful plant species that are mainly used as food resources. Then, we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual model of how interactions between these management practices across space and time may form domesticated forests. Finally, we collected field data from 30 contemporary villages located on and near archaeological sites, along four major Amazonian rivers, to compare with the management practices synthesized in our conceptual model. We identified eight distinct categories of management practices that contribute to form forest patches of useful plants: (1 removal of non-useful plants, (2 protection of useful plants, (3 attraction of non-human animal dispersers, (4 transportation of useful plants, (5 selection of phenotypes, (6 fire management, (7 planting of useful plants, and (8 soil improvement. Our conceptual model, when ethnographically projected into the past, reveals how the interaction of these multiple management practices interferes with natural ecological processes, resulting in the domestication of Amazonian forest patches dominated by useful species. Our model suggests that management practices became more frequent as human population increased during the Holocene. In the field, we found that

  16. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  17. Impacts of future deforestation and climate change on the hydrology of the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Ciais, Philippe; Pablo Boisier, Juan; Paula Dutra Aguiar, Ana; Biemans, Hester; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Galbraith, David; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Poveda, German; Rammig, Anja; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Tejada, Graciela; Thonicke, Kirsten; Randow, Von Celso; Randow, Rita; Zhang, Ke; Verbeeck, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation in Amazon is expected to decrease evapotranspiration (ET) and to increase soil moisture and river discharge under prevailing energy-limited conditions. The magnitude and sign of the response of ET to deforestation depend both on the magnitude and regional patterns of land-cover change

  18. Effects of Deforestation on Natural Bio-Diversity in Delta North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the effects of deforestation on natural bio-diversity in Delta North Region of Delta State, with the aim of determining the extent of tree species loss. Vegetation physiognomy of tree height, tree diameter and tree species population were measured in forested and deforested areas. Two experimental sites ...

  19. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  20. On the response of the tropical atmosphere to large-scale deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies on the Amazon deforestation problem predict that removal of the forest will result in a higher surface temperature, a significant reduction in evaporation and precipitation, and possibly significant changes in the tropical circulation. Here, we discuss the basic mechanisms contributing to the response of the tropical atmosphere to deforestation. A simple linear model of the tropical atmosphere is used in studying the effects of deforestation on climate. It is suggested that the impact of large-scale deforestation on the circulation of the tropical atmosphere consists of two components: the response of the tropical circulation to the negative change in precipitation (heating), and the response of the same circulation to the positive change in surface temperature. Owing to their different signs, the changes in predicted temperature and precipitation excite competing responses working in opposite directions. The predicted change in tropical circulation determines the change, if any, in atmospheric moisture convergence, which is equivalent to the change in run-off. The dependence of run-off predictions on the relative magnitudes of the predicted changes in precipitation and surface temperature implies that the predictions about run-off are highly sensitive, which explains, at least partly, the disagreement between the different models concerning the sign of the predicted change in Amazonian run-off.

  1. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition......, the fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant...

  2. Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeger, Alan; Bakhtary, Haseebullah; Haupt, Franziska; Streck, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This report examines the cocoa supply chain, its associated deforestation, and the role and limitations of certification schemes to reduce deforestation. The deforestation-related commitments from cocoa companies are analyzed across the value chain by looking at commitment types, implementation, and the enabling environment. These findings are compared with lessons from palm oil since it h...

  3. Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of four decades of land-cover change in Malawi. ... pressure and demographic factors are important predictors of deforestation rate within our study area. Keywords: afforestation, Africa, deforestation, drivers, land-use change, reforestation, rural, urban ...

  4. Implications of deforestation and desertification on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture. The problems of deforestation and desertification were examined as they affect land and agricultural productivity. The socio-economic implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture were equally ...

  5. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne-Marie Linton; James E Pecor; Charles H Porter; Luke Brett Mitchell; Andres Garzon-Moreno; Desmond H Foley; David Brooks Pecor; Richard C Wilkerson

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level...

  6. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  7. Carbon emissions risk map from deforestation in the tropical Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, J.; Soler, L. S.; Assis, T. D.; Oliveira, P. V.; Aguiar, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Assis, Pedro Valle This work aims to estimate the carbon emissions from tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon associated to the risk assessment of future land use change. The emissions are estimated by incorporating temporal deforestation dynamics, accounting for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity in the region, as well secondary forest growth dynamic in abandoned areas. The land cover change model that supported the risk assessment of deforestation, was run based on linear regressions. This method takes into account spatial heterogeneity of deforestation as the spatial variables adopted to fit the final regression model comprise: environmental aspects, economic attractiveness, accessibility and land tenure structure. After fitting a suitable regression models for each land cover category, the potential of each cell to be deforested (25x25km and 5x5 km of resolution) in the near future was used to calculate the risk assessment of land cover change. The carbon emissions model combines high-resolution new forest clear-cut mapping and four alternative sources of spatial information on biomass distribution for different vegetation types. The risk assessment map of CO2 emissions, was obtained by crossing the simulation results of the historical land cover changes to a map of aboveground biomass contained in the remaining forest. This final map represents the risk of CO2 emissions at 25x25km and 5x5 km until 2020, under a scenario of carbon emission reduction target.

  8. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  9. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to domestic and international drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Peters, G.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to address extensive deforestation to reduce climate change and save primary forests are taking place on a global scale. Whilst several studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation in large rainforests, few studies have investigated the domestic and international drivers sustaining and increasing the deforestation rates. Brazil, having the largest rainforest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates, is also currently one of the world's largest exporters of soybeans and beef. In this case study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and cattle and soybean production, and further attribute emissions to countries and economic sectors through export and import of Brazilian commodities. The emissions from deforestation can therefore be allocated to the countries and sectors consuming goods and services produced on deforested land in Brazil. A land-use change model and deforestation data is coupled with a carbon cycle model to create yearly emission estimates and different emission allocation schemes, depending on emission amortizations and discounting functions for past deforestation. We use an economic multi-regional input-output model (with 112 regions and 57 sectors) to distribute these emissions along agricultural trade routes, through domestic and international consumption in 2004. With our implementation we find that around 80 % of emissions from deforested land is due to cattle grazing, while agricultural transition effects suggests soy beans are responsible for about 20 % of the emissions occurring in 2004. Nearly tree quarters of the soy beans are consumed outside Brazil, of which China, Germany and France are the biggest consumers. Soy beans are consumed by a variety of sectors in the food industry. Brazil exports about 30 % of the cattle it produces, where Russia, USA and Germany are among the largest consumers. Cattle consumption mainly occurs in the meat sectors. In this study we estimate the CO2

  10. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  11. Population, Deforestation and Biodiversity Erosion in the Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    the Context of Rural Agricultural Expansion in South. Eastern Nigeria. Bisong, F. E. (PhD). Department of Geography & Regional Planning, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Email: febisong@yahoo.com. Abstract ... indices of deforestation (explanatory variables); the demographic factors critical to explaining variations in the ...

  12. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  13. Logging Activity in the Trinational Amazonian Region of Pando/Bolivia, Acre and Rond“nia/Brazil, and Madre de Dios/Peru: Analysis of Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E.; Brilhante, S. H.; Brown, I.; Peralta, R.; Rivero, S.; Melendez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Logging activity in the trinational southwestern Amazonia will grow in importance as a driver of regional land-use change as expanding road access facilitates both timber extraction and transport to international markets. Official data on current activity in this ~50 million ha region are limited and inconsistent with differences as much as twenty-fold between official estimates; nevertheless, they serve as guides for understanding the relative magnitude of logging activities. For 2000, an estimated 5 million m3 of timber were commercialized in Rondonia, 400,000 m3 in Acre, Brazil, and 200,000 m3 for the combined departments of Pando, Bolivia and Madre de Dios, Peru. About 70% of this timber originates from clear cutting done for pasture and agriculture activities, nearly a third from unregulated selective logging, and only 2% from managed selective logging. Eight timber species are preferentially extracted. The total area for timber concessions in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios extends to about 4 million ha for a potential timber supply of 65 million m3. About 150,000 m3/yr of illegal timber is confiscated by federal and state agencies in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios. Problems of enforcement in the region are due principally to the lack of trained personnel and little cooperation among agencies of the three countries. Proposed development plans indicate a 3- to >10-fold increase in logging activity in the Acre and Pando regions during the coming decade. More detailed studies are urgently needed to guide sustainable development of this resource in southwestern Amazonia.

  14. Evidence for Late Amazonian explosive volcanism in the Tharsis Region of Mars: Photogeology of the "Stealth" radar feature and discovery of a dune field among the lava flows west of Arsia Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Butler, Bryan J.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Victoria E.

    1996-10-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extensive volcanic ash deposits blanketing the youngest geomorphic units on Mars would imply that major explosive volcanic events occurred relatively late in martian history. Discovery of the radar "Stealth" region that extends westward of Arsia and Pavonis Montes has led to the conclusion that the surfaces with "Stealth" characteristics are mantled by fine-grained volcanic ash [1-3]. In our present study, we have examined data sets that further illuminate the nature and origin of "Stealth": maps of albedo, thermal inertia, and rock abundance derived from Viking Thermal Infrared Mapper (IRTM) data [4-6], plus Viking images that range in resolution from 15 to 200 m/pixel. RADAR STEALTH: The Stealth region was discovered in bistatic 3.5-cm radar observations [1]. It is defined as a region in which the backscatter cross section at normal incidence is very low (nearly zero, or below the 1-sigma noise value) [2]. "Stealth" is likely caused by the presence of an extremely underdense surface material containing no scatterers to some depth [1]. Stealth is at least 2 to 3 m thick, and might be 7 to 15 m thick [1-3]. The Stealth feature extends more than 2,000 km along the equator between Arsia Mons and Nicholson Crater, and it appears to be part of a region of generally low radar signal return that extends from Pavonis Mons westward to the Elysium Basin [2]. STEALTH IN RELATION TO GEOLOGIC FEATURES: To be observed from Earth, the radar Stealth area must consist of a material that is physically on top of (and therefore younger than) the lava flows, craters, and other features seen in the western equatorial Tharsis region. The youngest units overlain by Stealth are among the youngest on Mars (Late Amazonian). For example, Stealth overlies the Medusae Fossae Formation (units "Amu" and "Amm" in map by Scott and Tanaka [7]), which consists of gently undulating smooth and wind-sculpted (yardangs) surfaces interpreted by some to be volcanic ash deposits [8, 9

  15. Amazonian Dark Earths: pathways to sustainable development in tropical rainforests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertile dark anthrosols associated with pre-Columbian settlement across the Amazon Basin have sparked wide interest for their potential contribution to sustainable use and management of tropical soils and ecosystems. In the Upper Xingu region of the southern Amazon, research on archaeological settlements and among contemporary descendant populations provides critical new data on the formation and use of anthrosols. These findings provide a basis for describing the variability of soil modifications that result from diverse human activities and a general model for the formation of Amazonian anthrosols. They underscore the potential for indigenous systems of knowledge and resource management to inform efforts for conservation and sustainable development of Amazonian ecosystems.

  16. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  17. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decrease in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decrease in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate in modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change; thus, warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Our analysis reveals that the latitudinal temperature change largely results from the climate conditions in which deforestation occurs and is less influenced by the magnitude of individual biophysical changes such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency.

  18. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  19. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Glaucia E O; de Sousa, Maria de Lourdes M; Freitas Silva, Otniel; Dias, Jurema do Socorro A; Kanzaki, Luis I B; Hanada, Rogerio E; Mesquita, Renata M L C; Gonçalves, Rivadalve C; Alvares, Virginia S; Bittencourt, Daniela M C; Miller, Robert N G

    2014-05-30

    Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species.

  20. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  1. Researching Illegal Logging and Deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boekhout van Solinge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnographic visits to the rainforests of the Amazon in the period 2003-2014. Ethnographic methods provide insight into the overlap between the legal and illegal, the functioning (or not of state institutions, the power of (corporate lobbies, and why tropical deforestation correlates with crimes such as corruption and violence. The use of ethnographic methods in forest areas where trustworthy state actors and institutions are not very present can also present danger and raise ethical issues (such as when the researcher, for reasons of safety, does not present as a criminological researcher. However, a large advantage of ethnographic visits to tropical rainforests is that they allow the gathering of local views and voices, which rarely reach the international level. These local views lead to interesting contradictions at the international level where corporate views and lobbies dominate.

  2. The mountain-lowland debate: deforestation and sediment transport in the upper Ganga catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, R J; Juyal, N; Jaiswal, M; McCulloch, M; Sarin, M M; Jain, V; Srivastava, P; Singhvi, A K

    2008-07-01

    The Himalaya-Gangetic Plain region is the iconic example of the debate about the impact on lowlands of upland land-use change. Some of the scientific aspects of this debate are revisited by using new techniques to examine the role of deforestation in erosion and river sediment transport. The approach is whole-of-catchment, combining a history of deforestation with a history of sediment sources from well before deforestation. It is shown that deforestation had some effect on one very large erosional event in 1970, in the Alaknanda subcatchment of the Upper Ganga catchment, but that both deforestation and its effects on erosion and sediment transport are far from uniform in the Himalaya. Large magnitude erosional events occur for purely natural reasons. The impact on the Gangetic Plain of erosion caused by natural events and land cover change remains uncertain.

  3. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  4. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  5. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  6. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Alwyn H.

    1988-01-01

    Upper Amazonian data for tree species richness in 1-hectare plots are reported. All plants ≥10 cm diameter were censused and identified in six plots in Amazonian Peru and one on the Venezuela-Brazil border. The two plots from the everwet forests near Iquitos, Peru, are the most species-rich in the world, with ≈300 species ≥10 cm diameter in single hectares; all of the Peruvian plots are among the most species-rich ever reported. Contrary to accepted opinion, upper Amazonian forest, and perhap...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  8. Climatic impact of lowland deforestation on tropical montane cloud forests in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Udaysankar Sukumaran

    Tropical montane cloud forests depend on predictable, frequent, and prolonged immersion in clouds. Recent studies have shown that there has been a reduction in dry season moisture input from direct interception of cloud water and wind blown mist at the lee edge of the Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, since the mid 1970s. This reduction of moisture could be responsible for the population crashes of anurans observed in the region. It has been hypothesized that this behavior is a result of increases in cloud base height, linked to increased sea surface temperatures. This study presents a complementary hypothesis, that deforestation upstream of the Monteverde cloud forest preserve is responsible for the observed changes in cloud base height. An automated cumulus cloud classification scheme is used to extract monthly spatial maps of the frequency of occurrence of cumulus cloudiness over Costa Rica from GOES-8 visible channel satellite imagery. It is found that cumulus cloud formations in the morning hours over deforested regions are suppressed compared to forested areas. The degree of suppression appears to be associated with the extent of deforestation. This difference in cloud formation between forested and deforested areas is a clear signal of land-use change influencing the regional climate. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations are used to explore the differences in cloud field characteristics over the lowland pasture and forest surfaces. Statistically significant differences in cloud base height and cloud thickness are found between the forest and pasture simulations, clouds having higher base heights and being thinner over pasture surfaces compared to forest surfaces. There are enhanced sensible heat fluxes over pasture surfaces compared to forest surfaces, while forest surfaces have higher latent heat fluxes. RAMS is also used to examine the impact of lowland deforestation on orographic cloud formation. Numerical modeling simulations of

  9. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  10. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts

  11. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  12. Effects of systematic sampling on satellite estimates of deforestation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, M K; Godoy, F; Harper, G

    2009-01-01

    Options for satellite monitoring of deforestation rates over large areas include the use of sampling. Sampling may reduce the cost of monitoring but is also a source of error in estimates of areas and rates. A common sampling approach is systematic sampling, in which sample units of a constant size are distributed in some regular manner, such as a grid. The proposed approach for the 2010 Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a systematic sample of 10 km wide squares at every 1 deg. intersection of latitude and longitude. We assessed the outcome of this and other systematic samples for estimating deforestation at national, sub-national and continental levels. The study is based on digital data on deforestation patterns for the five Amazonian countries outside Brazil plus the Brazilian Amazon. We tested these schemes by varying sample-unit size and frequency. We calculated two estimates of sampling error. First we calculated the standard errors, based on the size, variance and covariance of the samples, and from this calculated the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Second, we calculated the actual errors, based on the difference between the sample-based estimates and the estimates from the full-coverage maps. At the continental level, the 1 deg., 10 km scheme had a CI of 21% and an actual error of 8%. At the national level, this scheme had CIs of 126% for Ecuador and up to 67% for other countries. At this level, increasing sampling density to every 0.25 deg. produced a CI of 32% for Ecuador and CIs of up to 25% for other countries, with only Brazil having a CI of less than 10%. Actual errors were within the limits of the CIs in all but two of the 56 cases. Actual errors were half or less of the CIs in all but eight of these cases. These results indicate that the FRA 2010 should have CIs of smaller than or close to 10% at the continental level. However, systematic sampling at the national level yields large CIs unless the

  13. Understorey fire propagation and tree mortality on adjacent areas to an Amazonian deforestation fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Carvalho; C.A. Gurgel Veras; E.C. Alvarado; D.V. Sandberg; S.J. Leite; R. Gielow; E.R.C. Rabelo; J.C. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Fire characteristics in tropical ecosystems are poorly documented quantitatively in the literature. This paper describes an understorey fire propagating across the edges of a biomass burn of a cleared primary forest. The experiment was carried out in 2001 in the Amazon forest near Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as part of biomass burning experiments...

  14. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  15. Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; González-Roglich, Mariano; Schaffer-Smith, Danica; Schwantes, Amanda M.; Swenson, Jennifer J.

    2017-05-01

    Deforestation continues across the tropics at alarming rates, with repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon storage and long term sustainability. Taking advantage of recent fine-scale measurement of deforestation, this analysis aims to improve our understanding of the scale of deforestation drivers in the tropics. We examined trends in forest clearings of different sizes from 2000-2012 by country, region and development level. As tropical deforestation increased from approximately 6900 kha yr-1 in the first half of the study period, to >7900 kha yr-1 in the second half of the study period, >50% of this increase was attributable to the proliferation of medium and large clearings (>10 ha). This trend was most pronounced in Southeast Asia and in South America. Outside of Brazil >60% of the observed increase in deforestation in South America was due to an upsurge in medium- and large-scale clearings; Brazil had a divergent trend of decreasing deforestation, >90% of which was attributable to a reduction in medium and large clearings. The emerging prominence of large-scale drivers of forest loss in many regions and countries suggests the growing need for policy interventions which target industrial-scale agricultural commodity producers. The experience in Brazil suggests that there are promising policy solutions to mitigate large-scale deforestation, but that these policy initiatives do not adequately address small-scale drivers. By providing up-to-date and spatially explicit information on the scale of deforestation, and the trends in these patterns over time, this study contributes valuable information for monitoring, and designing effective interventions to address deforestation.

  16. Understanding deforestation and forest fragmentation from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite long-term efforts on the part of researchers, development cooperation projects and government, Madagascar has not been able to achieve a fundamental decrease in deforestation. The question of why deforestation continues in spite of such efforts remains. To answer this question, we aimed at understanding ...

  17. A global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, C A; Snow, R W; Hay, S I

    2006-04-01

    Global environmental change is expected to affect profoundly the transmission of the parasites that cause human malaria. Amongst the anthropogenic drivers of change, deforestation is arguably the most conspicuous, and its rate is projected to increase in the coming decades. The canonical epidemiological understanding is that deforestation increases malaria risk in Africa and the Americas and diminishes it in South-east Asia. Partial support for this position is provided here, through a systematic review of the published literature on deforestation, malaria and the relevant vector bionomics. By using recently updated boundaries for the spatial limits of malaria and remotely-sensed estimates of tree cover, it has been possible to determine the population at risk of malaria in closed forest, at least for those malaria-endemic countries that lie within the main blocks of tropical forest. Closed forests within areas of malaria risk cover approximately 1.5 million km2 in the Amazon region, 1.4 million km2 in Central Africa, 1.2 million km2 in the Western Pacific, and 0.7 million km2 in South-east Asia. The corresponding human populations at risk of malaria within these forests total 11.7 million, 18.7 million, 35.1 million and 70.1 million, respectively. By coupling these numbers with the country-specific rates of deforestation, it has been possible to rank malaria-endemic countries according to their potential for change in the population at risk of malaria, as the result of deforestation. The on-going research aimed at evaluating these relationships more quantitatively, through the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP), is highlighted.

  18. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M; Phillips, T J; Lobell, D B; Delire, C; Mirin, A

    2007-04-17

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO(2) to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These simulations were performed by using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, because the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. Although these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

  19. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,ICG.; Toledo,PM.; Silva,JMC.; Higuchi,H.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops ...

