WorldWideScience

Sample records for defining user requirements

  1. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  2. The LOLITA User-Definable Template Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Košmelj, Katarina

    2001-01-01

    The development of user-definable templates interfaces which allow the user to design new templates definitions in a user-friendly way is a new issue in the field of information extraction. The LOLITA user-definable templates interface allows the user to define new templates using sentences in natural language text with a few restrictions and formal elements. This approach is rather different from previous approaches to information extraction which require developers to code the template defi...

  3. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses...... on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...... definition of usability to develop the notion of user experience....

  4. Defining the user requirements for wearable and optical fall prediction and fall detection devices for home use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gövercin, Mehmet; Költzsch, Y; Meis, M; Wegel, S; Gietzelt, M; Spehr, J; Winkelbach, S; Marschollek, M; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E

    2010-01-01

    One of the major problems in the development of information and communication technologies for older adults is user acceptance. Here we describe the results of focus group discussions that were conducted with older adults and their relatives to guide the development of assistive devices for fall detection and fall prevention. The aim was to determine the ergonomic and functional requirements of such devices and to include these requirements in a user-centered development process. A semi-structured interview format based on an interview guide was used to conduct three focus group discussions with 22 participants. The average age was 75 years in the first group, 68 years in the second group and 50 years in the third group (relatives). Overall, participants considered a fall prediction system to be as important as a fall detection system. Although the ambient, unobtrusive character of the optical sensor system was appreciated, wearable inertial sensors were preferred because of their wide range of use, which provides higher levels of security. Security and mobility were two major reasons for people at risk of falling to buy a wearable and/or optical fall prediction and fall detection device. Design specifications should include a wearable, non-stigmatising sensor at the user's wrist, with an emergency option in case of falling.

  5. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...

  6. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...

  7. User constraints for reliable user-defined smart home scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Nielsen, Michael Kvist; Pedersen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of constraints restricting the control commands that can be used inside user-defined scenarios. The system is based on timed automata model checking abstracted by event condition action rules. A prototype was implemented, including a user interface to interact with the user. The usability of the system...

  8. COMMENSURABLE ENCRYPTION USING USER- DEFINE KEY TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ripal dilipbhai ranpara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is the gold standard for security. It is used to protect the transmission and storage of data between two parties by encrypting it into an unreadable format. Cryptography has enabled the first wave of secure transmissions, which has helped fuel the growth of transactions like shopping, banking, and finance over the world’s biggest public network, the Internet. Many Internet applications such as e-mail, databases, and browsers store a tremendous amount of personal and financial information, but frequently the data is left unprotected. Traditional network security is frequently less effective at preventing hackers from accessing this data. For instance, once-private databases are now completely exposed on the Internet. It turns out that getting to the database that holds millions of credit card numbers—the transmission—is secure through the use of cryptography, but the database itself isn’t, fueling the rise of credit card information theft. A paradigm shift is now under way for cryptography. The only way to make data secure in any application that runs over the Internet is to use secret (also known as private key cryptography. The current security methods focus on securing Internet applications using public keys techniques that are no longer effective.so according to my knowledge no one has addressed on COMMENSURABLE USER-DEFINE KEY TECHNIQUE that is used to encrypt the data as per the user-define key

  9. User Defined Geo-referenced Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Villalba, Alfredo; di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of technology allow us today to extent the “location based services” to fine grained services and allow any mobile user to create location based information and make it available to anyone interested. This evolution open the way for new services and applications for the mobile users....... In this paper we present two novel mobile and wireless collaborative services and concepts, the Hovering Information, a mobile, geo-referenced content information management system, and the QoS Information service, providing user observed end-to-end infrastructure geo-related QoS information....

  10. User Defined Geo-referenced Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Villalba, Alfredo; di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of technology allow us today to extent the “location based services” to fine grained services and allow any mobile user to create location based information and make it available to anyone interested. This evolution open the way for new services and applications for the mobile users....... In this paper we present two novel mobile and wireless collaborative services and concepts, the Hovering Information, a mobile, geo-referenced content information management system, and the QoS Information service, providing user observed end-to-end infrastructure geo-related QoS information....

