WorldWideScience

Sample records for definitions design options

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  2. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  3. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  4. Design Options for Multimodal Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciulescu, Adrian; Vanderdonckt, Jean

    The capabilities of multimodal applications running on the web are well de-lineated since they are mainly constrained by what their underlying standard mark up language offers, as opposed to hand-made multimodal applications. As the experience in developing such multimodal web applications is growing, the need arises to identify and define major design options of such application to pave the way to a structured development life cycle. This paper provides a design space of independent design options for multimodal web applications based on three types of modalities: graphical, vocal, tactile, and combined. On the one hand, these design options may provide designers with some explicit guidance on what to decide or not for their future user interface, while exploring various design alternatives. On the other hand, these design options have been implemented as graph transformations per-formed on a user interface model represented as a graph. Thanks to a transformation engine, it allows designers to play with the different values of each design option, to preview the results of the transformation, and to obtain the corresponding code on-demand

  5. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.

    2017-08-01

    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  6. Transfemoral socket design and suspension options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, S L

    2000-08-01

    The transfemoral socket is the interface between the patient's residual limb and the remaining prosthesis. Whether the patient uses a technologically advanced knee mechanism and foot or a single axis, constant friction knee and solid ankle cushioned heel, no other prosthetic component is as crucial in assuring a comfortable and well-functioning prosthesis as the socket. This article discusses the rationale of quadrilateral and ischial containment socket designs and reviews suspension options.

  7. Planetary Sample Caching System Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Younse, Paulo; Backes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Potential Mars Sample Return missions would aspire to collect small core and regolith samples using a rover with a sample acquisition tool and sample caching system. Samples would need to be stored in individual sealed tubes in a canister that could be transfered to a Mars ascent vehicle and returned to Earth. A sample handling, encapsulation and containerization system (SHEC) has been developed as part of an integrated system for acquiring and storing core samples for application to future potential MSR and other potential sample return missions. Requirements and design options for the SHEC system were studied and a recommended design concept developed. Two families of solutions were explored: 1)transfer of a raw sample from the tool to the SHEC subsystem and 2)transfer of a tube containing the sample to the SHEC subsystem. The recommended design utilizes sample tool bit change out as the mechanism for transferring tubes to and samples in tubes from the tool. The SHEC subsystem design, called the Bit Changeout Caching(BiCC) design, is intended for operations on a MER class rover.

  8. Design Options Study. Volume III. Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    would be obtained for a 500,000 lb- or 600,000 lb-payload- aircraft is uncertain. Assesment of De3ign-Option Substitutien TO summnarize the preceding...exhaust smoke and prohibit fuel venting to the atmosphere. In accordance with APR 80-36, as discussed previously in conjunction with the noise...Laboratory in terms of combustor efficiency, specific NO Xvalues, and specific levels Of Visible smoke . In the Most recent EPA proposals. emission

  9. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  10. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  11. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  12. ESADSE, Option Design: Workshop Tallinn For All

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest koostööprojektist "Cities For All - Tallinn For All". Projekti viis läbi Eesti Disainerite Liit. Ilona Gurjanova organiseeritud töötubades osalesid ajavahemikus september 2010 - september 2011 järgmised kõrgkoolid: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Mainori Kõrgkool, Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu Kolledž, Aalto Ülikool (Soome), Saint-Étienne Higher School of Art and Design (Prantsusmaa)

  13. ESADSE, Option Design: Workshop Tallinn For All

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest koostööprojektist "Cities For All - Tallinn For All". Projekti viis läbi Eesti Disainerite Liit. Ilona Gurjanova organiseeritud töötubades osalesid ajavahemikus september 2010 - september 2011 järgmised kõrgkoolid: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Mainori Kõrgkool, Tartu Ülikooli Pärnu Kolledž, Aalto Ülikool (Soome), Saint-Étienne Higher School of Art and Design (Prantsusmaa)

  14. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  15. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  16. Overview of magnet design options: Deliverable D5.1

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069265; Toral, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the design options for 16 T superconducting dipole magnets for the FCC hadron collider explored in the frame of the activities of WP5. All options have been considered under comparable assumptions and managed using the same tools to ensure a correct judgement and comparison of their relevant pros and cons. Three baseline design configurations have been explored: 1) block-coils, 2) cosine-theta and 3) common-coils. A fourth option, the canted cosine-theta, has been initiated by Swiss (PSI, not part of EuroCirCol) and US (LBNL, EuroCirCol partner) laboratories. The studies show that, adopting a reference margin to the load line of 14 % and with reasonable assumptions on the conductor performance, the total amount of conductor needed for the entire collider is between 7.5 and 10 ktons. depending on the option. The cosine-theta uses less conductor and the canted cosine-theta uses the largest amount. The characterisation of the magnet design options is complete and the work to finalize and ...

  17. Principles for the definition of design structures

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, A.; G Stiny; Pennington, A.

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of design structure are created and used in engineering design and development processes. Function structures, design grammars and bills of materials are common examples. However, there is a lack of clarity regarding distinctions and similarities between different kinds of structure and systematic ways to articulate them. This paper brings together research on product structuring and shape computation to inform the specification of principles for the definition of design struc...

  18. Corporate governance and the design of stock option programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sautner; M. Weber

    2008-01-01

    Investors and academics increasingly criticize that various design features of executive stock option (ESO) plans reflect self-dealing by managers and the inability of corporate governance mechanisms in monitoring executives (managerial power hypothesis). We use a unique and not publicly available d

  19. Promising design options for the encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.; Carelli, M.D.; Dzodzo, M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hossain, Q.; Brown, N.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wade, D.C.; Sienick, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greenspan, E.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saphier, D. [University of California Dept of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Promising design options for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) liquid-metal cooled fast reactor were identified during the first year of the DOE NERI program sponsored feasibility study. Many opportunities for incorporation of innovations in design and fabrication were identified. Three of the innovations are hereby described: a novel IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) made of a relatively small number of rectangular channels, an ENHS module design featuring 100% natural circulation, and a novel conceptual design of core support and fuelling. As a result of the first year study the ENHS concept appears more practical and more promising than perceived at the outset of this study. (authors)

  20. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UPON PRODUCT END-OF-LIFE OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARSAN Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some considerations about the necessity of evaluating the environmental impact of a product during its entire life. The present situation (economic, social and ecologic imposes solutions to reduce this impact as a result of an analysis performed during all stages of the life cycle. This paper focuses on design solutions with consequences in the last stage, the end-of-life. Reusing products, with, or without remanufacturing and recycling the materials from products that cannot be reused represent some options analysed in this paper. The end-of-life options should be known even from the beginning of the design process and should be included as design objectives or, at least as constrictions. Considering them as human needs would naturally include them in the requirements list.

  1. Options for passive energy conservation in site design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinette, Gary O.; Irons, Lynda; Roth, Ann; Felix, Carol; Reimann, Robert; Buechner, Stephan; Crandall, David B.; Paulo, Frances X.; Curry, George; Balsely, Douglas; Frecericks, Regina; Wilensky, Varda; Needham, Roberta

    1978-06-01

    At a time of concern for energy supplies and costs it is essential to examine the energy-conserving potential of once again using natural energy systems and patterns that exist on any site on which a building is to be or has been placed. This state-of-the-art study examines existing research and applications of land planning and design for energy-conservation purposes. It is organized around the basic principles of natural heating and cooling factors and the impact of site elements on human comfort, regional adaptation of these principles, steps in the site planning and design process, and energy-conservation options available in each of the steps. This is supplemented by an appendix and a bibliography of additional references. The principles of site planning and design for energy conservation deal with the impact of the sun and wind on natural elements and, conversely, ways in which landforms, water, and vegetation affect the impact of the sun and wind on limited sections of the earth. For instance, the sun is able to naturally warm certain slopes more than others, certain surface materials naturally accentuate the warmth of the sun, while certain naturally occurring elements, such as vegetation, block and control the sun. The wind moving over the earth's surface has certain natural directions, patterns, and characteristics. By recognizing these and by introducing or removing impediments it is possible to modify these patterns to provide natural ventilation and to conserve energy. Four commonly accepted regional divisions were utilized to illustrate the differing applications of these principles in the temperate, hot-humid, hot-arid, and cool regions of the continental U.S. The typical site planning or design process was superimposed over each region to illustrate the various energy conservation options possible, depending upon the precise decision made in each step in each region. 300 references.

  2. Process characterization and Design Space definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemeyer, Christian; McKnight, Nathan; St John, Rick; Meier, Steven; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kelley, Brian; Zettl, Frank; Puskeiler, Robert; Kleinjans, Annika; Lim, Fred; Wurth, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb). This chapter describes the tools used for the characterization and validation of MAb manufacturing process under the QbD paradigm. This comprises risk assessments for the identification of potential Critical Process Parameters (pCPPs), statistically designed experimental studies as well as studies assessing the linkage of the unit operations. Outcome of the studies is the classification of process parameters according to their criticality and the definition of appropriate acceptable ranges of operation. The process and product knowledge gained in these studies can lead to the approval of a Design Space. Additionally, the information gained in these studies are used to define the 'impact' which the manufacturing process can have on the variability of the CQAs, which is used to define the testing and monitoring strategy.

  3. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Salinity cost agricultural sector over 27Bln pa in lost opportunities and is an issue that crosses all spatial and temporal scales - from individual fields, farms, catchments, landscapes to national and global levels. Salinity manifests itself in many forms and often leads to further soil degradation such as erosion, nutrient and soil organic matter depletion, and a loss of (soil) biodiversity. Salinity may also cause major disturbance to ecosystems due to its impact on resources (e.g. pollution of aquifers). In extreme cases it can turn previously highly productive areas into wastelands. An increasing global population and unprecedented urban sprawls are now putting additional pressures on our soil and water resources, particularly in regions where urbanisation directly competes with agriculture for access to land and water. And although everyone agrees that avoiding soil salinity in the first instance would be the most effective way of combating it, reality is that the amount of saline land and water resources is rapidly increasing, and will continue to increase, especially in developing countries. Purposefully designing our cropping systems that can cope with various levels of salinity could be one answer to this increasing problem. In this work we review some of the key cropping options that can be deployed to either avoid, reduce or remediate salt-affected lands. We argue that for these measures to be most effective an ongoing science - policy - society dialogue is required to ensure that policy frameworks that govern land and water management are conducive to reducing salinity or even assist in restoring affected areas. We first consider several case studies highlighting the extent of the problem using ongoing salinity hotspots around the globe. We then look at halophytes as a possible biological tools to remediate already saline sols, and discuss prospects of mixed (halophytes and glycophytes) cropping solutions for various agricultural systems at different

  4. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  5. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  6. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  7. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...... strategies. Due to rapid changes and progressions in the use of prototypes, we conclude conclude that there is a need for more holistic and overview generating research about prototyping. This for product developers to properly manage, select and apply the optimal prototyping process....

  8. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: design, definition, and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report characterizes the design definition and fabrication capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 13 figures.

  9. The Hamlet Application Design Language: introductory definition report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Steen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis report provides an introduction to the definition of the Hamlet Application Design Language (ADL). ADL is a graphical-based language and notation supporting the design of parallel real-time applications. Designs expressed in ADL are based on a model of processes that communicate by

  10. The Hamlet Application Design Language: introductory definition report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Steen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis report provides an introduction to the definition of the Hamlet Application Design Language (ADL). ADL is a graphical-based language and notation supporting the design of parallel real-time applications. Designs expressed in ADL are based on a model of processes that communicate by

  11. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. W.; Baity, F. W.; Bigelow, T. S.; Ryan, P. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Carter, M. D.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10-20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented.

  12. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10{endash}20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher that can meet the new requirements are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Design options for an ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.W.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Goulding, R.H.; Carter, M.D.; Stallings, D.C.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Recent changes have occurred in the design requirements for the ITER ion cyclotron system, requiring in-port launchers in four main horizontal ports to deliver 50 MW of power to the plasma. The design is complicated by the comparatively large antenna-separatrix distance of 10--20 cm. Designs of a conventional strap launcher and a folded waveguide launcher than can meet the new requirements are presented.

  14. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  15. Artificially designed pathogens - a diagnostic option for future military deployments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas E Zautner; Wycliffe O Masanta; Rebecca Hinz; Ralf Matthias Hagen; Hagen Frickmann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic microbial isolates of bio-safety levels 3 and 4 are difficult to handle in medical field camps under military deployment settings. International transport of such isolates is challenging due to restrictions by the International Air Transport Association. An alternative option might be inactivation and sequencing of the pathogen at the deployment site with subsequent sequence-based revitalization in well-equipped laboratories in the home country for further scientific assessment. Methods: A literature review was written based on a PubMed search. Results: First described for poliovirus in 2002,de novo synthesis of pathogens based on their sequence information has become a well-established procedure in science. Successful syntheses have been demonstrated for both viruses and prokaryotes. However, the technology is not yet available for routine diagnostic purposes. Conclusions: Due to the potential utility of diagnostic sequencing and sequence-basedde novo synthesis of pathogens, it seems worthwhile to establish the technology for diagnostic purposes over the intermediate term. This is particularly true for resource-restricted deployment settings, where safe handling of harmful pathogens cannot always be guaranteed.

  16. Alternative design for extremely large telescopes and options to use the VATT for ELT design demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of optical designs for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) can be found throughout the technical literature. Most feature very fast primary mirrors of either conic or spherical figure. For those designs with conic primary mirrors, many of the optical approaches tend to be derivatives of either the aplanatic Cassegrain or Gregorian systems. The Cassegrain approach is more common as it results in a shorter optical system, but it requires a large convex aspheric secondary mirror, which is extremely difficult and expensive to test. The Gregorian approach is physically longer and suffers from greater field curvature. In some design variations, additional mirrors are added to reimage and possibly flatten a Cassegrain focus. An interesting alternative ELT design uses a small Cassegrain system to image the collimated output of a Gregorian-Mersenne concentrator. Another alternative approach, currently in favor for use on the European ELT, uses three powered mirrors and two flat mirrors to reimage a Cassegrain focus out the side similar to a Nasmyth system. A preliminary examination suggests that a small, fast primary mirror, such as that used on the VATT, might be used for a subscale prototype of current ELT optical design options.

  17. Key risk attributes in the perception of engineering design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindrod, P.; Waters, D.J.; Yousaf, F.A. [QuantiSci, Oxon (Germany); Takase, H. [JGC Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The design of an engineered barrier system (EBS) for the containment of radioactive waste buried at depth incorporates a wide range of decisions based on quantitative engineering science, site specific hydrological information and expert judgement. Even at the concept design and planning stage of the EBS, there may be some key alternatives or choices which, though usually considered from an executive engineering perspective, may have a large impact upon the success of the programme as a whole. Therefore it is of interest to ask {open_quotes}what are the key attributes?{close_quotes} of the design process from the perspective of those experts working in the perception/communication fields, as well as the supporting research assessments and programmes. This involves the consideration of subjective expert opinions in various disciplines, and the identification of differences in the structure of their cognitive reasoning regarding the EBS. This report describes how a group of experts responded to a range of EBS designs.

  18. Options Study Documenting the Fast Reactor Fuels Innovative Design Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-07-01

    This document provides presentation and general analysis of innovative design concepts submitted to the FCRD Advanced Fuels Campaign by nine national laboratory teams as part of the Innovative Transmutation Fuels Concepts Call for Proposals issued on October 15, 2009 (Appendix A). Twenty one whitepapers were received and evaluated by an independent technical review committee.

  19. 26 CFR 1.424-1 - Definitions and special rules applicable to statutory options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its place. 13. Section 1.424-1(g)(2), third sentence, the language “For statutory options... corporate merger, consolidation, acquisition of property or stock, separation, reorganization, or... becomes a subsidiary corporation of Y Corporation. After the acquisition, X employees remain employees of...

  20. Overview of arc design options: Deliverable D2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the collider layouts to be taken into account for further detailed studies. The optimization of the arc cell lattice and the choice made on the dispersion suppressor are explained. The arc lattice is detailed with the procedures to tune the collider ring and to correct the chromaticity. The correction schemes of the orbit, of the dynamic aperture and of the spurious dispersion are detailed. Finally, the properties of the arc design at the injection energy are shown.

  1. Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  3. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  4. 77 FR 36409 - ``Specially Designed'' Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... large military transport vehicles. The cost of the original 1980s radiator has now dropped significantly... it is necessary for large military transport vehicles to function as designed, it might nonetheless... series'' and the rest of the Commerce Control List (CCL) (the ``July 15 proposed rule'') (76 FR...

  5. Preliminary Design Options for Meteor Burst Communications Systems Buoy Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    the lithium - thionyl chloride cell exhibit specific energies of the order of 500 watt hours per kilogram, more than 50 percent higher than previous...Supply Buoy Design Type 90 Day Storage Weight Type Energy Type Size (lb) Remote Lithium 2.2 kWh Deployable 8" x 8" x 4’ 200 Battery Pendulous Master...however, that there are various typcs of lithium batteries presently being developed that have energy densities equal to’fuel cell power systems. It is

  6. Five design options for permanent total enclosures (PTEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses how companies in the printing industry are looking more to the use of permanent total enclosures (PTEs) as a means to demonstrate compliance with new Clean Air Act standards for hazardous air pollutants. The advantages of this method is that by following design guidelines and meeting the EPA five point criteria for a fully enclosed room, then one may assume 100% capture of contaminants. This factor often raises the advantages of this method over other control methods which put the responsibility upon the user to demonstrate compliance with required control levels.

  7. From neighborhood design and food options to residents' weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Glanz, Karen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined associations of accessibility, availability, price, and quality of food choices and neighborhood urban design with weight status and utilitarian walking. To account for self-selection bias, data on adult residents of a middle-to-high-income neighborhood were used. Participants kept a 2-day activity/travel diary and self-reported socio-demographics, height, and weight. Geographic Information Systems data were used to objectively quantify walking-related aspects of urban design, and number of and distance to food outlets within respondents' 1km residential buffers. Food outlets were audited for availability, price, and quality of healthful food choices. Number of convenience stores and in-store healthful food choices were positively related to walking for errands which, in turn, was predictive of lower risk of being overweight/obese. Negative associations with overweight/obesity unexplained by walking were found for number of grocery stores and healthful food choices in sit-down restaurants. Aspects of urban form and food environment were associated with walking for eating purposes which, however, was not predictive of overweight/obesity. Access to diverse destinations, food outlets and healthful food choices may promote pedestrian activity and contribute to better weight regulation. Accessibility and availability of healthful food choices may lower the risk of overweight/obesity by providing opportunities for healthier dietary patterns.

  8. Identification of preferred dipole design options and cost estimates: Deliverable D5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This document contains a description of the preferred 16 Tesla dipole magnet baseline design with its expected performances. The document also includes an analysis of the individual merits and risks of the different, initial design options and gives a justification for the selection of the baseline design. The deliverable includes expected field levels, field errors and a cost estimate, which serve as input for the arc design consolidation.

  9. Design Options of a High-power Synchrotron for Laguna-LBNO

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y; Alekou, A; Antoniou, F; Benedikt, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Lazaridis, C; Parfenova, A; Shaposhnikova, E; Steerenberg, R

    2013-01-01

    Design studies have been initiated at CERN, exploring the prospects of future high-power proton beams for producing neutrinos, within the LAGUNA-LBNO project. These studies include the design of a 2 MW high-power proton synchrotron (HP-PS) using the LP-SPL as injector. This paper resumes the design options under study in order to reach this high power, and their implications regarding layout, magnet technology, beam loss control and RF considerations

  10. Surveillance Radar Design Options as a Function of Cataloguing Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-03-01

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous space surveillance and situational awareness system. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft proposal for the surveillance and tracking part of the system. This foresees, in a first deployment step, ground-based surveillance and tracking radar systems, a network of optical telescopes and a data centre. In a second step the system is planned to be extended by adding space-based assets and the associated ground-segment. The terrestrial part of the system will be responsible for the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of space objects. Studies showed that one large phased array radar alone could act as the single means for the generation of a catalogue of LEO objects (apogee altitudes radar search window for a minimum time span to enable orbit determination of sufficient accuracy. Catalogue maintenance requires objects to be re-observable after limited time spans so that they can be clearly correlated. Today, the user requirements on the performance of the system are under definition. Different options to specify the desired system performance in terms of the resulting object catalogue have been proposed. One of them is to specify a certain coverage level of the existing NORAD catalogue. A second one is to request full coverage of all objects above a certain diameter threshold. Both approaches have certain advantages (e.g. the first one being verifiable by tests and the second one leading to an unbiased/independent catalogue). However, these requirements might impose different system designs in terms of the sensor location, and the dimensions and the orientation of the search field. This paper outlines the consequences of the cataloguing performance requirements on the high-level system design. Simulation tools are used to investigate key parameters such as the optimum radar wavelength, the viewing direction and search field dimensions as a function of these specifications. First

  11. Interim findings of programmatic options for a building design competition for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-27

    The purpose of this report is to present various programmatic options for the Buildings and Community Systems (BCS) to use in utilizing a building design competition as a mechanism to promote the widescale adoption of energy conservation in new buildings design. The general program requirements were that: (1) the design competition focus on the multi-family low-rise residential market; (2) the design competition would result in the construction of a building or buildings under a Federally-assisted housing program; (3) the competition would be among competitors who are professional architects, designers, and/or developers; (4) the design competition would generate a high degree of public and professional awareness of conservation options in building design; and (5) the competition would be based on the use of a common standard of judgement (e.g., Btu's per square foot). The purpose of the initial phase of this study has been: (1) to assess the feasibility of developing a design competition that can meet the general requirements; (2) to identify potential program options for the competition; and (3) to develop a preliminary structural framework for it. This paper reports the study approach and the preliminary findings. (MCW)

  12. When Failure Is Not An Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for Next Generation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Chris; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school, district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a re-engineering of this nation's education system around learning--a re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer an option. Competency-based approaches build upon standards reforms, offering…

  13. Interaction-Region Design Options for a Linac-Ring LHeC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Frank; /CERN; Bettoni, Simona; /CERN; Bruning, Oliver; /CERN; Holzer, Bernhard; /CERN; Russenschuck, Stephan; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Aksakal, Husnu; /Nigde U.; Appleby, Robert; /Manchester U.; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Korostelev, Maxim; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Ciftci, Abbas; /Ankara U.; Ciftci, Rena; /Ankara U.; Zengin, Kahraman; /Ankara U.; Dainton, John; /Liverpool U.; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Eroglu, Emre; /Uludag U.; Tapan, Ilhan; /Uludag U.; Kostka, Peter; /DESY; Litvinenko, Vladimir; /Brookhaven; Paoloni, Eugenio; /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bologna /DESY /SLAC

    2012-06-21

    The interaction-region design for a linac-ring electron-proton collider based on the LHC ('LR-LHeC') poses numerous challenges related to collision scheme, synchrotron radiation, aperture, magnet technology, and optics. We report a first assessment and various options.

  14. Gene–Environment Interaction: Definitions and Study Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ottman, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Study of gene–environment interaction is important for improving accuracy and precision in the assessment of both genetic and environmental influences. This overview presents a simple definition of gene–environment interaction and suggests study designs for detecting it. Gene–environment interaction is defined as “a different effect of an environmental exposure on disease risk in persons with different genotypes,” or, alternatively, “a different effect of a genotype on disease risk in persons...

  15. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lewis, L.C. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  16. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  17. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  18. A Miniature Membrane Reactor for Evaluation of Process Design Options on the Enzymatic Degradation of Pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham; Pinelo, Manuel; Arnous, Anis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess if a membrane microbioreactor system could potentially be used to diagnose consequences of different process design and reactor operation options relevant for larger-scale enzymatic degradation of pectin reactions. The membrane microbioreactor prototype...... was demonstrated by performing a continuous enzymatic degradation of pectin experiment for a range of reactor conditions: different membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) values, enzyme-to-substrate ratios (E/S), and substrate feeding rates (F) were assessed. Based on the experimental data, it was found...... design affected the membrane rejection profile. The results obtained thus underlined the suitability of a miniature membrane reactor system for evaluating different process design options that are relevant for larger-scale reactions of enzymatic pectin degradation....