  20. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-07

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  1. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  2. Color vision impairment with low-level methylmercury exposure of an Amazonian population - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Souza, Givago da Silva; Sirius, Esaú Ventura Pupo; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Cortes, Maria Izabel Tentes; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2018-02-09

    Land exploitation that follows deforestation and mining can result in soil erosion and the release of mercury to the waters of rivers in the Amazon Basin. Inorganic mercury is methylated by bacteria that are present in the environment and it serves as a source of human contamination through fish consumption in the form of methylmercury. Long-term exposure to low-level methylmercury in the riverside populations can lead to nervous system alterations, some of which are visual impairments such as loss of luminance contrast sensitivity, restricted visual fields and color vision defects. The present study sought to examine color vision in a group of adults living in the central Brazilian Amazon who were exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Total Hg concentrations were measured from hair collected at the time of the testing. The D15d and FM100 color vision arrangement tests were applied in a population of 36 (22 males) and 42 (25 males), respectively. Controls were healthy volunteers from the cities of São Paulo for the D15d and Belém for the FM100. There was a statistically significant difference in performance between those who were exposed and controls for both tests (p meaning that adults living in this region of the Amazon made more mistakes on both tests when compared to controls. A linear regression was performed using Hg concentrations and test scores. Hg concentrations accounted for 7% and 2% of color D15d and FM100 arrangement test errors, respectively. Although other studies have previously found color vision impairment in the Amazon, they tested inhabitants on the east side of the Amazon, while this study was conducted in the central Amazon region and it is the first study in a population with no direct contact with the Hg source of contamination. These results suggest that long-term exposure to low-level methylmercury in riverside populations is more widely spread in the Amazon Basin than previously reported. This information is needed to implement

  3. Sustainable development, social organization and environment in the Amazonian Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the development on the environment and the culture in regions like the Amazonian are one of the most dramatic examples that can be in what refers to the physical disappearance of numerous cultures, as well as of their integration to the national society and their rising loss of cultural identity and the devastating consequences that have had the development politicians on the different Amazon ecosystems. The construction of a sustainable development for the region has to evaluate the different societies that have existed and they exist as for the use, handling and exploitation of the natural resources. This paper will be approached this problem in three Amazon societies: the cacique territory, the tribal societies and the societies in formation in the colonization regions. It will be done an analysis and a critic of the development concept and of the consequences that it has had their application so much in the indigenous towns as in the Amazon ecosystems, as well as their relationship with the current characterization of the Amazonian area

  4. Immune function in Amazonian horticulturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Trumble, Benjamin C; Maldonado Suarez, Ivan; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret; Snodgrass, J Josh; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Amazonian populations are exposed to diverse parasites and pathogens, including protozoal, bacterial, fungal and helminthic infections. Yet much knowledge of the immune system is based on industrialised populations where these infections are relatively rare. This study examines distributions and age-related differences in 22 measures of immune function for Bolivian forager-horticulturalists and US and European populations. Subjects were 6338 Tsimane aged 0-90 years. Blood samples collected between 2004-2014 were analysed for 5-part blood differentials, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and total immunoglobulins E, G, A and M. Flow cytometry was used to quantify naïve and non-naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells. Compared to reference populations, Tsimane have elevated levels of most immunological parameters, particularly immunoglobulins, eosinophils, ESR, B cells, and natural killer cells. However, monocytes and basophils are reduced and naïve CD4 cells depleted in older age groups. Tsimane ecology leads to lymphocyte repertoires and immunoglobulin profiles that differ from those observed in industrialised populations. These differences have consequences for disease susceptibility and co-vary with patterns of other life history traits, such as growth and reproduction.

  5. Rb-Sr geochronology and geochemical characteristics of mafic dikes in the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste region, Mato Grosso, SW Amazonian Craton; Geocronologia Rb-Sr e caracteristicas geoquimicas dos diques maficos da regiao de Nova Lacerda e Conquista D'Oeste (MT), porcao sudoeste do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Cesar Correa da; Matos, Joao Batista de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: pccorrea@ufmt.br, e-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.br; Girardi, Vicente Antonio Vitorio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: girardi@usp.br; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia Geral; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: asruiz@rc.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    In the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste regions, Mato Grosso State, SW part of the Amazonian Craton, mafic dikes trending NNW intrude the Nova Lacerda Granite (1462{+-}12 Ma), within the Jauru Domain, in the Rondonia-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.3 Ga). The mafic swarm comprises diabases, metadiabases and amphibolites. Metadiabases originated from uralitization of diabases. These rocks have tholeiitic affinity and predominant basaltic composition. Some samples are andesi-basalts. The ages of diabases and metabasites are 1380 {+-} 32 Ma and 1330 {+-} 120 Ma respectively. Geochemical data indicate that the compositional variation of diabases and metadiadases is due to fractional crystallization of evolved tholeiitic magmas. The origin of the basaltic magmas is related to a heterogeneous mantle source. (author)

  6. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  7. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  8. Road Impact on Deforestation and Jaguar Habitat Loss in the Mayan Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    The construction of roads, either as an economic tool or as necessity for the implementation of other infrastructure projects is increasing in the tropical forest worldwide. However, roads are one of the main deforestation drivers in the tropics. In this study we analyzed the impact of road...... investments on both deforestation and jaguar habitat loss, in the Mayan Forest. As well we used these results to forecast the impact of two road investments planned in the region. Our results show that roads are the single deforestation driver in low developed areas, whether many other drivers play...... deforestation driver for at least two decades. Roads significantly affect jaguar’s habitat selection; however males showed a higher tolerance than females. From 1980 to 2000 female jaguars lost 36% of their habitat wile males lost 22%. Our forecasting of the impact of the proposed road, shows...

  9. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  10. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  11. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  13. DEFORESTATION: ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romit Agrawal, Gorang Vashistha, Rahul Mutha [Gujarat National Law University, Gujarat (India)

    2008-09-30

    This paper deals with the concept of deforestation, its impact on environment and measure to attain sustainable development. Spanning over in various parts, this research paper looks at the problem of deforestation and global warming. The first part of this paper deals with definition and general introduction of deforestation and corporate social responsibility. In this part, authors have relied on various reports proving the degradation of environment due to corporations in India and have emphasized on the concern of corporations towards the environment. The next part gives a brief overview of the problem of deforestation and its impact on environment leading to deforestation. It also highlights the causes, effect, reasons, and other issues related to deforestation. Relying on various reports and statistics, authors in this part, have mentioned that what a forest is, what the causes of deforestation are and how it is degrading the environment. The third part of this paper deals with the legislative and judicial response to deforestation problem. In this part, authors have supported their arguments with handful of International treaties, legislations and case laws relating to the problem of global warming. The fourth part of this paper deals with the concept that how corporate social responsibility can play a significant role in lessen the degradation of environment and how global warming will be reduced. Authors have also mentioned the emerging concept of carbon credits. This paper is than concluded with the remarks and suggestion of authors that corporate social responsibility is a measure to lessen global warming and to attain sustainable development.

  14. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  15. Women Parliamentarians and Deforestation Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Yuldashev, Oybek; Yusupov, Nurmuhammad

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation has now taken the center stage in the climate change debate which has become a heavily politicized process. We argue that involvement of women in that process can be instrumental in reducing deforestation. We find significant and robust evidence for this hypothesis in a cross-section of 163 countries covering 1990–2010. Our results have important policy implications and call for wider involvement of women in the climate change debates and policy making.

  16. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  17. Trade and deforestation: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Luis Diego

    2010-01-01

    Forest plays a significant role in the overall balance of carbon in the atmosphere. Forest carbon sequestration can potentially reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, when deforestation takes place, carbon is released to the atmosphere again. Globally, it has been estimated that about 11% to 39% of all carbon emissions from human origin come from the forest sector (Hao et al. 1990). Regarding global warming, the balance between forest conservation and deforest...

  18. Impacts of Deforestation on Sustainability in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ndyamukama, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to summarize and analyze some of the main causes and consequences of the rapid and continuing deforestation in Tanzania, and to illustrate the impacts of the problem on the social, economic and environmental systems of the country. It also suggests the best methods for overcoming deforestation in Tanzania. The thesis is structured to critique previous methods proposed in other research studies, mainly those conducted by the Tanzania National Forest Programme. ...

  19. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  1. The role of values in no deforestation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, many companies have made commitments to ensure their supply chain is not linked to deforestation, known as No Deforestation Policies (NDPs). Despite the development of tools to implement NDPs, deforestation is ongoing. This research took a values–based approach to explore less–considered social aspects of why deforestation is ongoing despite the number of NDPs in the agribusiness sector. The role of company values, commercial values, values of no deforestation or environmental pro...

  2. The sustainability search in the Amazonian productive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Allan A

    2001-01-01

    Historically the society and the state have a little attention to the Amazonian area and this it continues being one of the regions but marginal of the country. The countries that possess Amazon territory have spread to neglect those lands so far away and unknown. In spite of their margination, the region goes getting paid every time but importance in the nation and the world. The information that it keeps their diversity biotic and cultural it has international recognition; economically it has considerable reservations of minerals, wood and fishes, which are extracted to supply the national and international markets. Politically the region is mentioned by the social conflict and the colonization that it fronts, it also has the only frontiers with Brazil and Peru, in the future, will be built the marginal highway of the forest; connecting to Ecuador with Colombia and Venezuela, opening significant spaces for the trade and the international integration

  3. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and

  4. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  5. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1 source data uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Douglas C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+. The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  6. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  7. Amazonian functional diversity from forest canopy chemical assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Sinca, Felipe; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Martinez, Paola

    2014-04-15

    Patterns of tropical forest functional diversity express processes of ecological assembly at multiple geographic scales and aid in predicting ecological responses to environmental change. Tree canopy chemistry underpins forest functional diversity, but the interactive role of phylogeny and environment in determining the chemical traits of tropical trees is poorly known. Collecting and analyzing foliage in 2,420 canopy tree species across 19 forests in the western Amazon, we discovered (i) systematic, community-scale shifts in average canopy chemical traits along gradients of elevation and soil fertility; (ii) strong phylogenetic partitioning of structural and defense chemicals within communities independent of variation in environmental conditions; and (iii) strong environmental control on foliar phosphorus and calcium, the two rock-derived elements limiting CO2 uptake in tropical forests. These findings indicate that the chemical diversity of western Amazonian forests occurs in a regionally nested mosaic driven by long-term chemical trait adjustment of communities to large-scale environmental filters, particularly soils and climate, and is supported by phylogenetic divergence of traits essential to foliar survival under varying environmental conditions. Geographically nested patterns of forest canopy chemical traits will play a role in determining the response and functional rearrangement of western Amazonian ecosystems to changing land use and climate.

  8. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing from southwest to northeast and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east. Here we describe the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25–182.25 cm2. The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2 is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the northwest of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  9. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  10. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five farms with different typology were selected in Caquetá department which hold the highest deforestation and soil degradation rates in the Colombian Amazon. Soil samples were taken from natural forest relicts, cropping areas and introduced pastures of the farms, in locations with high, intermediate and low soil degradation. Aerial biomass was estimated in pastures with different level of soil degradation. Changes in the labile C stock were estimated from the soil organic carbon and the microbial biomass using substrate induced respiration. Results showed that the main C pool is in the natural forest relicts and the crops of the farms, independently from the size or type of farm sampled. The hills with higher intervention showed the lowest soil C fixation capacities. The soil C fixation capacity was related with changes in the soil microbial composition where conserved soils store preferentially C as fungal biomass while degraded soils store C as bacterial biomass. These estimations contribute to establish the cost of sustainability and soil degradation in the Colombian Amazon.

  11. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost

  12. Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inregion w:st="on">Sudanregion>offered in the past an

  13. Does the Pressure of Population and Poverty cause Deforestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Widiaryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has created several negative impacts such as reducing biodiversity, decreasing life support system and increasing green house gases emission. Identifying the causes of deforestation is a key to tackle this problem. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the driver of deforestation in the world. Some experts believe that the pressure of population and poverty cause deforestation. On the other hand, the others argue that there is no relationship among the pressure of population, poverty and deforestation. This paper tries to examine the link of pressure of population, poverty and deforestation by reviewing some recent studies.

  14. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  15. The Influence of Historical and Potential Future Deforestation on the Stream Flow of the Amazon River -- Land Surface Processes and Atmospheric Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Soares-Filho, B.

    2008-12-01

    Global economic and regional population and development pressures have resulted in high rates of deforestation in the Amazon River basin, mostly in the eastern and southern portion of the basin. Recent deforestation rates reflect the global demand for Brazilian free-range beef and soybeans with about 22,000 km2 deforested each year between 2000 and 2004 and 7000 km2 deforested in the final months of 2007. Land cover and land use changes influence the quantity of surface water resources by changing how incoming precipitation and radiation are partitioned among sensible and latent heat fluxes, runoff, and river discharge and altering regional and continental scale precipitation patterns. Results from coupled land surface and global climate model simulations clarify a few important points about the impact of deforestation on the Amazon River: 1) The local evapotranspiration decrease and subsequent discharge increase can be a significant fraction of the water balance when greater than 50% of a watershed is deforested. 2) The atmospheric feedbacks from large-scale deforestation may be of the same order of magnitude as the changes to local land surface processes, but of opposite sign and are not limited to those basins where deforestation has occurred. 3) Changes to discharge and aquatic environments with future deforestation of the Amazon will likely be a complex function of how much vegetation has been removed from a particular watershed and how much has been removed from the entire Amazon Basin.

  16. Alternatives to deforestation: Steps toward sustainable use of the Amazon Rain Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon over the past two decades has jeopardized genetic diversity, contributed to regional and global climate change, caused erosion and flooding, destroyed forest resources, spread disease, and increased poverty. This book presents a selection of papers from an international conference that explored alternatives to deforestation of tropical forests. The alternatives described include natural forest management, agroforestry systems, and forest reestablishment on degraded pastures. The book should be useful to scientists, regional planners, and the broad scientific audience

  17. Fire and deforestation dynamics in Amazonia (1973–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Estrada de Wagt, Ivan A.; Houghton, Richard A.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Artaxo, Paulo; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Consistent long‐term estimates of fire emissions are important to understand the changing role of fire in the global carbon cycle and to assess the relative importance of humans and climate in shaping fire regimes. However, there is limited information on fire emissions from before the satellite era. We show that in the Amazon region, including the Arc of Deforestation and Bolivia, visibility observations derived from weather stations could explain 61% of the variability in satellite‐based estimates of bottom‐up fire emissions since 1997 and 42% of the variability in satellite‐based estimates of total column carbon monoxide concentrations since 2001. This enabled us to reconstruct the fire history of this region since 1973 when visibility information became available. Our estimates indicate that until 1987 relatively few fires occurred in this region and that fire emissions increased rapidly over the 1990s. We found that this pattern agreed reasonably well with forest loss data sets, indicating that although natural fires may occur here, deforestation and degradation were the main cause of fires. Compared to fire emissions estimates based on Food and Agricultural Organization's Global Forest and Resources Assessment data, our estimates were substantially lower up to the 1990s, after which they were more in line. These visibility‐based fire emissions data set can help constrain dynamic global vegetation models and atmospheric models with a better representation of the complex fire regime in this region. PMID:28286373

  18. Fire and deforestation dynamics in Amazonia (1973-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Margreet J E; Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Estrada de Wagt, Ivan A; Houghton, Richard A; Rizzo, Luciana V; Artaxo, Paulo; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Consistent long-term estimates of fire emissions are important to understand the changing role of fire in the global carbon cycle and to assess the relative importance of humans and climate in shaping fire regimes. However, there is limited information on fire emissions from before the satellite era. We show that in the Amazon region, including the Arc of Deforestation and Bolivia, visibility observations derived from weather stations could explain 61% of the variability in satellite-based estimates of bottom-up fire emissions since 1997 and 42% of the variability in satellite-based estimates of total column carbon monoxide concentrations since 2001. This enabled us to reconstruct the fire history of this region since 1973 when visibility information became available. Our estimates indicate that until 1987 relatively few fires occurred in this region and that fire emissions increased rapidly over the 1990s. We found that this pattern agreed reasonably well with forest loss data sets, indicating that although natural fires may occur here, deforestation and degradation were the main cause of fires. Compared to fire emissions estimates based on Food and Agricultural Organization's Global Forest and Resources Assessment data, our estimates were substantially lower up to the 1990s, after which they were more in line. These visibility-based fire emissions data set can help constrain dynamic global vegetation models and atmospheric models with a better representation of the complex fire regime in this region.

  19. Jamaica: Test case for tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Deforestation in Jamaica, according to the United Nations (FAO/UNEP) and other sources, is occurring at an annual rate of about tree percent. This is accepted by some Jamaican government agencies, but strongly disputed by others. The Ministry of Agriculture, in particular, claims that the national forested area is actually increasing rapidly. A survey of humid tropical forests in Jamaica, carried out by the author in 1986, indicates a 3.3 percent per annum rate of deforestation for 1980-1986. But, despite significant commercial lumber production, large clear fellings are rare and most modification of the forest is due to expansion of small-scale farming (including Cannabis sativa) and pastoral activity. The size of area cleared is most often 20 to 25 hectares. As uncontrolled deforestation is adversely affecting watersheds and inducing serious flooding some form of control and management is urgently required.

  20. Carbon credits to contrast tropical deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation accounts for about 15-20% of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. Given the magnitude of this process, and the need of an active involvement of developing countries in future efforts to combat climate change, the possibility to reduce emissions from deforestation is emerging as a decisive element of the post-Kyoto negotiations. Here we present some relevant issues discussed during a recent UNFCCC workshop (Rome, 30 August - 1 September on this topic, including scientific, technical and methodological issues, policy approaches and positive incentives. Overall, the workshop provided a good opportunity for UNFCCC Parties to share experiences on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, clarify the key challenges in this area and identify useful ways to move forward. Although many important political and methodological details still need to be clarified, all the Parties showed a constructive attitude and the workshop ended in a positive and optimistic atmosphere.

  1. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards an improved understanding of hillslope runoff as a supply for groundwater recharge: Assessing hillslope runoff under regional deforestation and varying climate conditions in a drainage basin in central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We use a hydrologic model to analyze hillslope runoff under a range of climate and land use conditions in the San Lorenzo River Basin (SLRB), central coastal California, including contemporary land use and incremental deforestation. The SLRB is a heavily forested watershed with chronically overdrafted aquifers; in some areas, groundwater levels have been lowered by >50 m in recent decades. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can help mitigate declines in groundwater storage, routing excess surface flows to locations where they can infiltrate. We are especially interested in opportunities for collection of stormwater runoff, particularly where development and other changes in landuse have increased hill slope runoff. To assess hillslope runoff at the subwatershed scale (10-100 ha; 25-250 ac), we apply the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to a high-resolution, digital elevation model and populate the simulation with area- and density-weighted vegetation and soil parameters calculated from high resolution input data. We also develop and apply a catalog of dry, normal, and wet climate scenarios from the historic record (1981-2014). In addition, we simulate conditions ranging from 0 to 100 percent of redwoods harvested (representing the mid-1800s to 1930s logging era) using a historical land use data set to alter soil and vegetation conditions. Results under contemporary land use suggest there are ample opportunities to establish MAR projects during all climate scenarios; hill slope runoff generation is spatially variable and on average exceeds 23,000 ac-ft/yr (3.2 in/yr) during the driest climate scenario. Preliminary results from the deforestation scenarios show notable increases in hillslope runoff with progressive redwood harvesting. Relative to pre-logging conditions, between 1.1 in (dry climates) and 1.5 in (wet climates) more runoff is generated under contemporary conditions, with most of the runoff increase occurring in urban areas. These modeling methods

  4. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  5. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-11-01

    compositional units, moreover, may correspond to broad-scale functional units. The existence of large-area compositional and functional units would suggest that protected-area, carbon sequestration, and other land-use strategies in Amazonia be implemented on a region-by-region basis. The methods described here can be used to map these patterns, and thus enable effective conservation and management of Amazonian forests.

  6. National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

    2013-04-01

    This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The role of values in no deforestation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Masters thesis as part of European M Sc Agroecology with NMBU and ISARA-Lyon, internship at The Forest Trust (TFT), Switzerland. Since 2013, many companies have made commitments to ensure their supply chain is not linked to deforestation, known as No Deforestation Policies (NDPs). Despite the development of tools to implement NDPs, deforestation is ongoing. This research took a values–based approach to explore less–considered social aspects of why deforestation is ongoing despite the numbe...

  8. Behavioural economics: Cash incentives avert deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo

    2017-10-01

    There is tension in developing countries between financial incentives to clear forests and climate regulation benefits of preserving trees. Now research shows that paying private forest owners in Uganda reduced deforestation, adding to the debate on the use of monetary incentives in forest conservation.

  9. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  10. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  11. Debunking three myths about Madagascar's deforestation | Horning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After more than three decades of describing, explaining, and tackling deforestation in Madagascar, the problem persists. Why do researchers, practitioners, politicians, and farmers remain perplexed about this problem? This essay offers that our collective thinking of the past three decades has inadvertently perpetuated ...