  11. Defining Domain Language of Graphical User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Baciková, Michaela; PORUBÄN Jaroslav; Lakatos, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Domain-specific languages are computer (programming, modeling, specification) languages devoted to solving problems in a specific domain. The least examined DSL development phases are analysis and design. Various formal methodologies exist, however domain analysis is still done informally most of the time. There are also methodologies of deriving DSLs from existing ontologies but the presumption is to have an ontology for the specific domain. We propose a solution of a user interface driven d...

  12. Defining Domain Language of Graphical User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Baciková, Michaela; PORUBÄN Jaroslav; Lakatos, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Domain-specific languages are computer (programming, modeling, specification) languages devoted to solving problems in a specific domain. The least examined DSL development phases are analysis and design. Various formal methodologies exist, however domain analysis is still done informally most of the time. There are also methodologies of deriving DSLs from existing ontologies but the presumption is to have an ontology for the specific domain. We propose a solution of a user interface driven d...

  13. SE Requirements Development Tool User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Faith Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The LANL Systems Engineering Requirements Development Tool (SERDT) is a data collection tool created in InfoPath for use with the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) SharePoint sites. Projects can fail if a clear definition of the final product requirements is not performed. For projects to be successful requirements must be defined early in the project and those requirements must be tracked during execution of the project to ensure the goals of the project are met. Therefore, the focus of this tool is requirements definition. The content of this form is based on International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and Department of Defense (DoD) process standards and allows for single or collaborative input. The “Scoping” section is where project information is entered by the project team prior to requirements development, and includes definitions and examples to assist the user in completing the forms. The data entered will be used to define the requirements and once the form is filled out, a “Requirements List” is automatically generated and a Word document is created and saved to a SharePoint document library. SharePoint also includes the ability to download the requirements data defined in the InfoPath from into an Excel spreadsheet. This User Guide will assist you in navigating through the data entry process.

  14. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  15. Training Requirements and Information Management System. Software user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user`s guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  16. Software Framework for Flexible User Defined Metaheuristic Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrom, Suraya; Abidin, Siti Zaleha Zainal; Abdul Rahman, Puteri Norhashimah Megat; Abd. Rahman, Abdullah Sani

    Metaheuristic algorithms have been widely used for solving Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP) since the last decade. The algorithms can produce amazing results in solving complex real life problems such as scheduling, time tabling, routing and tasks allocation. We believe that many researchers will find COP methods useful to solve problems in many different domains. However, there are some technical hurdles such as the steep learning curve, the abundance and complexity of the algorithms, programming skill requirement and the lack of user friendly platform to be used for algorithm development. As new algorithms are being developed, there are also those that come in the form of hybridization of multiple existing algorithms. We reckon that there is also a need for an easy, flexible and effective development platform for user defined metaheuristic hybridization. In this article, a comparative study has been performed on several metaheuristics software frameworks. The result shows that available software frameworks are not adequately designed to enable users to easily develop hybridization algorithms. At the end of the article, we propose a framework design that will help bridge the gap. We foresee the potential of scripting language as an important element that will help improve existing software framework with regards to the ease of use, rapid algorithm design and development. Thus, our efforts are now directed towards the study and development of a new scripting language suitable for enhancing the capabilities of existing metaheuristic software framework.

  17. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage....... These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation...