  19. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Calvo Silvosa, Anxo, E-mail: calvo@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Financeira e Contabilidade, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain); Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo, E-mail: gwig@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. {yields} The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. {yields} However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. {yields} The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  20. Efficiency versus Equality: Comparing Design Options for Indirect Emissions Accounting in the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inha Oh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Korean emissions trading scheme (ETS has one special characteristic that makes it different from other schemes, such as the EU ETS. While the other schemes consider only direct emissions from fossil fuels, the Korean ETS also regulates indirect emissions arising from the consumption of electricity. The problem of double counting arises under this setting, in which emissions from the power sector can be accounted for twice, when electricity is produced and consumed. This study aims to compare design options on indirect emissions accounting for the Korean ETS using a computable general equilibrium model. Four scenarios are generated for options accounting for direct and/or indirect emissions and are evaluated in terms of efficiency and equality. The result shows that the ETS operates most efficiently when only direct emissions are considered. However, the option that includes both direct and indirect emissions produces a competent result in terms of equality by spreading the economic burden of emissions reduction among industries. We conclude that this option can be an alternative to meet the key purposes of the Korean ETS.

  1. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R D; Shearman, R M; Stewart, G W

    2000-05-19

    The set of viable design elements available for animals to use in building skeletons has been fully exploited. Analysis of animal skeletons in relation to the multivariate, theoretical "Skeleton Space" has shown that a large proportion of these options are used in each phylum. Here, we show that structural elements deployed in the skeletons of Burgess Shale animals (Middle Cambrian) incorporate 146 of 182 character pairs defined in this morphospace. Within 15 million years of the appearance of crown groups of phyla with substantial hard parts, at least 80 percent of skeletal design elements recognized among living and extinct marine metazoans were exploited.

  2. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  3. HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes (NZEH) -A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. This report describes results of a scoping assessment of HVAC system options for NZEH homes. ORNL has completed a preliminary adaptation, for consideration by The U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office, Building Technologies (BT) Program, of Cooper's (2001) stage and gate planning process to the HVAC and Water Heating element of BT's multi-year plan, as illustrated in Figure 1. In order to adapt to R&D the Cooper process, which is focused on product development, and to keep the technology development process consistent with an appropriate role for the federal government, the number and content of the stages and gates needed to be modified. The potential federal role in technology development involves 6 stages and 7 gates, but depending on the nature and status of the concept, some or all of the responsibilities can flow to the private sector for product development beginning as early as Gate 3. In the proposed new technology development stage and gate sequence, the Stage 2 &apos

  4. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  5. ITER ECH and CD Upper Launcher: Design options and Remote Handling issues of the waveguide assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossetti, G., E-mail: giovanni.grossetti@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chavan, R. [CRPP, EURATOM – Confédération Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Geßner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goodman, T. [CRPP, EURATOM – Confédération Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heemskerk, C. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands); Meier, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ronden, D. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Scherer, T.; Späh, P.; Schreck, S.; Strauß, D.; Vaccaro, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Van Oosterhout, J. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Paper deals with ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher. • Design options and Remote Handling issues related to the waveguide assembly have been investigated. • Description of preliminary assessments on the RH compatibility of the sub-assembly is shown. • Assessment on possible replacement procedure and the required tools are presented. - Abstract: The ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher, developed by the ECHUL-CA Consortium of Euratom Associations (CRPP, CNR, ITER-NL, IPF, IPP, KIT and Politecnico di Milano), is presently in its final design phase. The study presented here deals with design options and Remote Handling issues related to the waveguide assembly, an ensemble of mm-wave transmission line components mounted on a vacuum flange. This flange is part of the primary vacuum boundary of the ITER vessel. This paper describes the preliminary assessment of the RH compatibility of the sub-assembly, and a conceptual description of the maintenance actions to be performed on it. A comparison between two possible configurations for the tapers is reported: a waveguide integrated design, in which tapers are integral part of the in-plug waveguide, and an auxiliary shield integrated design, in which the tapers are integrated into the Auxiliary Shield. An important aspect in the design is to ensure the Remote Handling compatibility. Due to lack of space and limited dexterity of the slave manipulator, the general approach in defining the maintenance strategy is to avoid breaking the interfaces of the different components of the assembly, and to extract it from the Upper Port Plug as a single entity. An assessment on possible replacement procedure and the required tools are presented here.

  6. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--Novel targets for designing treatment options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Fauser, Sascha; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease of the central retina and the main cause of legal blindness in industrialized countries. Risk to develop the disease is conferred by both individual as well as genetic factors with the latter being increasingly deciphered over the last decade. Therapeutically, striking advances have been made for the treatment of the neovascular form of late stage AMD while for the late stage atrophic form of the disease, which accounts for almost half of the visually impaired, there is currently no effective therapy on the market. This review highlights our current knowledge on the genetic architecture of early and late stage AMD and explores its potential for the discovery of novel, target-guided treatment options. We reflect on current clinical and experimental therapies for all forms of AMD and specifically note a persisting lack of efficacy for treatment in atrophic AMD. We further explore the current insight in AMD-associated genes and pathways and critically question whether this knowledge is suited to design novel treatment options. Specifically, we point out that known genetic factors associated with AMD govern the risk to develop disease and thus may not play a role in its severity or progression. Treatments based on such knowledge appear appropriate rather for prevention than treatment of manifest disease. As a consequence, future research in AMD needs to be greatly focused on approaches relevant to the patients and their medical needs.

  7. An Agent-Based Approach for Evaluating Basic Design Options of Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of reducing errors in management accounting systems with respect to organizational performance. In particular, different basic design options of management accounting systems of how to improve the information base by measurements of actual values are analyzed in different organizational contexts. The paper applies an agent-based simulation based on the idea of NK fitness landscapes. The results provide broad, but no universal support for conventional wisdom that lower inaccuracies of accounting information lead to more effective adaptation processes. Furthermore, results indicate that the effectiveness of improving the management accounting system subtly interferes with the complexity of the interactions within the organization and the coordination mode applied

  8. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  9. Examination of design options for 35 Ah ambient temperature Li-TiS sub 2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, D. H.; Rao, S. S.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively engaged in the development of ambient temperature rechargable lithium cells for future NASA geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) missions. To achieve these ambitious goals, Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, and Li-V6O13 systems were examined in detail. Among these three, the Li-TiS2 system has shown the longest life cycle and highest rate capability. Experimental Li-TiS2 batteries (10.5 V, 0.4 Ah) developed in-house have completed eight simulated and accelerated GEO seasons successfully. Inview of the encouraging results, the design options were examined for a scaled-up Li-TiS2 cell. It is hoped that the results of these studies will provide guidelines for prioritizing the research efforts and guiding the selection of optimized materials. Designs for 35 Ah Li-TiS2 cell were examined because present day geosynchronous satellites are powered by batteries of 35 Ah capacity. A computer program was developed to evaluate the influence of various design parameters on the specific energy and the rate capability of the cells.

  10. Towards Design of Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries: Centralized and Localized Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun, Berrin

    Energy use in developing countries is projected to equal and exceed the demand in developed countries in the next five years. Growing concern about environmental problems, depletion and price fluctuation of fossil fuels pushes the efforts for meeting energy demand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Hence, it is essential to design energy systems consisting of centralized and localized options that generate the optimum energy mix to meet this increasing energy demand in a sustainable manner. In this study, we try to answer the question, "How can the energy demand in Rampura village be met sustainably?" via two centralized clean coal (CCC) technology and three localized energy technology options analyzed. We perform the analysis of these energy technologies through joint use of donor-side analysis technique emergy analysis (EA) and user-side analysis technique life cycle assessment (LCA). Sustainability of such an energy combination depends on its reliance on renewable inputs rather than nonrenewable or purchased inputs. CCC technologies are unsustainable energy systems dependent on purchased external inputs almost 100%. However, increased efficiency and significantly lower environmental impacts of CCC technologies can lead to more environmentally benign utilization of coal as an energy source. CCC technologies supply electricity at a lower price compared to the localized energy options investigated. Localized energy options analyzed include multi-crystalline solar PV, floating drum biogas digester and downdraft biomass gasifier. Solar PV has the lowest water and land use, however, solar electricity has the highest price with a high global warming potential (GWP). Contrary to general opinion, solar electricity is highly non-renewable. Although solar energy is a 100% renewable natural resource, materials utilized in the production of solar panels are mostly non-renewable purchased inputs causing the low renewability of solar electricity. Best

  11. Effects of Using Visual Design Principles to Group Response Options in Web Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stern

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that in Web questionnaires verbal and visual languages can be used to create groups and subgroups of information, which influence how respondents process Web questionnaires. Following Schwarz (1996; and also Schwarz, Grayson, & Knäuper, 1998 we argue that respondents act as cooperative communicators who use formal features of the questionnaire to help guide them through the survey conversation. Using data from three Web surveys of random samples of Washington State University undergraduates, we found that when response options are placed in close graphical proximity to each other and separated from other options, respondents perceive visual subgroups of the categories, increasing the likelihood that they select an answer from each subgroup. We also found that graphical proximity creates subgroups with and without the use of category heading to describe the subgroups and that the addition of a verbal instruction to “please select the best answer” encouraged respondents to select one answer from each subgroup instead of overriding the effects of proximity. In addition, the effects of grouping were consistent when the subgroups were positioned either vertically or horizontally in relation to each other. Lastly, we found that the effects of visual grouping are consistent across both opinion- and behavior/fact-based questions, although the effects appear to be greater on opinion-based questions. Our findings contribute to the increasing evidence that both verbal and visual languages influence how respondents process and respond to surveys. Because respondents interpret the verbal and graphical features of survey questionnaires as relevant to answering the survey, inadvertent or stylistic design changes can influence how respondents process and respond to survey questions.

  12. Designing cost-effective seawater reverse osmosis system under optimal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.; Small, Mitchell J. [Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Today, three billion people around the world have no access to clean drinking water and about 1.76 billion people live in areas already facing a high degree of water stress. This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness of a stand alone small-scale renewable energy-powered seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system for developing countries. In this paper, we have introduced a new methodology; an energy optimization model which simulates hourly power production from renewable energy sources. Applying the model using the wind and solar radiation conditions for Eritrea, East Africa, we have computed hourly water production for a two-stage SWRO system with a capacity of 35 m{sup 3}/day. According to our results, specific energy consumption is about 2.33 kW h/m{sup 3}, which is a lower value than that achieved in most of the previous designs. The use of a booster pump, energy recovery turbine and an appropriate membrane, allows the specific energy consumption to be decreased by about 70% compared to less efficient design without these features. The energy recovery turbine results in a reduction in the water cost of about 41%. Our results show that a wind-powered system is the least cost and a PV-powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 and 1.00/m{sup 3}, respectively. By international standards, for example, in China, these values are considered economically feasible. Detailed simulations of the RO system design, energy options, and power, water, and life-cycle costs are presented. (author)

  13. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  14. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  15. 17 CFR 33.4 - Designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... value in normal cash marketing channels; (B) There exists an accurate and widely-disseminated price...) Prescribe an expiration date of the option that is not less than one business day before the earlier of the...'s offer or sale of deep-out-of-the-money options. (d) A board of trade must submit an analysis...

  16. Space station definitions, design, and development. Task 5: Multiple arm telerobot coordination and control: Manipulator design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed methodology applicable to the design of manipulator systems is described. The current design process is especially weak in the preliminary design phase, since there is no accepted measure to be used in trading off different options available for the various subsystems. The design process described uses Cartesian End-Effector Impedance as a measure of performance for the system. Having this measure of performance, it is shown how it may be used to determine the trade-offs necessary to the preliminary design phase. The design process involves three main parts: (1) determination of desired system performance in terms of End-Effector Impedance; (2) trade-off design options to achieve this desired performance; and (3) verification of system performance through laboratory testing. The design process is developed using numerous examples and experiments to demonstrate the feasability of this approach to manipulator design.

  17. Beyond a Definition: Toward a Framework for Designing and Specifying Mentoring Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than three decades of mentoring research has yet to converge on a unifying definition of mentoring; this is unsurprising given the diversity of relationships classified as mentoring. This article advances beyond a definition toward a common framework for specifying mentoring models. Sixteen design elements were identified from the literature…

  18. Beyond a Definition: Toward a Framework for Designing and Specifying Mentoring Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than three decades of mentoring research has yet to converge on a unifying definition of mentoring; this is unsurprising given the diversity of relationships classified as mentoring. This article advances beyond a definition toward a common framework for specifying mentoring models. Sixteen design elements were identified from the literature…

  19. Persuasive Game Design: A model and its definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Vegt, N.J.H.; Anderiesen, H.; Van der Kooij, K.

    2013-01-01

    The following position paper proposes a general theoretical model for persuasive game design. This model combines existing theories on persuasive technology, serious gaming, and gamification. The model is based on user experience, gamification design, and transfer effects.

  20. Persuasive Game Design: A model and its definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Vegt, N.J.H.; Anderiesen, H.; Van der Kooij, K.

    2013-01-01

    The following position paper proposes a general theoretical model for persuasive game design. This model combines existing theories on persuasive technology, serious gaming, and gamification. The model is based on user experience, gamification design, and transfer effects.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-09-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a

  3. Magnet design technical report---ITER definition phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C. (ed.)

    1989-04-28

    This report contains papers on the following topics: conceptual design; radiation damage of ITER magnet systems; insulation system of the magnets; critical current density and strain sensitivity; toroidal field coil structural analysis; stress analysis for the ITER central solenoid; and volt-second capabilities and PF magnet configurations.

  4. What is an Enterprise Architecture Design Principle? Towards a Consolidated Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Christian; Winter, Robert; Aier, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Architecture can be defined as the fundamental organization of a system and the principles governing its design and evolution (IEEE 2000). While design representation issues like meta-modeling and notations have been intensely discussed in Enterprise Architecture (EA), design activity issues are often neglected. This is surprising because EA principles play an important role in practice. As a contribution towards a consensus on a clear definition of EA principles, we analyze state-of-the-art ...

  5. Exploring the statistical and clinical impact of two interim analyses on the Phase II design with option for direct assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Edelman, Martin J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of Phase II clinical trials is to understand better a treatment's safety and efficacy to inform a Phase III go/no-go decision. Many Phase II designs have been proposed, incorporating randomization, interim analyses, adaptation, and patient selection. The Phase II design with an option for direct assignment (i.e. stop randomization and assign all patients to the experimental arm based on a single interim analysis (IA) at 50% accrual) was recently proposed [An et al., 2012]. We discuss this design in the context of existing designs, and extend it from a single-IA to a two-IA design. We compared the statistical properties and clinical relevance of the direct assignment design with two IA (DAD-2) versus a balanced randomized design with two IA (BRD-2) and a direct assignment design with one IA (DAD-1), over a range of response rate ratios (2.0-3.0). The DAD-2 has minimal loss in power (assignment design, especially with two IA, provides a middle ground with desirable statistical properties and likely appeal to both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust Design Rule with Definite Purpose Character Based on Fuzzy Probability and Study of its Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-ting; HE Zhe-ming; GUO Hui-xin

    2003-01-01

    The design target with definite purpose character of product quality was described in a real fuzzy number ( named fury target for short in this paper), and its membership functions in common use were given. According to the fury probability theory and the robust design principle, the robust design rule based on fuzzy probability (named fuzzy robust design rule for short) was put forward and its validity and practicability were analyzed and tested with a design example. The theoretical analysis and the design examples make clear that, while the fuzzy robust design rule was used, the fine design effect can be obtained and the fury robust design rule can be very suitable for the choice of the membership function of the fuzzy target; so it has a particular advantage.

  7. Dynamic eco-design strategic options for electric-electronic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; RIO, Maud; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Today industries from the electric and electronic sector are facing the challenge of improving the environmental performance of the product (eco-design). Various corporate attitudes and their related policy conduct industries to launch different solutions for eco-designing their product and services. Various strategic needs for environmental improvements therefore emerge. In addition important amount of eco-design methods are available. The challenge of planning which ...

  8. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...... performance of using inlet stratification pipes at the different inlets. Also, it is investigated how the design of the space heating system, the control system of the solar collectors, and the system size influence the thermal performance of solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar...

  9. Design concepts and options for the Thermal Infrared Imager (TIRI) as part of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Licandro, Javier; Reyes, Marcos; Delbo, Marco; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Arnold, Jessica; Howe, Chris

    2016-04-01

    ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is being studied as part of the joint ESA/NASA AIDA mission for launch in 2020. AIDA's primary mission is to investigate the effect of a kinetic impactor on the secondary component of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos in late 2022. AIM will characterise the Didymos system and monitor the response of the binary system to the impact. A multi-spectral, thermal-infrared imaging instrument (TIRI) will be an essential component of AIM's remote sensing payload, as it will provide key information on the nature of the surfaces (e.g. presence or absence of materials, degree of compaction, and rock abundance of the regolith) of both components in the Didymos system. The temperature maps provided by TIRI will be important for navigation and spacecraft health and safety for proximity/lander operations. By measuring the asteroids' diurnal thermal responses (thermal inertia) and their surface compositions via spectral signatures, TIRI will provide information on the origin and evolution of the binary system. In this presentation we will discuss possible instrument design for TIRI, exploring options that include imaging spectroscopy to broadband imaging. By using thermal models and compositional analogues of the Didymos system we will show how the performance of each design option compares to the wider scientific goals of the AIDA/AIM mission.

  10. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  11. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  12. Innovative Aircraft DesignOptions for a New Medium Range Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Task was to find an innovative aircraft design for a new medium range aircraft. The aircraft design methodology is based on equations (in contrast to numeric methods) and formal optimization with a genetic algorithm called differential evolution. Airbus has postponed an all-new A320 to 2025 or even 2030. This allows including also unconventional configurations into the search. Economic requirements are extreme: 25 % to 40 % reduction in fuel consumption, 35 % reduction in Cash Operating Costs...

  13. Transmutation performance analysis on coolant options in a hybrid reactor system design for high level waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong-Hee; Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhkim@khu.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Waste transmutation performance was compared and analyzed for seven different coolant options. • Reactions of fission and capture showed big differences depending on coolant options. • Moderation effect significantly affects on energy multiplication, tritium breeding and waste transmutation. • Reduction of radio-toxicities of TRUs showed different trend to coolant choice from performance of waste transmutation. - Abstract: A fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) is one of the most attractive candidates for high level waste transmutation. The selection of coolant affects the transmutation performance of a FFHR. LiPb coolant, as a conventional coolant for a FFHR, has problems such as reduction in neutron economic and magneto-hydro dynamics (MHD) pressure drop. Therefore, in this work, transmutation performance is evaluated and compared for various coolant options such as LiPb, H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Na, PbBi, LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} applicable to a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). Design parameters measuring performance of a hybrid reactor were evaluated by MCNPX. They are k{sub eff}, energy multiplication factor, neutron absorption ratio, tritium breeding ratio, waste transmutation ratio, support ratio and radiotoxicity reduction. Compared to LiPb, H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are not suitable for waste transmutation because of neutron moderation effect. Waste transmutation performances with Na and PbBi are similar to each other and not different much from LiPb. Even though molten salt such as LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} is good for avoiding MHD pressure drop problem, waste transmutation performance is dropped compared with LiPb.

  14. Design options and sources of bias in time-to-pregnancy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    on fecundity not only has to obtain information on waiting time, but also information on the importance of evaluation results. The use of contraceptive methods, the understanding of family planning, and behavioral changes driven by past reproductive experience are issues of importance for designing...... and interpreting results, as are other sources of bias also....

  15. Helical piles: an innovative foundation design option for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2015-02-28

    Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structures, such as those using monopile foundations, and these have been the most common design to date, in UK waters. However, as larger turbines are designed, or they are placed in deeper water, it will be necessary to use multi-footing structures such as tripods or jackets. For these designs, the tension on the upwind footing becomes the critical design condition. Driven pile foundations could be used, as could suction-installed foundations. However, in this paper, we present another concept-the use of helical pile foundations. These foundations are routinely applied onshore where large tension capacities are required. However, for use offshore, a significant upscaling of the technology will be needed, particularly of the equipment required for installation of the piles. A clear understanding of the relevant geotechnical engineering will be needed if this upscaling is to be successful.

  16. Superconducting Cavity Cryomodule Designs for the Next Generation of CW Linacs: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Thomas [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The designs of nearly all superconducting RF (SRF) linacs over the last several years, with one notable exception being CEBAF at Jefferson Lab, have assumed pulsed beam operation with relatively low duty factors. These include the XFEL at DESY, the ILC, the original configuration for Project X at Fermilab, as well as several others. Recently proposed projects, on the other hand, including the LCLS-II at SLAC, the newly configured low and medium energy sections for Project X, and FRIB at Michigan State, to name a few, assume continuous wave or CW operation on quite a large scale with ambitious gradients and cavity performance requirements. This has implications in the cavity design as well as in many parts of the overall cryomodule due to higher dynamic heat loads in the cavities themselves and higher heat loads in the input and high-order-mode (HOM) couplers. Piping internal to the cryomodule, the effectiveness of thermal intercepts, the size of integrated heat exchangers, and many other aspects of the overall design are also affected. This paper will describe some of these design considerations as we move toward the next generation of accelerator projects.

  17. Design of impulsive Earth-Moon Halo transfers: lunar proximity and direct options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Jingrui

    2016-10-01

    Techniques associated with stable manifold and lunar flyby have been applied to the construction of optimal transfers to Earth-Moon L1 /L2 libration point orbits. Compared with traditional design methods and to reduce maneuver cost, the design process presents a detailed analysis on the effect of lunar proximity with multiple constraints. An accurate and fast design strategy for seeking an insertion point and modifying the stable manifold to satisfy these constraints is proposed. Combined this strategy with the differential correction algorithm, the optimal transfer trajectory can be determined from a low-Earth orbit to a halo orbit around the L1 /L2 libration point within a little computational time. Different amplitudes and insertion points of halo orbit in conjunction with various constraint conditions about lunar flyby are considered to deeply examine the efficiency and reliability of the design algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the required mission cost has a significant correlation with lunar proximity constraints, and demonstrate that the method of constructing impulsive lunar halo transfer trajectories with multiple constraints is feasible.

  18. Estimating the confidence bounds for projected ozone design values under different emissions control options

    Science.gov (United States)

    In current regulatory applications, regional air quality model is applied for a base year and a future year with reduced emissions using the same meteorological conditions. The base year design value is multiplied by the ratio of the average of the top 10 ozone concentrations fo...

  19. When Success Is the Only Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for Next Generation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Chris; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school, district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a re-engineering of this nation's education system around learning--a re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer viable. This discussion draws on interviews and site visits with innovators…

  20. Application of high-definition display technology to the design of mobile client/server systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger L.; Williams, D. E.

    1994-04-01

    Although the major market force behind the development of high definition display systems is consumer television, there are also a number of important applications for this technology in computer systems which are being designed for the transportation, manufacturing, field engineering, maintenance, and scientific research industries. In many of these applications the computer workstations will need to be highly mobile (i.e. easily transported and often hand carried) and will require flat panel, projection, and virtual image high definition displays to provide graphics and imagery to the user at the point of action. One such important area of endeavor which includes all of the above applications is the international manned space exploration and science program. Current research work underway at SAIC is focused on the development of advanced mobile computing systems which utilize high definition displays. These systems are being specifically designed to support the user in the remote field environments anticipated by the space exploration program. This paper provides a view of future utilization of high definition displays and mobile computing systems in the remote field environments associated with the manned space program. The presentation will illustrate how the development of these systems can be used to greatly improve worker efficiency through the concept of telepresence.

  1. Flexible design in water and wastewater engineering--definitions, literature and decision guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Leusbrock, Ingo; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-02-01

    Urban water and wastewater systems face uncertain developments including technological progress, climate change and urban development. To ensure the sustainability of these systems under dynamic conditions it has been proposed that technologies and infrastructure should be flexible, adaptive and robust. However, in literature it is often unclear what these technologies and infrastructure are. Furthermore, the terms flexible, adaptive and robust are often used interchangeably, despite important differences. In this paper we will i) define the terminology, ii) provide an overview of the status of flexible infrastructure design alternatives for water and wastewater networks and treatment, and iii) develop guidelines for the selection of flexible design alternatives. Results indicate that, with the exception of Net Present Valuation methods, there is little research available on the design and evaluation of technologies that can enable flexibility. Flexible design alternatives reviewed include robust design, phased design, modular design, modular/component platform design and design for remanufacturing. As developments in the water sector are driven by slow variables (climate change, urban development), rather than market forces, it is suggested that phased design or component platform designs are suitable for responding to change, while robust design is an option when operations face highly dynamic variability.