  12. Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia: The Case of Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project (A ... The objective of this paper is to explore the cause and impact of this overarching problem by focusing on Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project, ...

  13. Rillenkarren as indicators of deforestation age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gams

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the depth of Rillenkarren is also in čase of stones with smooth surface, developed under soil cover, an usefull method for dating the deforestation, but limited to the area of similar conditions for solution.

  14. Rillenkarren as indicators of deforestation age

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Gams

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of the depth of Rillenkarren is also in čase of stones with smooth surface, developed under soil cover, an usefull method for dating the deforestation, but limited to the area of similar conditions for solution.

  15. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on sub-adult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Liebert, Melissa A; Josh Snodgrass, J; Blackwell, Aaron D; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Madimenos, Felicia C; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Market integration (MI)-increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy-is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. This study examines the impact of MI on sub-adult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Anthropometric data were collected between 2005-2014 from 2164 Shuar (aged 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle and dietary data were collected from a sub-sample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region and specific aspects of household MI. Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations.

  16. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on subadult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Market integration (MI) – increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy – is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. Aim This study examines the impact of MI on subadult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional, and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric data were collected between 2005 and 2014 from 2,164 Shuar (age 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle, and dietary data were collected from a subsample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region, and specific aspects of household MI. Results Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. Conclusion This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth, and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:27230632

  17. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni G. Colares

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.Para determinar o hábito alimentar do peixe-boi da Amazonia em alguns rios e lagos da Amazonia Central, nós comparamos as epidermes de plantas encontradas nos conteúdos alimentares e/ou fezes de animais com uma coleção de referência de epidermes de plantas presentes nas áreas de estudo. Foram analisadas 25 amostras de trato digestivo de animais encontrados mortos e 25 amostras de fezes . A familia Gramineae foi encontrada em 96% das amostras, com maior ocorrência das espécies Paspalum repens e Echinochloa polystachya. A segunda familia mais freqüente foi Pontederiaceae sendo Eichhornia crassipes a espécie predominante. Durante o período de água cheia, os animais apresentaram uma dieta mais seletiva (oito espécies identificadas. Já na água baixa, com menor oferta de alimentos, os animais apresentam uma maior diversidade de espécies em sua dieta (21 espécies de plantas

  18. Air quality and human health improvements from reductions in deforestation-related fire in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C. L.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    Roughly 15% of the Brazilian Amazon was deforested between 1976 and 2010. Fire is the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, which degrades air quality and affects human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health during non-drought years between 2001 and 2012. We analyse aerosol optical depth measurements obtained with satellite and ground-based sensors over southwest Brazil and Bolivia for the dry season, from August to October. We find that observed dry season aerosol optical depths are more than a factor of two lower in years with low deforestation rates in Brazil. We used a global aerosol model to show that reductions in fires associated with deforestation have caused mean surface particulate matter concentrations to decline by ~30% during the dry season in the region. Using particulate matter concentration response functions from the epidemiological literature, we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing roughly 400 to 1,700 premature adult deaths annually across South America.

  19. Forests and drugs: coca-driven deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Bejarano, Adriana C; Hall, Mark A; Correa, H Leonardo; Corthals, Angelique; Espejo, Oscar J

    2011-02-15

    Identifying drivers of deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots is critical to assess threats to particular ecosystems and species and proactively plan for conservation. We analyzed land cover change between 2002 and 2007 in the northern Andes, Chocó, and Amazon forests of Colombia, the largest producer of coca leaf for the global cocaine market, to quantify the impact of this illicit crop on forest dynamics, evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas in this context, and determine the effects of eradication on deforestation. Landscape-level analyses of forest conversion revealed that proximity to new coca plots and a greater proportion of an area planted with coca increased the probability of forest loss in southern Colombia, even after accounting for other covariates and spatial autocorrelation. We also showed that protected areas successfully reduced forest conversion in coca-growing regions. Neither eradication nor coca cultivation predicted deforestation rates across municipalities. Instead, the presence of new coca cultivation was an indicator of municipalities, where increasing population led to higher deforestation rates. We hypothesize that poor rural development underlies the relationship between population density and deforestation in coca-growing areas. Conservation in Colombia's vast forest frontier, which overlaps with its coca frontier, requires a mix of protected areas and strategic rural development to succeed.

  20. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  1. Conservation implications of deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Jaclyn; Burgess, Neil David; Lovett, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity, especially within global centers of endemism for plants and animals. Elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species, where some species may exist only in narrow...... elevational ranges. We use newly compiled datasets to assess the conservation impact of deforestation on threatened trees across an elevational gradient within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. The Eastern Arc has suffered an estimated 80% total loss in historical forest area and has lost 25% of forest...

  2. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  3. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  4. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  5. Deforestation Induced Climate Change: Effects of Spatial Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Patrick; Montenegro, Alvaro; Beltrami, Hugo; Eby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT) response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based on simulated large scal land cover change, with complete removal of trees from whole latitude bands. Using a global climate model we examine the effects of removing fractions of 5% to 100% of forested areas in the high, mid and low latitudes. All high latitude deforestation scenarios reduce mean global SAT, the opposite occurring for low latitude deforestation, although a decrease in SAT is simulated over low latitude deforested areas. Mid latitude SAT response is mixed. In all simulations deforested areas tend to become drier and have lower SAT, although soil temperatures increase over deforested mid and low latitude grid cells. For high latitude deforestation fractions of 45% and above, larger net primary productivity, in conjunction with colder and drier conditions after deforestation cause an increase in soil carbon large enough to produce a net decrease of atmospheric CO2. Our results reveal the complex interactions between soil carbon dynamics and other climate subsystems in the energy partition responses to land cover change.

  6. Deforestation Induced Climate Change: Effects of Spatial Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Longobardi

    Full Text Available Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based on simulated large scal land cover change, with complete removal of trees from whole latitude bands. Using a global climate model we examine the effects of removing fractions of 5% to 100% of forested areas in the high, mid and low latitudes. All high latitude deforestation scenarios reduce mean global SAT, the opposite occurring for low latitude deforestation, although a decrease in SAT is simulated over low latitude deforested areas. Mid latitude SAT response is mixed. In all simulations deforested areas tend to become drier and have lower SAT, although soil temperatures increase over deforested mid and low latitude grid cells. For high latitude deforestation fractions of 45% and above, larger net primary productivity, in conjunction with colder and drier conditions after deforestation cause an increase in soil carbon large enough to produce a net decrease of atmospheric CO2. Our results reveal the complex interactions between soil carbon dynamics and other climate subsystems in the energy partition responses to land cover change.

  7. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  8. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago.

  9. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Amazonian poison frogs of the genus Dendrobates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2003-03-01

    The study of Amazonian biodiversity requires detailed knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships of closely related taxa distributed across Amazonia. The Amazonian poison frogs of the genus Dendrobates have undergone many taxonomic revisions, but the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain poorly understood. Most previous classifications were based on morphology and skin toxin analyses, with limited use of DNA sequence data. Using mtDNA sequence data from four gene regions (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase I, 16S rRNA, and 12S rRNA), we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the evolutionary relationships within a representative group of Amazonian Dendrobates. We use the resulting phylogenetic hypothesis to investigate different biogeographic hypotheses concerning genetic divergence and species diversity in Amazonia. The results of the analysis support the presence of ancient paleogeographic barriers to gene flow between eastern and western Amazonia, and indicate substantial genetic divergence between species found in the northern and southern regions of western Amazonia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  10. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well various...

  13. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well vari...

  14. Development of Early Warning System Using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 Data to Detect and Prevent Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M.; Nagatani, I.; Watanabe, T.; Tadono, T.; Miyoshi, H.; Watanabe, M.; Koyama, C.; Shimada, M.; Ogawa, T.; Ishii, K.; Higashiuwatoko, T.; Miura, M.; Okonogi, H.; Adachi, K.; Morita, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite observation is an efficient method for monitoring deforestation, and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is useful especially in cloudy tropical forest regions. In this context, JICA and JAXA cooperate to operate the deforestation monitoring system acquired data by the Phased Array type L-band SAR-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), which is named as "JICA-JAXA Forest Early Warning System in the Tropics" (JJ-FAST), and it have been released on November 2016. JJ-FAST detects deforestation areas, and provides their positional information for 77 countries, which is covering almost all tropical forests. It uses PALSAR-2 ScanSAR observation mode (wide-observation swath width) image, which is 50 m spatial resolution acquired at 1.5 months interval. The dark change areas compared with in two acquisitions by PALSAR-2 HV-polarization images are identified as deforestations in the system. We conducted field surveys to validate detection accuracy of the JJ-FAST in Peru (November and December, 2016), Botswana (April, 2017), and Gabon (July, 2017). As the results, 15 of 18 detected areas were correct deforestation areas, therefore user's accuracy could be confirmed as 83.3 % from limited number of the validation data. Erroneous detection areas were caused by seasonal change in agricultural land and open burning in grass land. For improvement of the accuracy, such areas must be excluded from the analysis by additional algorithms e.g. estimation of accurate masking for non-forested areas. Therefore, we are revising the forest map used for pre-processing step in the system. The JJ-FAST can be expected to contribute to monitor and reduce illegal deforestation activities in tropical forests.

  15. Changes in organic carbon accumulation driven by mangrove expansion and deforestation in a New Zealand estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Alexander; Machado, Wilson; Gutierrez, Dimitri; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Luciana; Smoak, Joseph M.; Santos, Isaac; Sanders, Christian J.

    2017-06-01

    Mangroves are rapidly being lost to deforestation in many locations while expanding their areal extent in other subtropical and temperate regions. Currently, there is a paucity of information on how these changes may alter the carbon accumulation capacity of coastal areas. Here, sediment cores were collected from two areas and used to determine the influence of mangrove migration and deforestation on sediment carbon stocks and accumulation rates. The deforested area contained lower sedimentary organic carbon stocks (2767 ± 580 g m-2) compared to the preserved area (6949 ± 84 g m-2). Sediment accumulation rates, derived from excess 210Pb and 239+240Pu depositional signatures, ranged from 0.19 to 0.35 cm yr-1. The total sedimentary organic carbon (TOC) accumulation rates for the period after mangrove deforestation (2005-2011) exhibited significant differences between preserved areas (Core C: 43.9 ± 6.9 g m-2 yr-1; Core D: 83.1 ± 5.9 g m-2 yr-1) and the deforested area (Core B: 25.8 ± 6.0 g m-2 yr-1), suggesting a decline after deforestation. For the preserved area, the TOC accumulation under mangrove dominance (65.5 ± 16.3 g m-2 yr-1, after 1944) was higher than under saltmarsh dominance (23.5 ± 15.9 g m-2 yr-1, before 1944), as revealed by carbon isotopic signatures (δ13C). The increase in the TOC accumulation due to mangrove expansion in this New Zealand estuary was conservatively estimated as three-fold higher, and two-fold higher in stocks in comparison to the period when this ecosystem was dominated by non-mangrove vegetation.

  16. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need—and can be—overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

  17. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollicone, D; Freibauer, A; Schulze, E D; Braatz, S; Grassi, G; Federici, S

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need-and can be-overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles

  18. Biogeography of Amazonian fishes: deconstructing river basins as biogeographic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. P. Dagosta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeography of Amazonian fishes (2,500 species in vastly disjunct lineages is complex and has so far been approached only partially. Here, we tackle the problem on the basis of the largest database yet on geographical distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian fishes, including all information available. Distributions of 4,095 species (both Amazonian and outgroups and 84 phylogenetic hypotheses (comprising 549 phylogenetically-informative nodes were compiled, qualified and plotted onto 46 areas (29 Amazonian and 17 non-Amazonian. The database was analyzed with PAE, CADE, BPA and BPA0, yielding largely congruent results and indicating that biogeographic signal is detectable on multiple dimensions of fish distribution, from single species ranges to cladistic congruence. Agreement is especially pronounced in deeper components, such as Trans-Andean, Cis-Andean, Western Amazon and Orinoco basins. Results show that all major Amazonian tributaries, as well as the Amazon basin itself, are non-monophyletic and constitute hybrid sets of heterogeneous biotic partitions. Amazonian drainages should not be assumed a priori as historically cohesive areas, contrary to widespread practice. Our hypothesis allows re-evaluation of broader issues in historical biogeography, such as the predictive power of biogeographic hypotheses, the vicariant/dispersal duality, the significance of widely distributed taxa, and the need for temporal dimension in biogeographic patterns.

  19. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  20. Phylogenetic insights into the diversity of homocytous cyanobacteria from Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Melo, Itamar Soares de

    2017-11-01

    The Amazon Rainforest holds great tropical biodiversity, mainly because of its favourable climatic conditions. The high temperatures, luminosity and humidity coupled with the nutritional simplicity of cyanobacteria allow undiscovered diversity to flourish within this group of microorganisms. Some efforts to reveal this diversity have been attempted; however, most were focused on the microscopic observation of environmental samples without any genetic information. Very few studies focusing on morphological, ecological and molecular criteria have been conducted, and none have been devoted to homocytous cyanobacteria forms in Amazonia region. Therefore, the genetic relationships amongst strains retrieved from this ecosystem with regard to other environments from Brazil and the world have not been tested and, consequently, the Amazonian strains would naturally be assumed as novel to science. To examine these relationships, cultured homocytous cyanobacteria isolated from two Amazonian rivers (Amazonas and Solimões) were evaluated using a phylogenetic perspective, considering the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A total of eleven homocytous cyanobacterial strains were isolated. Morphologically, they were identified as Pseudanabaena, Leptolyngbya, Planktothrix and Phormidium, but genetically they were included in the typical clusters of Planktothrix, Pseudanabaena, Cephalothrix, Pantanalinema and Alkalinema. These three latter genera have been detected in other Brazilian ecosystems only (Pantanal, Atlantic Rainforest and Pampa), while those remaining have been extensively found in many parts of the world. The data provided here indicate that Amazonian rivers support a homocytous cyanobacterial diversity previously reported from other geographical and ecological environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  2. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  3. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.

    2016-06-01

    monitoring of deforestation over the Peninsular Malaysia region.

  4. Economic Causes of Tropical Deforestation - A Global Empirical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Scrieciu, Silviu Serban

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the complex system of causes affecting tropical deforestation at a worldwide level. There is no generally accepted theory in the deforestation literature to indicate which variables should be included in a model of deforestation at an aggregate global level. The paper begins, therefore, by presenting an analytical structure based on formal farm household economic modelling literature. The empirical findings derived from a global regression model tend to confirm the prof...

  5. Spatial Model of Deforestation in Kalimantan from 2000 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Judin Purwanto; Teddy Rusolono; Lilik Budi Prasetyo

    2015-01-01

    Forestry sector is the biggest carbon emission contributor in Indonesia which is mainly caused by deforestation. A significant area of forest cover still can be found in Kalimantan Island (one of the largest island in Indonesia) although an alarming rates deforestation is also exist. This study was purposed to established spatial model of deforestation in Kalimantan islands. This information is expected to provide options to develop sustainable forest management in Kalimantan trou...

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighbo...

  7. Predicting the deforestation-trend under different carbon-prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.; Rametsteiner, E.; McCallum, I.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Global carbon stocks in forest biomass are decreasing by 1.1 Gt of carbon annually, owing to continued deforestation and forest degradation. Deforestation emissions are partly offset by forest expansion and increases in growing stock primarily in the extra-tropical north. Innovative financial mechanisms would be required to help reducing deforestation. Using a spatially explicit integrated biophysical and socio-economic land use model we estimated the impact of carbon pric...

  8. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  9. A Bilingual Experiment in the Amazonian Jungle of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Ruth

    1971-01-01

    In the Amazonian jungle of Peru 240 Indian leaders representing 20 different South American Indian language groups are successfully teaching their own people to read and write, first in their mother tongue and then in Spanish. (Author/EB)

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  11. A deforestation-induced tipping point for the South American monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest has been proposed as a tipping element of the earth system, with the possibility of a dieback of the entire ecosystem due to deforestation only of parts of the rainforest. Possible physical mechanisms behind such a transition are still subject to ongoing debates. Here, we use a specifically designed model to analyse the nonlinear couplings between the Amazon rainforest and the atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the South American continent. These couplings are associated with a westward cascade of precipitation and evapotranspiration across the Amazon. We investigate impacts of deforestation on the South American monsoonal circulation with particular focus on a previously neglected positive feedback related to condensational latent heating over the rainforest, which strongly enhances atmospheric moisture inflow from the Atlantic. Our results indicate the existence of a tipping point. In our model setup, crossing the tipping point causes precipitation reductions of up to 40% in non-deforested parts of the western Amazon and regions further downstream. The responsible mechanism is the breakdown of the aforementioned feedback, which occurs when deforestation reduces transpiration to a point where the available atmospheric moisture does not suffice anymore to release the latent heat needed to maintain the feedback.

  12. Impacts of Resettlement Programs on Deforestation of Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefelegn Getahun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned on the forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover were mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The rate of deforestation was analyzed using overlay and buffer analysis techniques available in ArcGIS software. Focus group discussions and household surveys were conducted to collect information on landscape (forest change and the causes and consequences of deforestation. Results from the forest cover change analysis revealed that the study area lost large tracts (80% of its forest cover between 1957 and 2007. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural changes introduced by migrants were the leading drivers of deforestation in the study area. In addition, the rate of deforestation in the region has been exacerbated by a low level of education and awareness of the local people about the benefits of forests, lack of regulations to protect the forests, habitat destruction to deter crop-damaging wild pests, forest clearing for fuelwood and charcoal making, and wood extraction for construction and household furniture purposes.

  13. Oil palm monoculture induces drastic erosion of an Amazonian forest mammal fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Peres, Carlos A; Maués, Paula Cristina R de A; Oliveira, Geovana Linhares; Mineiro, Ivo G B; de Maria, Susanne L Silva; Lima, Renata C S

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture. Considering mammal species richness, abundance, and species composition, oil palm plantations were consistently depauperate compared to the adjacent primary forest, but responses differed between functional groups. The degree of forest habitat dependency was a leading trait, determining compositional dissimilarities across habitats. Considering both the LTC and CT data, distance from the forest-plantation interface had a significant effect on mammal assemblages within each habitat type. Approximately 87% of all species detected within oil palm were never farther than 1300 m from the forest edge. Our study clearly reinforces the notion that conventional oil palm plantations are extremely hostile to native tropical forest biodiversity, which does not bode well given prospects for oil palm expansion in both aging and new Amazonian deforestation frontiers.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The ecology and evolution of Caribbean anoles are well described, yet little is known about mainland anole species. Lack of phylogenetic information limits our knowledge about species boundaries, morphological evolution, and the biogeography of anoles in South America. To help fill this gap, we provide an updated molecular phylogeny of the Dactyloa (Dactyloidae), with emphasis on the punctata species group. By sampling understudied Amazonian taxa, we (i) assess the phylogenetic placement of the 'odd anole', D. dissimilis; (ii) infer the relationships of the proboscis-bearing D. phyllorhina, testing the hypothesis of independent nasal appendage evolution within the anole radiation; and (iii) examine genetic and dewlap color variation in D. punctata and D. philopunctata. Combining multiple nuclear loci with a review of the fossil record, we also (iv) estimate divergence times within the pleurodont iguanian clade of lizards, including Amazonian representatives of Dactyloa and Norops (Dactyloidae) and of Polychrus (Polychrotidae). We recover the five Dactyloa clades previously referred to as the aequatorialis, heteroderma, latifrons, punctata and roquet species groups, as well as a sixth clade composed of D. dissimilis and the non-Amazonian D. neblinina and D. calimae. We find D. phyllorhina to be nested within the punctata group, suggesting independent evolution of the anole proboscis. We consistently recover D. philopunctata nested within D. punctata, and report limited genetic divergence between distinct dewlap phenotypes. The most recent common ancestor of Dactyloa, Anolis and Norops dates back to the Eocene. Most Amazonian taxa within both Dactyloa and Norops diverged in the Miocene, but some diversification events were as old as the late Eocene and late Oligocene. Amazonian Polychrus diverged in the Pliocene. Our findings have broad implications for anole biogeography, disputing recent suggestions that modern dactyloid genera were present in the Caribbean region

  15. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoboli, R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  16. Modelling deforestation trends in Costa Rica and predicting future forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    and 2013, and then back to 1997, a future model was created to determine future country wide changes. There was a significant decrease in patch size between 1960 and 2013 in forests and a non-significant decrease is patch size for non-forests. The historical model validated at 85% accuracy within 600m for both the 2005-2013 and 1997-2005 iterations. Future scenario building determines the point in time and area at which the forest area equilibrates, indicating the approximate maximal forest extent under extreme scenarios. None of the scenarios were sufficiently damaging to decrease the forest area below present day levels. The Puntarenas province is the only region which had deforestation in the most extreme scenario. Using the inclusion and exclusion of protected areas within the model, it was determined which of the parks suffers from high pressure of deforestation should there be policy removing protected area status. These parks are predominantly limited to small areas on coastal regions, while the large central parks suffer relatively little pressure from deforestation. This indicates that even under the most extreme scenarios, the secondary forests are likely to remain permanently and continue to regenerate as time progresses.