  18. [Primary health care product defined by health professionals and users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Ribera, Enriqueta; Gené Badia, Joan; Sans Corrales, Mireia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Pasarín Rua, María Isabel; Iglesias-Pérez, Begoña; Casajuana-Brunet, Josep; Escaramis-Babiano, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    To identify the components of the primary health care (PHC) product defined by health professionals and users in order to establish indicators for evaluation. Qualitative methodology was used with group techniques: a nominal group (health professionals) and focus groups (users). The study was performed in PHC centers in Catalonia (Spain). There were 7 groups: a) family physicians and pediatricians; b) nurses and social workers; c) staff from admissions units and customer services; d) other medical specialists; e) users; f) managers, pharmacists, pharmacologists, and technicians. Participants responded to the question: "Which features should be evaluated in the services that should be provided by PHC?". A content analysis was performed. Textual data were broken down into units and then grouped into categories, following analogy criteria. The interpretative context of the research team was taken into account. Health professionals and users identified 4 dimensions of the PHC product, coinciding with its basic attributes: a) access to services; b) coordination and continuity of the PHC teams with other levels of healthcare; c) relationship between health professionals and users, and d) scientific-technical quality of the PHC teams and the portfolio of services. Equity, satisfaction and efficiency appeared as keystones in all the components of the product identified. There was broad agreement in the product definition among health professionals and users. The relationship between health professionals and patients was a key element in all groups. The four dimensions should be included in the evaluation of PHC teams.

  19. BIOMARKERS TO DEFINE OPTIMAL PROTEIN REQUIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins are the source of the amino acids required by the body for tissue growth and maintenance. The Population Reference Intake (PRI) for proteins, as defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for healthy adults, including the elderly, is 0.83 g/kg body weight/day. This amount is defined on the net balance of body protein (or “nitrogen balance”, given by the difference between dietary nitrogen intake and losses) equivalent to 0.66 g/kg/day plus a safety factor for interp...

  20. User Defined Structural Searches in MediaWiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Albertsen, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the poster child of user contributed content using the space of MediaWiki as the canvas on which to write. While well suited for authoring simple hypermedia documents, MediaWiki does not lend itself easily to let the author create dynamically assembled documents, or create pages...... that monitor other pages. While it is possible to create such "special" pages, it requires PHP coding and thus administrative rights to the MediaWiki server. We present in this paper work on a structural query language (MediaWiki Query Language - MWQL) to allow users to add dynamically evaluated searches...

  1. Defining Requirements for Improved Photovoltaic System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A.B.

    1998-12-21

    Reliable systems are an essential ingredient of any technology progressing toward commercial maturity and large-scale deployment. This paper defines reliability as meeting system fictional requirements, and then develops a framework to understand and quantify photovoltaic system reliability based on initial and ongoing costs and system value. The core elements necessary to achieve reliable PV systems are reviewed. These include appropriate system design, satisfactory component reliability, and proper installation and servicing. Reliability status, key issues, and present needs in system reliability are summarized for four application sectors.

  2. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  3. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  4. A Reduction Algorithm Meeting Users' Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 王珏

    2002-01-01

    Generally a database encompasses various kinds of knowledge and is sharedby many users. Different users may prefer different kinds of knowledge. So it is importantfor a data mining algorithm to output specific knowledge according to users' current require-ments (preference). We call this kind of data mining requirement-oriented knowledge discovery(ROKD). When the rough set theory is used in data mining, the ROKD problem is how to finda reduct and corresponding rules interesting for the user. Since reducts and rules are generatedin the same way, this paper only concerns with how to find a particular reduct. The user'srequirement is described by an order of attributes, called attribute order, which implies the im-portance of attributes for the user. In the order, more important attributes are located beforeless important ones. Then the problem becomes how to find a reduct including those attributesanterior in the attribute order. An approach to dealing with such a problem is proposed. Andits completeness for reduct is proved. After that, three kinds of attribute order are developedto describe various user requirements.

  5. Openphone user engagement and requirements solicitation in low literacy users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndwe, J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available that the hard part of building systems is not building them, it is knowing what to build—it’s in acquiring the necessary knowledge (Armour 2000). Potential users were requested and encouraged to participate in the design process as a strategy to ensure... whereby the users will take ownership of both the development process and the resulting system with the knowledge that the system under development will eventually be used by them for their own benefit. The process of requirements development...

  6. User-defined Material Model for Thermo-mechanical Progressive Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Previously a user-defined material model for orthotropic bimodulus materials was developed for linear and nonlinear stress analysis of composite structures using either shell or solid finite elements within a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. Extensions of this user-defined material model to thermo-mechanical progressive failure analysis are described, and the required input data are documented. The extensions include providing for temperature-dependent material properties, archival of the elastic strains, and a thermal strain calculation for materials exhibiting a stress-free temperature.