  2. Flexibility in Early Stage Design of U. S. Navy Ships: An Analysis of Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of destroyers is typically manned to 120% of the design level for officers, because the Navy over-recruits for the junior ranks in order to ensure...enough officers are in the pipeline to fi ll the senior ranks after attrition. Therefore, Table 1 purposely omits manpower costs. Table 1 also omits...Hockberger and Leopold 1981 ). All these margins tend to add weight and take away space and volume from the vessel. Trends in these directions tend

  3. Failure is an option: Reactions to failure in elementary engineering design projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew M.

    Recent reform documents in science education have called for teachers to use epistemic practices of science and engineering researchers to teach disciplinary content (NRC, 2007; NRC, 2012; NGSS Lead States, 2013). Although this creates challenges for classroom teachers unfamiliar with engineering, it has created a need for high quality research about how students and teachers engage in engineering activities to improve curriculum development and teaching pedagogy. While framers of the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2012; NGSS Lead States 2013) focused on the similarities of the practices of science researchers and engineering designers, some have proposed that engineering has a unique set of epistemic practices, including improving from failure (Cunningham & Carlsen, 2014; Cunningham & Kelly, in review). While no one will deny failures occur in science, failure in engineering is thought of in fundamentally different ways. In the study presented here, video data from eight classes of elementary students engaged in one of two civil engineering units were analyzed using methods borrowed from psychology, anthropology, and sociolinguistics to investigate: 1) the nature of failure in elementary engineering design; 2) the ways in which teachers react to failure; and 3) how the collective actions of students and teachers support or constrain improvement in engineering design. I propose new ways of considering the types and causes of failure, and note three teacher reactions to failure: the manager, the cheerleader, and the strategic partner. Because the goal of iteration in engineering is improvement, I also studied improvement. Students only systematically improve when they have the opportunity, productive strategies, and fair comparisons between prototypes. I then investigate the use of student engineering journals to assess learning from the process of improvement after failure. After discussion, I consider implications from this work as well as future research

  4. The Available Options for Wavelength Group Selection and Transceiver Design for Next Generation PON Stage 2 (NG-PON2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Shahab Ahmad; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Chen, Yong Li; Idress, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    The full service access network (FSAN) task group meeting was held in April 2012, where they agreed to adopt time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) as a primary solution to NG-PON2. Major requirements includes at least 40 Gbit/s aggregate rate in downstream, 1:64 split ratio, 40 km differential reach, and at least 1 Gb/s access rate per optical network unit (ONU). In this paper, a performance analysis will be carried out for downstream 4-wavelengths group selection from S-band, L-band, and C-band. A comparison for optimal transmitter design is also investigated among probable options of chirp managed laser diode, Lithium Niobate (LiNbo3) Mach Zehnder modulator, besides examining tunable transceivers in contrary to remotely fed colorless ONUs.

  5. Overview of CMOS process and design options for image sensor dedicated to space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonthier, P.; Magnan, P.; Corbiere, F.

    2005-10-01

    With the growth of huge volume markets (mobile phones, digital cameras...) CMOS technologies for image sensor improve significantly. New process flows appear in order to optimize some parameters such as quantum efficiency, dark current, and conversion gain. Space applications can of course benefit from these improvements. To illustrate this evolution, this paper reports results from three technologies that have been evaluated with test vehicles composed of several sub arrays designed with some space applications as target. These three technologies are CMOS standard, improved and sensor optimized process in 0.35μm generation. Measurements are focussed on quantum efficiency, dark current, conversion gain and noise. Other measurements such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and crosstalk are depicted in [1]. A comparison between results has been done and three categories of CMOS process for image sensors have been listed. Radiation tolerance has been also studied for the CMOS improved process in the way of hardening the imager by design. Results at 4, 15, 25 and 50 krad prove a good ionizing dose radiation tolerance applying specific techniques.

  6. New design options with gypsum-based cooling ceilings; Neue Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten mit Gipskuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Sulzer administrative building at Winterthur, Switzerland, was constructed in 1928/'29 by the architect Lebrecht Voelkli. It was now modernized by the Zuerich architects, Marianne Burkhalter and Christian Sumi. The technical facilities, with a traditional heating system and modern air conditioning, was planned and constructed by Axima. As new elements, there are gypsum-based cooling ceilings which have the advantages of easy integration in the building design, high economic efficiency, and user-friendliness. The emphasis during modernisation was on architectural aspects, i.e. modern interior design, colour schemes, acoustics and flexible use of rooms. [German] 1928/29 erstellte der Architekt Lebrecht Voelkli einen Neubau fuer die Sulzer-Konzernleitung in Winterthur (Schweiz) in Gestalt eines neoklassischen Wuerfels mit vier oberirdischen Geschossen. Dessen komplette Sanierung realisierten die Zuercher Architekten Marianne Burkhalter und Christian Sumi. Die von Axima geplante und ausgefuehrte Gebaeudetechnik mit traditioneller Heizung und modernen Luftaufbereitungsanlagen weist als Novum neu konzipierte Gipskuehldecken auf. Sie erfuellen die Architektenansprueche in Bezug auf unauffaellige Integration, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Benutzerfreundlichkeit, denn im Vordergrund standen Forderungen nach moderner Innenraumgestaltung, akzentuierter Farbgebung, guter Akustik und flexibler Flaechennutzung. (orig.)

  7. Personalization in Game Design for Healthcare: a Literature Review on its Definitions and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marierose van Dooren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Personalization, the involvement of stakeholders in the design process, is often applied in serious game design for health. It is expected to enhance the alignment of a game to the preferences and capacities of the end-user, thereby increasing the end-user’s motivation to interact with the game, which finally might enhance the aimed-for health effects of the game. However, the nature and effect of personalization have never been systematically studied, making assumptions regarding personalization ungrounded. In this literature review, we firstly provide a proposal of our Personalized Design Process-model, where personalization is defined as stakeholder involvement in the Problem Definition-, Product Design- and/or Tailoring Phase. Secondly, we conducted a systematic literature review on this model, focusing on health and its effects. In this review, 62 of the 2579 found studies were included. Analysis showed that a minority of the studies were of methodologically higher quality and some of these tested the health effect by contrasting tailored versus non-tailored games. Most studies involved stakeholders in the Tailoring Design Phase. Therefore, we conclude that involving stakeholders in the Tailoring Phase is valuable. However, to know if personalization is effective in the Product Design- and the Problem Definition Phase, more studies are needed.

  8. Design of governance in virtual communities: definition, mechanisms, and variation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Salomo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    knowledge on how key governance mechanisms differ among various types of VCs is limited to date; (3) the variation patterns of governance mechanisms are far from fully explored to guide the design of governance in VCs. Therefore, this paper seeks to propose a working definition for governance in VCs......, illustrate how governance mechanisms differ in various types of VCs, and explore testable variation patterns of governance mechanisms. We categorise various types of VCs, building on two unique dimensions: how and with whom VC participants exchange information. Several design principles are proposed...

  9. Design of SMS Prepaid Energy Meter for a Cashless Economy with Recharge Option and Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawuni Adeolu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the current trend of Information Technology in our present time, the lot in our daily life is developing accordingly, and energy meters are no exception to this phenomenon. An intelligent GSM based prepaid energy meter is developed to be able to accurately calculate the amount of consumed energy by a certain building, display the remaining energy available from a pre-purchase of electricity, by which is done by the means of recharge through SMS service. The energy meter provide the utility company with regular status of the meter on a predefined interval, and also display a real time on the user’s account update, which contributes to the retrieval of the balance of the meter, as well as keeping log of the consumed energy and remaining electricity of each user by the means of SMS. It also provide utility company the ability to send updated consumption rates according to the Time of Day Tariff (TDF to the meter on pre-defined intervals The methodology used is embedded system with control system. The prepaid energy meter concept is shown by Proteus 8 software simulation. The major components are AVR microcontroller, Voltage and Current transformer, LCD, Relay and a load. Electricity has become one of the basic requirements for people and widely used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The software for this system was implemented with the use of embedded system code written onto the microcontroller. And the designed and implementation is an efficient way to collect billings for electricity consumptions, which further facilitate the recharge process of meters currently being used to the generalization and the acceptability in other to revolutionaries the entire metering system used in the 21st century.

  10. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2016-11-15

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC](2) body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  11. Realizing the increased potential of an open-system high-definition digital projector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Reginald

    1999-05-01

    Modern video projectors are becoming more compact and capable. Various display technologies are very competitive and are delivering higher performance and more compact projectors to market at an ever quickening pace. However the end users are often left with the daunting task of integrating the 'off the self projectors' into a previously existing system. As the projectors become more digitally enhanced, there will be a series of designs, and the digital projector technology matures. The design solutions will be restricted by the state of the art at the time of manufacturing. In order to allow the most growth and performance for a given price, many design decisions will be made and revisited over a period of years or decades. A modular open digital system design concept is indeed a major challenge of the future high definition digital displays for al applications.

  12. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  13. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  14. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  16. On the definition of innovation in design: Using network analysis to explore complex concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Reszka Pinheiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, aiming at understanding the different definitions of innovation in the design domain, mapped all of its citations in one of the journals that best reflects its research state of art. This quantitative and qualitative exploratory study was conducted by using a variant of content analysis technique and the network analysis technique. Based on the 13 appropriate papers found, 163 semantic categories were discerned and fully connected in a network composed of 8 clusters. According to this framework, innovation in the design domain refers primarily to the socially accepted alternatives adopted by companies to tackle the present problems and the future risks, especially through the development of new tailor-made products to satisfy market needs.

  17. Reliability-based econometrics of aerospace structural systems: Design criteria and test options. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.

    1974-01-01

    The design criteria and test options for aerospace structural reliability were investigated. A decision methodology was developed for selecting a combination of structural tests and structural design factors. The decision method involves the use of Bayesian statistics and statistical decision theory. Procedures are discussed for obtaining and updating data-based probabilistic strength distributions for aerospace structures when test information is available and for obtaining subjective distributions when data are not available. The techniques used in developing the distributions are explained.

  18. Aligning the Quantum Perspective of Learning to Instructional Design: Exploring the Seven Definitive Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Janzen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon a foundational paper (under review which explores the rudiments of the quantum perspective of learning. The quantum perspective of learning uses the principles of exchange theory or borrowed theory from the field of quantum holism pioneered by quantum physicist David Bohm (1971, 1973 to understand learning in a new way. Bohm proposes that everything exists as wholes, rather than as parts, and that everything is connected. Similarly, the quantum perspective of learning proposes that individuals learn in holistic ways as they interact with temporal and in infinitely extending virtual worlds. Further, according to the quantum perspective of learning, learners have infinite potential. In this paper, the quantum perspective of learning is examined utilizing a combination of Schunk’s (1991 and Ertmer and Newby’s (1993 definitive questions for aligning learning theory with instructional design. These seven definitive questions focus on how learning happens, influential factors in learning, the role of memory, transfer of knowledge, modalities of learning that can best explain the quantum perspective of learning, applicable assumptions, and a discussion of how instruction can be organized to optimize learning. Examples of strategies that facilitate the quantum perspective of learning are provided.

  19. Advanced Turbine Systems Program, Conceptual Design and Product Development. Task 6, System definition and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The strategy of the ATS program is to develop a new baseline for industrial gas turbine systems for the 21st century, meeting the buying criteria of industrial gas turbine end users, and having growth potential. These criteria guided the Solar ATS Team in selecting the system definition described in this Topical Report. The key to selecting the ATS system definition was meeting or exceeding each technical goal without negatively impacting other commercial goals. Among the most crucial goals are the buying criteria of the industrial gas turbine market. Solar started by preliminarily considering several cycles with the potential to meet ATS program goals. These candidates were initially narrowed based on a qualitative assessment of several factors such as the potential for meeting program goals and for future growth; the probability of successful demonstration within the program`s schedule and expected level of funding; and the appropriateness of the cycle in light of end users` buying criteria. A first level Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis then translated customer needs into functional requirements, and ensured favorable interaction between concept features. Based on this analysis, Solar selected a recuperated cycle as the best approach to fulfilling both D.O.E. and Solar marketing goals. This report details the design and analysis of the selected engine concept, and explains how advanced features of system components achieve program goals. Estimates of cost, performance, emissions and RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability) are also documented in this report.

  20. Options for tele-intensive care unit design: centralized versus decentralized and other considerations: it is not just a "another black sedan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H Neal; Bander, Joseph J

    2015-04-01

    This article seeks assist physicians or administrators considering establishing a Tele-ICU. Owing to an apparent domination of the Tele-ICU field by a single vendor, some may believe that there is only one design option. In fact, there are many alternative design formats that do not require the consumer to possess high-level technical expertise. As when purchasing any major item, if the consumer can formulate basic concepts of design and research the various vendors, then the consumer can develop the Tele-ICU system best for their facility, finances, availability of staff, coverage model, and quality metric goals.

  1. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  4. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  5. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  6. Low-Carbon Warehousing: Examining Impacts of Building and Intra-Logistics Design Options on Energy Demand and the CO2 Emissions of Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Freis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics centers contribute to CO2 emissions in the building and logistics sector and therefore share a responsibility to decarbonize not only the supply chain. Synergy effects in both building and intra-logistics should be considered as suitable levers to lower energy demand and related CO2 emissions. This research develops firs t with a systemic approach an integrated analytical model for energy calculation and reference building models for different types of logistics centers to provide basic knowledge and a methodological framework for planners and managers to aid in the selection of different intra-logistics and building design options for optimum energy efficiency. It then determines the energy demand in reference building models and performs parameter studies to examine interrelations and impacts of design options for intra-logistics, building technology, and building skin on energy demand. It combines these to optimized reference building models to show the extent to which energy and CO2 emission savings can be reached. The results show that it is possible to significantly lower CO2 emissions. However, there are clear differences between the different types of logistics centers and the impacts of different design options.

  7. Design considerations for remotely operated welding in space: Task definition and visual weld monitoring experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis explores the concept of welding in a space environment with the use of automation. Since the amount of time astronauts can work outside a spacecraft is limited, future construction and repair tasks will likely be assisted by automation. It is also likely that remote space welding will be needed for the construction of large-scale space structures in earth orbit as well as for lunar and Martian ground-based structures. Due to the complex nature of the tasks to be accomplished, the equipment will probably not be fully autonomous but instead supervised by a human operator. The welding fabrication problem in space is examined in a broad sense including some of the considerations for designing a human supervisory remote welding system. The history of space welding processes is examined, as well as current research in the field. A task definition and functional analysis is provided to assist future designers in outlining typical operational sequences for such a remote welding system. Such analysis is important when deciding whether the human operator should perform certain tasks or if the operator should supervise the automated system while it performs the tasks.

  8. On the Market Aspect of Product Program Design: Towards a Definition of an Architecture of the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    an architecture of the market. This is to be interpreted as the ‘market perspective’ of the product family referring to the design of the product family from the market’s point of view. The main result of this paper is the suggestion of a definition of a market architecture with an articulation of its elements...

  9. Evaluation of quality of life and cost-effectiveness of definitive surgery and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system as treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Cevdet; Seyfettinoğlu, Sevtap; Aka Satar, Deniz; Arlier, Sefa; Eskimez, Eda; Kaya, Fatma; Nazik, Hakan

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to compare the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) as first-line treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Ninety-eight patients aged 20-55 years who complained of regular heavy menstrual bleeding were enrolled in the study. The TAH group included 29 patients, the LNG-IUS group included 34, and the TLH group included 35. These groups were compared in terms of quality of life and the cost-effectiveness of the selected methods. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), and cost-effectiveness was assessed according to the current cost of each approach. The quality of life parameters, with the exception of mental health, improved significantly in the LNG-IUS, TAH, and TLH groups. The mean costs of the LNG-IUS, TAH, and TLH procedures were $99.15 ± 4.90, $538.82 ± 193.00 and $1617.05 ± 258.44, respectively (P < 0.05). Overall, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment option. The outcome measures of the SF-36 revealed that after 6 months, these treatments were equal in terms of quality of life, except for mental health. LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective approach.

  10. Definitive screening design applied to electrochemical degradation of Chromotrope 2R with BDD anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhefeng; Zhang, Chunyong; Fu, Degang

    2017-03-01

    Here, a novel three-level definitive screening design (DSD) was initially employed to investigate the electrochemical degradation of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. Experiments were performed using a synthetic C2R solution containing five supporting electrolytes (Na2SO4, NaCl, Na3PO4, NaNO3 and Na2CO3). The effects of nine quantitative parameters on C2R removal rate: initial C2R concentration (50-100 mg L(-1)), applied current density (1.29-3.87 mA cm(-2)), Na2SO4 concentration (0-10 mM), NaCl concentration (0-10 mM), Na3PO4 concentration (0-10 mM), NaNO3 concentration (0-10 mM), Na2CO3 concentration (0-10 mM), flow rate (300-500 mL min(-1)) and temperature (10-50 °C), were investigated. The model obtained was validated and used to select three most significant variables for further investigation. Interestingly, the differing roles of electrolytes during the electrolysis revealed the ion-selective nature of BDD anode system. A five-level central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was then employed to describe the C2R conversion as a function of applied current density, NaCl concentration and temperature. The results obtained confirmed the strong capability of DSD to separate and identify the significant variables in BDD technology. Moreover, the strategy (DSD plus CCRD) employed here enabled a significant reduction in the number of experiments (from over 500 to only 38) compared to traditional screening methods. The possible degradation mechanism of C2R in BDD anode cells was also proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Requirements and constraints of EIR design option on WP2, WP4, WP5: Milestone M3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    In this document we will review the design task of the WP3 (EIR), namely EIR optics (task 1), Machine Detector Interface (task 2), and Beam-Beam effects (task 3) and map the related challenges into the constraints and requirements for the other work packages – arc design (WP2), cryogenic beam vacuum (WP4) and magnet design (WP5). We will also include a section on how the EIR WP3 constraints and design optimization issues may affect the design of the Experimental Detector (this is outside the scope of EuroCirCol, but is one of the key activity area of FCC-hh community design efforts).  

  12. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  13. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Stefka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO in 1993 as ‘a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures’. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  14. Radiation Field Design and Patterns of Locoregional Recurrence Following Definitive Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Susie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Schuster, David M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Mister, Donna; Liu Tian; Godette, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Torres, Mylin A., E-mail: matorre@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Locoregional control is associated with breast cancer-specific and overall survival in select women with breast cancer. Although several patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics have been shown to contribute to locoregional recurrence (LRR), studies evaluating factors related to radiotherapy (XRT) technique have been limited. We investigated the relationship between LRR location and XRT fields and dose delivered to the primary breast cancer in women experiencing subsequent locoregional relapse. Methods and Materials: We identified 21 women who were previously treated definitively with surgery and XRT for breast cancer. All patients developed biopsy-result proven LRR and presented to Emory University Hospital between 2004 and 2010 for treatment. Computed tomography (CT) simulation scans with XRT dose files for the initial breast cancer were fused with {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/CT images in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format identifying the LRR. Each LRR was categorized as in-field, defined as {>=}95% of the LRR volume receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed whole-breast dose; marginal, defined as LRR at the field edge and/or not receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed dose to {>=}95% of the volume; or out-of-field, that is, LRR intentionally not treated with the original XRT plan. Results: Of the 24 identified LRRs (3 patients experienced two LRRs), 3 were in-field, 9 were marginal, and 12 were out-of-field. Two of the 3 in-field LRRs were marginal misses of the additional boost XRT dose. Out-of-field LRRs consisted of six supraclavicular and six internal mammary nodal recurrences. Conclusions: Most LRRs in our study occurred in areas not fully covered by the prescribed XRT dose or were purposely excluded from the original XRT fields. Our data suggest that XRT technique, field design, and dose play a critical role in preventing LRR in women with breast cancer.

  15. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miola, A., E-mail: apollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Marra, M., E-mail: Marleenmarra@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ciuffo, B., E-mail: biagio.ciuffo@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: > Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. > How to combine ambitious CO{sub 2} reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. > Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. > Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  16. Design Authority in the Test Programme Definition: The Alenia Spazio Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messidoro, P.; Sacchi, E.; Beruto, E.; Fleming, P.; Marucchi Chierro, P.-P.

    2004-08-01

    In addition, being the Verification and Test Programme a significant part of the spacecraft development life cycle in terms of cost and time, very often the subject of the mentioned discussion has the objective to optimize the verification campaign by possible deletion or limitation of some testing activities. The increased market pressure to reduce the project's schedule and cost is originating a dialecting process inside the project teams, involving program management and design authorities, in order to optimize the verification and testing programme. The paper introduces the Alenia Spazio experience in this context, coming from the real project life on different products and missions (science, TLC, EO, manned, transportation, military, commercial, recurrent and one-of-a-kind). Usually the applicable verification and testing standards (e.g. ECSS-E-10 part 2 "Verification" and ECSS-E-10 part 3 "Testing" [1]) are tailored to the specific project on the basis of its peculiar mission constraints. The Model Philosophy and the associated verification and test programme are defined following an iterative process which suitably combines several aspects (including for examples test requirements and facilities) as shown in Fig. 1 (from ECSS-E-10). The considered cases are mainly oriented to the thermal and mechanical verification, where the benefits of possible test programme optimizations are more significant. Considering the thermal qualification and acceptance testing (i.e. Thermal Balance and Thermal Vacuum) the lessons learned originated by the development of several satellites are presented together with the corresponding recommended approaches. In particular the cases are indicated in which a proper Thermal Balance Test is mandatory and others, in presence of more recurrent design, where a qualification by analysis could be envisaged. The importance of a proper Thermal Vacuum exposure for workmanship verification is also highlighted. Similar considerations are

  17. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 2: endpoint definitions: A consensus document from the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of trans- catheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  18. Hypermodular Self-Assembling Space Solar Power -- Design Option for Mid-Term GEO Utility-Scale Power Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a design for scaleable space solar power systems based on free-flying reflectors and module self-assembly. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by design independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly or transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study describe a design for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  19. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes; Conceptos de diseno de disposicion definitiva para desechos radioactivos de alto nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N (Km. 36.5) La Marquesa, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vbadillo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  20. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  1. Thermal test options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  2. A Viable Passive Optical Network Design for Ultrahigh Definition TV Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Ahmad Niazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International Telecommunication Union (ITU has recently standardized ultrahigh definition television (UHD-TV with a resolution 16 times more than the current high definition TV. An increase in the efficiency of video source coding or in the capacity of transmission channels will be needed to deliver such programs by passive optical network (PON. In this paper, a high capacity integrated PON infrastructure is proposed to overlay ultrahigh definition television by a complete passive coexistence of 10G-PON (XG-PON and single carrier directly modulated, duo-binary 40G-PON (XLG-PON signal. The simulation results show error-free transmission performance and further distribution to 32 optical network units (ONUs on broadcast basis with negligible power penalty over 20 km of bidirectional standard single mode fiber.