  17. Deforestation effect on soil quality and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of deforestation on physical and chemical properties of soils under native forest in the Mediterranean region of northwestern Jordan and its impact on climate change. Land use/cover maps of 1953, 1978 and 2002 were interpreted and analyzed to quantify the shift from forest to rainfed cultivation. Six sites were sampled in a non changed forest and in cultivated fields, three for each. Different soil properties of texture, bulk density, organic matter, total nitrogen, pH, cation exchange capacity, phosphorous and potassium were analyzed. Results showed that many forests were changed into cultivated lands at a rate more than the reforestation. Subsequently, adverse effects on the studied physical and chemical properties were observed. The most affected properties were particle size distribution, bulk density of surface soil and subsoil. Organic matter and cation exchange capacity decreased in cultivated soil as compared to the forest soil. Cultivated soils were found to exhibit a significantly lower status in physical and chemical soil properties as compared to forest soils. This general decline in the soil physical and chemical properties, in turn, contributed to soil erosion, reduction of soil fertility, and land degradation and decreased C sequestration which can lower the amount of CO2 and mitigate green house effect. There is an urgent need to improve soil quality by developing sustainable land use practices to reduce the rate of soil degradation and to ensure long-term sustainability of the farming system in the study area and in similar biophysical settings in order to preserve soil quality to mitigate greenhouse effect that contributes to climate change. Key Words: deforestation, soil quality, climate change, Mediterranean.

  18. AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION: GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Nanang, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Deforestation is modeled in two stages, as an interaction of interlinked key sectors in the Ghanaian economy (including forest products exports, fuelwood energy consumption, cocoa production, and food crop production), which compete for forest landuse or forest products. The effects of the different first- and second-level causes of deforestation analyzed are discussed.

  19. Deforestation in Uyo Urban Area: A GIS and Remote Sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in population, per capita income, and land use activities and by extension urban expansion were found to be the major factors causing deforestation in Uyo. The fieldwork revealed that deforestation has caused many environmental problems in Uyo like flooding, gully erosion, scarcity of agricultural land and ...

  20. Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve. An institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culas, Richard J. [School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 (Australia)

    2007-03-01

    Institutions for secure property rights and better environmental policies for moving the system towards a sustainable growth path can reduce the height of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between income and deforestation. This study examines the impact of these specific institutional factors on the EKC relationship for deforestation across Latin American, African and Asian countries. The factors related to agricultural production, population, economy and governmental policies of each country are hypothesised to affect deforestation. Results of the Latin American countries show significant evidence of an EKC relationship for deforestation and also relevance of the institutional factors to reduce the rate of deforestation. Improvements in institutions for secure property rights and better environmental policies can thus significantly reduce the rate of deforestation without hindering the level of economic growth. Evidence also suggests that the effect of agricultural production on deforestation could be halted by strengthening institutional factors. There was found to be complementarity between the institutional factors and forest sector polices, and an additive effect between the institutional factors and forest products export promotion policies, which could also eventually reduce the rate of deforestation. (author)

  1. Cannabis cultivation and deforestation in the Site of Bio Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Located in the North of Morocco, Bouhachem forest (about 8000 ha) is threatened by increased deforestation. In order to assure the sustainable management of this forest, the study of its landscape dynamic has been conducted, with emphasis on the role of cannabis cultivation and deforestation. For this, forest inventory ...

  2. Revisiting deforestation in Africa (1990–2010): One more lost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This spotlight revisits the dynamics and prognosis outlined in the late 1980's published in Déforestation en Afrique. This book on deforestation in Africa utilized available statistical data from the 1980's and was a pioneering self - styled attempt to provide a holistic viewpoint of the ongoing trends pertaining to deforestation in ...

  3. Implic ations of climate change and deforestation on behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change and deforestation are significant in the shift of age-old weather and seasonal cycles in biological and agricultural activities. Indiscriminate forest exploitation leads to deforestation also, release of CO2 and other pollutants tampers with ozone layer which has been acting as a big umbrella against ultraviolet ...

  4. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  5. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  6. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Heilmayr, Robert; Gibbs, Holly K; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N; Morton, Douglas C; Walker, Nathalie F; Paoli, Gary D; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-02

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km 2 ) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y -1 Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N.; Morton, Douglas C.; Walker, Nathalie F.; Paoli, Gary D.; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only “sustainable” palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y−1. Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. PMID:29229857

  8. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Evasion from Amazonian Rivers and Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Barbosa, P.; Schofield, V.; Amaral, J.; Forsberg, B.; Farjalla, V.

    2013-12-01

    Floodplains, with their mosaic of aquatic habitats, constitute the majority of the wetlands of South America. We report 1) estimates of CH4 and CO2 flux from Amazonian floodplain lakes and rivers during low, rising and high water periods, and 2) identify environmental factors regulating these fluxes. We sampled 10 floodplain lakes, 4 tributaries of Solimões River, 6 stations on the Solimões main stem and 1 station on the Madeira, Negro and Amazonas rivers. Diffusive fluxes were measured with static floating chambers. CH4 fluxes were highly variable, with the majority of the values lower than 5 mmol m-2 d-1. For the lakes, no significant differences among the periods were found. CH4 concentration in the water and water temperature were the two main environmental factors regulating the diffusive flux. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the spatial and temporal scales when estimating CH4 fluxes for a region. CO2 fluxes from water to atmosphere ranged between 327 and -21 mmol m-2 d-1, averaging 58 mmol m-2 d-1. We found higher evasion rates in lakes than in rivers. For both systems the lowest rates were found in low water. pH and dissolved oxygen, phosphorous and organic carbon were the main factors correlated to CO2 evasion from the water bodies.

  9. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-05

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.

  10. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  11. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  12. Study of climate change related to deforestation in the Xishuangbanna area, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcheng Li; Cong Lai

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of the results of deforestation and the meteorological data of the Xinshuangbanna region of China shows that there are possible relations between the deforestation and climate change. With the forest area decreased by 33% during the past 30 years, the climate of this region has also been changed. The annual mean temperature has been increased by 0.7C, of which the increase is 0.97C in the dry season and 0.53C in the wet season. Together with the annual temperature increase the temperature variations have also been increased, which has resulted in more frequent low temperature damage to the local plantation agriculture. The relative humidity decreased by 3% annually; and the annual precipitation also decreased, with a decrease in the wet season of 6.8% and an increase in the dry season of 20.8%

  13. Socioeconomic drivers of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Carlos F; Bilsborrow, Richard E; McClain, Michael E

    2006-06-01

    Investigations of land use/land cover (LULC) change and forest management are limited by a lack of understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect land use. This lack also constrains the predictions of future deforestation, which is especially important in the Amazon basin, where large tracts of natural forest are being converted to managed uses. Research presented in this article was conducted to address this lack of understanding. Its objectives are (a) to quantify deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) during the periods 1986-1996 and 1996-2002; and (b) to determine the significance and magnitude of the effects of socioeconomic factors on deforestation rates at both the parroquia (parish) and finca (farm) levels. Annual deforestation rates were quantified via satellite image processing and geographic information systems. Linear spatial lag regression analyses were then used to explore relationships between socioeconomic factors and deforestation. Socioeconomic factors were obtained, at the finca level, from a detailed household survey carried out in 1990 and 1999, and at the parroquia level from data in the 1990 and 2001 Ecuadorian censuses of population. We found that the average annual deforestation rate was 2.5% and 1.8%/year for 1986-1996 and 1996-2002, respectively. At the parroquia level, variables representing demographic factors (i.e., population density) and accessibility factors (i.e., road density), among others, were found to be significantly related to deforestation. At the farm level, the factors related to deforestation were household size, distance by road to main cities, education, and hired labor. The findings of this research demonstrate both the severity of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon and the array of factors affecting deforestation in the tropics.

  14. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  15. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  16. Assessment and monitoring of deforestation and forest fragmentation in South Asia since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Vazeed Pasha, S.; Satish, K. V.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Rao, P. V. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2018-02-01

    The present study, first of its kind, has analyzed the land cover and investigated the spatial patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation in South Asian region since the 1930's. This region comprises of eight countries: India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. In South Asia, agricultural land is predominant constituting 43% of the total geographical area followed by barren land (19.99%) and forests (14.72%). The long-term change analysis using the classified maps of 1930 and 2014 indicated a loss of 29.62% of the forest cover. Higher annual net deforestation rates were observed in the period from 1930-1975 (0.68%) followed by 1975-1985 (0.23%), 1985-1995 (0.12%), 1995-2005 (0.06%) and 2005-2014 (0.04%) for the region. Forest fragmentation had significant spatio-temporal variation across the South Asian countries. In 1930, 88.91% of the South Asian forest was classified as large core forest, 8.18% as edge forest and 1.18% as perforated forest. The large core forest category has decreased significantly in area over last eight decades. The results of the present study are expected to serve as a reference for the evaluation of globally agreed Aichi biodiversity target 5 for South Asian countries. This study will be a valuable basis for developing management strategies and restoration programs as it tracks the spatial changes in deforestation and forest fragmentation.

  17. Deforestation alters rainfall: a myth or reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. F.; Mustafa, M. R.; Hashim, A. M.; Yusof, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    To cope with the issue of food safety and human shelter, natural landscape has gone through a number of alterations. In the coming future, the expansion of urban land and agricultural farms will likely disrupt the natural environment. Researchers have claimed that land use change may become the most serious issue of the current century. Thus, it is necessary to understand the consequences of land use change on the climatic variables, e.g., rainfall. This study investigated the impact of deforestation on local rainfall. An integrated methodology was adopted to achieve the objectives. Above ground biomass was considered as the indicator of forest areas. Time series data of a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor were obtained for the year of 2000, 2005, and 2010. Rainfall data were collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. The MODIS time series data were classified and four major classes were developed based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ranges. The results of the classification showed that water, and urban and agricultural lands have increased in their area by 2, 3, and 6%, respectively. On the other hand, the area of forest has decreased 10% collectively from 2000 to 2010. The results of NDVI and rainfall data were analysed by using a linear regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship at a 90% confidence interval between rainfall and deforestation (t = 1.92, p = 0.06). The results of this study may provide information about the consequences of land use on the climate on the local scale.

  18. Elements of metacommunity structure in Amazonian Zygoptera among streams under different spatial scales and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Vieira, Thiago Bernardi; de Oliveira-Junior, José Max Barbosa; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro

    2017-05-01

    An important aspect of conservation is to understand the founding elements and characteristics of metacommunities in natural environments, and the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance on these patterns. In natural Amazonian environments, the interfluves of the major rivers play an important role in the formation of areas of endemism through the historical isolation of species and the speciation process. We evaluated elements of metacommunity structure for Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) sampled in 93 Amazonian streams distributed in two distinct biogeographic regions (areas of endemism). Of sampled streams, 43 were considered to have experienced negligible anthropogenic impacts, and 50 were considered impacted by anthropogenic activities. Our hypothesis was that preserved ("negligible impact") streams would present a Clementsian pattern, forming clusters of distinct species, reflecting the biogeographic pattern of the two regions, and that anthropogenic streams would present random patterns of metacommunity, due to the loss of more sensitive species and dominance of more tolerant species, which have higher dispersal ability and environmental tolerance. In negligible impact streams, the Clementsian pattern reflected a strong biogeographic pattern, which we discuss considering the areas of endemism of Amazonian rivers. As for communities in human-impacted streams, a biotic homogenization was evident, in which rare species were suppressed and the most common species had become hyper-dominant. Understanding the mechanisms that trigger changes in metacommunities is an important issue for conservation, because they can help create mitigation measures for the impacts of anthropogenic activities on biological communities, and so should be expanded to studies using other taxonomic groups in both tropical and temperate systems, and, wherever possible, at multiple spatial scales.

  19. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Soybean exports and deforestation from a world-systems perspective: a cross-national investigation of comparative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kelly F

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on world-system theorizing to explore the relationship between deforestation and the vertical flow of soybean exports from less-developed nations to more-developed nations as a specific form of ecologically unequal exchange. Despite overwhelming case-study research exploring soybean-deforestation dynamics in less-developed countries, the current literature lacks any cross-national investigation of this trend. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine whether soybean exports are associated with deforestation and if the magnitude of this relationship varies by region. Overall, the findings confirm the proposed hypotheses and suggest that having a comparative advantage in soybean production is not a viable development strategy.

  2. Debt, Structural Adjustment and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Shandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present cross-national models that examine the determinants of deforestation from 1990 to 2005 for a sample of sixty-two poor nations. We test dependency theory hypotheses that both debt and structural adjustment affect forests. We find substantial support for this theoretical perspective. The results indicate that both factors increase deforestation. We also find support for world polity theory that international non-governmental organization density decreases deforestation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the findings, policy implications, and possible directions for future research.

  3. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the causes of deforestation for a representative set of Bolivian municipalities. The literature on environmental economics insists on the importance of physical and social factors. We focus on the last group of variables. Our objective is to identify causal mechanisms between these factors of risk and the problem of deforestation. To this end, we present a testing strategy for spatial causality, based on a sequence of Lagrange Multipliers. The results that we obtain for the Bolivian case confirm only partially the traditional view of the problem of deforestation. Indeed, we only find unequivocal signs of causality in relation to the structure of property rights.

  4. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; hide

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  5. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  6. The deforestation debate; estimates vary widely over the extent of forest loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-01-01

    While tropical forests are vanishing at a disturbing rate, the wide-spread disagreement over deforestation estimates makes it difficult for government officials and scientists to assess the problem. In turn this hampers efforts to gauge the threat of related issues such as habitat destruction and global warming. Creating more confusion is the realization that partly deforested, but not stripped, lands have not been completely taken into account. In addition lands in tropical regions but outside the tropical rain forest are poorly represented. This article uses Brazil as an example of the conflicting estimates. The efforts of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to improve its estimates are described. An on-going NASA project to help is also described

  7. Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lauk, Christian; Kastner, Thomas; Mayer, Andreas; Theurl, Michaela C; Haberl, Helmut

    2016-04-19

    Safeguarding the world's remaining forests is a high-priority goal. We assess the biophysical option space for feeding the world in 2050 in a hypothetical zero-deforestation world. We systematically combine realistic assumptions on future yields, agricultural areas, livestock feed and human diets. For each scenario, we determine whether the supply of crop products meets the demand and whether the grazing intensity stays within plausible limits. We find that many options exist to meet the global food supply in 2050 without deforestation, even at low crop-yield levels. Within the option space, individual scenarios differ greatly in terms of biomass harvest, cropland demand and grazing intensity, depending primarily on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human diets. Grazing constraints strongly limit the option space. Without the option to encroach into natural or semi-natural land, trade volumes will rise in scenarios with globally converging diets, thereby decreasing the food self-sufficiency of many developing regions.

  8. Paleoclimatic Comparisons Between Three Late Quaternary Amazonian Lacustrine Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Martins, G. S.; Fontes, D.; Turcq, B.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J. S.; Conceição, M. G.; Barbosa, M.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Moreira, L.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years many records made in the cores of ice has shown significant changes in temperature associated with changes in atmospheric composition. The most notable changes occur between the glacials and interglacials cycles. Climatic changes in tropical areas during the global climatic changes is highly debatable. Even today, there are many controversies about the extent of the occurrence of dry weather in the Amazon during glacial periods. In the region of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, polynic diagram of Lagoa da Pata showed that vegetation remained with elements of forest trees, with replacement of elements of cold weather during the last glacial. In Carajás were observed substitution forest to savannah, during the last glacial. We present here a comparison of organic and inorganic geochemical sediment record of tree distinct Amazonian sectors: Morro dos Seis Lagos (AM) is located at 0°17‧9.68″ N and 66°40‧36.18″ W (Lagoa da Pata, LPT V core position) located in the forested upper Rio Negro basin in humid climate area (~3000 mm/yr), Carajás Region at 5°50‧ to 6°35‧ S and 49°30‧ to 52°00‧ situated 800 m high in lateritic crust in south eastern Amazonia (1800mm/yr) and São Benedito Region (PA) at 9°7'0.87"S and 56°16'0.00"W (Lago do Saci, Sac01/05 core position) in south Amazonia with a mean precipitation as Carajás around 1800 mm/yr. A comparison of these records reveals important changes in the environmental history of the Amazonian hydrological regime during the late Quaternary. The results of geochemical analyses reveal three hydrological and climatic regimes from 50,000 cal yr BP until the present. The first phase, between 50,000 until ~25,000 cal yr BP, was characterized by relatively high lake level as suggested by high organic carbon values in Lagoa da Pata and Carajás principally in the beginning of the period. In Saci Lake in the beginning of the record (35,500 cal yr BP) high values of TOC were observed relatively to last

  9. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  10. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  11. Understanding moisture recycling for atmospheric river management in Amazonian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Luedeke, Matthias; Zemp, Delphine-Clara; Lakes, Tobia; Pradhan, Prajal; Kropp, Juergen

    2017-04-01

    The invisible atmospheric transports of moisture have recently attracted more research efforts into understanding their structures, processes involved and their function as an ecosystem service. Current attention has been focused on larger scale analysis such as studying global or continental level moisture recycling. Here we applied a water balance model to backtrack the flying river that sustains two local communities in the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon where vulnerable communities rely highly on the rainfall for agricultural practices. By utilising global precipitation (TRMM Multisatillite Precipitation Analysis; TMPA) and evapotranspiration products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS, MOD16ET) as input data in the present modelling experiments to compensate the sparse ground observation data in these regions, the moisture recycling process targeting the two amazonian communities which has not yet been explored quantitatively has been shown. The TMPA was selected because of its proved comparativeness with observation data in its precipitation estimations over Amazon regions while the MOD16ET data was chosen for being validated by previous studies in the Amazon basin and for reported good performance. In average, 45.5 % of the precipitation occurring to Caquetá region in Colombia is of terrestrial origin from the South American continent while 48.2% of the total rainfall received by Peruvian Yurimaguas is also from the South American land sources. The spatial distribution of the precipitationsheds (defined previously as the upwind contribution of evapotranspiration to a specific location's precipitation) shows transboundary and transnational shares in the moisture contributors of the precipitation for both regions. An interesting reversed upstream-downstream roles can be observed when the upstream regions in traditional watershed thinking become downstream areas considering precipitationsheds and flying rivers. Strong seasonal variations are

  12. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Freitas Alvarado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances <100 km, where north-western and south-western Amazonian regions showed greater floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  13. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  14. Splitting the Difference: A Proposal for Benefit Sharing in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, compensation would be estimated in relation to national performance but how these incentives will be channeled within countries has not been specified and there are concerns about how the benefits will be shared among different stakeholders. One central issue is that under the national approach good performance in one region can be offset by underperformance in other regions of the country thus preventing the generation of predictable local incentives. Other issues relate to the need to provide incentives to a wide range of stakeholders and to avoid perverse reactions. To address these and other issues we propose separating the accounting of reduced deforestation, reduced degradation and enhancement of forests. The local attribution of credits would be easier for carbon enhancement, and possibly reduced degradation, than for reduced deforestation, since carbon gains can, in principle, be measured locally in the first two cases, while estimating achievements in reduced deforestation requires a regional approach. This separation in attribution of rewards can help to create adequate incentives for the different stakeholders and overcome some of the problems associated with the design and implementation of national REDD+ programs.

  15. Deforestation and malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sarah H; Gangnon, Ronald; Silveira, Guilherme Abbad; Patz, Jonathan A

    2010-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Amazon. We used malaria reports for health districts collected in 2006 by the Programa Nacional de Controle da Malaria to determine whether deforestation is associated with malaria incidence in the county (municipio) of Mancio Lima, Acre State, Brazil. Cumulative percent deforestation was calculated for the spatial catchment area of each health district by using 60 x 60-meter, resolution-classified imagery. Statistical associations were identified with univariate and multivariate general additive negative binomial models adjusted for spatial effects. Our cross-sectional study shows malaria incidence across health districts in 2006 is positively associated with greater changes in percentage of cumulative deforestation within respective health districts. After adjusting for access to care, health district size, and spatial trends, we show that a 4.2%, or 1 SD, change in deforestation from August 1997 through August 2001 is associated with a 48% increase of malaria incidence.

  16. Tropical Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An Editorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Nepstad, D. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  17. Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An editorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  18. The role of supply-chain initiatives in reducing deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin, Eric F.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Heilmayr, Robert; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fleck, Leonardo C.; Garrett, Rachael D.; le Polain de Waroux, Yann; McDermott, Constance L.; McLaughlin, David; Newton, Peter; Nolte, Christoph; Pacheco, Pablo; Rausch, Lisa L.; Streck, Charlotte; Thorlakson, Tannis; Walker, Nathalie F.