  3. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  4. Reactor physics and safety aspects of various design options of a Russian light water reactor with rock-like fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Komissarov, O. V.; Kozmenkov, Ya. K.; Matveev, Yu. V.; Orekhov, Yu. I.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents results of analytical studies on weapons grade plutonium incineration in VVER (640) medium size light water reactors using a special composition of rock-like fuel (ROX-fuel) to assure spent fuel long-term storage without its reprocessing. The main goal is to achieve high degree of plutonium incineration in once-through cycle. In this paper we considered two fuel compositions. In both compositions weapons grade plutonium is used as fissile material. Spinel (MgAl 2O 4) is used as the 'preserving' material assuring safe storage of the spent fuel. Besides an inert matrix, the option of rock-like fuel with thorium dioxide was studied. One of principal problems in the realization of the proposed approach is the substantial change of properties of the light water reactor core when passing to the use of the ROX-fuel, in particular: (i) due to the absence of 238U the Doppler effect playing a crucial role in reactor's self-regulation and limiting the consequences of reactivity accidents, decreases significantly, (ii) no fuel breeding on one hand, and the quest to attain the maximum plutonium burnup on the other hand, would result in a drastical change of the fuel assembly power during the lifetime and, as a consequence, the rise in irregularity of the power density of fuel assemblies, (iii) both the control rods worth and dissolved boron worth decrease in view of neutron spectrum hardening brought on by the larger absorption cross-section of plutonium as compared to uranium, (iv) βeff is markedly reduced. All these distinctive features are potentially detrimental to the reactor nuclear safety. The principal objective of this work is that to identify a variant of the fuel composition and the reactor layout, which would permit neutralize the negative effect of the above-mentioned distinctive features.

  5. Design and calibration of a new high-definition three-dimensional laparoscopic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia TANG; Li-qiang WANG‡; Bo YUAN; Hong JIANG; Qi-ming ZHU

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-definition (HD) 3D laparoscopic system including a dual channel optical system, two cameras, a camera control unit (CCU), and an HD 3D monitor. This laparoscopic system is capable of outputting dual high-definition videos and providing vivid 3D images. A modified pinhole camera model is used for camera calibration and a new method of depth measurement to improve precision. The average error of depth measurement measured by experiment (about 1.13 mm) was small in proportion to the large range in distance of the system (10–150 mm). The new method is applicable to any calibrated binocular vision system.

  6. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  7. Robust Transceiver Design for K-Pairs Quasi-Static MIMO Interference Channels via Semi-Definite Relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Eddy; Huang, Huang; Wu, Tao; Liu, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust transceiver design for the K-pair quasi-static MIMO interference channel. Each transmitter is equipped with M antennas, each receiver is equipped with N antennas, and the k-th transmitter sends L_k independent data streams to the desired receiver. In the literature, there exist a variety of theoretically promising transceiver designs for the interference channel such as interference alignment-based schemes, which have feasibility and practical limitations. In order to address practical system issues and requirements, we consider a transceiver design that enforces robustness against imperfect channel state information (CSI) as well as fair performance among the users in the interference channel. Specifically, we formulate the transceiver design as an optimization problem to maximize the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio among all users. We devise a low complexity iterative algorithm based on alternative optimization and semi-definite relaxation techniques. Nu...

  8. The impact of applying different metrics in target definitions : lessons for policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of the use of different metrics in the EU renewable energy target definition. The analysis, using a case study of the Dutch renewable energy support for illustration, reveals that a target based on primary energy would have led to a ranking in whi

  9. Design of High Definition Video Conferencing system%高清视频会议系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天发; 李瑞勤; 黄鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    This paper elaborates the scheme of Networking for High Definition Video Conferencing, presents the scheme of High Definition real-time codec base on MB86H51 IC, and the scheme of MCU. Presents the hardware architect and software architect design in detail.%阐述了高清视频会议的组网方法,给出一种基于MB86H51高清实时编解码技术的视频终端设计方法和MCU的设计。从硬件和软件两个方面,依次详细描述了系统的硬件架构和软件系统架构。

  10. Economics derived from detailed and definitive design of Superior's Circlar Grate Retort for an 18,000 BPD oil shale demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, D.F.; Fishback, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    Superior Oil Company has continued efforts to reduce to practice the Superior retorting technology as applied to oil shale. From February 1981 to October 1982, Superior has participated in a cost sharing agreement with the Department of Energy for detailed design of the Superior Circular Grate Retort, definitive design of retort ancillaries, auxiliaries and offsites, and mining, and for capital and operating cost estimates for a nominal 18,000 BPD oil shale plant. The terms, detailed design and definitive design, are defined. The design documents are described in sufficient detail to render an overview to the reader of the basis used for project cost estimates and economic analysis.

  11. Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Maldonado, Ivan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The research performed in this project addressed the issue of low heavy metal loading and the resulting reduced cycle length with increased refueling frequency, inherent to all FHR designs with solid, non-movable fuel based on TRISO particles. Studies performed here focused on AHTR type of reactor design with plate (“plank”) fuel. Proposal to FY12 NEUP entitled “Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors” was selected for award, and the 3-year project started in August 2012. A 4-month NCE was granted and the project completed on December 31, 2015. The project was performed by Georgia Tech (Prof. Bojan Petrovic, PI) and University of Tennessee (Prof. Ivan Maldonado, Co-PI), with a total funding of $758,000 over 3 years. In addition to two Co-PIs, the project directly engaged 6 graduate students (at doctoral or MS level) and 2 postdoctoral researchers. Additionally, through senior design projects and graduate advanced design projects, another 23 undergraduate and 12 graduate students were exposed to and trained in the salt reactor technology. We see this as one of the important indicators of the project’s success and effectiveness. In the process, 1 journal article was published (with 3 journal articles in preparation), together with 8 peer-reviewed full conference papers, 8 peer-reviewed extended abstracts, as well as 1 doctoral dissertation and 2 master theses. The work included both development of models and methodologies needed to adequately analyze this type of reactor, fuel, and its fuel cycle, as well as extensive analyses and optimization of the fuel and core design.

  12. Efficient biological process characterization by definitive-screening designs: the formaldehyde treatment of a therapeutic protein as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Axel; de Mas, Nuria; Ramsey, Philip; Henderson, Grant

    2013-03-01

    As part of the process-characterization campaign of a candidate vaccine product, a recently developed class of three-level designs-definitive-screening designs-was employed to select a quadratic model that describes the effect of six input process parameters, including protein concentration, formaldehyde-to-protein ratio, lysine concentration, reaction duration, pH, and reaction temperature, on a formylation protein-crosslinking reaction. This design requires only 17 experimental runs. The resulting model was then used to simulate 10,000 runs that account for the variability in the inputs expected on manufacturing scale. The extent of protein polymerization was predicted to be within specifications for all simulated runs, demonstrating the robustness of the unit operation for subsequent process validation and future commercial manufacturing.

  13. The Changing Nature and Definitions of Industrial Design and Implications for Prospective Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatman, Mike; Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There are currently a wide range of Higher Education Industrial Design courses available in the UK. In the present era, a wider breadth of narrative has developed within the subject, and as a result the content of industrial design educational offerings varies considerably. The paper assesses the industry view of Industrial Design as a discipline…

  14. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  15. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 4: Design modularity and commonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The relative cost impacts (up or down) of developing Space Biology hardware using design modularity and commonality is studied. Recommendations for how the hardware development should be accomplished to meet optimum design modularity requirements for Life Science investigation hardware will be provided. In addition, the relative cost impacts of implementing commonality of hardware for all Space Biology hardware are defined. Cost analysis and supporting recommendations for levels of modularity and commonality are presented. A mathematical or statistical cost analysis method with the capability to support development of production design modularity and commonality impacts to parametric cost analysis is provided.

  16. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1a - Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraphs (b)(1)(v)(C) or (b)(2) of this section. Theoretical Pricing Charges (1)(i) Definitions. (A) The... Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Definitions. (1) The term unlisted option shall mean any option not included in the definition of listed option provided in paragraph (c)(2)(x) of §...

  18. Exploring Modeling Options and Conversion of Average Response to Appropriate Vibration Envelopes for a Typical Cylindrical Vehicle Panel with Rib-stiffened Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Phil; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David

    2009-01-01

    Although applications for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques are more widely used in the aerospace industry today, opportunities to anchor the response predictions using measured data from a flight-like launch vehicle structure are still quite valuable. Response and excitation data from a ground acoustic test at the Marshall Space Flight Center permitted the authors to compare and evaluate several modeling techniques available in the SEA module of the commercial code VA One. This paper provides an example of vibration response estimates developed using different modeling approaches to both approximate and bound the response of a flight-like vehicle panel. Since both vibration response and acoustic levels near the panel were available from the ground test, the evaluation provided an opportunity to learn how well the different modeling options can match band-averaged spectra developed from the test data. Additional work was performed to understand the spatial averaging of the measurements across the panel from measured data. Finally an evaluation/comparison of two conversion approaches from the statistical average response results that are output from an SEA analysis to a more useful envelope of response spectra appropriate to specify design and test vibration levels for a new vehicle.

  19. Using life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis in a real options framework to inform the design of algal biofuel production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Hise, Adam M; Characklis, Greg W; Gerlach, Robin; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gardner, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the use of "real options analysis" (ROA) to quantify the value of greater product flexibility at algal biofuel production facilities. A deterministic optimization framework is integrated with a combined life cycle assessment/techno-economic analysis model and subjected to an ensemble of 30-year commodity price trajectories. Profits are maximized for two competing plant configurations: 1) one that sells lipid-extracted algae as animal feed only; and 2) one that can sell lipid-extracted algae as feed or use it to recover nutrients and energy, due to an up-front investment in anaerobic digestion/combined heat and power. Results show that added investment in plant flexibility does not result in an improvement in net present value, because current feed meal prices discourage use of lipid-extracted algae for nutrient and energy recovery. However, this study demonstrates that ROA provides many useful insights regarding plant design that cannot be captured via traditional techno-economic modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Final results from the ''investigation of design aspects and design options for wind turbines operating in complex terrain environments'' project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoulis, A.N. [SPA Hellas Engineering S.A., Attiki (Greece); Markkilde, P.S.; Voutsinas, S.; Cuerva, A.; Winkelaar, D.; Ganander, H.

    1999-07-01

    Complex terrain sites are a major and critical market for wind energy development and knowledge regarding the wind structure and the WT response to it is insufficient. The paper presents the work and the final results of the COMTERID project (JOR3-CT95-0033), the successor and the follow-up of MOUNTURB, which was undertaken within the JOULE-III program by a number of National European R and D institutes and universities (CRES, NTUA, CIEMAT, RISO, ECN), consultants, designers and manufacturers (TG, LTL, VESTAS, ECOTECNIA, NWP) with the main objective to identify and quantify the complex terrain environment and its effects in the operation of WTs. The work identified and quantified the complex terrain wind structure conditions which were found to be different from the flat terrain standards and through the development of a parameter identification methodology it identified, evaluated and quantified the machine's performance sensitivity to the Wind-WT parameters. Increased turbulence was found in the vertical and lateral directions on all complex terrain sites studied and smaller length scales compared to the flat terrain standards. These parameters along with the difference in coherence and the small Weibull shape factors encountered (less than 2) are responsible for the increased fatigue loading that WTs experience at complex terrain environments. The project results indicate directions for new machine concepts, specifically for complex terrain operation, that will be both technically and economically efficient. (author)

  1. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  2. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on t

  3. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on t

  4. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on

  5. Requirements Definition and Design Guidelines for Man-Machine Interface in C3 System Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    the American Society for Information Science, 1971, 22, 361-373. Uber , G. T., Williams, P. E. and Hisey, B. L. The organization and formatting of...guidelines should be examined through extended debate and in broad-ranging application before they can be adopted as a general design standard. Some rules

  6. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 2: Appendix: Design analysis and trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Backup or supporting data for the design analyses and trade studies which defined the astronomy sortie missions are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) configuration of space shuttle orbiter, (2) electronic subsystems, (3) electric power requirements, and (4) payload requirements. Mathematical models are developed to illustrate the orbital rendezvous capabilities.

  7. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 1: Design analysis and trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A study to define the astronomy sortie missions was conducted. The design analyses and tradeoff studies conducted for candidate concepts are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) system and subsystem requirements, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) infrared telescope development, and (4) experiments to be conducted during the mission.

  8. Design and operational parameters of a rooftop rainwater harvesting system: definition, sensitivity and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, J S; Han, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate design and evaluation of a rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is necessary to improve system performance and the stability of the water supply. The main design parameters (DPs) of an RWH system are rainfall, catchment area, collection efficiency, tank volume and water demand. Its operational parameters (OPs) include rainwater use efficiency (RUE), water saving efficiency (WSE) and cycle number (CN). The sensitivity analysis of a rooftop RWH system's DPs to its OPs reveals that the ratio of tank volume to catchment area (V/A) for an RWH system in Seoul, South Korea is recommended between 0.03 and 0.08 in terms of rate of change in RUE. The appropriate design value of V/A is varied with D/A. The extra tank volume up to V/A of 0.15∼0.2 is also available, if necessary to secure more water. Accordingly, we should figure out suitable value or range of DPs based on the sensitivity analysis to optimize design of an RWH system or improve operation efficiency. The operational data employed in this study, which was carried out to validate the design and evaluation method of an RWH system, were obtained from the system in use at a dormitory complex at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea. The results of these operational data are in good agreement with those used in the initial simulation. The proposed method and the results of this research will be useful in evaluating and comparing the performance of RWH systems. It is found that RUE can be increased by expanding the variety of rainwater uses, particularly in the high rainfall season.

  9. A new design strategy based on a deterministic definition of the seismic input to overcome the limits of design procedures based on probabilistic approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Fasan, Marco; Noè, Salavore; Panza, Giuliano; Magrin, Andrea; Romanelli, Fabio; Vaccari, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new seismic Performance Based Design (PBD) process based on a deterministic definition of the seismic input is presented. The proposed procedure aims to address the following considerations, arisen from the analysis of seismic phenomena, which cannot be taken in account using standard probabilistic seismic input (PSHA): a) any structure at a given location, regardless of its importance, is subject to the same shaking as a result of a given earthquake, b) it is impossible to determine when a future earthquake of a given intensity/magnitude will occur, c) insufficient data are available to develop reliable statistics with regards to earthquakes. On the basis of these considerations, the seismic input at a given site - determined on the basis of the seismic history, the seismogenic zones and the seismogenic nodes - is defined using the Neo Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment (NDSHA). Two different analysis are carried out at different levels of detail. The first one (RSA) provides the Maximu...

  10. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J

    2016-03-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia.

  11. Valuation of Discrete Barrier American Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrício Samanez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an approach and a model to valuing discrete barrier American options. The developed model consists of an adaptation of the method of Grant, Vora and Weeks (1997, in order to allow to incorporate the barriers. The Hybrid Quasi-Monte Carlo method was used in the simulations and the Bisection method in the definition of the options trigger curves. The results found in the application of the developed model were compared with the estimated by the Adaptive Mesh Model, developed by Ahn et al (1999. In addition, the sensitivity of the options price relative to changes in inputs parameters was analyzed, confirming the consistence of the model.

  12. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  13. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  14. The influence of design and definition on the proportion of general epilepsy cohorts with remission and intractability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Hackett, Maree L; Anderson, Craig S

    2011-01-01

    Remission while on anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy and remission off AED are the only prognostic criteria defined by the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE), defining remission as 5 seizure-free years. Prognosis studies in epilepsy have investigated other prognostic categories using different designs and definitions. This systematic review explores factors that explain discrepancies in the proportion of patients reported with commonly studied prognostic categories in general epilepsy cohorts. Thirty publications (reporting 37 studies) were included. The outcome categories were classified as immediate remission (5 studies), remission off medication (7 studies), remission on or off medication (15 studies), intractability (9 studies) and no remission after relapse (1 study). The findings show the importance of qualifying estimates specifically by how they were defined in each study, study design, setting and patient population as these have implications for patient management and counselling. The ILAE should define the outcome measures and terminology to which researchers should be required to adhere in subsequent updates of their guidelines on research related to remission and intractability.

  15. Gaps Analysis of Integrating Product Design, Manufacturing, and Quality Data in The Supply Chain Using Model-Based Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Asa; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Fischer, Kevin; Rosche, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in information technology triggered a digital revolution that holds promise of reduced costs, improved productivity, and higher quality. To ride this wave of innovation, manufacturing enterprises are changing how product definitions are communicated - from paper to models. To achieve industry's vision of the Model-Based Enterprise (MBE), the MBE strategy must include model-based data interoperability from design to manufacturing and quality in the supply chain. The Model-Based Definition (MBD) is created by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. This information is then shared with the supplier so that they can manufacture and inspect the physical parts. Today, suppliers predominantly use Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) models for these tasks. Traditionally, the OEM has provided design data to the supplier in the form of two-dimensional (2D) drawings, but may also include a three-dimensional (3D)-shape-geometry model, often in a standards-based format such as ISO 10303-203:2011 (STEP AP203). The supplier then creates the respective CAM and CMM models and machine programs to produce and inspect the parts. In the MBE vision for model-based data exchange, the CAD model must include product-and-manufacturing information (PMI) in addition to the shape geometry. Today's CAD tools can generate models with embedded PMI. And, with the emergence of STEP AP242, a standards-based model with embedded PMI can now be shared downstream. The on-going research detailed in this paper seeks to investigate three concepts. First, that the ability to utilize a STEP AP242 model with embedded PMI for CAD-to-CAM and CAD-to-CMM data exchange is possible and valuable to the overall goal of a more efficient process. Second, the research identifies gaps in tools, standards, and processes that inhibit industry's ability to cost-effectively achieve model-based-data interoperability in the pursuit of the

  16. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道平

    2002-01-01

    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  17. Treatment Options for Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  18. Definition of sizes for the design of school furniture for Bogotá schools based on anthropometric criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Acosta, G; Lange-Morales, K

    2007-10-01

    The current paper deals with the definition of sizes for the design of school furniture for schools in Bogotá, Colombia, based on an analysis of available anthropometric data on Latin American children. State-of-the-art anthropometric, national and international standards were considered, in order to define the anthropometric variables that were to be used for defining the furniture. Matrices relating age and specific anthropometric dimensions were constructed, as a visualization method for establishing the dimensional differences between children of the same age and the ranges that should be covered by the items of furniture. Dimensional data were grouped by establishing the minimum sizes and general dimensions of furniture needed to cover the 5-95th percentile of school children between the ages of 5 and 18 years. The distribution of the furniture in the different school grades was also indicated. Apart from the need for an adequate match between child anthropometry and school furniture dimensions, this study shows the importance of a proper distribution of furniture sizes in the different school grades, as a complementary and decisive aspect to be considered in order to meet the heterogenic, anthropometrical requirements of children of the same age and school grade.

  19. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  20. 高标清混合视频监控系统的设计与实施%Design and implementation of mixed high-definition and standard-definition video monitoring system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋玉敏

    2014-01-01

    The status and new demands of video surveillance system in locomotive manufac-turing companies was analyzed .Based on the characteristics of video surveillance system in locomotive production companies , a mixed high-definition ( HD) and standard -definition ( SD) video monitoring system were designed .A latest high -definition video surveillance technology was applied in the design and implementation , and the new system was compati-ble with the original standard -definition video surveillance systems .The logical structure , general structure and network topology of HD and SD hybrid video surveillance system de -scribed were showed .Issues entailed in upgrading an old video surveillance system in loco-motive manufacturing industry were discussed as well .%分析了机车制造企业目前视频监控系统的现状和新的需求,针对机车制造企业的行业特点设计了高标清混合视频监控系统,在设计和实施中应用了高清视频监控的最新技术,同时做到了与原有标清视频监控系统的兼容。给出了具有一定使用价值的高标清混合视频监控系统的逻辑结构、系统总体结构和网络拓扑结构,提出了旧的视频监控系统在升级改造中应该注意的问题。

  1. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  2. Compound Option Pricing under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of a financial market includes two aspects: risk and vagueness; in this paper, fuzzy sets theory is applied to model the imprecise input parameters (interest rate and volatility. We present the fuzzy price of compound option by fuzzing the interest and volatility in Geske’s compound option pricing formula. For each α, the α-level set of fuzzy prices is obtained according to the fuzzy arithmetics and the definition of fuzzy-valued function. We apply a defuzzification method based on crisp possibilistic mean values of the fuzzy interest rate and fuzzy volatility to obtain the crisp possibilistic mean value of compound option price. Finally, we present a numerical analysis to illustrate the compound option pricing under fuzzy environment.

  3. Eco-design of Steel Industry and Policy Options in China%钢铁产业生态化设计与政策选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅

    2012-01-01

    钢铁产业是国民经济重要的支柱产业,也是典型的高能耗、高排放、高污染产业.钢铁产业生态化设计与政策选择是落实科学发展现,推动生态文明建设,加快转变经济发展方式的必然要求.以烧结(球团)、焦化、炼铁,炼钢、轧钢工序中节能减排、污染防治和落后生产能力淘汰为重点,以环境影响评价为导向,基于钢铁全生产流程物质流分析,融入循环经济和清洁生产理念,以新型节能清洁工艺技术、装备技术和仿真、信息化技术的开发应用为切入点,融入生态文明、循环经济和清洁生产理念,完善钢铁生态产业链,加强资源综合利用,强化生态技术创新.本文从市场引导、政策促进、环境监管、技术创新、过程控制、内部循环、外部联合、责任延伸、行业自律、公众参与等10个层面,构建促进钢铁产业生态化的政策体系,充分发挥政府、企业、行业、中介组织、金融机构和社会公众的作用,在规划、机制和技术层次上全面落实钢铁产业生态化政策,全面推动我国钢铁产业的转型升级和绿色发展.%The steel industry is an important pillar industry of national economy, and is also the typical industry of high energy consumption, high emission, and high-pollution. Eco-design and policy options in the steel industry are to implement the scientific concept of development, and the construction of ecological civilization. It is an inevitable requirement to accelerate the transformation of economic development. In the process of sintering (pellets), coking, iron making, steelmaking and steel rolling, energy saving, pollution control and eliminating backward production capability are important. Based on environmental impact assessment and the steel production process of material flow analysis, we integrate the concept of circular economy and green production, focus on the new energy-saving technology and development and

  4. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  5. 'Much clearer with pictures': using community-based participatory research to design and test a Picture Option Grid for underserved patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Alam, Shama; Grande, Stuart W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-02-02

    Women of low socioeconomic status (SES) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer experience decision-making, treatment and outcome disparities. Evidence suggests that decision aids can benefit underserved patients, when tailored to their needs. Our aim was to develop and test the usability, acceptability and accessibility of a pictorial encounter decision aid targeted at women of low SES diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) using think-aloud protocols (phases 1 and 2) and semistructured interviews (phase 3). Underserved community settings (eg, knitting groups, bingo halls, senior centres) and breast clinics. In phase 1, we recruited a convenience sample of clinicians and academics. In phase 2, we targeted women over 40 years of age, of low SES, regardless of breast cancer history, and in phase 3, women of low SES, recently diagnosed with breast cancer. The pictorial encounter decision aid was derived from an evidence-based table comparing treatment options for breast cancer (http://www.optiongrid.org). We assessed the usability, acceptability and accessibility of the pictorial decision aid prototypes using the think-aloud protocol and semistructured interviews. After initial testing of the first prototype with 18 academics and health professionals, new versions were developed and tested with 53 lay individuals in community settings. Usability was high. In response to feedback indicating that the use of cartoon characters was considered insensitive, a picture-only version was developed and tested with 23 lay people in phase 2, and 10 target users in phase 3. Using CBPR methods and iterative user testing cycles improved usability and accessibility, and led to the development of the Picture Option Grid, entirely guided by multiple stakeholder feedback. All women of low SES recently diagnosed with early stage breast cancer found the Picture Option Grid usable, acceptable and accessible. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. A Study on Timing of Design Innovation Investment Based on Real Options Theory%基于实物期权理论的企业设计创新投资时机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小静; 邹涛; 陈彦颖

    2015-01-01

    产品的设计创新已经成为企业培养和维持核心竞争优势的关键。已有文献较少基于经济管理的视角来探讨不确定条件下企业设计创新所具有的实物期权特性,且传统的 DCF 无法对管理决策柔性做出科学的评价。为此,根据实物期权理论,构建企业设计创新的投资时机模型,并利用案例证明该模型的科学性和可行性。结果表明,企业在 DCF 分析的同时,应充分考虑企业设计创新的投资期权价值,把握最佳投资时机,实现科学决策。%Product design innovation has become crucial to developing and maintaining core competitiveness of enterprises.Design innovation in a company has the real option features under uncertainty,which have been merely analyzed in perspectives of economic and management. Then,the DCF method does not value the embedded management flexibility correctly.Conse-quently,a model of timing on a corporate design innovation is built based on real options theory. Furthermore,a case is given to demonstrate the reasonability and the feasibility of this method. Finally,on the basis of the above analysis,the paper gives some advice for concerned enterprises that they should take the whole embedded real options into account during the design innovation investment together with a DCF analysis,and grasp the optimal investment timing to ensure sci-entific decision-making.