    2018-01-01

    A major reduction in global deforestation is needed to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss. Recent private sector commitments aim to eliminate deforestation from a company's operations or supply chain, but they fall short on several fronts. Company pledges vary in the degree to which they include time-bound interventions with clear definitions and criteria to achieve verifiable outcomes. Zero-deforestation policies by companies may be insufficient to achieve broader impact on their own due to leakage, lack of transparency and traceability, selective adoption and smallholder marginalization. Public-private policy mixes are needed to increase the effectiveness of supply-chain initiatives that aim to reduce deforestation. We review current supply-chain initiatives, their effectiveness, and the challenges they face, and go on to identify knowledge gaps for complementary public-private policies.

  19. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Chagnon, Frédéric J F; Williams, Earle R; Betts, Alan K; Renno, Nilton O; Machado, Luiz A T; Bisht, Gautam; Knox, Ryan; Bras, Rafael L

    2009-03-10

    Shallow clouds are prone to appear over deforested surfaces whereas deep clouds, much less frequent than shallow clouds, favor forested surfaces. Simultaneous atmospheric soundings at forest and pasture sites during the Rondonian Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE-3) elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed correlation between clouds and land cover. We demonstrate that the atmospheric boundary layer over the forested areas is more unstable and characterized by larger values of the convective available potential energy (CAPE) due to greater humidity than that which is found over the deforested area. The shallow convection over the deforested areas is relatively more active than the deep convection over the forested areas. This greater activity results from a stronger lifting mechanism caused by mesoscale circulations driven by deforestation-induced heterogeneities in land cover.

  1. Weak simulated extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Knutson, T.R.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory atmosphere-land model version 2 (AM2/LM2) coupled to a 50-m-thick slab ocean model has been used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation. Magnitudes and significance of differences between a control run and a deforested run are assessed through comparisons of 50-yr time series, accounting for autocorrelation and field significance. Complete conversion of the broadleaf evergreen forests of South America, central Africa, and the islands of Oceania to grasslands leads to highly significant local responses. In addition, a broad but mild warming is seen throughout the tropical troposphere (deforested run and the control run are similar in magnitude and area to the differences between nonoverlapping segments of the control run. These simulations suggest that extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation are unlikely to be distinguishable from natural climate variability.

  2. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the vertical contoured frequency-by-altitude diagrams (CFADs) for representative mesoscale convective systems for dry and wet seasons. Rainfall yields from mesoscale convective storms will be linked to the antecedent thermodynamic conditions derived from analyses of upper air soundings.

  3. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. 
DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomas...

  4. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. O. Vieira; N. T. Santos; A. P. S. Carneiro; A. A. S. Balieiro

    2012-01-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Huma...

  5. Deforestation in Portugal: causes, consequences and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, João; Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Ricardo; Póvoa, Orlanda

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation is not a new problem although world-wide population awareness is increasing. This issue has terrible environmental, social and economic consequences due to the over-exploitation of the natural resources and to alternative land uses which are more profitable in the short term. The combat and mitigation of deforestation is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century in order to achieve the Millennium Goals and a global sustainable development at all levels of human activiti...

  6. Deforestation and Seigniorage in Developing Countries: A Tradeoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Jean-Louis; Combes Motel, Pascale; Minea, Alexandru; Villieu, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Etudes & documents; Most of countries covered by natural forests are developing countries, with limited ability to levy taxes and restrained access to international credit markets; consequently, they are amenable to draw heavily on two sources of government financing, namely seigniorage and deforestation revenues. First, we develop a theoretical model emphasizing a substitution effect between seigniorage and deforestation revenues. Second, a panel-data econometric analysis over the 1990-2010 ...

  7. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boun...

  8. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  9. Deforestation and its impacts on district Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Shahzadi, I.; Yousaf, S.

    2005-01-01

    In District Abbottabad, area cover under forests is 76148 ha, which is 5.4% of the forest resources of the province. The study areas have sufficient natural resources but these natural resources are depleting very rapidly. The present study showed that most of the population living especially near the mountain range is poor, illiterate and having no other means of income generation. Therefore they cut forests trees for the fuel and timber not only to fulfill their domestic needs but also on commercial scale. There are no other alternatives of fuel wood in the area. They mostly depend of forest for fuel wood. People of the area get timber mainly from the nearby forests for construction. Agriculture is the backbone of local economy in the area. The forest trees near the agriculture area are cut down to extend their agricultural land. Soil erosion and flooding is increased because of clearing of land for agriculture. People of the area graze their livestock freely in the rangelands and forests without taking care of their carrying capacity. The political administration and forest department cannot take any step to prevent overgrazing and deforestation activities in the area. Some times the local people damage the plants by cutting or putting them in fire, which causes severe damage to the plants. Lack of awareness among local communities about the importance of natural resources i.e. forest and wildlife. The people considered the wildlife, as free gift of nature there is no restriction on hunting from government or other agency. (author)

  10. The REDD scheme to curb deforestation: a well designed system of incentives?

    OpenAIRE

    Figuieres, Charles; MIDLER, Estelle; Leplay, Solenn; Thoyer, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Bioprospection is, largely, meant to help reducing deforestation and, the other way around, stopping deforestation enhances the prospects of bioprospection. The need for a global agreement to the problem of tropical deforestation has led to the REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) scheme, which 10 proposes that developed countries pay developing countries for CO2 emissions saved through avoided deforestation and degradation. The remaining issue at stake is to define th...

  11. The Effect of Trade Openness on Deforestation: Empirical Analysis for 142 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya, Tsurumi; Shunsuke, Managi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effect of trade openness on deforestation. Previous studies do not find a clear effect of trade openness on deforestation. We use updated data on the annual rate of deforestation for 142 countries from 1990 to 2003, treat trade and income as endogenous, and take into consideration an adjustment process by applying a dynamic model. We find that an increase in trade openness increases deforestation for non-OECD countries while slowing down deforestation for OECD countrie...

  12. Functional differentiation between fish assemblages from forested and deforested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Barreto Teresa

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that streams in deforested areas shelter different fish communities to nearby forested areas, and that these disparities are due to environmental parameters that limit or benefit different species according to their functional traits. We compared the community composition of three south east Brazilian streams flanked by riparian forest with three nearby streams in deforested areas. The following functional traits were considered: diet, habitat use, water flow preference, size, and hypoxia tolerance. Differentiation between forested and deforested streams corresponded with the different contributions of three functional groups. Species reported in the literature to be hypoxia tolerant, and exhibiting a variable combination of the other traits prevailed in deforested streams, although we did not find substantial differences in oxygen levels between forested and deforested streams. In forested streams, benthic species associated with a high water flow and an insectivorous diet were dominant. Changes in streams induced by deforestation which are associated with habitat availability, food resources, and physicochemical conditions appear to restrict the occurrence of specialized species and instead benefit tolerant generalists.

  13. Deforestation trend in North Sumatra over 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistiyono, N.; Wati, R.; Hayati, R.

    2018-02-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation have been previously reported to contributing greenhouse gas emission, the primary driver of global warming. The present paper studies deforestation and reforestation trend in North Sumatra, Indonesia using land-use/land-cover change from 1990-2015. The land-use consists of three classes derived from forest land (primary and secondary dry land forest, primary and secondary swamp forest, primary and secondary mangrove forest). Non-Forest (shrub, oil palm plantation, forest plantation, settlement, barren land, swamp shrub, dry land farming, mixed dry land farming, paddy field, aquaculture, airport, transmigration, and mining), and water body (water and swamp). Results showed that from 33 regencies/city in North Sumatra, among them, 25 districts deforested, which was the highest deforestation rate in Labuhanbatu and South Labuhanbatu (2,238.08 and 1,652.55 ha/year, respectively), only one area reforested, and seven districts showed no deforestation or reforestation. During 25 years observed, the forest has been deforested 22.92%, while nonforest has been increased 11.33% of land-use. The significant increasing loss of North Sumatran forest implies conservation efforts and developing sustainable forest management.

  14. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  15. Securitization, alterity, and the stateHuman (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  16. Deforestation in Decentralised Indonesia: What's Law Got to Do with it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Lazarus Arnold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies point to significant changes in the dynamics of deforestation in Indonesia since the introduction of decentralised governance in 2001. This essay argues that law plays an important and underestimated role in facilitating these new dynamics. This role is not limited to mere implementation failures; many of the ways in which Indonesian law makes deforestation possible can be traced back to the content of the laws themselves. In order to demonstrate this point, the essay first examines the context in which Indonesia's forestry and decentralisation laws were formulated and the salient provisions of these laws. This is followed by a discussion of the dynamics of deforestation since decentralisation and an analysis of five key ways in which law is partly responsible for the current situation: a flawed division of authority between the Central Government and the regions'; inconsistent, ambiguous and 'hollow' legislation; legislatively entrenched departmentalism; the marginalisation of forest communities; and a lack of legislative support for public participation, public interest litigation and other processes to promote sustainable forest management.

  17. Deforestation and reforestation analysis from land-use changes in North Sumatran Mangroves, 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistiyono, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove forest plays a critical role in the context of climate change in tropical and subtropical regions. The present study analyzed the deforestation and reforestation from land-use and land-cover changes from 1990, 2000, 2009 and 2015 in North Sumatran mangrove forest, Indonesia. The land-use/land-cover consists of thirteen classes namely, primary mangrove forest, secondary mangrove forest, shrub, swamp shrub, swamp, settlement, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, dry land farming, mixed dry land farming, mining, and barren land. Results showed that primary mangrove forests significantly decreased 61.21% from 1990 to 2015, mostly deforestation was derived from 1990 to 2000 to be secondary mangrove forest and swamp shrub. During 25 years observed, no reforestation was noted in the primary mangrove forest. Similarly, secondary mangrove forest had been degraded from 56,128.75 ha in 1990 to only 35,768.48 ha in 2015. Drivers of deforestation found in secondary mangrove forests were aquaculture (43.32%), barren land (32.56%), swamp shrub (10.88%), and oil palm plantation (5.17%). On the other hand, reforested activity was occurred only 701.83 ha from 1990 to 2015, while the nonforest use has been increased. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning, conservation, and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove forests.

  18. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Leff, Jonathan W; Oldfield, Emily E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Fierer, Noah; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of deforestation for aboveground biodiversity have been a scientific and political concern for decades. In contrast, despite being a dominant component of biodiversity that is essential to the functioning of ecosystems, the responses of belowground biodiversity to forest removal have received less attention. Single-site studies suggest that soil microbes can be highly responsive to forest removal, but responses are highly variable, with negligible effects in some regions. Using high throughput sequencing, we characterize the effects of deforestation on microbial communities across multiple biomes and explore what determines the vulnerability of microbial communities to this vegetative change. We reveal consistent directional trends in the microbial community response, yet the magnitude of this vegetation effect varied between sites, and was explained strongly by soil texture. In sandy sites, the difference in vegetation type caused shifts in a suite of edaphic characteristics, driving substantial differences in microbial community composition. In contrast, fine-textured soil buffered microbes against these effects and there were minimal differences between communities in forest and grassland soil. These microbial community changes were associated with distinct changes in the microbial catabolic profile, placing community changes in an ecosystem functioning context. The universal nature of these patterns allows us to predict where deforestation will have the strongest effects on soil biodiversity, and how these effects could be mitigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Correspondence: Rapid tree carbon stock recovery in managed Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutishauser, E.; Hérault, B.; Baraloto, C.; Blanc, L.; Descroix, L.; Sotta, E.; Ferreira, J.; Kanashiro, M.; Mazzei, L.; Pena Claros, M.

    2015-01-01

    While around 20% of the Amazonian forest has been cleared for pastures and agriculture, one fourth of the remaining forest is dedicated to wood production [1]. Most of these production forests have been or will be selectively harvested for commercial timber, but recent studies show that even soon

  20. The Amazonian Formative: Crop Domestication and Anthropogenic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arroyo-Kalin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of sedentism and agriculture in Amazonia continues to sit uncomfortably within accounts of South American pre-Columbian history. This is partially because deep-seated models were formulated when only ceramic evidence was known, partly because newer data continue to defy simple explanations, and partially because many discussions continue to ignore evidence of pre-Columbian anthropogenic landscape transformations. This paper presents the results of recent geoarchaeological research on Amazonian anthropogenic soils. It advances the argument that properties of two different types of soils, terras pretas and terras mulatas, support their interpretation as correlates of, respectively, past settlement areas and fields where spatially-intensive, organic amendment-reliant cultivation took place. This assessment identifies anthropogenic soil formation as a hallmark of the Amazonian Formative and prompts questions about when similar forms of enrichment first appear in the Amazon basin. The paper reviews evidence for embryonic anthrosol formation to highlight its significance for understanding the domestication of a key Amazonian crop: manioc (Manihot esculenta ssp. esculenta. A model for manioc domestication that incorporates anthropogenic soils outlines some scenarios which link the distribution of its two broader varieties—sweet and bitter manioc—with the widespread appearance of Amazonian anthropogenic dark earths during the first millennium AD.

  1. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Lucheta, Adriano; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  2. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr -1 ) was converted into harvested biomass (m 3 ) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m -3 . For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 10 3 m 3 of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 10 3 m 3 round wood and 240.8 x 10 3 m 3 branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO 2 , 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH 4 , 442 t NO X , 288 t NO and 12 t N 2 O per annum. The combined CO 2 -equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO X and NO) is 455 666 t yr -1 . While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management

  3. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  4. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry for Assessing Wenchuan Earthquake (2008 Deforestation in the Sichuan Giant Panda Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR has been an unparalleled tool in cloudy and rainy regions as it allows observations throughout the year because of its all-weather, all-day operation capability. In this paper, the influence of Wenchuan Earthquake on the Sichuan Giant Panda habitats was evaluated for the first time using SAR interferometry and combining data from C-band Envisat ASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR data. Coherence analysis based on the zero-point shifting indicated that the deforestation process was significant, particularly in habitats along the Min River approaching the epicenter after the natural disaster, and as interpreted by the vegetation deterioration from landslides, avalanches and debris flows. Experiments demonstrated that C-band Envisat ASAR data were sensitive to vegetation, resulting in an underestimation of deforestation; in contrast, L-band PALSAR data were capable of evaluating the deforestation process owing to a better penetration and the significant coherence gain on damaged forest areas. The percentage of damaged forest estimated by PALSAR decreased from 20.66% to 17.34% during 2009–2010, implying an approximate 3% recovery rate of forests in the earthquake impacted areas. This study proves that long-wavelength SAR interferometry is promising for rapid assessment of disaster-induced deforestation, particularly in regions where the optical acquisition is constrained.

  6. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Four Amazonian Byrsonima Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhon-Simplicio, Fernanda; Machado, Tallita Marques; do Nascimento, Leandro Flores; Souza, Rayanne da Silva; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; da Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo; Acho, Leonard Domingo Rosales; Dos Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Cos, Paul; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2017-11-01

    Species of the Byrsonima genus are widely used in Brazil, especially for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, species from the Amazonian region are still poorly studied. Thus, we studied the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of for Amazonian species, Byrsonima crispa, Byrsonima duckeana, Byrsonima garcibarrigae, and Byrsonima incarnata. Phenolic composition was determined by chemical and chromatographic methods. The aqueous extracts were evaluated in DPPH • , ABTS +• , and superoxide (O 2 •- ) tests, LPS-activated macrophage assay, and formalin test. All species contained a high phenolic and flavonoid content. We identified 15 phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and catechins. The extracts showed high antioxidant activity and were more active than quercetin at inhibiting nitric oxide release in the LPS-activated macrophage assay. B. duckeana and B. garcibarrigae showed higher in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. B. garcibarrigae presented significant effect on the early phase of the formalin test, pointing to an antinociceptive mechanism distinct from traditional anti-inflammatory medicines. In conclusion, the pharmacological potential of these species is closely related to their flavonoid-rich chemical composition, which seems to act through antioxidant mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Application of lipases to regiospecific interesterification of exotic oils from an Amazonian area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2016-01-20

    Enzymatic interesterification may favor the development of lipid fractions from Amazonian oils with greater application potential. In this study, the Amazonian buriti oil and murumuru fat were subjected to enzymatic interesterification using two lipases in three different enzyme systems: one with a commercial lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa, a second with the lipase produced by Rhizopus sp., and a third with a mixture of both lipases. The three enzyme systems were able to catalyze the reaction, but the enzymes showed different specificities. The commercial lipase was specific for unsaturated fatty acids, whereas the Rhizopus sp. lipase was specific for both unsaturated fatty acids and the positions sn -1 and sn -3 of the fatty acid on the triacylglycerol. The mixture of both lipases showed no synergistic effect: the results were intermediate between the two enzymes applied alone. Interesterification reduced the levels of trisaturated and triunsaturated triacylglycerols and increased the levels of diunsaturated-monosaturated and monounsaturated-disaturated triacylglycerols. The thermal melting behavior indicated the formation of a single endothermic region with more homogeneous triacylglycerols. The content of the bioactive β-carotene was preserved after the interesterification reaction with all three-enzyme systems. The interesterified lipids obtained, because of the characteristics of the oils, may be applied to the formulation of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trade, tropical deforestation and policy interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Rauscher, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines several aspects of the links between the trade in tropical timber and deforestation from the perspective of an exporting country. The various versions of the model developed here have highlighted a number of important features of this linkage. First, if the producer country values its tropical forest solely as a source of timber export earnings then it will aim for a smaller forest stock in the long run than if it also considers the other values provided by the forest. Second, if importing nations want the exporting countries to conserve more of their forests, trade interventions appear to be second-best way of achieving this result. Third, increased market power by a large country exporter or group of exporters may actually lead to greater forest conservation. Finally, the existence of a foreign capital market may further ensure that the tropical timber country may conserve its forest stock in the long run. Several recent reviews of global forest sector policies have discussed implications similar to those analyzed theoretically in our model. Generally, the same conclusions have been reached. However, what is of increasing concern is that domestic market and policy failures within tropical forest countries continue to distort the incentives for more sustainable management of timber production and efficient development of processing capacity, while at the same time the international community increasingly contemplates the use of bans, tariffs and other trade measures to discourage 'unsustainable' tropical timber exploitation. As our paper has attempted to show, sometimes the more simple solutions lead neither to a straightforward, nor to the desired, results. 18 refs, 1 fig

  10. The imprint of Late Holocene tectonic reactivation on a megafan landscape in the northern Amazonian wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Valeriano, M. M.; Gribel, R.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Tatumi, S. H.; Yee, M.

    2017-10-01

    The modern Amazonian ecosystem outcomes from the complex interplay of different factors performed over the geological history, with tectonics being long speculated as perhaps a fundamental one. Nevertheless, areas where tectonic activity can be fully characterized are still scarce in view of the large dimension of this region. In this work, we investigate the signature of neotectonics in one megafan paleolandform that typifies a large sector of the Negro-Branco basin in northern Amazonia. The approach joined regional morphostructural descriptions of the Viruá megafan surface and the acquisition of topographic, sedimentological, and chronological data focusing on the central sector of the megafan. The results revealed an abundance of rivers that form dendritic, subdendritic, and trellis patterns. These rivers also have numerous straight segments, orthogonal junctions, and orthogonal shifts in courses. Structural lineaments, defined by straight channels and also straight lake margins, are aligned along the NW-SE and NE-SW directions that are coincidental with the main regional structural pattern in Amazonia. This study also led to recognize two large areas of lower topography in the south-central part of the megafan that consist of rectangular depressions parallel to the morphostructural lineaments. A sedimentological survey indicated that cores extracted external to the largest depression have only distributary channel and overbank sand sheet megafan deposits. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages ranged from 17.5 ± 2.0 to 46.9 ± 3.4 ky and radiocarbon ages ranged from 5.9-5.7 to 20.1-19.6 cal ky BP. In contrast, cores extracted within the depression consisted of fluvial deposits younger than 2.1-1.9 cal ky BP that increased in thickness toward the central part of the depression. We propose that the studied megafan was affected by tectonic reactivation until at least a couple thousand years ago. Tectonics would have produced subsiding areas more prone to

  11. EVOLUTION OF DEFORESTATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEGRADATION IN RONDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joiada Moreira da Silva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the deforestation evolution correlated to the proposal of a territorial planning implanted by Rondônia Social-Economical and Ecological Zoning – SEEZ – decree number 4.297 signed in July 2002, regulated in 2002. In order to determine theindicators of degradation (deforestation, we opted for the analysis of maps of deforestation elaborated in the years: 1973, 1991 and 1999. We used digital classification of sensor image TM/Landsat (scenes 230/68, 231/67, 231/68, 232/66 e a 232/67, bands – 3, 4 e 5, and digitalized in a Geographic Information System – GIS/SPRING version 4.0 e COREL DRAW-10. The SEEZ/RO establishes three zones: zone – 01, destined mainly to agriculture and cattle raising activities, zone – 02, composed by special areas and zone 03 represented by areas of restricted use (Conservation Unity. The deforestation in Rondônia increased in the period from 1978 to 1999, when the deforested area passed from 420.000 hectares to 5.418.059 hectares, respectively, which corresponds to 23, 71% of the state of Rondônia.