  7. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  8. Definition of the G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane bundle binding pocket and calculation of receptor similarities for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Foord, Steven M; Blaney, Frank E

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in structural biology for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have provided new opportunities to improve the definition of the transmembrane binding pocket. Here a reference set of 44 residue positions accessible for ligand binding was defined through detailed analysis of all curr...

  9. Investigation on the Flexural Creep Stiffness Behavior of PC-ABS Material Processed by Fused Deposition Modeling Using Response Surface Definitive Screening Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of polymeric materials to time-dependent plastic deformation is an important requirement of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) design process, its processed products, and their application for long-term loading, durability, and reliability. The creep performance of the material and part processed by FDM is the fundamental criterion for many applications with strict dimensional stability requirements, including medical implants, electrical and electronic products, and various automotive applications. Herein, the effect of FDM fabrication conditions on the flexural creep stiffness behavior of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene processed parts was investigated. A relatively new class of experimental design called "definitive screening design" was adopted for this investigation. The effects of process variables on flexural creep stiffness behavior were monitored, and the best suited quadratic polynomial model with high coefficient of determination ( R 2) value was developed. This study highlights the value of response surface definitive screening design in optimizing properties for the products and materials, and it demonstrates its role and potential application in material processing and additive manufacturing.

  10. Investigation on the Flexural Creep Stiffness Behavior of PC-ABS Material Processed by Fused Deposition Modeling Using Response Surface Definitive Screening Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2016-12-01

    The resistance of polymeric materials to time-dependent plastic deformation is an important requirement of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) design process, its processed products, and their application for long-term loading, durability, and reliability. The creep performance of the material and part processed by FDM is the fundamental criterion for many applications with strict dimensional stability requirements, including medical implants, electrical and electronic products, and various automotive applications. Herein, the effect of FDM fabrication conditions on the flexural creep stiffness behavior of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene processed parts was investigated. A relatively new class of experimental design called "definitive screening design" was adopted for this investigation. The effects of process variables on flexural creep stiffness behavior were monitored, and the best suited quadratic polynomial model with high coefficient of determination (R 2) value was developed. This study highlights the value of response surface definitive screening design in optimizing properties for the products and materials, and it demonstrates its role and potential application in material processing and additive manufacturing.

  11. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta; Marszal, Anna Joanna

    2010-01-01

    and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB......The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria...

  12. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  13. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  14. 75 FR 6750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ..., Article I.A.5 (definition of ``Aggregate Exercise Price'') and OCC Rule 805(d)(2) to accommodate options... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Options for Which the Premium and Exercise Price Are Expressed... OCC's By-Laws and Rules to accommodate options for which the premium and exercise price are expressed...

  15. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  16. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  17. A real options approach to the baseball game betting

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shin-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Applications of real options can be found in real assets, but not in sports. This article proposes the real options model and applies it to baseball games, allowing the option to switch between the two teams during the game. We believe this is the first attempt to apply the switching options to the baseball game scheme. To do so, we first design some rules in our assumptions and define variables that are relevant to the baseball options. We combine features of the wager volatility and options...

  18. Housing Options for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different services. The services are based on the lifestyle and health care needs of the residents. Below are some options for senior living. Active adult communitiesActive adult communities are neighborhoods made for older ...

  19. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  20. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  1. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 2: Endpoint Definitions: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  3. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  4. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  5. Some fundamental definitions of the elastic parameters for homogenous isotropic linear materials in road design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available during tensile (or compressive) tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young’s Modulus is named after Thomas Young, the 18th Century British scientist. The SI unit of modulus of elasticity, E is the pascal. Given the large values typical of many... stream_source_info De Beer_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31159 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Some fundamental definitions...

  6. Some fundamental definitions of the elastic parameters for homogeneous isotropic linear elastic materials in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available during tensile (or compressive) tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young’s Modulus is named after Thomas Young, the 18th Century British scientist. The SI unit of modulus of elasticity, E is the pascal. Given the large values typical of many... stream_source_info De Beer1_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31159 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer1_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Some fundamental definitions...

  7. 公立医院公益性的概念与加强策略研究%Study on the Definition and Its Enhancement Options of Public-Interests Orientation of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海潮

    2012-01-01

    Considering the different opinions towards the public-interests orientation of public hospitals, the author has put forward that public-interests orientation could be divided into two tiers: the natural public-interests orientation and the derivative public -interests orientation. The clarification and the definition for the terms were discussed in the paper The main problem of public hospital* existed in the derivative public-interests orientation aspect. Based upon the analysis on the issues of und reasons for the declining trend of public -interests orientation of public hospitals, six suggestions were presented on correcting and improving the public -interests orientation of public hospitals, which were controlling the overall size and scale of public hospitals, ensuring the adequate public financing, enhancing the budgeting activity and dealing with the residuals of income and expense surplus, controlling the pricing list and lowering the levels of user fees, developing the well -trained and professional hospital managers, and encouraging the philanthropy donations from the public and individuals.%文章针对公立医院公益性讨论的分歧,提出了可以将公益性划分为自然公益性和衍生公益性,并分别界定了两者的内涵.当前,公立医院的公益性问题主要是衍生公益性发挥不良.文章分析了公立医院衍生公益性存在的问题和原因,提出了6点加强建议,即:控制公立医院总规模;确保基本公共投入;加强预算和收支管理;控制收费项目和价格水平;发展职业化专业化管理队伍;鼓励公益性捐赠等.

  8. On the Pricing of Options in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Melenberg, B.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we reconsider the pricing of options in incomplete continuous time markets.We first discuss option pricing with idiosyncratic stochastic volatility.This leads, of course, to an averaged Black-Scholes price formula.Our proof of this result uses a new formalization of idiosyncraticy which encapsulates other definitions in the literature.Our method of proof is subsequently generalized to other forms of incompleteness and systematic (i.e. non-idiosyncratic) information.Generally thi...

  9. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  10. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  11. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  12. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  13. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  14. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Applications Study. Volume II. Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) design definition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prickett, W. Z.

    1979-11-01

    The design requirements for the Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft. (NIMS) are discussed in detail. The requirements are a function of mission specifications, payload, control system requirements, electric system specifications, and cost limitations. (LCL)

  15. Coupling of OECD standardized test and immunomarkers to select the most environmentally benign ionic liquids option--towards an innovative "safety by design" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Diallo, Alpha-Oumar; Marlair, Guy; Pandard, Pascal; Chabot, Laure; Geffard, Alain; Len, Christophe; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed a potential industrial accompaniment to reduce ionic liquid harmfulness by a novel combination of OECD Daphnia magna standardized test and fish immunomarkers. The combination of these two tests allowed multicriteria examination of ILs impacts in different organisms and trophic levels. The work provided new data for legislation and opened a door towards an integrative environmental evaluation due to direct implications of immune system in fish and ecosystem health. Whatever the species, each IL tested induced deleterious effects suggesting that toxic impact was especially due to IL lipophilicity properties. Nevertheless, cation moieties of ILs seemed to draw overall toxicity of ILs to significant extent as supported by lower cell mortality shown with imidazolium-based ILs compared to phosphonium-based ILs. However, the anions moieties have some additional effect, as revealed by quite dissimilar toxicity within same IL family. Concerning the more integrative biomarkers, the cationic-based ILs tested possessed also dissimilar effect on immune system of fish, especially on leucocyte distribution, lysosomal membrane integrity and phagocytosis activity. These results confirm that ILs toxicity could be influenced by design and that chemical engineering processes can integrate ecological footprint reduction strategies for successful IL utilization in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Black-Scholes option pricing within Ito and Stratonovich conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Perello, J; Montero, M I; Masoliver, J

    2000-01-01

    Options financial instruments designed to protect investors from the stock market randomness. In 1973, Fisher Black, Myron Scholes and Robert Merton proposed a very popular option pricing method using stochastic differential equations within the Ito interpretation. Herein, we derive the Black-Scholes equation for the option price using the Stratonovich calculus along with a comprehensive review, aimed to physicists, of the classical option pricing method based on the Ito calculus. We show, as can be expected, that the Black-Scholes equation is independent of the interpretation chosen. We nonetheless point out the many subtleties underlying Black-Scholes option pricing method.

  17. Baseband Transceiver Design of a High Definition Radio FM System Using Joint Theoretical Analysis and FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in wireless communications have enabled various technologies for wireless digital communication. In the field of digital radio broadcasting, several specifications have been proposed, such as Eureka-147 and digital radio mondiale (DRM. These systems require a new spectrum assignment, which incurs heavy cost due to the depletion of the available spectrum. Therefore, the in-band on-channel (IBOC system has been developed to work in the same band with the conventional analog radio and to provide digital broadcasting services. This paper discusses the function and algorithm of the high definition (HD radio frequency modulation (FM digital radio broadcasting system. Content includes data format allocation, constellation mapping, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM modulation of the transmitter, timing synchronization, OFDM demodulation, integer and fraction carrier frequency (integer carrier frequency offset (ICFO and fractional CFO (FCFO estimation, and channel estimation of the receiver. When we implement this system to the field programmable gate array (FPGA based on a hardware platform, both theoretical and practical aspects have been considered to accommodate the available hardware resources.

  18. 37 CFR 41.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 41.201 Section... Definitions. In addition to the definitions in §§ 41.2 and 41.100, the following definitions apply to... invention. Involved claim means, for the purposes of 35 U.S.C. 135(a), a claim that has been designated...

  19. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  20. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  1. Current management options for tyrosinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shabrawi MH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mortada Hassan El-Shabrawi, Naglaa Mohamed KamalPediatric Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Hypertyrosinemia is observed in three inherited disorders of tyrosine metabolism. Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I (HTT-I, or hepatorenal tyrosinemia, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH gene. HTT-I is associated with severe involvement of the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, and is due to toxic accumulation of metabolites of tyrosine, such as succinylacetone. HTT-I is the inborn error with the highest incidence of progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated succinylacetone, in dried filter paper blood samples, or in plasma or urine, is pathognomonic and diagnostic for HTT-I and is the most reliable neonatal screening method. Liver transplantation is the definitive management, but the need for this is markedly decreased by the combined dietary and drug management. A diet low in tyrosine and phenylalanine, plus nitisinone (2-[2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NCTB are considered the gold standard management options. Carnitine and 1,25-OH-vitamin D are adjuvant therapy. Strict follow up with succinylacetone level for monitoring of treatment should be done. Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging should also be done for surveillance of the possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma.Keywords: tyrosinemia, management, NTBC, hepatocellular carcinoma

  2. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, L

    1996-09-15

    Antithyroid drugs induce sustained remission in only 55% of cases. Radioiodine, the overwhelming choice of specialists, may pose risks, including aggravation of ophthalmopathy. Surgical ablation should be considered only if a highly skilled surgeon is available. Thyroid storm requires aggressive management, and definitive treatment is needed for toxic adenoma or toxic multinodular goiter.

  3. Positioning Landscape Design by Definition of "Science"%从"科学"的定义看景观设计的学科定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彤

    2011-01-01

    认为有必要从英文"science"的定义入手来考察景观设计学的学科定位,指出把景观设计当作追求客观知识体系的科学、当作与文科相对的理科、当作工程技术,都是对这个学科的错误理解,并得出景观设计不是科学的结论.%The author thinks that it is necessary to make a study on it by analyzing the definition of science" it is a misunderstanding to regard landscape design as a science to seek fot objective knowledge; as a discipline opposed to liberal arts; or as engineering

  4. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  5. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  6. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a ...

  7. Novel operative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  9. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  10. 77 FR 47459 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Order Approving an Amendment to the Plan for Reporting of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Options Price Reporting Authority; Order Approving an Amendment to the Plan for Reporting of Consolidated Options Last Sale Reports and Quotation Information To Revise the Definition of the Term ``Nonprofessional'' August 2, 2012. I. Introduction On May 31, 2012, the Options Price Reporting Authority (``OPRA...

  11. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  12. Modelling Active Faults in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) with OpenQuake: Definition, Design and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Poggi, Valerio; Chen, Yen-Shin; Pagani, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has, since its inception in 2009, made many contributions to the practice of seismic hazard modeling in different regions of the globe. The OpenQuake-engine (hereafter referred to simply as OpenQuake), GEM's open-source software for calculation of earthquake hazard and risk, has found application in many countries, spanning a diversity of tectonic environments. GEM itself has produced a database of national and regional seismic hazard models, harmonizing into OpenQuake's own definition the varied seismogenic sources found therein. The characterization of active faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is at the centre of this process, motivating many of the developments in OpenQuake and presenting hazard modellers with the challenge of reconciling seismological, geological and geodetic information for the different regions of the world. Faced with these challenges, and from the experience gained in the process of harmonizing existing models of seismic hazard, four critical issues are addressed. The challenge GEM has faced in the development of software is how to define a representation of an active fault (both in terms of geometry and earthquake behaviour) that is sufficiently flexible to adapt to different tectonic conditions and levels of data completeness. By exploring the different fault typologies supported by OpenQuake we illustrate how seismic hazard calculations can, and do, take into account complexities such as geometrical irregularity of faults in the prediction of ground motion, highlighting some of the potential pitfalls and inconsistencies that can arise. This exploration leads to the second main challenge in active fault modeling, what elements of the fault source model impact most upon the hazard at a site, and when does this matter? Through a series of sensitivity studies we show how different configurations of fault geometry, and the corresponding characterisation of near-fault phenomena (including

  13. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  14. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  15. 高清晰视频会议系统的研究与设计%Research and Design of High-definition Video Conferencing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇

    2014-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, people put forward higher requirements for video conference, whose design needs to meet the basic needs of users for video system, and the video system is supposed to be advanced and reliable. This article mainly analyzes the development, present situation and the future trend of video conference technology. It comprehensively analyzes customers' demand and researches to design high-definition video system.%随着科技的发展人们对视频会议提出了更高的要求,它的设计需要满足用户对视频系统的基本需求,同时视频系统需要先进、可靠。本文主要分析了视频会议技术的发展、现状和未来的趋势,全面分析客户的需求,研究设计高度清晰的视频系统。

  16. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  18. Values and options in cancer care (VOICE): study design and rationale for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for physicians, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Epstein, Ronald M; Winters, Paul C; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul R; Gramling, Robert; Butow, Phyllis N; Mohile, Supriya G; Kaesberg, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Plumb, Sandy; Walczak, Adam; Back, Anthony L; Tancredi, Daniel; Venuti, Alison; Cipri, Camille; Escalera, Gisela; Ferro, Carol; Gaudion, Don; Hoh, Beth; Leatherwood, Blair; Lewis, Linda; Robinson, Mark; Sullivan, Peter; Kravitz, Richard L

    2013-04-09

    Communication about prognosis and treatment choices is essential for informed decision making in advanced cancer. This article describes an investigation designed to facilitate communication and decision making among oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers. The Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored randomized controlled trial conducted in the Rochester/Buffalo, NY and Sacramento, CA regions. A total of 40 oncologists, approximately 400 patients with advanced cancer, and their family/friend caregivers (one per patient, when available) are expected to enroll in the study. Drawing upon ecological theory, the intervention uses a two-pronged approach: oncologists complete a multifaceted tailored educational intervention involving standardized patient instructors (SPIs), and patients and caregivers complete a coaching intervention to facilitate prioritizing and discussing questions and concerns. Follow-up data will be collected approximately quarterly for up to three years. The intervention is hypothesized to enhance patient-centered communication, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Analyses will examine the effects of the intervention on key elements of physician-patient-caregiver communication (primary outcomes), the physician-patient relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, patient well-being, and health service utilization (secondary outcomes). Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT01485627.

  19. 高海拔地区消防泵和配套电机的设计选择%Options for fire pump and matching motor design in high altitude localities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志云

    2014-01-01

    以西藏拉萨某沥青库消防设计为例,探讨了环境温度和海拔高度对电机功率的影响,给出了消防泵配套电机容量的选择计算方法。电机容量在考虑规定的备用系数基础上,对高海拔地区需再加上高原修正系数。%Taking the fire protection design of the pitch storage tank in Lhasa Tibet as an example, the in‐fluences of environment temperature and altitude on motor power were discussed, and then, the optional calcula‐tion methods of the capacity of fire pump matching motor were put forward. It was indicated that, calculating mo tor capacity in high altitude localities should based on the specified reserve factors and take correction factors also.

  20. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  1. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  2. The analysis and rationale behind the upgrading of existing standard definition thermal imagers to high definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Tristan M.

    2016-05-01

    With 640x512 pixel format IR detector arrays having been on the market for the past decade, Standard Definition (SD) thermal imaging sensors have been developed and deployed across the world. Now with 1280x1024 pixel format IR detector arrays becoming readily available designers of thermal imager systems face new challenges as pixel sizes reduce and the demand and applications for High Definition (HD) thermal imaging sensors increases. In many instances the upgrading of existing under-sampled SD thermal imaging sensors into more optimally sampled or oversampled HD thermal imaging sensors provides a more cost effective and reduced time to market option than to design and develop a completely new sensor. This paper presents the analysis and rationale behind the selection of the best suited HD pixel format MWIR detector for the upgrade of an existing SD thermal imaging sensor to a higher performing HD thermal imaging sensor. Several commercially available and "soon to be" commercially available HD small pixel IR detector options are included as part of the analysis and are considered for this upgrade. The impact the proposed detectors have on the sensor's overall sensitivity, noise and resolution is analyzed, and the improved range performance is predicted. Furthermore with reduced dark currents due to the smaller pixel sizes, the candidate HD MWIR detectors are operated at higher temperatures when compared to their SD predecessors. Therefore, as an additional constraint and as a design goal, the feasibility of achieving upgraded performance without any increase in the size, weight and power consumption of the thermal imager is discussed herein.

  3. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research.

  4. [Surgical options in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, L; Ecker, K W

    1998-01-01

    Surgery is needed in every second patient with pancolitis. Historically four surgical options have been developed: conventional ileostomy, ileorectostomy, continent ileostomy (Kock's pouch) and ileo-anal pouch. However, in emergent or unclear situations subtotal colectomy, ileostomy and preservation of the rectum is the most suitable operation. After recovery and in elective indications proctectomy and proctocolectomy establish the general surgical standard. Today, in most cases ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis is performed instead of creation of an ileostomy. Both lowered frequency of defecation and acceptable continence contribute to a better quality of life. However, functional disturbances are not uncommon and result in most cases from complications of the demanding technique. Definitive cure of the colitis is in interference with the risk of pouchitis in about 30%. The cumulative probability to loose the pouch may rise to 15-20% in the long-term course. Thus, ileorectostomy may be considered as a first step of surgical treatment, since pelvic nerve damage is excluded, function is much better and persistent proctitis can be treated topically. The attractively is that ileo-anal pouch can be performed later on, when decreasing function and increasing risk of malignant change will eventually require proctectomy. A Kock-pouch is seldom considered, especially in patients with ileostomy wishing sure fecal control. But the continent reservoir becomes more and more interesting again since it can be reconstructed from a failed ileo-anal pouch without loss of bowel. Conventional ileostomy should be reserved for patients not suitable for reconstructive methods or those who consider pough operations risk. However, it is the safest procedure with absolute cure of disease. The optimal choice of method considers medical and surgical aspects as well as patients conception and desire.

  5. GSM-R信令监测选择录音系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of an Optional Voice Recording System Based on GSM-R Signaling Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余松平; 蔡志平; 吴建进; 谷凤芝

    2014-01-01

    Traditional voice recording system based on GSM-R has limitations that communication events and part of calls can’ t be recor-ded,and the need for special support of the GSM-R network. In this paper,the Optional Voice Recording System ( OVRS) based on the GSM-R signaling monitoring is proposed,with signaling monitoring technologies to analyze the process of calling signaling,recording voice alternatively according to recording rules and tracking communication events relating to voice call,which effectively solves the a-bove problem. The OVRS is easy to plan,manage,secure,operate and maintain. First,the hardware architecture and software system de-signing of OVRS are introduced. Second,the key technologies of OVRS are elaborated,which includes the automatic identification of the signaling link,optional recording and DXC equipment control. Finally,the system implementation and experimental results are described, and the system application prospects,social benefits and future work are explained.%基于GSM-R的传统的录音系统具有通信事件和部分通话无法记录的局限,并且需要GSM-R网络的特别支持。文中提出了一种基于GSM-R信令监测的选择录音系统( OVRS),通过信令监测技术,对呼叫信令流程进行分析,根据录音规则选择性地记录语音和与语音通话相关的事件,有效解决了以上问题,具有易规划、易管理、安全保密、易操作、易维护的特点。首先介绍了OVRS系统的硬件架构和软件系统设计;然后,阐述了系统包含的信令链路自动识别、选择录音、DXC设备控制等关键技术;最后,描述了系统的实现方案和实验结果,并对该系统的应用前景和社会效益、未来的工作进行了展望。

  6. 77 FR 37720 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Amendment to the Plan To Revise the Definition of the Term ``Nonprofessional'' June 15, 2012. Pursuant to... hereby given that on May 31, 2012, the Options Price Reporting Authority (``OPRA'') submitted to the...

  7. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  8. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 1: clinical trial design principles: A consensus document from the mitral valve academic research consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  9. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  11. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  12. 76 FR 13404 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... clinical studies. 2. The Definition of Inventions, Was too Vague and Ambiguous in Both Sections A and B (Comment) Many respondents from all groups commented that the definition of inventions as those that ``use... Agent under the scope of an NCI funding agreement. The IP Option will apply to inventions generated...

  13. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  14. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  15. Cross - Currency Hedging Using Options

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Akshay

    2006-01-01

    In today's competitive global markets, most firms are vulnerable to increasing fluctuation in foreign exchange, which is leading them to make use of Currency Derivatives to hedge their risks. Among the several derivatives available, Currency Options are the second most popular instrument used to hedge currency risk. Options are a very distinctive set of instruments that are available to hedge Currency risk. This study provides empirical evidence on why companies employ Currency Options to hed...

  16. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    .... So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems...

  18. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  19. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  20. AFCI Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  1. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  2. Conceptual design of a crewed reusable space transportation system aimed at parabolic flights: stakeholder analysis, mission concept selection, and spacecraft architecture definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.

  3. Definition of the characteristic impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云生; Abbas Sayed OMAR

    1996-01-01

    Currently available definitions of the characteristic impedance are ambiguous andior inaccurate.A general definition,based on the description of discontinuities between adjacent waveguides,is given.This definition is accurate and independent of the structure concerned.So it can be applied to the design of passive components in any type of transmission lines.Using this definition,a given structure can be uniquely characterized,but the absolute value of the characteristic impedance has no sense any more.As an example,the design of a microstrip impedance transformer using this new definition is presented.Numerical results using the mode-matching method prove the accuracy of the theory.

  4. New Methods with Capped Options for Pricing American Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongya Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two new methods: improved binomial methods and improved least square MonteCarlo methods (LSM, for pricing American options. These two methods are developed using the nice capped options which have closed-form formulas. Numerical examples are provided to verify that these two new methods are pretty efficient.

  5. Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars: current and emerging options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauglitz GG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerd G GauglitzDepartment of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: In the context of growing aesthetic awareness, a rising number of patients feel disappointed with their scars and are frequently seeking help for functional and aesthetic improvement. However, excessive scarring following surgery or trauma remains difficult to improve despite a plethora of advocated treatment strategies as frequently observed in daily clinical routine. It is thus still preferable to prevent scarring by minimizing risk factors as much as possible. Hence, it remains crucial for the physician to be aware of basic knowledge of healing mechanisms and skin anatomy, as well as an appreciation of suture material and wound closure techniques to minimize the risk of postoperative scarring. Next to existing, well known prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for the improvement of excessive scarring, this article discusses emerging techniques such as intralesional cryotherapy, intralesional 5-fluorouracil, interferon, and bleomycin. Some of them have been successfully tested in well-designed trials and already have extended or may extend the current spectrum of excessive scar treatment in the near future. Innovative options such as imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, or botulinum toxin A may also be of certain importance; however, the data currently available is too contradictory for definite recommendations.Keywords: intralesional cryotherapy, lasers, triamcinolone acetonide, TGF-β

  6. Options for Next Generation Digital Acquisition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, A

    2011-01-01

    Digital acquisition system designers have an always increasing number of options in terms of bus standards and digital signal processing hardware among which to choose. This allows for high flexibility but also opens the door to a proliferation of different architectures, potentially limiting the reusability and the design synergies among the various instrumentation groups. This contribution illustrates the design trends in some of the major institutes around the world with design examples including VME, PCI and TCA based modular systems using AMC and/or FMC mezzanines. Some examples of FPGA design practices aimed at increasing reusability of code will be mentioned together with some of the tools already available to designers to improve the information exchange and collaboration, like the Open Hardware Repository project.

  7. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  8. RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

  9. Expanding contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  10. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  11. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  12. V.A. Cooperative Study on antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene: III. Definitions and review of design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J A; Bingham, S F; Abraira, C; Anderson, J W; Kwaan, H C

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the major design features, methods, and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. In eleven V.A. centers, 231 male diabetic patients who had either a recent amputation for gangrene (N = 207) or active gangrene (N = 24) were randomly assigned to a group which received aspirin (325 mg t.i.d.) plus dipyridamole (75 mg t.i.d.) (N = 110) or two placeboes t.i.d. (N = 121). Major end point were vascular death and amputation of the opposite extremity for gangrene. Forty-one percent of the 563 patients screened were enrolled during a 39 month period. Enrollment errors were found in 8.7%. Historically, the two groups were well matched regarding the following variables: age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, previous oral agent therapy, hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, renal disease, sensory neuropathy, and smoking. The drug therapy group had an increased frequency of a history of cerebrovascular disease (19% vs 7%, p = 0.01). The groups were well matched regarding amputation site, obesity, extent of lower extremity vascular disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy upon examination. Their baseline fasting values of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine were also comparable. We conclude that this study should provide definitive data on the efficacy of these antiplatelet agents in preventing further vascular disease in this patient group. It should also provide new prospective data on the natural history of vascular disease, and the association of vascular risk factors with subsequent vascular events in this patient population.

  13. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  14. 17 CFR 35.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collar agreement, currency swap agreement, cross-currency rate swap agreement, currency option, any other... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXEMPTION OF SWAP AGREEMENTS § 35.1 Definitions. (a) Scope. The provisions of this part shall apply to any swap agreement which may be subject...

  15. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH.

  16. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  17. Making real options really work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  18. A technique for choosing an option for SDH network upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bulanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing data transmission technologies result in making the network equipment modernization inevitable. There are various options to upgrade the SDH networks, for example, by increasing the capacity of network overloaded sites, the entire network capacity by replacement of the equipment or by creation of a parallel network, by changing the network structure with the organization of multilevel hierarchy of a network, etc. All options vary in a diversity of parameters starting with the solution cost and ending with the labor intensiveness of their realization. Thus, there are no certain standard approaches to the rules to choose an option for the network development. The article offers the technique for choosing the SHD network upgrade based on method of expert evaluations using as a tool the software complex that allows us to have quickly the quantitative characteristics of proposed network option. The technique is as follows:1. Forming a perspective matrix of services inclination to the SDH networks.2. Developing the several possible options for a network modernization.3. Formation of the list of criteria and a definition of indicators to characterize them by two groups, namely costs of the option implementation and arising losses; positive effect from the option introduction.4. Criteria weight coefficients purpose.5. Indicators value assessment within each criterion for each option by each expert. Rationing of the obtained values of indicators in relation to the maximum value of an indicator among all options.6. Calculating the integrated indicators of for each option by criteria groups.7. Creating a set of Pareto by drawing two criteria groups of points, which correspond to all options in the system of coordinates on the plane. Option choice.In implementation of point 2 the indicators derivation owing to software complex plays a key role. This complex should produce a structure of the network equipment, types of multiplexer sections

  19. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  20. Design and Implementation of the Ultra-high-definition Medical Images Remote Display System%超高清医学影像远程显示方案的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏桥; 蒲卫; 刘景文; 李学斯

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the actual needs of the remote sharing of the ultra-high—definition images at department of radiology, to analyze and solve technical problems of lossless transmission and manipulation of ultra—high—definition images remotely, we designed and implemented a 320—slice CT ultra-high-definition image remote transmission and manipulation solution, the solution is security, stable, effective, and meets the complete satisfaction. It improves the efficiency and quality of medical services, and also has a good reference to other ultra-high—definition video transmission needs.%从放射科320排cT超高清医学影像远程共享的实际需求出发,分析并解决了超高清影像远程无损传输和操控的技术难题,设计并实现了320排CT超高清影像远程传输和操控的整套解决方案,方案安全、稳定、有效,完全满足实际需求,有效提高了医疗服务的效率和质量,对其他超高清影像传输需求也具有很好的借鉴意义.

  1. 77 FR 33541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... receipt of Commission approval and prior to the product launch, the Exchange will issue a circular...). Design of the Product SPBAS options reflect the difference between the Special Opening Quotation (``SOQ... these surveillance procedures shall be adequate to monitor trading in options on these option...

  2. Pseudotumor cerebri: An update on treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita B Dave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to identify Pseudotumor cerebri treatment options and assess their efficacy. Setting and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Existing literature and the authors′ experience were reviewed. Results: Treatment options range from observation to surgical intervention. Weight loss and medical treatment may be utilized in cases without vision loss or in combination with surgical treatment. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures and/or optic nerve sheath decompression is indicated for severe vision loss or headache unresponsive to medical management. The recent use of endovascular stenting of transverse sinus stenoses has also demonstrated benefit in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Conclusion: While each treatment form may be successful individually, a multimodal approach is typically utilized with treatments selected on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t respond to propranolol, primidone, or other common ET medications and whose tremor has become debilitating, there ... treatments were first introduced. Current surgical options for ET include Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) , Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy , ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  7. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly ...

  8. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Urethral Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  9. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  10. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  11. Definition study for photovoltaic residential prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, M. S.; Hulstrom, R. L.; Cookson, C.; Waldman, B. H.; Lane, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study and definition of the conceptual design is presented. A computer program containing the solar irradiance, solar array, and energy balance models was developed to determine the sensitivities of solar insolation and the corresponding solar array output at five sites selected for this study as well as the performance of several solar array/battery systems. A baseline electrical configuration was chosen, and three design options were recommended. The study indicates that the most sensitive parameters are the solar insolation and the inverter efficiency. The baseline PST selected is comprised of a 133 sg m solar array, 250 ampere hour battery, one to three inverters, and a full shunt regulator to limit the upper solar array voltage. A minicomputer controlled system is recommended to provide the overall control, display, and data acquisition requirements. Architectural renderings of two photovoltaic residential concepts, one above ground and the other underground, are presented. The institutional problems were defined in the areas of legal liabilities during and after installation of the PST, labor practices, building restrictions and architectural guides, and land use.

  12. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  13. 23 CFR 650.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES... of exceedance selected for the design of a highway encroachment. By definition, the highway will not... highway. (p) Risk analysis shall mean an economic comparison of design alternatives using expected...

  14. Real Options Analysis of Electricity Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane Marte

    2012-07-01

    opportunities as real options and investing at the optimal time maximizes the value of the investment opportunity. Also, uncertainties may affect how policy measures are received by the firms the policy measures are aimed at. Understanding how uncertainty can be embraced is important both for companies and for policy makers designing policy measures.(Author)

  15. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krauss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  16. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  17. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  18. Investment opportunities as real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rovčanin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity (optional approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the importance of optional approach to investments is also that it provides possible better “treatment” of risks in the investment analysis, and also more rational allocation of resources, accordingly. This approach should be of more interest to the Countries in transition, considering the limited financial sources as well as risk and uncertainty are emphasized.

  19. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  20. Treatment options in trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is 4.3 per 100,000 persons per year, with a slightly higher incidence for women (5.9/100,000) compared with men (3.4/100,000). There is a lack of certainty regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of TN. The treatment of TN can be very challenging despite the numerous options patients and physicians can choose from. This multitude of treatment options poses the question as to which treatment fits which patient best. The preferred medical treatment for TN consists of anticonvulsant drugs, muscle relaxants and neuroleptic agents. Large-scale placebo-controlled clinical trials are scarce. For patients refractory to medical therapy, Gasserian ganglion percutaneous techniques, gamma knife surgery and microvascular decompression are the most promising invasive treatment options. PMID:21179603

  1. Devising a consensus definition and framework for non-technical skills in healthcare to support educational design: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Catchpole, Ken; Darbyshire, Daniel; Schocken, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Non-technical skills are a subset of human factors that focus on the individual and promote safety through teamwork and awareness. There is no widely adopted competency- or outcome-based framework for non-technical skills training in healthcare. The authors set out to devise such a framework using a modified Delphi approach. An exhaustive list of published and team suggested items was presented to the expert panel for ranking and to propose a definition. In the second round, a focused list was presented, as well as the proposed definition elements. The finalised framework was sent to the panel for review. Sixteen experts participated. The final framework consists of 16 competencies for all and eight specific competencies for team leaders. The consensus definition describes non-technical skills as "a set of social (communication and team work) and cognitive (analytical and personal behaviour) skills that support high quality, safe, effective and efficient inter-professional care within the complex healthcare system". The authors have produced a new competency framework, through the works of an International expert panel, which is not discipline specific that can be used by curriculum developers, educational innovators and clinical teachers to support developments in the field.

  2. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option...

  3. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ...

  4. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver cancer . The following stages are used for gastric cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are ... check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in ... Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1102-87 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator. NCP means a nonconformance penalty as...). For NCP purposes, all optionally certified engines and/or vehicles (engines certified in...

  7. THE STRATEGIC OPTIONS IN INVESTMENT PROJECTS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA SĂCUI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of real options applies the option valuation techniques to capital budgeting exercises in which a project is coupled with a put or call option. In many project valuation settings, the firm has one or more options to make strategic changes to the project during its life. These strategic options, which are known as real options, are typically ignored in standard discounted cash-flow analysis where a single expected present value is computed. This paper presents the types of real options that are met in economic activity.

  8. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  9. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  10. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  11. SharePoint自助式OLAP报表的研究与实现%Research and Design of Self-definition OLAP Report for SharePoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王时绘; 帅小冲

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively use the tax data for local taxation bureau of Guizhou province,this paper introduces the principle and implementation method for a kind of self-definition OLAP report by combining the technology of Excel Services and PowerPivot Services.%为了有效地利用贵州地税的税务数据,本文结合SharePoint中的Excel Services与PowerPivot Services技术,介绍了一种自助式OLAP报表解决方案的原理与实现方法。

  12. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  13. Warranty of Misinforming as an Option in Product Utilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following definition of “option” is given in Wikipedia - “In finance, an option is a contract, which gives the buyer (the owner or holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the form of the option” (“Option,” n.d.. Option as a risk management (mitigation tool is broadly used in finance and trade. At the same time, it introduces asymmetry in the sense that, probabilistically, it limits the level of losses (e.g., the price of the option and allows for unlimited gains. In the market of sophisticated devices (as smart phones, tablets, etc., where technologies are rapidly advancing, customers usually do not have the experience to use all features of the device at the time of the purchase. Due to the lack of appropriate expertise, the risk of misinforming, leading to not purchasing the “right” device is high, but given enough time to learn the capabilities of the device and map these to the needs and tasks that device will be used for, could provide the client with substantial long term benefits. Warranty of misinforming is a mechanism that provides the client with the opportunity to explore the device and master its features under limited risk of financial losses. Thus, the warranty of misinforming could be considered as an option - the custom-ers buy it (at a fixed cost and may gain (theoretically unlimited benefit by realizing (within the terms of the warranty that the device can be used to solve a variety of problems not envisaged at the time of purchase. In this study we present the idea of treating the warranty of misinforming as an option in finances and provide examples to illustrate our viewpoint.

  14. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  15. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  16. Design of High definition Network Camera Apply to Monitor System in Modern mine%一款适用于现代煤矿监控系统的高清网络摄像机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲玲; 王清灵

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design and realization of 720P high definition network camera based on H.264 coding standard are introduced, which are in line with the development and application of HD video monitoring technology in modern mine. The design of high definition network camera is based on Sony CMOS imaging sensor and TI Davinei digital media processors, which is suitable for deployment inside the mine ,gate ,materials reserve places etc.%本文实现了一款采用H.264编码标准的720P高清网络摄像机设计与实现,符合当今煤矿行业高清视频监控技术的发展和应用。该款高清网络摄像机是以SONY CMOS图像传感器和TI达芬奇数字媒体处理器为设计基础的,特别适合部署在矿井内部、出入口、物资储备等重要场所。

  17. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  18. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  19. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Amy; Miller, Emily S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-09

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies. Mirtazapine acts on noradrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic receptors to produce antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiemetic, sedative, and appetite-stimulating effects. Mirtazapine is not associated with an independent increased risk of birth defects. Further investigation of mirtazapine as a treatment for HG holds promise to expand treatment options for women suffering from HG.

  20. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  1. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate d...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  2. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  3. 16 CFR 1505.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.1 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part 1505: (1) The term “electrically operated toy or other electrically operated article intended for use by children” means any toy, game, or other article designed, labeled, advertised, or otherwise intended for use...

  4. 24 CFR 597.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 597.3 Section 597.3... Provisions § 597.3 Definitions. The terms HUD and Secretary are defined in 24 CFR part 5. Designation means... tract, or, if census tracts are not defined for the area, a block numbering area. Poverty means the...

  5. 48 CFR 519.7002 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designed to enhance the business success of the protégé. (b) Mentor-Protégé Program Manager means an... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7002 Definitions. The definitions of small business concern, small disadvantaged business concern, HUBZone small business concern,...

  6. 50 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 300.2 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in each act, agreement, convention, or treaty... designated by a member of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources as an inspector under Article XXIV of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources...

  7. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  8. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  9. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  10. Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiberman, Uri; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Selva, Dinesh; Leibovitch, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options. PMID:22848141

  11. Option contracts in fresh produce supply chain with circulation loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate management decisions via option contracts in a two-stage supply chain in which a fresh produce supplier sells to a retailer, considering the circulation loss of the fresh produce. Design/methodology/approach: Authors propose a Stackelberg model to analyze the supply chain members’ decisions in the decentralized supply chain compared with the integrated one under the newsvendor framework. Findings: The results illustrate that there exists a unique optimal option order quantity for the retailer and a unique optimal option order price for the supplier giving certain conditions; furthermore, option contracts cannot coordinate the fresh produce supply chain when the retailer only orders options. Originality/value: Agricultural products especially fresh produce’s characteristics such as circulation loss and high risk are considered. Option contracts and game theory are combined to manage the fresh produce supply chain’s risk. The proposed tool and models are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of supply chain risk management.

  12. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  13. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...

  14. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  15. Development of stripper options for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, F.; Hershcovitch, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-09-12

    The US Department of Energy Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University includes a heavy ion superconducting linac capable of accelerating all ions up to uranium with energies higher than 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. To achieve these goals with present ion source performance it is necessary to accelerate simultaneously two charge states of uranium from the ion source in the first section of the linac. At an energy of approximately 16.5 MeV/u it is planned to strip the uranium beam to reduce the voltage needed in the rest of the linac to achieve the final energy. Up to five different charge states are planned to be accelerated simultaneously after the stripper. The design of the stripper is a challenging problem due to the high power deposited (approximately 0.7 kW) in the stripper media by the beam in a small spot. To assure success of the project we have established a research and development program that includes several options: carbon or diamond foils, liquid lithium films, gas strippers and plasma strippers. We present in this paper the status of the different options.

  16. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  17. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-07-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 Watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk.

  19. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  20. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  1. [Definition and biomarkers of acute renal damage: new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, M; Baccino, C; Nin, N; Lorente, J A

    2014-01-01

    The RIFLE and AKIN criteria have definitely help out to draw attention to the relationship between a deterioration of renal function that produces a small increase in serum creatinine and a worse outcome. However, the specific clinical utility of using these criteria remains to be well-defined. It is believed that the main use of these criteria is for the design of epidemiological studies and clinical trials to define inclusion criteria and objectives of an intervention. AKI adopting term, re-summoning former ARF terminology, it is appropriate to describe the clinical condition characterized by damage to kidney, in the same way as the term is used to describe acute lung damage where the lung injury situation still has not increased to a situation of organ failure (dysfunction). The serum and urine biomarkers (creatinine, urea, and diuresis) currently in use are not sensitive or specific for detecting kidney damage, limiting treatment options and potentially compromising the outcome. New biomarkers are being studied in order to diagnose an earlier and more specific AKI, with the potential to change the definition criteria of AKI with different stages, currently based in diuresis and serum creatinine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  3. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... example, assume that PRS is a partnership for Federal tax purposes, none of the noncompensatory option... premium of $10x, PRS issues a noncompensatory option to A to acquire a 10 percent interest in PRS...

  4. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  5. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  6. Evaluation of mHealth strategies to optimize adherence and efficacy of Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: Rationale, design and methods of a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Alison L; Unger, Jennifer A; Ronen, Keshet; Matemo, Daniel; Perrier, Trevor; DeRenzi, Brian; Richardson, Barbra A; Kinuthia, John; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-06-01

    Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) (Option B+) is recommended for all HIV-infected pregnant/postpartum women, but high adherence is required to maximize HIV prevention potential and maintain maternal health. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions may provide treatment adherence support for women during, and beyond, the pregnancy and postpartum periods. We are conducting an unblinded, triple-arm randomized clinical trial (Mobile WACh X) of one-way short message service (SMS) vs. two-way SMS vs. control (no SMS) to improve maternal ART adherence and retention in care by 2years postpartum. We will enroll 825 women from Nairobi and Western Kenya. Women in the intervention arms receive weekly, semi-automated motivational and educational SMS and visit reminders via an interactive, human-computer hybrid communication system. Participants in the two-way SMS arm are also asked to respond to a question related to the message. SMS are based in behavioral theory, are tailored to participant characteristics through SMS tracks, and are timed along the pregnancy/postpartum continuum. After enrollment, follow-up visits are scheduled at 6weeks; 6, 12, 18, and 24months postpartum. The primary outcomes, virological failure (HIV viral load ≥1000copies/mL), maternal retention in care, and infant HIV infection or death, will be compared in an intent to treat analysis. We will also measure ART adherence and drug resistance. Personalized and tailored SMS to support HIV-infected women during and after pregnancy may be an effective strategy to motivate women to adhere to ART and remain in care and improve maternal and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ESTIMATING THE PARAMETER DELTA IN THE BLACK MODEL USING THE FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR FUTURES OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Švábová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives are a widely used tool for investors to hedge against the risk caused by changes in asset prices in the financial markets. A usual type of hedging derivative is an asset option. In case of unexpected changes in asset prices, in the investment portfolio, the investor will exercise the option to eliminate losses resulting from these changes. Therefore, it is necessary to include the options in the investor´s portfolio in such a ratio that the losses caused by decreasing of assets prices will be covered by profits from those options. Futures option is a type of call or put option to buy or to sell an option contract at a designated strike price. The change in price of the underlying assets or underlying futures contract causes a change in the prices of options themselves. For investor exercising option as a tool for risk insurance, it is important to quantify these changes. The dependence of option price changes, on the underlying asset or futures option price changes, can be expressed by the parameter delta. The value of delta determines the composition of the portfolio to be risk-neutral. The parameter delta is calculated as a derivation of the option price with respect to the price of the underlying asset, if the option price formula exists. But for some types of more complex options, the analytical formula does not exist, so calculation of delta by derivation is not possible. However, it is possible to estimate the value of delta numerically using the principles of the numerical method called “Finite Difference Method.” In the paper the parameter delta for a Futures call option calculated from the analytical formula and estimated from the Finite difference method are compared.

  8. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  9. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  10. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, Robert C. (Hatchery Operations Consulting); Costello, Ronald J. (Mobrand Biometrics, Inc., Vashon Island, WA)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  11. Option trading and individual investor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bauer; M. Cosemans; P. Eichholtz

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of option trading on individual investor performance. The results show that most investors incur substantial losses on their option investments, which are much larger than the losses from equity trading. We attribute the detrimental impact of option trading on investor

  12. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  13. Option trading and individual investor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, R.; Cosemans, M.; Eichholtz, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of option trading on individual investor performance. The results show that most investors incur substantial losses on their option investments, which are much larger than the losses from equity trading. We attribute the detrimental impact of option trading on investor

  14. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  15. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following the...

  16. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  17. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy fo

  18. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin pre...

  19. Accuracy and complications of computer-designed selective laser sintering surgical guides for flapless dental implant placement and immediate definitive prosthesis installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giovanni A; da Silva, Jorge V; da Silva, Airton M; Paschoal, Gustavo H; Cury, Patricia R; Szarf, Gilberto

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided dental implant placement seems to be useful for placing implants by using a flapless approach. However, evidence supporting such applications is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of and complications that arise from the use of selective laser sintering surgical guides for flapless dental implant placement and immediate definitive prosthesis installation. Sixty implants and 12 prostheses were installed in 12 patients (four males and eight females; age range: 41 to 71 years). Lateral (coronal and apical) and angular deviations between virtually planned and placed implants were measured. The patients were followed up for 30 months, and surgical and prosthetic complications were documented. The mean ± SD angular, coronal, and apical deviations were 6.53° ± 4.31°, 1.35 ± 0.65 mm, and 1.79 ± 1.01 mm, respectively. Coronal and apical deviations of prosthesis, and prosthesis fracture. The cumulative survival rates for implants and prostheses were 98.33% and 91.66%, respectively. The mean lateral deviation was 2 mm. The complication rate was 34.4%. Hence, computer-aided dental implant surgery still requires improvement and should be considered as in the developmental stage.

  20. Trajectory options for the DART mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Justin A.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Kantsiper, Brian L.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents interplanetary trajectory options for the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to reach the near Earth object, Didymos binary system, during its 2022 Earth conjunction. DART represents a component of a joint NASA-ESA mission to study near Earth object kinetic impact deflection. The DART trajectory must satisfy mission objectives for arrival timing, geometry, and lighting while minimizing launch vehicle and spacecraft propellant requirements. Chemical propulsion trajectories are feasible from two candidate launch windows in late 2020 and 2021. The 2020 trajectories are highly perturbed by Earth's orbit, requiring post-launch deep space maneuvers to retarget the Didymos system. Within these windows, opportunities exist for flybys of additional near Earth objects: Orpheus in 2021 or 2007 YJ in 2022. A second impact attempt, in the event that the first impact is unsuccessful, can be added at the expense of a shorter launch window and increased (∼3x) spacecraft ΔV . However, the second impact arrival geometry has poor lighting, high Earth ranges, and would require additional degrees of freedom for solar panel and/or antenna gimbals. A low-thrust spacecraft configuration increases the trajectory flexibility. A solar electric propulsion spacecraft could be affordably launched as a secondary spacecraft in an Earth orbit and spiral out to target the requisite interplanetary departure condition. A sample solar electric trajectory was constructed from an Earth geostationary transfer using a representative 1.5 kW thruster. The trajectory requires 9 months to depart Earth's sphere of influence, after which its interplanetary trajectory includes a flyby of Orpheus and a second Didymos impact attempt. The solar electric spacecraft implementation would impose additional bus design constraints, including large solar arrays that could pose challenges for terminal guidance. On the basis of this study, there are many feasible options for DART to

  1. A tactical supply chain planning model with multiple flexibility options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain flexibility is widely recognized as an approach to manage uncertainty. Uncertainty in the supply chain may arise from a number of sources such as demand and supply interruptions and lead time variability. A tactical supply chain planning model with multiple flexibility options...... incorporated in sourcing, manufacturing and logistics functions can be used for the analysis of flexibility adjustment in an existing supply chain. This paper develops such a tactical supply chain planning model incorporating a realistic range of flexibility options. A novel solution method is designed...