  12. Albedo as a modulator of climate response to tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Shukla, J.

    1994-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model with land surface properties represented by the simplified Simple Biosphere model is used to investigate the effects on local climate due to tropical deforestation for the Amazon basin. One control and three anomaly integrations of 4 years' duration are performed. In the anomaly integrations, rain forest in South America is replaced by degraded grassland. The anomaly integrations differ only in the optical properties of the grassland vegetation, with net surface albedos ranging from the same as to 0.09 lighter than that of rain forest. It is found that the change in climate, particularly rainfall, is strongly dependent on the change in surface albedo that accompanies deforestation. Replacement of forest by grass causes a reduction in transpiration and reduces frictional convergence by decreasing surface roughness. However, precipitation averaged over the deforested area is not necessarily reduced. Average precipitation decreases when the increase in albedo is greater than 0.03. If surface albedo is not increased appreciably as a result of deforestation, moisture flux convergence driven by the increase in surface temperature can offset the other effects, and average precipitation increases. As albedo is increased, surface temperature does not change, but surface latent and sensible heat flux decreases due to reduced radiational energy absorbed at the surface, resulting in a reduction in convection and precipitation. A change in the distribution of precipitation due to deforestation that appears to be independent of the albedo is observed.

  13. Forests and water - Friends or foes?. Hydrological implications of deforestation and land degradation in semi-arid Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the study area in Babati District in Tanzania a multi-component research approach was attempted. Two catchments, one forested and one deforested-degraded, were studied regarding soil properties, runoff and groundwater recharge. This was done both in the field and with the use of two computer models: one simulating groundwater recharge as a function of rainfall variability, and one simulating hydrological implications of massive land cover conversion on the flooding of nearby Lake Babati. Three major findings came out of the study. The first is that most forested catchments (in various hydroclimates and landscapes) will increase the runoff following deforestation (due to less evapotranspiration). This is well-established knowledge, but it also depends on the actual conditions at hand. These conditions are defined as hydroclimate, soil texture and slope. In humid-temperate climates with coarse soils on flat land, the conditions strongly favor increased runoff following deforestation. However, in dry regions with fine textured soils on hilly ground, and where deforestation also implies land degradation, less dry season flow is likely to develop after a considerable adjustment period has been allowed. Secondly, the prevalence of preferential flow in a forest soil, as compared to a compacted and eroded soil, must be a key component in an explanation of why more dry season flow can emerge from a forested as compared to a deforested catchment in the dry tropics. Thirdly, there are several aspects of semi-arid and arid tropical hydrology which make comparisons with humid-temperate regions difficult and require special attention in the management of water resources in the dry tropics. 14 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  14. The Dutch Economic Contribution to Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Indonesia and Malaysia 1995-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Several studies and approaches look upon the ecological footprint of countries and cities, including the Netherlands. These studies show that the ecological footprint of the Netherlands has increased to about six times its current area in 2002. An important component of the footprint is the impact of Dutch trade and consumption of agro-commodities, putting a claim on land. This study takes a comparable but slightly different approach by looking at the contribution by Dutch imports of selected agro-commodities on the change of land-use from forests to degraded forests or croplands by deforestation. This transition is accompanied by a loss of various ecosystem services, especially habitat for biodiversity and carbon sequestration. The impact on deforestation and forest degradation generally has an irreversible character, and can be interpreted as the increasing proportion of land of which productivity is being focused at human consumption demands. This study was originally inspired by the 1991 policy study 'Regeringsstandpunt Tropisch Regenwoud' (Governmental point of view with regard to tropical forests), and subsequent policy decisions, stating Dutch government commitments to contribute to the protection of tropical and temperate intact forests. These policy decisions include a variety of initiatives aimed at reducing deforestation, such as encouraging certification, afforestation and forest management projects, regional agreements to combat illegal logging (FLEGT: Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade, and others), conventions to protect biodiversity, and development aid to strengthen institutional capacity in timber producing countries. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that Dutch imports and consumption of commodities results in deforestation and forest degradation in the countries where those commodities are produced. Curbing deforestation plays an important roIe in the negotiations towards a climate agreement in Copenhagen at the

  15. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  16. The Dutch Economic Contribution to Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Indonesia and Malaysia 1995-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    Several studies and approaches look upon the ecological footprint of countries and cities, including the Netherlands. These studies show that the ecological footprint of the Netherlands has increased to about six times its current area in 2002. An important component of the footprint is the impact of Dutch trade and consumption of agro-commodities, putting a claim on land. This study takes a comparable but slightly different approach by looking at the contribution by Dutch imports of selected agro-commodities on the change of land-use from forests to degraded forests or croplands by deforestation. This transition is accompanied by a loss of various ecosystem services, especially habitat for biodiversity and carbon sequestration. The impact on deforestation and forest degradation generally has an irreversible character, and can be interpreted as the increasing proportion of land of which productivity is being focused at human consumption demands. This study was originally inspired by the 1991 policy study 'Regeringsstandpunt Tropisch Regenwoud' (Governmental point of view with regard to tropical forests), and subsequent policy decisions, stating Dutch government commitments to contribute to the protection of tropical and temperate intact forests. These policy decisions include a variety of initiatives aimed at reducing deforestation, such as encouraging certification, afforestation and forest management projects, regional agreements to combat illegal logging (FLEGT: Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade, and others), conventions to protect biodiversity, and development aid to strengthen institutional capacity in timber producing countries. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that Dutch imports and consumption of commodities results in deforestation and forest degradation in the countries where those commodities are produced. Curbing deforestation plays an important roIe in the negotiations towards a climate agreement in Copenhagen at the end of

  17. Misalignment of Lava Flows from Topographic Slope Directions Reveals Late Amazonian Deformation at Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, B. A.; Chadwick, J.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Tucker, W.

    2017-12-01

    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of the three large Tharsis Montes near the equator of Mars and one of the largest volcanoes in the solar system. The main edifice of Arsia is about 440 km in diameter, the summit is over 9 km above the surrounding plains and has a pronounced 110 km caldera. Like the other Tharsis volcanoes, Arsia has a large, Late Amazonian glacial deposit on its NW flank. Previous crater retention studies for lava flows on Arsia have shown that the volcano experienced significant volcanic activity in the past 200 Ma. In this study, numerous long (>25 km), thin lava flows on the plains surrounding Arsia were mapped and used as indicators of the topographic slope direction at the time of their emplacement. The azimuthal orientation of each flow was compared with the present-day slope directions on the surrounding plains, derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. The results reveal regions around Arsia where the flows no longer conform to the topography, indicating deformation in the time since the flows where emplaced. In a region of Daedalia Planum to the SE of Arsia, modern slope directions adjacent to 40 long lava flows are consistently misaligned from the paleo-slopes indicated by the lava flow orientations, with an angular offset that averages 7.2° in the clockwise direction. Crater size-frequency measurements for these tilted plains using CraterStats software indicate that the deformation responsible for the misaligned flows took place since 330 ± 10 Ma. Conversely, part of Daedalia Planum to the southwest of Arsia is younger, with a crater retention age of 160 ± 6 Ma, and this area shows no consistent flow-topography misalignments. These observations suggest that extensive regional deformation occurred between the two dates, consistent with other evidence for significant volcanism at Arsia in the Late Amazonian at about 200 Ma. Geophysical modelling using the finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics is planned to

  18. Studying the Effects of Amazonian Land Cover Change on Glacier Mass Balance in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Montenegro, A.; Postigo, J.; Hellstrom, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted several ongoing environmental changes occurring across Tropical South America, including Andean glacier retreat, drought, as well as changes in land-use and land-cover. As the regional climate of the area is mostly characterized by land-ocean interactions, the atmospheric convection in the Amazon, and the effect of the Andes on circulation patterns, it follows that changes in one of those regions may affect the other. Most scholars who have studied the causes of tropical glaciers' fluctuations have not analyzed the linkages with changes in the Amazon with the same attention paid to the influence of Pacific sea surface temperature. Here we study the response of glacier surface mass balance in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (10°S), to a scenario where the Amazonian rainforest is replaced by savannas. We ran climatic simulations at 2-km spatial resolution utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model considering two scenarios: (a) control (CRTL), with today's rainforest extent; and (b) land cover change (LCC), where all the rainforest was replaced by savanna. WRF output was in turn ingested into a glacier energy and mass balance (GEMB) model that we validate by reconstructing both the accumulated mass balance from available observations, and the altitudinal distribution of mass balance in the region. Seasonal comparison between CRTL and LCC scenarios indicates that forest replacement by savanna results in more positive glacier mass balance. This shift to more positive mass balance contrasts with a (WRF) modeled rise in the elevation of the freezing line (0°C) between 30 to 120 m for the LCC scenario. Our results are surprising because most previous studies have shown that reducing Amazon forest cover diminishes rainfall and increases temperature, suggesting that glaciers should lose mass. We hypothesize and discuss implications of possible land-atmospheric processes that might drive this tropical glacier response to

  19. Heterogeneity of experts’ opinion regarding opportunities and challenges of tackling deforestation in the tropics: a Q methodology application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.; Nijnik, A.; Bergsma, E.; Matthews, R.

    2014-01-01

    Making the concept of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) ready to be a mechanism to combat tropical deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by compensating developing countries for income foregone in reducing their rates of deforestation, requires

  20. The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years and longer cropping periods (1–3 years with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.

  1. Effectiveness of community forest management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2015-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestation...... restricted the sample to only where information suggests effective CFM implementation on the ground. Likewise, we cannot detect an effect of CFM where commercial use of natural resources is allowed. However, we can detect a reduction in deforestation in CFM that does not permit commercial uses, compared...

  2. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, F E; Burbridge, R; Killeen, T J

    2000-12-22

    Amazonian rain forest-savanna boundaries are highly sensitive to climatic change and may also play an important role in rain forest speciation. However, their dynamics over millennial time scales are poorly understood. Here, we present late Quaternary pollen records from the southern margin of Amazonia, which show that the humid evergreen rain forests of eastern Bolivia have been expanding southward over the past 3000 years and that their present-day limit represents the southernmost extent of Amazonian rain forest over at least the past 50,000 years. This rain forest expansion is attributed to increased seasonal latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which can in turn be explained by Milankovitch astronomic forcing.

  3. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CMS: Estimated Deforested Area Biomass, Tropical America, Africa, and Asia, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of pre-deforestation aboveground live woody biomass (AGLB) at 30-m resolution for deforested areas of tropical America, tropical...

  5. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation maps were...

  6. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation...

  7. Estimating the opportunity costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions via avoided deforestation, using integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, E.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Beltran, A.M.; Kram, T.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates show that, in recent years, deforestation and forest degradation accounted for about 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) is suggested to provide substantial emission

  8. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Smith, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems. PMID:27462984

  9. A remotely sensed index of deforestation/urbanization for use in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this research is to use indirect measurements, notably thermal infrared, to describe urbanization and deforestation with parameters that can be used to assess, as well as predict, the effects of land use changes on local microclimate. More specifically, we use a new approach for the treatment of remotely sensed data; this is referred to as the 'triangle' method. The name triangle is given because the envelope of data points, when plotted as a function of surface radiant temperature versus vegetation index or fractional vegetation cover, exhibits the shape of a triangle. From the information contained on these 'scatter plots', land use changes can be related to two intrinsic surface variables, the surface moisture availability (M(sub 0))(sup 1) and fractional vegetation cover. Recent work by Carlson et al. indicate that the triangle shape on the scatter plots may be scale similar, suggesting that these two parameters are subject to the same interpretation on differing scales. A second objective in this research is to determine if historical data for Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (NOAA satellite; 1.1 km resolution at nadir) can be used to assess changes in regional land use over time. To this end, two target areas were chosen for the investigation of urbanization and two for deforestation. The former comprise tow areas in Pennsylvania, one a small but rapidly growing population center (State College) and the other a medium-sized urban area which continues to undergo development (Chester County). The two deforestation sites consist of rain forest areas in western and central Costa Rica and a region in the Brazilian Amazon.

  10. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  11. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotto, Sandra P.; Romano, Israel P.; Lisboa, Lilian U.S.; Duvoisin Junior, Sergio; Lima, Fabiana A.; Silva, Soraya F.; Alburquerque, Patricia M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Programa em Biotecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Amazonia. Lab. de Biorganica; Martins, Mayra K. [Centro de Biotecnologia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA{sub 1}15 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  12. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, Sandra P.; Romano, Israel P.; Lisboa, Lilian U.S.; Duvoisin Junior, Sergio; Lima, Fabiana A.; Silva, Soraya F.; Alburquerque, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA 1 15 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  13. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stone, Thomas A.; Davidson, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    Deforestation and logging degrade more forest in eastern and southern Amazonia than in any other region of the world. This forest alteration affects regional hydrology and the global carbon cycle, but our current understanding of these effects is limited by incomplete knowledge of tropical forest ecosystems. It is widely agreed that roots are concentrated near the soil surface in moist tropical forests, but this generalization incorrectly implies that deep roots are unimportant in water and C budgets. Our results indicate that half of the closed-canopy forests of Brazilian Amazonic occur where rainfall is highly seasonal, and these forests rely on deeply penetrating roots to extract soil water. Pasture vegetation extracts less water from deep soil than the forest it replaces, thus increasing rates of drainage and decreasing rates of evapotranspiration. Deep roots are also a source of modern carbon deep in the soil. The soils of the eastern Amazon contain more carbon below 1 m depth than is present in above-ground biomass. As much as 25 percent of this deep soil C could have annual to decadal turnover times and may be lost to the atmosphere following deforestation. We compared the importance of deep roots in a mature, evergreen forest with an adjacent man-made pasture, the most common type of vegetation on deforested land in Amazonia. The study site is near the town of Paragominas, in the Brazilian state of Para, with a seasonal rainfall pattern and deeply-weathered, kaolinitic soils that are typical for large portions of Amazonia. Root distribution, soil water extraction, and soil carbon dynamics were studied using deep auger holes and shafts in each ecosystem, and the phenology and water status of the leaf canopies were measured. We estimated the geographical distribution of deeply-rooting forests using satellite imagery, rainfall data, and field measurements.

  14. A 15-year post evaluation of the fire effects on ant community in an area of Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Jean C.; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Fire represents an important disturbance to ant communities in areas of fire regime. Otherwise, little is known about the effects of fire on ant communities in areas of non-fire regimes, such as in the Amazonian region. We evaluated the long-term effect of fire on ant species richness in a rain forest (Bacaba Plateau) burned 15-years ago and compare our data with the data of primary unburned forest. A total of 85 ant species distributed in 21 genera and 14 tribes were collected; among them, 7...

  15. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-11-01

    We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  16. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic disturbance, resulting in a heightened need for an accurate assessment of biomass and the gaining of predictive capability before these ecosystems disappear. The combination of multi-temporal remote sensing data, field data and forest growth modeling to quantify carbon stocks and flux is therefore of great importance. In this study, we utilize these methods to (1) improve forest biomass and carbon flux estimates for the study region in Eastern Madagascar, and (2) initialize an individual-based growth model that incorporates the anthropogenic factors causing deforestation to project ecosystem response to future environmental change. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between the international rice market and rates of deforestation in tropical countries such as Madagascar (see Minten et al., 2006). Further, although law protects the remaining forest areas, dictatorships and recent political unrest have lead to poor or non-existent enforcement of precious wood and forest protection over the past 35 years. Our approach combined multi-temporal remote sensing analysis and ecological modeling using a theoretical and mathematical approach to assess biomass change and to understand how tree growth and life history (growth response patterns) relate to past and present economic variability in Madagascar forests of the eastern Toamasina region. We measured rates of change of deforestation with respect to politics and the price of rice by classifying and comparing biomass using 30m Landsat during 5 political regime time periods (1985-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2001, 2002-2008, 2009 to present). Forest biomass estimations were calibrated using forest inventory data collected over 3 growing seasons over the study region (130 small circular plots in primary forest). This information was then built into the previously parameterized (Armstrong et al., in prep and Fischer et al in

  17. On the economic factors of deforestation: what can we learn from quantile analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Damette; Philippe Delacote

    2011-01-01

    The factors of deforestation at a global level have been widely studied in the empirical economic literature. However, the high heterogeneity among countries considerably limits the overall significance of the results. Using quantile approach, we show that some major deforestation factors are more prevalent in high deforestation countries, giving the insight that those factors have been under-estimated in previous studies.

  18. Agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics from 1990 to-2015: emissions, trends and uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, Sarah; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; Bruin, de Sytze; Sy, de Veronique; Kooistra, Lammert; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2018-01-01

    Limited data exists on emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, and available data are typically uncertain. In this paper, we provide comparable estimates of emissions from both all deforestation and agriculture-driven deforestation, with uncertainties for 91 countries across the tropics

  19. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T; Hyman, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  20. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  1. Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from savanna and deforestation fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Randerson, J.T; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Mu, M.Q.; Kasibhatla, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    We used satellite-derived estimates of global fire emissions and a chemical transport model to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) fluxes from savanna and deforestation fires in tropical ecosystems. N emissions and reactive N deposition led to a net transport of N equatorward, from savannas and areas

  2. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

    2008-07-29

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 10(5) g) CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion.yr(-1) for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion.yr(-1). Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  3. Effects of Deforestation on Household Time Allocation among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results provided no support to earlier studies that contended that as deforestation increases and fuelwood gets scarce, household members will divert time away from farming. The fact that there was no evidence of labour relocation away from agriculture to fuelwood collection implied that the former was a key activity ...

  4. Deforestation and environmental degradation in the lower Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with a broad objective of knowing the level of deforestation and the tree species used by burnt bricks operators and the effect on the environment. 240 questionnaires were administered on operators in 12 locations in 4 local government areas namely Gwer West, Makurdi, Guma and Gwer.

  5. Deforestation motivators by small farmers in common and protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study explores through a multivariate analysis the human ecological variables driving deforestation by small farmers in South-eastern Nigeria. Applying frequency scores and factor analytic techniques to data generated from twelve sampled communities in the rainforest of South-eastern Nigeria, through questionnaire and ...

  6. Deforestation in Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deforestation in Viet Nam reports on a innovative and timely study by a team of Vietnamese and Canadian researchers. It presents a labourious historical analysis of the smallest changes affecting soil use, forest cover, population, and political and socioeconomic characteristics. The book concludes with suggestions for ...

  7. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; De Jong, B.H.J.; Van Laak, P.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  8. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  9. Aluminium release from acidic forest soil following deforestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidic tropical soils often have high Al3+ concentrations in soil solutions, which can be toxic to plants and, thereby, reduce agricultural yields. This study focuses on the impact of deforestation and cultivation on the short and long-term Al geochemistry of acidic soils in Ghana, West Africa. Site-specific investigations were ...

  10. Modeling spatial pattern of deforestation using GIS and logistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to predict spatial distribution of deforestation and detects factors influencing forest degradation of Northern forests of Ilam province. For this purpose, effects of six factors including distance from road and settlement areas, forest fragmentation index, elevation, slope and distance from the forest edge on the ...

  11. Emissions and Deforestation Associated with Household Fuel Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuel wood is regarded as a major source of energy around the world, particularly in developing nations where it forms part of the energy mix. Most rural communities around the world, consider forests a repository of stored energy. This paper focuses on the role of fuel wood in deforestation and the emission of greenhouse ...

  12. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  13. Population, Deforestation and Biodiversity Erosion in the Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    This study attempts to model the relationship between macro demographic factors at the aggregate village level data and the various indices of deforestation arising from rural agricultural expansion. In a multiple regression analysis of five. (5) macro demographic (Causative) variables modelled against eleven (11).

  14. Clearing the Way for Reducing Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; de Jong, B.H.J.; van Laake, P.E.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for

  15. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win–win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change...

  16. Impact of deforestation and climate on the Amazon Basin's above-ground biomass during 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Liu, Yi Y; Williams, Mathew

    2017-11-15

    Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO 2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions. Here, we address these points of uncertainty with a machine-learning approach that combines satellite observations of AGB with climate data across the Amazon Basin to reconstruct annual maps of potential AGB during 1993-2012, the above-ground C storage potential of the undisturbed landscape. We derive a 2.2 Pg C loss of AGB over the study period, and, for the regions where these losses occur, we estimate a 0.7 Pg C reduction in potential AGB. Thus, climate change has led to a decline of ~1/3 in the capacity of these disturbed forests to recover and recapture the C lost in disturbances during 1993-2012. Our approach further shows that annual variations in land use change mask the natural relationship between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and AGB stocks in disturbed regions.

  17. Differential Rate of Deforestation in Two Adjoining Indian River Basins: Does Resource Availability Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Behera, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation is one of the key factors of global climate change by altering the surface albedo reduces the evapotranspiration and surface roughness leads to warming in tropical regions. River basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanisation, industrialisation etc. We generated LULC maps at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 in two major river basins of India using Landsat data employing on-screen visual image interpretation technique. In Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB), 30.64% forest cover in 1985 was reduced to 30.13% in 2005, wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) this change was 63.44% to 62.32% during 1985 to 2005. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was more than two times higher in BRB than MRB. Scrub land in few zones acted as an intermediate class for mixed forest conversion to cropland land in both the basins. Analysing the drivers, in deforestation we observed the proximity zones around habitat and socio-economic drivers contributed higher compared to topographic, edaphic and climate. Using Dyna-CLUE modelling approach, we have predicted the LULC for 2025. For validation, comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained > 97% modeling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 captured the similar trend of deforestation around 0.52% in MRB and 1.18% in BRB during 2005 to 2025. Acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. On the basis of driver analysis, we believe that availability of more forest resources in Brahmaputra River basin provided extra liberty for higher

  18. The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; de Almeida Castanho, Andrea D; Galbraith, David R; Moghim, Sanaz; Levine, Naomi M; Bras, Rafael L; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Malhi, Yadvinder; Longo, Marcos; Knox, Ryan G; McKnight, Shawna; Wang, Jingfeng; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2015-02-20

    There is considerable interest in understanding the fate of the Amazon over the coming century in the face of climate change, rising atmospheric CO 2 levels, ongoing land transformation, and changing fire regimes within the region. In this analysis, we explore the fate of Amazonian ecosystems under the combined impact of these four environmental forcings using three terrestrial biosphere models (ED2, IBIS, and JULES) forced by three bias-corrected IPCC AR4 climate projections (PCM1, CCSM3, and HadCM3) under two land-use change scenarios. We assess the relative roles of climate change, CO 2 fertilization, land-use change, and fire in driving the projected changes in Amazonian biomass and forest extent. Our results indicate that the impacts of climate change are primarily determined by the direction and severity of projected changes in regional precipitation: under the driest climate projection, climate change alone is predicted to reduce Amazonian forest cover by an average of 14%. However, the models predict that CO 2 fertilization will enhance vegetation productivity and alleviate climate-induced increases in plant water stress, and, as a result, sustain high biomass forests, even under the driest climate scenario. Land-use change and climate-driven changes in fire frequency are predicted to cause additional aboveground biomass loss and reductions in forest extent. The relative impact of land use and fire dynamics compared to climate and CO 2 impacts varies considerably, depending on both the climate and land-use scenario, and on the terrestrial biosphere model used, highlighting the importance of improved quantitative understanding of all four factors - climate change, CO 2 fertilization effects, fire, and land use - to the fate of the Amazon over the coming century. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  20. Climate risks to agriculture in Amazon arc-of-deforestation create incentives to conserve local forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. H.; Fleck, L. C.; Cohn, A.; Abrahão, G. M.; Brando, P. M.; Coe, M. T.; Fu, R.; Lawrence, D.; Pires, G. F.; Pousa, R.; Soares, B. Filh

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of agriculture is a necessary condition for sustainably meeting global food demands without increasing deforestation. In southern Amazonia, a region that produces 7% of the world's soybeans, double cropping has become the preferred system for the intensification of agriculture, which is essentially rainfed. Rainy season is shortening in the region, due to climate change, and is predicted to become shorter in the future. The climate risks are worsened by the region's land use change. This increases the climate risk and even threat the intensive double-cropping agriculture that is currently practiced in that region, with potential perverse consequences to everyone. Repeated or widespread climate-driven crop failure could prompt a return to the single cropping system or even cropland abandonment. A shift to single cropping could decrease the agriculture output in this critical region, push up global food prices and heighten incentives to convert regional ecosystems to agricultural land. Further agricultural expansion into ecosystems would increase climate change. The more forest lost, the higher the climate risk will be, due to climate feedbacks from deforestation itself, triggering a spiraling decline of the rainforests and rainfall over southern Amazonia and other critical agricultural regions known to depend on the forests of Amazonia for rainfall. We show that there are economic and social reasons to preserve the forests, and it is in the best interest of the agribusiness, local governments and people, to conserve the remaining forests. The adaptation and mitigation needs, and policies to reconcile production and protection while mitigating supply chains risks are also discussed.

  1. Response to Comment on "persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, Andre; Levis, Carolina; Bongers, Frans; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Clement, Charles Roland; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Steege, Hans Ter

    2017-01-01

    McMichael et al. state that we overlooked the effects of post-Columbian human activities in shaping current floristic patterns in Amazonian forests. We formally show that post- Columbian human influences on Amazonian forests are indeed important, but they have played a smaller role when compared

  2. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes.

  3. Effects of Chinese Deforestation and Reforestation Policies on Sediment Sourcing in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck Schmidt, A. C.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Neilson, T. B.; Singleton, A.; Qiu, Y.; Bower, J.; Rood, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Widespread deforestation from the 1960s through 1980s, blamed for catastrophic flooding in the lower Yangtze in 1998, prompted bans on logging and agriculture on steep slopes in western China. However, despite reports of extensive erosion resulting from the deforestation, sediment yield data show no corresponding increase during this time. Prior work suggested that if the deforestation increased erosion, the sediment is stored in floodplains, terraces, and alluvial fans throughout the region. In order to test this hypothesis, we sampled in-channel and overbank sediments at 38 locations, 19 of which are co-located with Chinese hydrology stations with at least five years of daily sediment yield data. Sediments were analyzed for meteoric and in situ 10-Be, unsupported 210-Pb, and 137-Cs. Unsupported 210-Pb activity is uniformly low throughout the study area and 137-Cs was found only in a few high-altitude, low-relief watersheds. Modern sediment yields, determined from Chinese data, are higher than long term in situ 10-Be-derived erosion rates in all but four watersheds, where we hypothesize sediment is being stored in alluvial features and agricultural terraces or that stochastic events such as landslides were not captured in the sediment yield data. Overall there is no relationship between topographic or climatic metrics, including slope, relief, or mean annual rainfall for any of the four isotopes except for a weak but statistically significant negative relationship between in situ 10-Be derived erosion rate and rainfall. Although paired in-channel and overbank samples are statistically indistinguishable for meteoric and in situ 10-Be, the overbank samples have lower unsupported 210-Pb activity, suggesting deeper sediment sourcing during the monsoon. In summary, in addition to suggesting differences between wet- and dry-season sediment sources, preliminary results support previous hypotheses regarding increased contemporary erosion and low hillslope

  4. Land use policies and deforestation in Brazilian tropical dry forests between 2000 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Mariana G. V.; Espírito-Santo, Mário M.; Leite, Marcos E.; Silva, Jhonathan O.; Rocha, André M.; Barbosa, Rômulo S.; Anaya, Felisa C.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) have been broadly converted into pastures and crops, with direct consequences to biodiversity, ecosystem services, and social welfare. Such land use and cover changes (LUCC) usually are strongly influenced by government environmental and development policies. The present study aimed at analyzing LUCC in Brazilian TDFs between 2000 and 2015, using the north of Minas Gerais state (128 000 km2) as a case study. We evaluated the potential biophysical and social-economic drivers of TDF loss, natural regeneration and net area change at the county level. Further, we determined the effects of these LUCC variables on socioeconomic indicators. We identified a considerable change in TDF cover, expressed as 9825 km2 of deforestation and 6523 km2 of regeneration, which resulted in a net loss of 3302 km2. The annual rate of TDF cover change was -1.2%, which is extremely high for a vegetation type that is protected as part of the Atlantic Rain Forest biome since 1993. TDF deforestation was directly affected by county area and by the increase in cattle density, and inversely affected by terrain declivity, indicating that land conversion is mostly driven by cattle ranching in flat regions. TDF regeneration was directly affected by county area and inversely affected by the increase in population density and terrain declivity. LUCC variables did not affect welfare indicators, undermining claims from rural sectors that TDF protection would cause a socioeconomic burden for northern Minas Gerais. Our results highlight the importance of naturally regenerating secondary forests to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and its services, which are frequently neglected in conservation strategies. Hegemonic macroeconomic policies affecting TDFs have been deeply rooted in deforestation for commodities production, and need urgent review because they cause long-term environmental impacts without evidence of welfare gains.

  5. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  6. Soil Carbon and Nutrient Changes Associated with Deforestation for Pasture in Southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Timothy J.; Porder, Stephen; Chaves, Joaquin; Whiteside, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effects of deforestation on soil carbon (C) and nutrient stocks in the premontane landscape near Las Cruces Biological Station in southern Costa Rica, where forests were cleared for pasture in the mid-1960s. We excavated six soil pits to a depth of 1 m in both pasture and primary forest, and found that C stocks were 20 kg C per square meters in both settings. Nevertheless, soil delta C-13 suggests 50 percent of the forest-derived soil C above 40 cm depth has turned over since deforestation. Soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stocks derived from the soil pits were not significantly different between land uses (P = 0.43 and 0.61, respectively). At a larger spatial scale, however, the ubiquity of ruts produced by cattle-induced erosion indicates that there are substantial soil effects of grazing in this steep landscape. Ruts averaged 13 cm deep and covered 45 percent of the landscape, and thus are evidence of the removal of 0.7 Mg C/ ha/yr, and 70, 9 and 40 kg/ha/yr of N, P and potassium (K), respectively. Subsoils in this region are 10 times less C- and N-rich, and 2 times less P- and K-rich than the topsoil. Thus, rapid topsoil loss may lead to a decline in pasture productivity in the coming decades. These data also suggest that the soil C footprint of deforestation in this landscape may be determined by the fate of soil C as it is transported downstream, rather than C turnover in situ.

  7. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae) in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Colatreli, Olavo; de Fraga, Rafael; Kaefer, Igor L.; Moravec, Jiří; Lima, Albertina P.

    2016-01-01

    Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs. PMID:27806089

  8. The dynamical interactions of Amazon deforestation, intensification of cattle ranching and technology adoption: insights from a socio-ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Heitzig, Jobst; Donges, Jonathan F.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation in the tropics - with vast consequences for the ecosystem and climate - is mainly driven by subsequent land use, which is not only determined by environmental and economic constraints but also influenced by the use of different production technologies. Inefficient production technologies can lead to excessive use of land, especially in areas where land is easily available and accessible. Here, the adoption of new technologies could help to use already converted land more intensively and ease pressures on ecologically valuable areas. In this study, we take the Brazilian Amazon as a prominent example region to explore the interplay of land-use decisions with environmental and economic dynamics in the process of land-use intensification and frontier expansion. Expansion of pasture land for cattle ranching to satisfy increasing domestic and international demands is one of the important drivers for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture run-down and following land abandonment further drive the expansion of deforestation frontiers into pristine forests. Therefore, intensification of livestock production, especially better pasture management, could potentially reduce deforestation. However, a number of reasons including the large spatial extent of the region make the process of comparing the effectiveness of different management techniques, technologies and policies in the region difficult. Therefore, the effectiveness and possible outcomes of policies to foster intensification are highly debated in the literature. Some authors deny that intensification policies are a viable option to spare forests as long as they are not a scarce resource [1] while others insist that intensification has an effect if only supported by the right policies [2]. In this presentation, we introduce a concise agent-based model to study conditions under which intensification can reduce deforestation and explore the trade-offs between intensified and extensive land uses

  9. Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status Saúde e demografia de povos indígenas amazônicos: perspectiva histórica e situação atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren M. Hern

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Epidemiologic Transition". Paradoxically, one of the effects of cultural disruption for some native Amazonians has been the loss of cultural controls on fertility with the result that high fertility has become a major health problem. Combined with rapid growth of non-indigenous Amazonian populations, deforestation, and urbanization, native Amazonians face grave obstacles to long-term survival.Os nativos da Amazônia foram vítimas de dois grandes ataques históricos: um na época da Conquista e outro durante o século XX. Devido a doenças epidêmicas e à destruição ambiental, inúmeras tribos passaram a vivenciar problemas de deslocamentos, dizimação e extinção em uma única geração. A aculturação e a construção de grandes projetos desenvolvimentistas tiveram efeitos catastróficos sobre as populações indígenas. Em diversos aspectos, os nativos da Amazônia sofreram uma "Transição Epidemiológica". Paradoxalmente, um dos efeitos da dilaceração cultural para alguns dos nativos da Amazônia foi a perda de controles culturais sobre a fecundidade, fazendo com que a elevada fecundidade se tornasse um importante problema de saúde. Com o rápido crescimento de populações amazônicas não indígenas, o desmatamento e a urbanização, os nativos da Amazônia enfrentam sérios obstáculos para a sua sobrevivência a longo prazo.

  10. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon - Satellite data from 1978 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skole, David; Tucker, Compton

    1993-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery covering the entire forested portion of the Brazilian Amazon Basin was used to measure, for 1978 and 1988, deforestation, fragmented forest, defined as areas less than 100 square kilometers surrounded by deforestation, and edge effects of 1 kilometer into forest from adjacent areas of deforestation. Tropical deforestation increased from 78,000 square kilometers in 1978 to 230,000 square kilometers in 1988 while tropical forest habitat, severely affected with respect to biological diversity, increased from 208,000 to 588,000 square kilometers. Although this rate of deforestation is lower than previous estimates, the effect on biological diversity is greater.

  11. A Molecular Survey of the Diversity of Microbial Communities in Different Amazonian Agricultural Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio A. Navarrete

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production.The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I—“Slash-and-Burn” the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II—“Anthropogenic Soil”, the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE, black carbon (BC and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria—24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria—10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria—7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes—3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the

  12. Utilization and fate of phosphorus of different sources applied to cohesive soil of Amazonian periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jordana Arruda Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Amazonian region, P is often a primary factor limiting sustainable agrosystems. We compared the efficiencies of local aluminous phosphate (ALP and single superphosphate (SSP under a cover of leguminous residues to determine the fate of P sources in an Amazonian soil with hardsetting characteristics. The experiment followed a randomized block design with four replications and the following treatments: ALPU, i.e. ALP plus urea (U; ALPL, i.e., ALP plus leucaena (L; SSPU, i.e., SSP plus urea; SSPL, i.e., SSP plus leucaena; and BS, i.e., bare soil (without residues. To assess the residual values of the P sources, we used a sequence of crops consisting of maize, cowpea and cassava. Both ALP and SSP exhibited low P efficiency in BS. The greatest amounts of P and N uptake in the plots where P sources and leucaena residues were added, as in those covered with leucaena residue, resulted in higher productivity levels. These differences are important for the adoption of beneficial soil management practices and the use of P sources to enhance efficiency in tropical soils. The use of residues increased the P use efficiency of both P sources, as it enhanced the uptake of both N and soluble P. The replacement of SSP with ALP may be advantageous in the second year of planting with high-demand crops, but the P of the SSP retained in the minus soluble fractions may be available if the SSP is used in P-depleting crops combined with no-tillage underneath a mulch of residues.

  13. Enviromental indicators in Amazonian Kichwa Communities from Ecuador for the ellaboration of a sustainable development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irene Arias Gutiérrez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An environmental diagnosis is made in the Amazonian Kichwa region (Napo and Pastaza provinces, Ecuador for the ellaboration of a sustainable development strategy. The environmental indicators such as the number of cultivated plant species and their use. The use of forest and agricultural products were measured, as well. Qualitative and quantitative research methods, most appropriate for this study, were used. The quantitative methodology consisted in surveying to the residents, the leaders of the six communities and the heads of 64 households scattered around five rural parishes. The main results are collected in a strategic agenda that would boost the ecological sustainability. The communities employ a high number of species directly as food, and a fewer for medical, flavoring and cosmetic use. However, a single use of resources as raw materials is observed. With no the application of science and technology, there is not an orderly and efficient use of resources, which is achieved by establishing links with other universities research projects. It is necessary to replenish and enhance native renewable resources used by the communities, and add value and work on human capital formation for the protection of these resources. Local resources are not reasonably used with a focus on the protection of the environment and the extensive Amazonian biodiversity. There are high rates of illiteracy in the communities. That’s why it is important the development of bio-knowledge through public interventions, which will help sustain the national competitive advantage, based on its natural and biological richness, supported by the development of local production networks and technology generation. A proposed strategy for a sustainable agro-ecological community development was made.

  14. On the vertical distribution of smoke in the Amazonian atmosphere during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidar observations of smoke aerosols have been analysed from six flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft over Brazil during the biomass burning season (September 2012. A large aerosol optical depth (AOD was observed, typically ranging 0.4–0.9, along with a typical aerosol extinction coefficient of 100–400 Mm−1. The data highlight the persistent and widespread nature of the Amazonian haze, which had a consistent vertical structure, observed over a large distance ( ∼ 2200 km during a period of 14 days. Aerosols were found near the surface; but the larger aerosol load was typically found in elevated layers that extended from 1–1.5 to 4–6 km. The measurements have been compared to model predictions with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM and the ECMWF-MACC model. The MetUM generally reproduced the vertical structure of the Amazonian haze observed with the lidar. The ECMWF-MACC model was also able to reproduce the general features of smoke plumes albeit with a small overestimation of the AOD. The models did not always capture localised features such as (i smoke plumes originating from individual fires, and (ii aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. In both these circumstances, peak extinction coefficients of the order of 1000–1500 Mm−1 and AODs as large as 1–1.8 were encountered, but these features were either underestimated or not captured in the model predictions. Smoke injection heights derived from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS for the region are compatible with the general height of the aerosol layers.

  15. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  16. Quantifying Uncertainty in the Detection of Tropical Deforestation and Forest Degradation Using Satellite Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is imperative that we find robust and reliable methods for monitoring deforestation and forest degradation, and understand the uncertainties associated with these methods. This is because many governments, conservation organizations and private companies are exchanging significant financial resources based on the rate and carbon intensity of forest loss, and financial transfers based on forest carbon stock changes are expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. Different remote sensing systems are currently used to map deforestation and degradation, but most projects and countries use optical satellite data (e.g. Landsat, MODIS). Such datasets are used to classify change thematically, that is to say a pixel or polygon is reported to have changed from one landcover class to another. Such methods work well when large areas of forest are cleared, but can perform poorly when small-scale deforestation or forest degradation dominate; also the binary nature of such change detection often results in a biased distribution of errors and uncertainties, with stronger or larger changes considerably more likely to be detected, biasing resulting estimates. Furthermore optical satellite methods are unsuitable in the many regions of the tropics where cloud cover is prevalent all year round. There has therefore been increasing interest in using alternative technologies to detect changes in aboveground forest carbon stocks directly. There are technologies that allow a carbon stock estimate for every pixel or polygon in a study area (with an associated error estimate), and the process repeated over time to assess actual carbon stock changes on a pixel-by-pixel basis, with known uncertainties. One such technology is satellite radar data, which is widely available at short wavelengths (C-band), and has some availability at longer wavelengths (L-band). We have used C- and L-band data to assess the carbon stock changes resulting from deforestation and degradation in

  17. [Africa and the environment. Desertification and the phenomenon of drought. Deforestation and reforestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samake, D

    1993-04-01

    Awareness is growing throughout the world of the grave environmental damage that has been caused by human activities ad of the disastrous consequences such damage may pose for human survival. The 1992 "Earth Summit" in Rio de Janeiro marked the culmination of a series of preliminary ministerial conferences in Africa and elsewhere that called attention to practices menacing the environment. Africa's underdevelopment is at the basis of practices leading to desertification, deforestation, and pollution. The summit was of great relevance for Africa because of its recognition of the links between the environment, development, and poverty. The phenomena of drought and desertification in the Sahel are insufficiently understood. The drought began in the 1960s and has persisted irregularly into later decades. Scant rainfall may cause the useful growing season to be shorter than the minimum of 2.5-3 months needed to assure harvests. Meager vegetation, drying of domestic water sources, and the danger of erosion from violent rainstorms are among the consequences of drought. Desertification occurs when the natural vegetation is exploited excessively, when agriculture is extended into marginal lands, and when inappropriate agricultural and herding practices make the land vulnerable to erosion. Populations beset by poverty and drought engage in practices for short-term survival whose longterm consequences may be very harmful. The Sahel Institute in Bamako has outlined a regional strategy to combat desertification that calls for improving collection and conservation of surface and subsoil water, reforestation and more careful management of land and other resources, motivating local populations to assist in preventing deforestation, fertility control to lessen population pressure, and development of a database to monitor the dynamics of desertification. The European Economic community and some conservation associations have also developed conservation programs for the Sahel

  18. Impact of land use on Costa Rican tropical montane cloud forests: Sensitivity of cumulus cloud field characteristics to lowland deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Lawton, R. O.; Welch, R. M.; Pielke, R. A.