  2. Near-term lunar nuclear thermal rocket engine options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Collins, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is an attractive candidate propulsion system option for manned planetary missions. Its high performance capability for such missions translates into a substantial reduction in low-earth-orbit (LEO) required mass and trip times with increased operational flexibility. This study examined NTR engine options that could support near-term lunar mission operations. Expander and gas generator cycle, solid-core NERVA derivative reactor-based NTR engines were investigated. Weight, size, operational characteristics, and design features for representative NTR engine concepts are presented. The impact of using these NTR engines for a typical lunar mission scenario is also examined.

  3. Setting the Optimal Exercise Prices of Executive Stock Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengyunWu; JinlongZhang

    2004-01-01

    Exercise-price policy is perhaps the central design issue regarding nontradable Executive Stock Options (ESO). In this paper, we give the value line of ESO, V(P), and the range of the incentive-maximizing exercise prices which is defined as the exercise prices that generate incentives, εn(P)/εP, within 1 percent of the maximum using the “certainty equivalence” approach, similar to that adopted by Richard Lambert et al.. Our results show that, holding constant the company's cost of making an option grant, incentives are maximized by setting exercise prices within a range that typically includes the grant-date market price.

  4. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets; Zukunftsfaehige Designoptionen fuer den deutschen Strommarkt. Ein Vergleich des Energy-only-Marktes mit Kapazitaetsmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hoefling, Holger; Sensfuss, Frank; Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  5. Risks vs Return with Binary Option Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Kiiskinen, Eemi

    2016-01-01

    Binary options are derivative instruments associated with high risks and high profits. A binary option is similar to a normal “vanilla” option where the value of the derivative is based on the value of the underlying asset. The main difference to a vanilla option is the payout of the trades. As binary trading is a relatively new way of investing, it is still uncommon for many private investors. The purpose of the thesis is to introduce the binary option as an investment method for novice ...

  6. Estimation and evaluation of management options to control and/or reduce the risk of not complying with commercial sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Magras, Catherine; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-11-20

    In a previous study, a modular process risk model, from the raw material reception to the final product storage, was built to estimate the risk of a UHT-aseptic line of not complying with commercial sterility (Pujol et al., 2015). This present study was focused on demonstrating how the model (updated version with uncertainty and variability separated and 2(nd) order Monte Carlo procedure run) could be used to assess quantitatively the influence of management options. This assessment was done in three steps: pinpoint which process step had the highest influence on the risk, identify which management option(s) could be the most effective to control and/or reduce the risk, and finally evaluate quantitatively the influence of changing process setting(s) on the risk. For Bacillus cereus, it was identified that during post-process storage in an aseptic tank, there was potentially an air re-contamination due to filter efficiency loss (efficiency loss due to successive in-place sterilizations after cleaning operations), followed by B. cereus growth. Two options were then evaluated: i) reducing by one fifth of the number of filter sterilizations before renewing the filters, ii) designing new UHT-aseptic lines without an aseptic tank, i.e. without a storage period after the thermal process and before filling. Considering the uncertainty in the model, it was not possible to confirm whether these options had a significant influence on the risk associated with B. cereus. On the other hand, for Geobacillus stearothermophilus, combinations of heat-treatment time and temperature enabling the control or reduction in risk by a factor of ca. 100 were determined; for ease of operational implementation, they were presented graphically in the form of iso-risk curves. For instance, it was established that a heat treatment of 138°C for 31s (instead of 138°C for 25s) enabled a reduction in risk to 18×10(-8) (95% CI=[10; 34]×10(-8)), instead of 578×10(-8) (95% CI=[429; 754]×10

  7. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed.

  8. Recover of the nuclear energy: strategic option and technological innovation - vision 2005; Retomada da energia nuclear: opcao estrategica e inovacao tecnologica - visao 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marcio Soares; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: jrmattos@cdtn.br; marciod@cdtn.br; vasconv@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2006-07-01

    Considering the projections for the electric power demand, forecasted to first 25 years of the 21 century, and the technological innovations under demonstration in the mitigation of radioactive wastes, the nuclear option was included on a definitive way in the agenda of the countries as an environmental, economic and political acceptable option.

  9. Improving the Federation Agreements definition ; New proposals out of the NATO MSG-052 Working Group Knowledge Network for Federation Architecture and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, W.; Chaigneau, S.; Cutts, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Designing and managing distributed simulation systems is a complex process requiring extensive experience, in-depth knowledge, and unique skills to construct a federation which meets a myriad of operational, functional and technical requirements. Unfortunately, the practical knowledge gained in the

  10. Improving the Federation Agreements definition ; New proposals out of the NATO MSG-052 Working Group Knowledge Network for Federation Architecture and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, W.; Chaigneau, S.; Cutts, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Designing and managing distributed simulation systems is a complex process requiring extensive experience, in-depth knowledge, and unique skills to construct a federation which meets a myriad of operational, functional and technical requirements. Unfortunately, the practical knowledge gained in the

  11. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  12. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function...... of the future realization of the underlying risky asset price can utilize option-implied information in a well-defined manner. Going beyond the univariate option-implied density, we also consider results on option-implied covariance, correlation and beta forecasting, as well as the use of option......-implied information in cross-sectional forecasting of equity returns. We discuss how option-implied information can be adjusted for risk premia to remove biases in forecasting regressions....

  13. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally di...... with intermediate strike price, the highest efficiency of side-betting is achieved, re‡ected by a unique maximum point of the ex ante equilibrium interest rate. The public signal precision affects ex ante equilibrium risk premium only via its relationship with option.......In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...

  14. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  15. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamao Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing. Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3(age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older ×2(option framing: additive vs. subtractive ×2(focus condition: information vs. emotion mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  16. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huamao; Xia, Shiyong; Ruan, Fanglin; Pu, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing) than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing). Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3 (age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older) × 2 (option framing: additive vs. subtractive) × 2 (focus condition: information vs. emotion) mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus) or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus) when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  17. Product definition data interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  18. Creative Approaches to Health Education in Higher Education: Wellness Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.

    Wellness Management has been designed as an option in the health education bachelors program at Plymouth State College of the University System of New Hampshire. The Wellness Management option was created because alumni and employers stated that graduates needed business skills in order to be more marketable and effective as health educators. The…

  19. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developinggeneric methodologies for ranking restoration...... techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  20. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  1. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  2. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  3. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of business strategies that build value throughout the supply chain of goods and services and simultaneously contribute to sustainability is one of the most difficult to address in practice. So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems perspective and its possibilities and limitations. The characteristic activities of the five possible choices - risk management, image building and reputation, productivity and efficiency, innovation and market development - can be implemented in pure form, in combination or sequentially. In this way you can build competitive advantages in the context of sustainability, which allows the company to achieve greater chance of success, not only in the short term but also medium and long term.

  5. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  6. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  7. Scalability of Robotic Controllers: An Evaluation of Controller Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Chen, Haas, & Barnes, 2007; Chen, Haas, Pillalamarri, & Jacobson, 2006; Renfro, Merlo , Duley, Gilson, & Hancock, 2007; Stafford, Jingjing, Merlo ...Hancock, 2007; Stafford, Hancock, Graham, & Merlo , 2007). This experiment is the second in a series of experiments designed to investigate current...understanding; and maximizing aerial and ground robotic mission effectiveness” ( Merlo , 2006). A similar definition is “The tailored reception and transmission

  8. A discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional PDE models of Asian options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozman, J.; Tichý, T.; Cvejnová, D.

    2016-06-01

    In our previous research we have focused on the problem of plain vanilla option valuation using discontinuous Galerkin method for numerical PDE solution. Here we extend a simple one-dimensional problem into two-dimensional one and design a scheme for valuation of Asian options, i.e. options with payoff depending on the average of prices collected over prespecified horizon. The algorithm is based on the approach combining the advantages of the finite element methods together with the piecewise polynomial generally discontinuous approximations. Finally, an illustrative example using DAX option market data is provided.

  9. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  10. Therapeutic options for systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akerkar Shashank

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a uncommon connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular damage, immune cell activation and fibrogenesis. Each of these components may respond to different therapies. Therefore, a combination strategy treating all three processes is more likely to control the disease than single agent therapy. Clinical trials have gone a long way towards defining the therapy of scleroderma and many drugs previously used for scleroderma have been critically assessed. Angiotensin blockade is effective in treating as well as preventing scleroderma renal crisis. The 9-year cumulative survival has improved from 38% to 68% after the introduction of angiotensin blockade. There is definitive evidence supporting the use of cyclophosphamide in systemic sclerosis associated alveolitis. Newer molecules aimed at various cytokines are being tried. The therapy for systemic sclerosis is far from perfect at present. But, individualization of the treatment with respect to stage and subset of disease as well as organ involvement can eventually result in rational, effective management.

  11. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Factor Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options, resulting in scores. SCORE factors extend this capability by providing estimates of complexity relative to a base system (i.e., all design options are normalized to one weapon system). First, a clearly defined set of scope elements for a warhead option is established. The complexity of each scope element is estimated by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), including a level of uncertainty, relative to a specific reference system. When determining factors, complexity estimates for a scope element can be directly tied to the base system or chained together via comparable scope elements in a string of reference systems that ends with the base system. The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA-12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC). Historically, it has provided the data elicitation, integration, and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  12. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  13. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.

  14. A simulation of water call option prices

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Economics and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references. The popularity of iinancial derivatives and especially options is widespread in the last decade. Although various commodity options became popular nowadays, no form of water option happened to arise because there were no need. On the other hand, Turkey and the Middle East countries ...

  15. Using EPA Tools and Data Services to Inform Changes to Design Storm Definitions for Wastewater Utilities based on Climate Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryby, M.; Fries, J. S.; Baranowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events can cause significant impacts to drinking water and wastewater utilities, including facility damage, water quality impacts, service interruptions and potential risks to human health and the environment due to localized flooding and combined sewer overflows (CSOs). These impacts will become more pronounced with the projected increases in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events due to climate change. To model the impacts of extreme precipitation events, wastewater utilities often develop Intensity, Duration, and Frequency (IDF) rainfall curves and "design storms" for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Wastewater utilities use SWMM for planning, analysis, and facility design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban and non-urban areas. SWMM tracks (1) the quantity and quality of runoff made within each sub-catchment; and (2) the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period made up of multiple time steps. In its current format, EPA SWMM does not consider climate change projection data. Climate change may affect the relationship between intensity, duration, and frequency described by past rainfall events. Therefore, EPA is integrating climate projection data available in the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) into SWMM. CREAT is a climate risk assessment tool for utilities that provides downscaled climate change projection data for changes in the amount of rainfall in a 24-hour period for various extreme precipitation events (e.g., from 5-year to 100-year storm events). Incorporating climate change projections into SWMM will provide wastewater utilities with more comprehensive data they can use in planning for future storm events, thereby reducing the impacts to the utility and customers served from flooding and stormwater issues.

  16. Definition of formulation design space, in vitro bioactivity and in vivo biodistribution for hydrophilic drug loaded PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles using OFAT experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoska Crcarevska, M; Geskovski, N; Calis, S; Dimchevska, S; Kuzmanovska, S; Petruševski, G; Kajdžanoska, M; Ugarkovic, S; Goracinova, K

    2013-04-11

    Modified nanoprecipitation method was used for improved incorporation of hydrophilic drug (irinotecan hydrochloride) into the PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO blended and blended/adsorbed nanoparticles. One factor at a time (OFAT) variation experiments were conducted in order to determine key formulation factors (concentration and volume of drug solution, evaporation rate and PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio) influencing nanoparticle properties (particle size and size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, drug content, zeta potential, drug dissolution rate, as well as protein binding capacity). The insight into in vivo behavior of prepared nanoparticles and their potential for effective anticancer treatment was gained by performing biodistribution and cell culture studies as part of OFAT experiments. The mean particle size, mainly dependent upon PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio, was in the range of 112-125 nm, with narrow unimodal distribution (PDI∼0.1). Encapsulation efficiency (32-63%) was impacted by evaporation rate and PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO ratio. Drug content (0.2-1.51%) and controlled release properties were related to the influence of all tested formulation factors. Structural information for the studied nanoparticles was obtained using DSC and FT-IR spectroscopy. Zeta potential values indicated that presence of PEO-PPO-PEO in the formulations shielded the high surface negative charge of PLGA. PEO-PPO-PEO surface coverage of PLGA/PEO-PPO-PEO blended as well as blended/adsorbed nanoparticles depended upon amount of used PEO-PPO-PEO during preparation procedure and was related to the protein resistant characteristics of nanoparticles. Results from in vivo studies evidenced prolonged blood circulation time of the prepared nanoparticles, while cell culture studies indicated higher in vitro bioefficacy compared to free drug. Performed experiments defined possible design space and justified further optimization of formulation using experimental design studies.

  17. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  18. MODIFICATION OF DELTA FOR CHOOSER OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ďurica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Correctly used financial derivatives can help investors increase their expected returns and minimize their exposure to risk. To ensure the specific needs of investors, a large number of different types of non-standard exotic options is used. Chooser option is one of them. It is an option that gives its holder the right to choose at some predetermined future time whether the option will be a standard call or put with predetermined strike price and maturity time. Although the chooser options are more expensive than standard European-style options, in many cases they are a more suitable instrument for investors in hedging their portfolio value. For an effective use of the chooser option as a hedging instrument, it is necessary to check the values of the Greek parameters delta and gamma for the options. Especially, if the value of the parameter gamma is too large, hedging of the portfolio value using only parameter delta is insufficient and brings high transaction costs because the portfolio has to be reviewed relatively often. Therefore, in this article, a modification of delta-hedging as well as using the value of parameter gamma is suggested. Error of the delta modification is analyzed and compared with the error of widely used parameter delta. Typical patterns for the modified hedging parameter variation with various time to choose time for chooser options are also presented in this article.

  19. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  20. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  1. Mental disabilities affect method options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, K

    1999-01-01

    The provision of reproductive health services to people with psychiatric disturbances or mental retardation requires consideration of factors such as the nature of the disability, whether pregnancy would exacerbate the disturbance, the setting in which the person lives, their level of functioning, and their ability to understand the consequences of contraceptive decisions. Schizophrenic women have high rates of unintended pregnancy and are especially vulnerable to exacerbations of their disease in the postpartum period. Women who are depressed, anxious, or suffering from thought disorganization may be unable to use contraceptive methods such as the pill or condoms correctly. This article reviews issues associated with the provision of various contraceptive methods to, first, women with psychiatric conditions and, second, those with intellectual disabilities. It is important that reproductive health services for those with psychiatric disabilities or retardation are not coercive. Providers should be aware of the legal requirements for obtaining informed consent, including an explanation of benefits and risks, options, and a determination of whether the person is competent to understand the information.

  2. [Immunological treatment options for schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N; Krause, D; Weidinger, E; Schwarz, M

    2014-04-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism leading to dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is still unclear. Inflammation seems to play a key role. A dysfunction in the activation of the type 1 immune response is associated with decreased activity of the key enzyme of the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism, indolamine-2.3-dioxygenase (IDO), results in a higher production of kynurenine acid (KYNA)--an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist--in the central nervous system (CNS) and decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission. The differential activation of microglial cells and astrocytes, which serve as immune cells in the CNS, contributes to the TH1-TH2 immune imbalance. Antipsychotics, all acting as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists show several shortcomings. The immune effects of antipsychotics rebalance partly the imbalance of the type-1/type-2 immune response and the overproduction of KYNA. The inflammation is associated with higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and higher cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Increasing evidence from clinical studies with COX-2 inhibitors points to an advantageous effect of anti-inflammatory therapy in schizophrenia, especially in the early stages of the disease. Further options of immunomodulatory therapy in schizophrenia are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Compact finite difference method for American option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jichao; Davison, Matt; Corless, Robert M.

    2007-09-01

    A compact finite difference method is designed to obtain quick and accurate solutions to partial differential equation problems. The problem of pricing an American option can be cast as a partial differential equation. Using the compact finite difference method this problem can be recast as an ordinary differential equation initial value problem. The complicating factor for American options is the existence of an optimal exercise boundary which is jointly determined with the value of the option. In this article we develop three ways of combining compact finite difference methods for American option price on a single asset with methods for dealing with this optimal exercise boundary. Compact finite difference method one uses the implicit condition that solutions of the transformed partial differential equation be nonnegative to detect the optimal exercise value. This method is very fast and accurate even when the spatial step size h is large (h[greater-or-equal, slanted]0.1). Compact difference method two must solve an algebraic nonlinear equation obtained by Pantazopoulos (1998) at every time step. This method can obtain second order accuracy for space x and requires a moderate amount of time comparable with that required by the Crank Nicolson projected successive over relaxation method. Compact finite difference method three refines the free boundary value by a method developed by Barone-Adesi and Lugano [The saga of the American put, 2003], and this method can obtain high accuracy for space x. The last two of these three methods are convergent, moreover all the three methods work for both short term and long term options. Through comparison with existing popular methods by numerical experiments, our work shows that compact finite difference methods provide an exciting new tool for American option pricing.

  4. Stock and option portfolio using fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Wahyudi, Nanang

    2014-03-01

    Fuzzy Logic in decision-making process has been widely implemented in various problems in industries. It is the theory of imprecision and uncertainty that was not based on probability theory. Fuzzy Logic adds values of degree between absolute true and absolute false. It starts with and builds on a set of human language rules supplied by the user. The fuzzy systems convert these rules to their mathematical equivalents. This could simplify the job of the system designer and the computer, and results in much more accurate representations of the way systems behave in the real world. In this paper we examine the decision making process of stock and option trading by the usage of MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence) technical analysis and Option Pricing with Fuzzy Logic approach. MACD technical analysis is for the prediction of the trends of underlying stock prices, such as bearish (going downward), bullish (going upward), and sideways. By using Fuzzy C-Means technique and Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System, we define the decision output where the value of MACD is high then decision is "Strong Sell", and the value of MACD is Low then the decision is "Strong Buy". We also implement the fuzzification of the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. The stock and options methods are implemented on a portfolio of one stock and its options. Even though the values of input data, such as interest rates, stock price and its volatility, cannot be obtain accurately, these fuzzy methods can give a belief degree of the calculated the Black-Scholes formula so we can make the decision on option trading. The results show the good capability of the methods in the prediction of stock price trends. The performance of the simulated portfolio for a particular period of time also shows good return.

  5. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-07-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  6. Design Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2006-01-01

    is needed. This paper describes a design concept, in line with the emerging understanding and use of design, and presents a simple tool for support of design management and cooperation in interdisciplinary and intercultural teams. The tool, named “Design Compass”, describes design, not as a profession......, but as a cross field of interacting contexts and places design as both product and process in the centre. It build on a combination of ancient Greek and Roman definitions of man the made and recent models of integrated design by “state of the art” design studios like IDEO. It deals with the interaction...... of contextual based knowledge and values in the design, where integration and optimization acts as the main drive of the process. With this tools design matters can be mapped, described and communicated and knowledge shared among participants in design booth within and among companies and design teams...

  7. Real Options in Capital Budgeting. Pricing the Option to Delay and the Option to Abandon a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vintila

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional discounted cash-flows method for assessing projects assumes that investment decision is an irreversible one, which is not correct. Managers can and must reconsider their initial decision as the new information arises during the project life. This is managerial flexibility and it creates strategic value for a project, only if management takes advantage of the opportunities associated with an analyzed project. Real options represent a new approach in capital budgeting, using the theory of pricing financial options for investments in real assets. In this paper, we emphasize the characteristics and valuation methodologies of real options. The objective in the last section is pricing the option to delay and the option to abandon a project in construction materials field.

  8. Analysis on Definition and Key Design Points of Strong Correlation Subway Station%强关联性地铁车站的界定及设计要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立军; 张蕊君

    2013-01-01

    Strong correlation station is a brand-new idea of station,and when to define a strong correlation station has significant influence on schematic design for the station.So it is necessary to pay a special attention to it and define it in the stage of design as soon as possible.Through illustrating some issues such as the definition of strong correlation station,the best time that a strong correlation station can be defined and the basic classification,also in combination with the design example of strong correlation station in which the correlation features had been hidden,this paper introduces the key pints about how to define a strong correlation station,and suggests the inherent correlation features in a strong correlation station and the external entry point to distinguish it.%强关联性车站作为一种新出现的车站形式其被界定的时机对车站方案设计影响重大,在设计阶段需要特别注意,及早甄别.通过定义强关联性车站,从其界定的最佳时机、基本分类以及隐蔽性强关联性车站设计实例,介绍强关联性车站界定要点说明,指出强关联性车站内在关联性以及判别的外在切入点.

  9. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  10. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  11. Prosthetic options available for the diabetic lower limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitragari, Gautham; Mahler, David B; Sumpio, Brandon J; Blume, Peter A; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2014-01-01

    Although the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes is decreasing, amputation still remains a major complication of diabetes. Prosthetics have been long used to help amputees ambulate. The last decade has seen many advances in prostheses with the enhanced understanding of the mechanics of ambulation and improved use of technology. This review describes the different types of prosthetic options available for below knee, ankle, and foot amputees, emphasizing the latest advances in prosthetic design.

  12. Investing in deliberation: a definition and classification of decision support interventions for people facing difficult health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Frosch, Dominick; Volandes, Angelo E; Edwards, Adrian; Montori, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of 'decision aids', interventions to support patients facing tough decisions. Interest has increased since the concept of shared decision making has become widely considered to be a means of achieving desirable clinical outcomes. We consider the aims of these interventions and examine assumptions about their use. We propose three categories, interventions that are used in face-to-face encounters, those designed for use outside clinical encounters and those which are mediated, using telephone or other communication media. We propose the following definition: decision support interventions help people think about choices they face; they describe where and why choice exists; they provide information about options, including, where reasonable, the option of taking no action. These interventions help people to deliberate, independently or in collaboration with others, about options, by considering relevantattributes; they support people to forecast how they might feel about short, intermediate and long-term outcomes which have relevant consequences, in ways which help the process of constructing preferences and eventual decision making, appropriate to their individual situation. Although quality standards have been published for these interventions, we are also cautious about premature closure and consider that the need for short versions for use inside clinical encounters and long versions for external use requires further research. More work is also needed on the use of narrative formats and the translation of theory into practical designs. The interest in decision support interventions for patients heralds a transformation in clinical practice although many important areas remain unresolved.

  13. 7 CFR 1206.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Referendum Procedures. § 1206.101 Definitions. (a) Administrator means the Administrator of the... more parties. (h) Referendum agent or agent means the individual or individuals designated by the Department to conduct the referendum. (i) Representative period means the period designated by the Department...

  14. 14 CFR 257.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 257.3 Section 257.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC...) Designator code means the airline designations originally allotted and administered pursuant to Agreements...

  15. 10 CFR 436.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.41 Definitions. Agency means each authority of the Government of the United States... designated product means a product that is designated under the Federal Energy Management Program as...

  16. 33 CFR 136.303 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....303 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE...; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.303 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Advertisement means the dissemination of information, including but not...

  17. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment..., directly to the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA). Upon such assignment, transfer and...

  18. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... securing it, directly to the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA). Upon such assignment...

  19. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  20. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness a...... able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company....

  1. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per ...

  2. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  3. The research for flexible product family manufacturing based on real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maozhu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to find the best production strategy for product mix, which means the largest value of the options. And finally, give a case and find the solution of the optimal production strategy for product mix. Design/methodology/approach: This article, based on the production with characteristics of a call option and 0-1 integer programming model, build new-products mix strategy, and through case demonstrate that traditional method underestimates the value of the products mix. Finding: According to market being volatility and uncertainty and the production can being delayed, firms can flexibly arrange the best time for products to manufacture. Use real options theory to analyze product decision and the best production timing decision. Find the total options value is higher than the traditional methods. Research limitations/implications: We are not applied to real option pricing theory in modular flexible production system. We just applied real option pricing theory to the product platform. The basic model needs to improve. While the thinking of this paper provides some research ideas for flexible production systems based on real option in further research. Practical Implications: The introduction of the real option make the company can achieve dynamic planning and flexible management for production of products mix and get the better benefit. Originality/value: The central contribution of this paper is to introduce the option mechanism in the production timing for the product mix.

  4. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  5. Employee Share Option Scheme And Employees’ Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Yew Ming Yian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Employee stock options scheme (ESOS is a call option on the ordinary share of a company, issued as a form of non-cash compensation or as an incentive tool. ESOS gives an employee the right to buy shares at a fixed price for a defined number of years into the future. The trend toward broad-based share options may come to an end as companies are scaling back due to the changes in accounting standards. Similarly, companies in Malaysia, especially in the banking industry which originally offered share options to their employees are now pulling back this scheme. Does the movement to scale back share options affect employees’ motivation? This is an empirical question which this paper intends to explore. It is hope that the commercial banks will reconsider offering ESOS in rewarding their employees if the research finding indicates that it plays a significant role in motivating employees.

  6. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...... similarly been assessed in the country study for Zimbabwe, The options include in particular efficiency improvements in industrial plants and in the energy sector, A new methodological issue in the country study for Zimbabwe is the comparable assessment of greenhouse gas reductions options for multiple...

  7. Definição da taxa de infiltração para dimensionamento de sistemas de irrigação por aspersão Definition of the infiltration rate for the design of sprinkle irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. M. Calheiros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar, dentre as técnicas nele utilizadas, a mais adequada para a definição da taxa de infiltração visando ao dimensionamento de sistemas de irrigação por aspersão. Obtiveram-se os dados de infiltração de água no solo segundo uma malha com espaçamentos variáveis entre pontos de ensaios de infiltração de 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 24; 48 e 96 m, totalizando 97 pontos de ensaio. As discussões relativas aos resultados obtidos pelas técnicas de definição - moda, média harmônica, mediana, média geométrica, média aritmética simples, média quadrática, média cúbica e média biquadrática, foram alicerçadas em um número maior de atributos, tais como: técnicas de análises estatísticas clássicas e geoestatísticas. O modelo de equação que descreve a taxa de infiltração utilizada foi a de Kostiakov. A média aritmética simples, consagrada como a técnica mais utilizada para definição da taxa de infiltração para dimensionamentos, não deve ser utilizada, sendo a mediana e a média geométricas mais recomendadas em cultivos com cana-de-açúcar; contudo, a mediana apresentou um número maior de atributos desejáveis. Na área estudada o valor da taxa de infiltração para dimensionamentos deve ser adotado entre 30 e 44 mm h-1, em se tratando da Md ± s² (.The aim of this research was to determine which technique is the most appropriate for the infiltration rate definition for the design of sprinkler irrigation systems. The water infiltration data was obtained according to a net having variable spaces between infiltration test points of 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 m, summing 97 test points. The discussions of results obtained by means of definition techniques, i.e. mode, harmonic mean, median, geometric mean, and simple arithmetic mean, square mean, cubic mean and bisquare were based on a larger number of attributes, such as techniques for classical statistics and geostatistical analysis. The

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  9. Estimating the Optimum Number of Options per Item Using an Incremental Option Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The reliabilities of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-choice tests were compared through an incremental-option model on a test taken by 154 high school seniors. Creating the test forms incrementally more closely approximates actual test construction. The nonsignificant differences among the option choices support the three-option item. (SLD)

  10. Community Options for Transitional Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, Daniel; And Others

    A community based (Conejo Valley, California) vocational program was designed to give handicapped junior and senior high school students a variety of real world experiences in the natural setting. Advantages of the community based approach include immediate transfer of learning, opportunities for generalization, provision of role models by other…

  11. Community Options for Transitional Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, Daniel; And Others

    A community based (Conejo Valley, California) vocational program was designed to give handicapped junior and senior high school students a variety of real world experiences in the natural setting. Advantages of the community based approach include immediate transfer of learning, opportunities for generalization, provision of role models by other…

  12. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  13. Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiberman U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Uri Soiberman,1 Hirohiko Kakizaki,2 Dinesh Selva,3 Igal Leibovitch11Division of Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan; 3South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options.Keywords: acquired punctal stenosis, definition, epiphora, etiology, treatment

  14. TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mocanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is a concept that is still subject of many controversies. Nowadays, it is used both in theory and in practice to designate a variety of activities. The paper aims at shedding light on this enigmatic concept. First of all, the author offers an overview of the historical roots of “controlling”. Secondly, different definitions of the concept of “controlling” are contrasted. The author comments upon two types of definitions: concepts oriented towards the goal to obtain results (profit, turnover, low costs and concepts oriented towards the universal goals of the company (e.g. product-related, environmental, social goals. Last but not least, the paper identifies the different perspectives used when defining the concept, in order to provide the proper background for understanding “controlling”: the information-oriented perspective, the coordination-oriented perspective and the reflection-oriented perspective, and the rationality-oriented perspective.

  15. ACCOUNTING FOR OPTIONS AND ANALYSIS OF USE OF OPTION COMBINATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of accounting for options in Ukraine, namely: value expression of initial cost of options, their revaluation, accounting of premiums, financial assets and financial liabilities and variation margin. The paper offers ways of solution of these problems which based on harmonization with IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7 and IFRS 9. The study considers option combination strategies (straddle, strangle, strap, strip and approaches of identification of possible financial results for investors which use these strategies. Examples of possible financial results are provided for buyers and sellers of options which use option combination strategies.

  16. Interface definitions in literature: A reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    on the definition and perception of a product interface within engineering design research which is the objective of this article. A structured literature review of interface definitions found within engineering design literature has been carried out. The different definitions were tabulated against four key issues......Companies that develop multi-technological products are challenged on their ability to obtain high product quality and short development lead times in today’s highly competitive and globalized markets. One of the main reasons for poor product quality is due to unidentified or poorly defined product...... interfaces during the design phase leading to unintended product behavior. In an effort to reduce the lead time and increase quality, companies may apply a modular product architecture, thus enabling parallel development and maturing of modules. Achieving a successful integration of the modules at the end...

  17. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  18. The no-arbitrage efficiency test of the OMX Index option market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun; Wiktorsson, Magnus; Zhao, RuiZhi

    2012-01-01

    in the market. Then a variance based efficiency test is performed by establish- ing a risk neutral portfolio and re-balance the initial portfolio in different trading strategies. In order to choose the most appropriate model for option price and hedging strategies, we calibrate several most applied models, i......In this paper, we test the market efficiency of the OMXS30 Index option market. The market efficiency definition is the absence of arbitrage oppor- tunity in the market. We first check the arbitrage opportunity by examining the boundary conditions and the Put-Call-Parity that must be satisfied...... that no significant abnormal returns can be obtained in the OMXS30 option market, therefore supporting the market efficiency....

  19. Assessing the Option to Abandon an Investment Project by the Binomial Options Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, traditional methods for investment project appraisal such as the net present value (hereinafter NPV do not incorporate in their values the operational flexibility offered by including a real option included in the project. In this paper, real options, and more specifically the option to abandon, are analysed as a complement to cash flow sequence which quantifies the project. In this way, by considering the existing analogy with financial options, a mathematical expression is derived by using the binomial options pricing model. This methodology provides the value of the option to abandon the project within one, two, and in general n periods. Therefore, this paper aims to be a useful tool in determining the value of the option to abandon according to its residual value, thus making easier the control of the uncertainty element within the project.

  20. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  1. UTILIZATION OF WIND POWER IN RWANDA : Design and Production Option

    OpenAIRE

    Eric, MANIRAGUHA

    2013-01-01

    This Master Thesis is the research done in the country of Rwanda. The project leads to study the climate of this country in order to establish whether this climate could be used to produce energy from air and to implement the first wind turbine for serving the nation.   After an introduction about the historical background of wind power, the thesis work deals with assessment of wind energy potential of Rwanda in focusing of the most suitable place for wind power plants. The best location with...

  2. Designing a Power Supply with Multiple Input Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some electronic systems such as field communications equip-ment must be able to operate from a variety of power sources,forexample,worldwide universal AC (85—264V rms) or vehicle bat-tery power. These systems may also require backup power in casethe primary source is interrupted.The illustration shows a power supply that can operate fromthe AC line,from a 12V or 24V vehicle battery,or from an internal48V backup battery. For AC line use, a front end module accepts a

  3. Option pricing, Bayes risks and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical decision problem is hidden in the core of option pricing. A simple form for the price C of a European call option is obtained via the minimum Bayes risk, R_B, of a 2-parameter estimation problem, thus justifying calling C Bayes (B-)price. The result provides new insight in option pricing, among others obtaining C for some stock-price models using the underlying probability instead of the risk neutral probability and giving R_B an economic interpretation. When logarithmic stock p...

  4. Options and Risk for Qualification of Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle; Daniel, Charles; Cook, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion vehicle systems envelop a wide range of propulsion alternatives including solar and nuclear, which present unique circumstances for qualification. This paper will address the alternatives for qualification of electric propulsion spacecraft systems. The approach taken will be to address the considerations for qualification at the various levels of systems definition. Additionally, for each level of qualification the system level risk implications will be developed. Also, the paper will explore the implications of analysis verses test for various levels of systems definition, while retaining the objectives of a verification program. The limitations of terrestrial testing will be explored along with the risk and implications of orbital demonstration testing. The paper will seek to develop a template for structuring of a verification program based on cost, risk and value return. A successful verification program should establish controls and define objectives of the verification compliance program. Finally the paper will seek to address the political and programmatic factors, which may impact options for system verification.

  5. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  6. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  7. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  8. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  9. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  10. NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Nuth, Joseph A.; Mazanek, Dan D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa’s target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA’s OSIRIS REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA’s ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more certainty of the target NEA

  11. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  12. Parallel Binomial American Option Pricing with (and without) Transaction Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Nan; Zastawniak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    We present a parallel algorithm that computes the ask and bid prices of an American option when proportional transaction costs apply to the trading of the underlying asset. The algorithm computes the prices on recombining binomial trees, and is designed for modern multi-core processors. Although parallel option pricing has been well studied, none of the existing approaches takes transaction costs into consideration. The algorithm that we propose partitions a binomial tree into blocks. In any round of computation a block is further partitioned into regions which are assigned to distinct processors. To minimise load imbalance the assignment of nodes to processors is dynamically adjusted before each new round starts. Synchronisation is required both within a round and between two successive rounds. The parallel speedup of the algorithm is proportional to the number of processors used. The parallel algorithm was implemented in C/C++ via POSIX Threads, and was tested on a machine with 8 processors. In the pricing ...

  13. The engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Victoria

    2007-12-15

    Aviation is a growing contributor to climate change, with unique impacts due to the altitude of emissions. If existing traffic growth rates continue, radical engineering solutions will be required to prevent aviation becoming one of the dominant contributors to climate change. This paper reviews the engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of aviation using aircraft and airspace technologies. These options include not only improvements in fuel efficiency, which would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also measures to reduce non-CO2 impacts including the formation of persistent contrails. Integrated solutions to optimize environmental performance will require changes to airframes, engines, avionics, air traffic control systems and airspace design. While market-based measures, such as offset schemes and emissions trading, receive growing attention, this paper sets out the crucial role of engineering in the challenge to develop a 'green air traffic system'.

  14. Definitions A-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... nerves in the lumbar spine and not enough blood supply to nerves or muscles. CNS: Central nervous ...

  15. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... sampled realized variance from the continuouslysampled realized variance? (Chapter 3) How can we do static hedging for a payoff with two assets? (Chapter 4) Can we apply fast Fourier Transform methods to efficiently use interest rateMarkov-functional models? Can we extend them to accommodate othertypes...... stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005 to 2009. Discretely Sampled Variance Options: A Stochastic Approximation Approach In this paper, we expand Drimus and Farkas (2012) framework to price variance options on discretely sampled...

  16. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: current fixation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jared L; McGlamry, Michael C

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the current literature on first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis rates using various forms of fixation, as well as reviewing biomechanical studies comparing the strengths of the different fixation options that are available.

  17. How to Find Gluten-Free Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men For Women For Seniors How to Find Gluten-Free Options Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN ... Email Digital Vision/DigitalVision/Thinkstock When considering a gluten-free diet, it is not necessary to avoid ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Uterine Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Vaginal Cancer Treatment Research Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vaginal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  6. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thymoma & Thymic Carcinoma Treatment Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  7. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  9. Observation option toolkit for acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, R M

    2001-04-01

    The observation option for acute otitis media (AOM) refers to deferring antibiotic treatment of selected children for up to 3 days, during which time management is limited to analgesics and symptomatic relief. With appropriate follow-up complications are not increased, and clinical outcomes compare favorably with routine initial antibiotic therapy. Although used commonly in the Netherlands and certain Scandinavian countries, this approach has not gained wide acceptance in Europe and the United States. This article describes an evidence-based toolkit developed by the New York Region Otitis Project for judicious use of the observation option. The toolkit is not intended to endorse the observation option as a preferred method of management, nor is it intended as a rigid practice guideline to supplant clinician judgement. Rather, it presents busy clinicians with the tools needed to implement the observation option in everyday patient care should they so desire.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  11. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the date of grant. An incentive stock option is also subject to the $100,000 limitation described in § 1.422-4. An incentive stock option may contain a...

  14. Cerveza platforms offer economic options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    Two single-piece platforms, Cerveze and Cerveza Ligera, were installed by Union Oil Co. in 925-935 ft of water. The technology and equipment used for the two platforms can be used for units to a depth of 1,400 ft in mild climates and to 1,000 ft in more critical weather areas such as the North Sea. The significant improvements in design and procedures in the construction and installation of the Cerveza Ligera platform are: (1) four leg structure, as opposed to eight, requiring less steel; (2) simplified fabrication; and (3) quicker installation. The most significant area of improvement in the Ligera project compared with Cerveza was in communications. Communications between naval architects and onshore launch foremen during loadout, and between surveyors and tug captains during positioning, are cited as examples.

  15. Tracking Models for Optioned Portfolio Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng

    In this paper we study a target tracking problem for the portfolio selection involving options. In particular, the portfolio in question contains a stock index and some European style options on the index. A refined tracking-error-variance methodology is adopted to formulate this problem as a multi-stage optimization model. We derive the optimal solutions based on stochastic programming and optimality conditions. Attention is paid to the structure of the optimal payoff function, which is shown to possess rich properties.

  16. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  17. Cournot Competition, Financial Option Markets, and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Allaz and Vila (1993) show that the existence of futures markets increases the efficiency of markets in a Cournot setting. This paper looks at the efficiency effect of financial options in a similar framework. It shows that the existence of financial options also makes markets more efficient; though to a smaller extent than futures. This is particularly relevant for markets with market power and costly storage, like electricity markets.

  18. Voting power and Qualified Majority Voting with a "no vote" option

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, enlargement of the European Union has led to increased interest in the allocation of voting weights to member states with hugely differing population numbers. While the eventually agreed voting scheme lacks any strict mathematical basis, the Polish government suggested a voting scheme based on the Penrose definition of voting power, leading to an allocation of voting weights proportional to the square root of the population (the "Jagiellonian Compromise"). The Penrose definition of voting power is derived from the citizens' freedom to vote either "yes" or "no". This paper defines a corresponding voting power based on "yes", "no" and "abstain" options, and it is found that this definition also leads to a square root law, and to the same optimal vote allocation as the Penrose scheme.

  19. FUTURES OPTIONS: UNIVERSE OF POTENTIAL PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teselios Delia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A approaching options on futures contracts in the present paper is argued, on one hand, by the great number of their directions for use (in financial speculation, in managing and risk control, etc. and, on the other hand, by the fact that in Romania, nowadays, futures contracts and options represent the main categories of traded financial instruments. Because futures contract, as an underlying asset for options, it is often more liquid and involves more reduced transaction costs than cash product which corresponds to that futures contract, this paper presents a number of information regarding options on futures contracts, which offer a wide range of investment opportunities, being used to protect against adverse price moves in commodity, interest rate, foreign exchange and equity markets. There are presented two assessment models of these contracts, namely: an expansion of the Black_Scholes model published in 1976 by Fischer Black and the binomial model used especially for its flexibility. Likewise, there are presented a series of operations that can be performed using futures options and also arguments in favor of using these types of options.

  20. Pricing European Options in Realistic Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Schaden, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the fair price for European-style vanilla options and the distribution of short-term returns on the underlying asset ignoring transaction and other costs. We compute the risk-neutral probability density conditional on the total variance of the asset's returns when the option expires. If the asset's future price has finite expectation, the option's fair value satisfies a parabolic partial differential equation of the Black-Scholes type in which the variance of the asset's returns rather than a trading time is the evolution parameter. By immunizing the portfolio against large-scale price fluctuations of the asset, the valuation of options is extended to the realistic case\\cite{St99} of assets whose short-term returns have finite variance but very large, or even infinite, higher moments. A dynamic Delta-hedged portfolio that is statically insured against exceptionally large fluctuations includes at least two different options on the asset. The fair value of an option in this c...

  1. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  2. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  3. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  4. Therapeutic options for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Richard C; Osuntokun, Olawale; Heinloth, Alexandra N; Corya, Sara A

    2010-02-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) presents major challenges for both patients and clinicians. There is no universally accepted definition of TRD, but results from the US National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) programme indicate that after the failure of two treatment trials, the chances of remission decrease significantly. Several pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for TRD may be considered when optimized (adequate dose and duration) therapy has not produced a successful outcome and a patient is classified as resistant to treatment. Nonpharmacological strategies include psychotherapy (often in conjunction with pharmacotherapy), electroconvulsive therapy and vagus nerve stimulation. The US FDA recently approved vagus nerve stimulation as adjunctive therapy (after four prior treatment failures); however, its benefits are seen only after prolonged (up to 1 year) use. Other nonpharmacological options, such as repetitive transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation or psychosurgery, remain experimental and are not widely available. Pharmacological treatments of TRD can be grouped in two main categories: 'switching' or 'combining'. In the first, treatment is switched within and between classes of compounds. The benefits of switching include avoidance of polypharmacy, a narrower range of treatment-emergent adverse events and lower costs. An inherent disadvantage of any switching strategy is that partial treatment responses resulting from the initial treatment might be lost by its discontinuation in favour of another medication trial. Monotherapy switches have also been shown to have limited effectiveness in achieving remission. The advantage of combination strategies is the potential to build upon achieved improvements; they are generally recommended if partial response was achieved with the current treatment trial. Various non-antidepressant augmenting agents, such as lithium and

  5. Discussion on "Methodology for Building Envelope Trade-off Option" in Promotional Teaching Material of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings%对《公共建筑节能设计标准宣贯辅导教材》中“围护结构热工性能权衡判断法”的一点商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩学廷; 朱建章; 李国富

    2012-01-01

    The building envelope trade-off option is realized by comparing the annual heating and air-conditioning energy consumption of design building and reference building through calculation, so as to judge whether the overall thermal performance of building envelope is standard, and determine the thermal energy efficiency parameters of the design building. During the calculation of energy consumption, the equipment energy efficiency ratio of heating and air-conditioning system adopted by the design building and reference building shall be the same. However, in Promotional Teaching Material of Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings, some equipment energy efficiency ratios were higher than the compulsory values in Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings(GB 50189-2005) .which was conflict with the process for determining the building thermal limited indexes in the compulsory method. In this paper,this issue was analyzed and discussed.%围护结构热工性能权衡判断是通过计算比较设计建筑和参照建筑的全年采暖空调能耗,以判定围护结构的总体热工性能是否达标,从而确定设计建筑的热工节能参数.在计算能耗时,设计建筑和参照建筑两者所用的采暖空调设备能效比应当相同.但是,《公共建筑节能设计标准宣贯辅导教材》中却有几处要求设计建筑采用的设备能效比要高于《公共建筑节能设计标准》( GB 50189-2005)中的规定值,这与在规定性方法中确定建筑热工指标限值的做法有所混淆.本文就这一问题进行了分析和讨论.

  6. Function- and User-related Definitions in Online Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    , as argued in e.g. Jackson (2002: 86-100). However, online dictionaries provide lexicographers with the option of taking a more flexible approach to lexicographic definitions in an attempt to give the best possible help to users. The “one-size-fits-all” approach to dictionary making has its limits....... This could be clicking one box if “you want help to understand a text” and clicking another box if “you want help to produce a text”. Depending on which box users click the definition presented on the screen will be specifically targeted to provide help in the situation indicated. When consulting online...

  7. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean

  8. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  9. A Real Options Approach to Quantity and Cost Optimization for Lifetime and Bridge Buys of Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    options in that they apply to tangible assets that are not typically traded as securities. • Unlike conventional net present value analysis...buys play a role in nearly every part obsolescence management portfolio. • Advantages of Lifetime Buys: – Design modifications and re-qualification... value of an option would be trivial to determine. - However, everything is uncertain and the future returns are generally highly asymmetric (upside

  10. Quaternary: status, rank, definition, survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-PierreAubry; WilliamA.Berggren; JohnVanCouvering; BrianMcGowran; BradPillans; FritsHilgen

    2005-01-01

    The long controversy over the term ‘Quaternary' as a chronostratigraphic unit may be reaching an apotheosis, judging from recent papers (Pillans and Naish, 2004; Gibbard et al., 2005; and referencest herein). The debate is no longer centered on whether there should be a place in the geological time scale for a unit termed ‘Quaternary'-despite its dubious past, it cannot be denied that a large body of earth-historical research is strongly identified with this term. The challenge now concerns an appropriate rank and definition of Quaternary with regard to other chronostratigraphic units. Several options have been proposed (Pillans and Naish, 2004), and Gibbard et al. (2005) encourage a debate on these before decision is reached. In this brief note, we describe an arrangement not previously considered that seems advantageous. It is instructive, however, to first review the Pleistocene Series and Neogene System, the two units that are directly affected by introduction of the Quaternary into the chronostratigraphic hierarchy.

  11. An explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Du, Meiyu; Xu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the analytical pricing of European path-independent options under the CGMY model, which is a particular type of pure jump Le´vy process, and agrees well with many observed properties of the real market data by allowing the diffusions and jumps to have both finite and infinite activity and variation. It is shown that, under this model, the option price is governed by a fractional partial differential equation (FPDE) with both the left-side and right-side spatial-fractional derivatives. In comparison to derivatives of integer order, fractional derivatives at a point not only involve properties of the function at that particular point, but also the information of the function in a certain subset of the entire domain of definition. This "globalness" of the fractional derivatives has added an additional degree of difficulty when either analytical methods or numerical solutions are attempted. Albeit difficult, we still have managed to derive an explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model. Based on our solution, the asymptotic behaviors of the option price and the put-call parity under the CGMY model are further discussed. Practically, a reliable numerical evaluation technique for the current formula is proposed. With the numerical results, some analyses of impacts of four key parameters of the CGMY model on European option prices are also provided.

  12. Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

    2003-12-01

    We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options.

  13. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  14. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS ON BINOMIAL TREE METHODS FOR AMERICAN LOOKBACK OPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴民

    2001-01-01

    Lookback options are path-dependent options. In general, the binomial tree methods,as the most popular approaches to pricing options, involve a path dependent variable as well as the underlying asset price for lookback options. However, for floating strike lookback options, a single-state variable binomial tree method can be constructed. This paper is devoted to the convergence analysis of the single-state binomial tree methods both for discretely and continuously monitored American floating strike lookback options. We also investigate some properties of such options, including effects of expiration date, interest rate and dividend yield on options prices,properties of optimal exercise boundaries and so on.

  15. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  16. 75 FR 80677 - The Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD75 The Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NCUA is amending the definition of ``low-income members'' to clarify that, in determining if a credit union qualifies for a low- income designation, the comparison...

  17. 7 CFR 3431.3 - Definitions and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Designation of Veterinarian Shortage Situations § 3431.3 Definitions and acronyms. (a) General definitions... authority involved has been delegated. Service area means geographic area in which the veterinarian will be... animal health official means the State veterinarian, or equivalent, who will be responsible for...

  18. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  19. 18 CFR 1317.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Introduction § 1317.105 Definitions. As used in these Title IX regulations, the term: Administratively separate... becoming a recipient. Designated agency official means Manager, Supplier and Diverse Business Relations... assistance means any of the following, when authorized or extended under a law administered by the Federal...

  20. 48 CFR 1335.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 1335.001 Definitions. Human subject means a living individual... example, a medical record). Private information must be individually identifiable (i.e., the identity of... means a systematic investigation, including research, development, testing and evaluation, designed...