    2003-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that there has been a reduction in dry season moisture input from direct interception of cloud water and wind-blown mist at the lee edge of the Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, since the mid 1970s. This reduction of moisture could be responsible for the population crashes of anurans observed in the region. It has been hypothesized that this behavior is a result of increases in cloud base height, linked to increased sea surface temperatures. In this study we present a complementary hypothesis, that deforestation upwind of the Monteverde cloud forest preserve is responsible for the observed changes in cloud base height. An automated cumulus cloud classification scheme extracts monthly spatial maps of the frequency of occurrence of cumulus cloudiness over Costa Rica from GOES 8 visible channel satellite imagery. We find that cumulus cloud formation in the morning hours over deforested regions is suppressed compared to forested areas. The degree of suppression appears to be related to the extent of deforestation. This difference in cloud formation between forested and deforested areas is a clear signal of land use change influencing the regional climate. Regional Atmospheric Modeling System numerical modeling simulations are used to explore the differences in cloud field characteristics over the lowland pasture and forest landscapes. Statistically significant differences in cloud base height and cloud thickness occur between the forest and pasture simulations. Clouds have higher base heights and are thinner over pasture landscapes than over forested ones. On the other hand, these simulations show no statistically significant differences in cloud top heights, cloud cover, mean cloud water mixing ratio, or cloud liquid water path between pasture and forest simulations. However, in the simulations there are enhanced sensible heat fluxes and reduced latent heat fluxes over pasture compared to forest. It is the drier and warmer air over pasture

  19. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabrício B; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Anderson, Liana O; Pereira, Gabriel; Cardozo, Franciele; Arai, Egídio

    2013-01-01

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  20. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  1. Smoke and fire characteristics for Cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-09-01

    Fires of the tropical forests and savannas are a major source of particulate matter and trace gases affecting the atmosphere globally. A paucity of quantitative information exists for these ecosystems with respect to fuel biomass, smoke emissions, and fire behavior conditions affecting the release of emissions. Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to fires used for deforestation purposes.

  2. Constraining Amazonian Methane Emission from Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert; Webb, Alex; Wilson, Chris; Chipperfield, Martyn; Gloor, Emanuel; Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon Basin contains large wetland ecosystems which are important sources of methane (CH4). Spaceborne observations provide detailed information about the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric methane over the Amazon Basin which will provide a strong constrain on the underlying emissions and their year to year variations. Methane observations from space are available from the Japanese GOSAT instrument since 2009. We use the proxy retrieval method which provides much greater coverage over the Amazon region compared to so-called Full-Physics methods due to their lower sensitivity to thin clouds. Validation of GOSAT retrieval over the Amazon using the ground-based TCCON network is currently not possible due to a lack of data and we have used routine aircraft profiles to show that GOSAT columns are sufficiently accurate for estimating surface flux for the region. Using a variational flux inverse system together with the 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model TOMCAT, we infer surface fluxes for the Amazon region from GOSAT observations which are used to analyse the spatial distribution of methane wetlands emissions as well as annual variations in emissions with a focus on periods 2011/2012 and 2013/14 which are characterized by large variations in rainfall.

  3. Thermodynamic contributions of deforestation to global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines a portion of the thermodynamics of global warming. The calculations use the endothermic photosynthesis reaction and yearly measures of CO 2 uptake to determine the amount of energy that is absorbed by forest cover each year. The energy absorption value of forest coverage determines the yearly cost of deforestation. The calculations reveal that 3.92 * 10 15 kJ less solar energy is absorbed by global forest coverage because of deforestation each year. The energy is enough to warm the atmosphere by 0.00008 °C / year. By comparison the same amount of energy represents 0.001 % of the atmospheric energy gains between 1995 and 2003. The results of this paper raise questions about the nature of global warming and the possibility that thermodynamic contributions to global climate change are significant. (author)

  4. An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepner, G.F.; Walker, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs

  5. Simulating Future Global Deforestation Using Geographically Explicit Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Witmer, F.

    2005-01-01

    What might the spatial distribution of forests look like in 2100? Global deforestation continues to be a significant component of human activity affecting both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. This work models the relationship between people and forests using two approaches. Initially, a brief global scale analysis of recent historical trends is conducted. The remainder of the paper then focuses on current population densities as determinants of cumulative historical deforestatio...

  6. Land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Sant'Anna, André

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between land inequality and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Therefore, it is developed an occupational choice model where an individual decides whether to become a farmer in an already established place or to move in search of economic opportunities and land to clear at the agricultural frontier. This model provides theoretical predictions that are tested empirically. Based on data from 515 municipalities, this paper estimates a ...

  7. AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL DEFORESTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mainardi, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    In most developing countries deforestation has reached alarming rates. In view of their relevance for the local economy (e.g., as a source of foreign exchange earnings and supply of fuelwood), an adequate management of forest resources should be pursued. In these economies forest exploitation and land conversion have often been seen as a temporary solution to structural problems. In this way, however, the same problems are even aggravated in the long run. The study first reviews recent explan...

  8. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  9. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  10. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  11. Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H.; Ward, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH 4 emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990

  12. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  13. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  14. Changing drivers of deforestation and new opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Defries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P; Laurance, William F

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, human agents of deforestation have changed in ways that have potentially important implications for conservation efforts. We characterized these changes through a meta-analysis of case studies of land-cover change in the tropics. From the 1960s to the 1980s, small-scale farmers, with state assistance, deforested large areas of tropical forest in Southeast Asia and Latin America. As globalization and urbanization increased during the 1980s, the agents of deforestation changed in two important parts of the tropical biome, the lowland rainforests in Brazil and Indonesia. Well-capitalized ranchers, farmers, and loggers producing for consumers in distant markets became more prominent in these places and this globalization weakened the historically strong relationship between local population growth and forest cover. At the same time, forests have begun to regrow in some tropical uplands. These changing circumstances, we believe, suggest two new and differing strategies for biodiversity conservation in the tropics, one focused on conserving uplands and the other on promoting environmental stewardship in lowlands and other areas conducive to industrial agriculture.

  15. Potential and Actual impacts of deforestation and afforestation on land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Maosheng; Mildrexler, David J.; Motesharrei, Safa; Mu, Qiaozhen; Kalnay, Eugenia; Zhao, Fang; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-12-01

    Forests are undergoing significant changes throughout the globe. These changes can modify water, energy, and carbon balance of the land surface, which can ultimately affect climate. We utilize satellite data to quantify the potential and actual impacts of forest change on land surface temperature (LST) from 2003 to 2013. The potential effect of forest change on temperature is calculated by the LST difference between forest and nearby nonforest land, whereas the actual impact on temperature is quantified by the LST trend difference between deforested (afforested) and nearby unchanged forest (nonforest land) over several years. The good agreement found between potential and actual impacts both at annual and seasonal levels indicates that forest change can have detectable impacts on surface temperature trends. That impact, however, is different for maximum and minimum temperatures. Overall, deforestation caused a significant warming up to 0.28 K/decade on average temperature trends in tropical regions, a cooling up to -0.55 K/decade in boreal regions, a weak impact in the northern temperate regions, and strong warming (up to 0.32 K/decade) in the southern temperate regions. Afforestation induced an opposite impact on temperature trends. The magnitude of the estimated temperature impacts depends on both the threshold and the data set (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat) by which forest cover change is defined. Such a latitudinal pattern in temperature impact is mainly caused by the competing effects of albedo and evapotranspiration on temperature. The methodology developed here can be used to evaluate the temperature change induced by forest cover change around the globe.

  16. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  17. Spatial Metrics of Deforestation in Kampar and Indragiri Hulu, Riau Province

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    Syamsu Rijal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Riau Province has been suffering from the highest deforestation rate in Sumatra, Indonesia. Many and various factors haved been discussed as causes of different deforestation types. This research is focused on evaluating the spatial pattern of deforestation in a specific location respresenting a typical deforestation in Riau. The main objective of this study to identify spatial metrics to describe deforestation that occurred in Kamp was ar and Indragiri Hulu regencies.The study divided the deforestation process into 3 periods of observation, . ., 1990– e g 2000, 2000–2010, and 2010–2014. The study based on Landsat satellite imagery aquired in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2014 as the main data sources. The deforestation was detected using post-classification comparison (PCC on the basis of 11 land cover classes developed prior to any further change detection. The deforestation was initially derived from reclassifying the original classes into only forest and non-forest classes, and then followed by spatial pattern analysis using Fragstat The shows that spatial pattern of deforestation in Kampar distinctly differs from software. study 2 those occurred in Indragiri Hulu egency for the period of 1990–2014 The spatial pattern of R , particularly . deforestation in Kampar egency re clumped, low contiguous between patch, and high fragmentated. Mea R we nwhile, the spatial pattern in Indragiri Hulu Regency re clumped, high contiguous between patch, and low fr we agmentated. Profile of deforestation in Kampar egency was cathegorized into early deforestation and Indragiri H R R ulu egency as lately deforestation.

  18. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, P.; Oliveira Falcao, A. de; Alves Macedo, J.; Silva, L.H.M. da; Rodrigues, A.M. da C.; Alves Macedo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6%) and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0%) and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated(39.3%) triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%). Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil) and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1) were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%). The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. (Author)

  19. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

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    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  20. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

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    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  1. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  2. Effects of reforestation, deforestation, and afforestation on carbon storage in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Mund, Martina; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Wirth, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the effects of changes in land use and land management on SOC pools in forest soils. In the 1990s, deforestation remained the most important land-use change in tropical regions (-142 x 10(6) ha per year). In non-tropical regions the forested area increased in developed countries as a result of natural reforestation (+26 x 10(6) ha per year). Deforestation also continued in under-developed countries in temperate regions. Without intensive site preparation, harvest followed by natural regeneration or reforestation has little impact on SOC pools in the mineral topsoil (0-0.3 m). Intensive site preparation results in losses of 6-13% of the initial SOC from the topsoil in the first decades. On average, deforestation followed by conversion to cropland results in SOC losses of 42% (or 0.1-1500 g (C) m(-2)) from the mineral topsoil, whereas conversion to pasture results in gains of 8%. The largest changes in SOC storage occur within the first two decades. After reforestation, SOC accumulation depends on the kind of managed forest established. Under productive deciduous reforestation (excluding eucalypts), SOC in the mineral topsoil accumulates at a rate of 20-50 g (C) m(-2) per year, and SOC pools could recover from cultivation-induced losses within 40 years. Under coniferous reforestation, the rate of accumulation of carbon is highest (95 g (C) m(-2) per year) in the organic layer, which is very susceptible to site preparation practices. In the mineral topsoil, the rate of accumulation is much lower (4 g (C) m(-2) per year), and recovery of the initial SOC pools might take several hundred years. The resulting land-use 'memory effect' has introduced large variation of the SOC pools in contemporary carbon budget studies. Thus, there seems to be a large temporal asymmetry between the period of time over which depletion of SOC occurs and the time needed for recovery of the SOC pools in the mineral soil. This should be taken into account when considering

  3. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

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    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  4. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  5. Taxonomic and functional composition of arthropod assemblages across contrasting Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Greg P A; Hérault, Bruno; Fine, Paul V A; Vedel, Vincent; Lupoli, Roland; Mesones, Italo; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods represent most of global biodiversity, with the highest diversity found in tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, we have a very incomplete understanding of how tropical arthropod communities are assembled. We conducted a comprehensive mass sampling of arthropod communities within three major habitat types of lowland Amazonian rain forest, including terra firme clay, white-sand and seasonally flooded forests in Peru and French Guiana. We examined how taxonomic and functional composition (at the family level) differed across these habitat types in the two regions. The overall arthropod community composition exhibited strong turnover among habitats and between regions. In particular, seasonally flooded forest habitats of both regions comprised unique assemblages. Overall, 17·7% (26 of 147) of arthropod families showed significant preferences for a particular habitat type. We present a first reproducible arthropod functional classification among the 147 taxa based on similarity among 21 functional traits describing feeding source, major mouthparts and microhabitats inhabited by each taxon. We identified seven distinct functional groups whose relative abundance contrasted strongly across the three habitats, with sap and leaf feeders showing higher abundances in terra firme clay forest. Our novel arthropod functional classification provides an important complement to link these contrasting patterns of composition to differences in forest functioning across geographical and environmental gradients. This study underlines that both environment and biogeographical processes are responsible for driving arthropod taxonomic composition while environmental filtering is the main driver of the variance in functional composition. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  6. PERCEPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF THE FOREIGN AUTHOR ABOUT AMAZONIAN MAN: AN ANALYSIS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF GEOGRAPHY

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    Klondy Lúcia de Oliveira Agra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze, with aid of the concepts guide for the geographical science, two works by Americans over the Brazilian Amazon. Amazon Town of Charles Wagley, and the travel journal of American George E. Hafstad. Works which exposes the Brazilian Amazon and way of life of its people, describing in detail actions, habits, thoughts and beliefs, way of acting man Amazonian descriptions that form a backdrop of compositions and orientations of Amazon to the world. The main objective of this paper is to check the perceptions and representations of foreign researchers to translate Amazon contexts and scenarios to your community, with the help of the notions of space, place, landscape and territory. Interest in the analysis of these materials is due to singular description of Amazonian details that demonstrate the concern of foreign technicians involved with research in the Brazilian Amazon, between the years 1940 to 1950, with reading contexts and scenarios and detailed translation of the analyzed reality to their community, and also by the possibility of observation and demystification of misunderstandings made by these researchers and the rescue of cultural and historical values of this region.

  7. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  8. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  9. Fire modeling in the Brazilian arc of deforestation through nested coupling of atmosphere, dynamic vegetation, LUCC and fire spread models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, E.; Nobre, C.; Cardoso, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests for logging and agriculture, associated to slash-and-burn practices, is a major source of CO2 emissions, both immediate due to biomass burning and future due to the elimination of a potential CO2 sink. Feedbacks between climate change and LUCC (Land-Use and Land-Cover Change) can potentially increase the loss of tropical forests and increase the rate of CO2 emissions, through mechanisms such as land and soil degradation and the increase in wildfire occurrence and severity. However, current understanding of the processes of fires (including ignition, spread and consequences) in tropical forests and climatic feedbacks are poorly understood and need further research. As the processes of LUCC and associated fires occur at local scales, linking them to large-scale atmospheric processes requires a means of up-scaling higher resolutions processes to lower resolutions. Our approach is to couple models which operate at various spatial and temporal scales: a Global Climate Model (GCM), Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) and local-scale LUCC and fire spread model. The climate model resolves large scale atmospheric processes and forcings, which are imposed on the surface DGVM and fed-back to climate. Higher-resolution processes such as deforestation, land use management and associated (as well as natural) fires are resolved at the local level. A dynamic tiling scheme allows to represent local-scale heterogeneity while maintaining computational efficiency of the land surface model, compared to traditional landscape models. Fire behavior is modeled at the regional scale (~500m) to represent the detailed landscape using a semi-empirical fire spread model. The relatively coarse scale (as compared to other fire spread models) is necessary due to the paucity of detailed land-cover information and fire history (particularly in the tropics and developing countries). This work presents initial results of a spatially-explicit fire spread model

  10. Measuring the Initial Impacts on Deforestation of Mato Grosso's Program for Environmental Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Wertz-Kanounnikoff, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Although private forest use in Brazil has been regulated at least since the Forest Code of 1965, cumulative deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon reached 653,000 km2 by 2003 (INPE 2004). Much of this deforestation is illegal. In 1999, the State Foundation of the Environment (FEMA) in Mato Grosso introduced an innovative licensing and enforcement system to increase compliance with land use regulations. If successful, the program would deter deforestation that contravenes those regulations, inc...

  11. A review of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for deforestation policy in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Miah MD; Masum MFH; Koike M; Akther S

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical developing countries is the critical environmental concern to ecologists and environmentalists. Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is critical to understanding the development path of a nation in relevance to its environment. The dictation of national economic growth to deforestation can be found through the study of EKC. To understand the EKC phenomena for deforestation, the study was undertaken through reviewing the literature. With the understanding ...

  12. Identifying areas of deforestation risk for REDD+ using a species modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa; Riveros, Juan Carlos; Forrest, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    To implement the REDD+ mechanism (Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation, countries need to prioritize areas to combat future deforestation CO2 emissions, identify the drivers of deforestation around which to develop mitigation actions, and quantify and value carbon for financial mechanisms. Each comes with its own methodological challenges, and existing approaches and tools to do so can be costly to implement or require considerable technical knowledge and skill. Here, we present an approach utilizing a machine learning technique known as Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent) to identify areas at high deforestation risk in the study area in Madre de Dios, Peru under a business-as-usual scenario in which historic deforestation rates continue. We link deforestation risk area to carbon density values to estimate future carbon emissions. We quantified area deforested and carbon emissions between 2000 and 2009 as the basis of the scenario. We observed over 80,000 ha of forest cover lost from 2000-2009 (0.21% annual loss), representing over 39 million Mg CO2. The rate increased rapidly following the enhancement of the Inter Oceanic Highway in 2005. Accessibility and distance to previous deforestation were strong predictors of deforestation risk, while land use designation was less important. The model performed consistently well (AUC > 0.9), significantly better than random when we compared predicted deforestation risk to observed. If past deforestation rates continue, we estimate that 132,865 ha of forest could be lost by the year 2020, representing over 55 million Mg CO2. Maxent provided a reliable method for identifying areas at high risk of deforestation and the major explanatory variables that could draw attention for mitigation action planning under REDD+. The tool is accessible, replicable and easy to use; all necessary for producing good risk estimates and adapt models after potential landscape change. We propose this approach for developing

  13. Effectiveness and distributional impacts of payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Knoke, T.; Weber, M.; Barkmann, J.; Pohle, P.; Calvas, B.; Medina, C.; Aguirre, N.; Günter, S.; Stimm, B.; Mosandl, R.; von Walter, F.; Maza, B.; Gerique, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This paper analyses the effectiveness and distributional effects of payments to avoid tropical deforestation. As a first aspect, we investigated whether or not expected payments for avoided deforestation would be acceptable for tropical farmers in Southern Ecuador, with the study area located directly adjacent to the Podocarpus National Park. Second, we explored possible distributional effects resulting from voluntary or mandatory remuneration schemes to avoid deforestation. Finally,...

  14. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyou Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  15. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  16. Composition and diversity of northwestern Amazonian rainforests in a geoecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Duque, A.J.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The northwestern Amazonian landscape includes most of the representative landscape units that characterize Amazonia, and for this reason it constitutes an excellent place to investigate relationships between the abiotic environment (geology, geomorphology, soils) and biodiversity. In this review we

  17. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled...

  18. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-09 Natural, Infrastructure, and Boundary Features, Amazonian Sites, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes 16 zipped archives of shapefiles of cities, rivers and streams, roads, and study area boundaries of several Amazonian study sites:...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-09 Natural, Infrastructure, and Boundary Features, Amazonian Sites, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes 16 zipped archives of shapefiles of cities, rivers and streams, roads, and study area boundaries of several Amazonian study sites: Altamira,...

  1. Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep in the Amazonian dolphin, Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M

    1987-08-18

    An electroencephalographic study of sleep in Amazonian dolphins, Inia geoffrensis, revealed that unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is the dominant sleep type in this species, as in the other two dolphin species that were studied earlier.

  2. Combating Deforestation through REDD+ in the Brazilian Amazon: a New Social Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is developing a number of REDD+ schemes in Amazonia that offer economic incentives to discourage deforestation and promote conservation. Building upon longer traditions of forest preservation and sustainable development in the region, REDD+ could be said to embody elements of a new ‘social contract’ that underpins resource governance, based on mutual obligations, rights and responsibilities. This will have to be founded on negotiated agreements among major stakeholders; namely, central and state governments, the NGO sector, private business interests and local beneficiary populations. Despite its embryonic nature and having to face major challenges of implementation and scaling up, REDD+ could offer the beginnings of a fresh paradigm in environmental policy based on a social contract that could help sustain low rates of forest loss in future.

  3. Human deforestation outweighs future climate change impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Joseph; de Moel, Hans; Zinke, Jens; Madin, Joshua; McClanahan, Tim; Vermaat, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    Near-shore coral reef systems are experiencing increased sediment supply due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Counteracting increased sediment loads requires an understanding of the relationship between forest cover and sediment supply, and how this relationship might change in the future. Here we study this relationship by simulating river flow and sediment supply in four watersheds that are adjacent to Madagascar's major coral reef ecosystems for a range of future climate change projections and land-use change scenarios. We show that by 2090, all four watersheds are predicted to experience temperature increases and/or precipitation declines that, when combined, result in decreases in river flow and sediment load. However, these climate change-driven declines are outweighed by the impact of deforestation. Consequently, our analyses suggest that regional land-use management is more important than mediating climate change for influencing sedimentation of Malagasy coral reefs.

  4. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  5. NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... It is recommended that deforestation and bush burning that will reduce vegetation cover and enhance evaporation from the soils should be checked through education of the citizens. Northern Region has vast areas of arable land which prospective farmers take advantage off. Such people cultivate the land ...

  6. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  7. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  8. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  9. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-f