  7. Improving Requirements Generation Thoroughness in User-Centered Workshops: The Role of Prompting and Shared User Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The rise of stakeholder centered software development has led to organizations engaging users early in the development process to help define system requirements. To facilitate user involvement in the requirements elicitation process, companies can use Group Support Systems (GSS) to conduct requirements elicitation workshops. The effectiveness of…

  8. Improving Requirements Generation Thoroughness in User-Centered Workshops: The Role of Prompting and Shared User Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The rise of stakeholder centered software development has led to organizations engaging users early in the development process to help define system requirements. To facilitate user involvement in the requirements elicitation process, companies can use Group Support Systems (GSS) to conduct requirements elicitation workshops. The effectiveness of…

  9. Charliecloud: Unprivileged containers for user-defined software stacks in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priedhorsky, Reid [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randles, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-08-09

    Supercomputing centers are seeing increasing demand for user-defined software stacks (UDSS), instead of or in addition to the stack provided by the center. These UDSS support user needs such as complex dependencies or build requirements, externally required configurations, portability, and consistency. The challenge for centers is to provide these services in a usable manner while minimizing the risks: security, support burden, missing functionality, and performance. We present Charliecloud, which uses the Linux user and mount namespaces to run industry-standard Docker containers with no privileged operations or daemons on center resources. Our simple approach avoids most security risks while maintaining access to the performance and functionality already on offer, doing so in less than 500 lines of code. Charliecloud promises to bring an industry-standard UDSS user workflow to existing, minimally altered HPC resources.

  10. User Requirements and Domain Model Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2006). User requirements and domain model engineering. Presentation at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetwor

  11. User Requirements and Domain Model Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2006). User requirements and domain model engineering. Presentation at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetwor

  12. Multiple sequence alignment with user-defined anchor points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pöhler Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated software tools for multiple alignment often fail to produce biologically meaningful results. In such situations, expert knowledge can help to improve the quality of alignments. Results Herein, we describe a semi-automatic version of the alignment program DIALIGN that can take pre-defined constraints into account. It is possible for the user to specify parts of the sequences that are assumed to be homologous and should therefore be aligned to each other. Our software program can use these sites as anchor points by creating a multiple alignment respecting these constraints. This way, our alignment method can produce alignments that are biologically more meaningful than alignments produced by fully automated procedures. As a demonstration of how our method works, we apply our approach to genomic sequences around the Hox gene cluster and to a set of DNA-binding proteins. As a by-product, we obtain insights about the performance of the greedy algorithm that our program uses for multiple alignment and about the underlying objective function. This information will be useful for the further development of DIALIGN. The described alignment approach has been integrated into the TRACKER software system.

  13. AD SHARING IN SOCIAL NETWORKS : ROLE OF USER DEFINED POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata N Inukollu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Security policies describe the demeanor of a system through specific rules and are becoming an increasingly popular approach for static and dynamic environment applications.Online social networks have become a de facto portal for Internet access for millions of users. Users share different content on social media sometimes which includes personal information.However, users entrust the social network providers with such personal information.Although social networking sites offer privacy controls, the sites provide insufficient controls to restrict data sharing and let users restrict how their data is handled and viewed by other users.To match the privacy demands of an online social network user, we have suggested a new security policy and have tested the policy successfully on various levels

  14. User requirements for satellite snow data service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, S.; Standley, A.; Hiltbrunner, D.; Hallikainen, M.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the answers given by ten users or potential users of remotely sensed snow data when asked about their data needs and present measurements, their requirements for remote sensing data and potential of using such, and the models or other analysis tools in which the information is used. The answers show both consensus and differences among the respondents` use of snow data and requirements for remote sensing snow products. For water resources planning and management, the most important variable is snow water equivalent, with acceptable errors around 10%. Acceptable spatial error is typically in the range of 200 m to 1 km. For flood forecasting and short-term runoff simulation, snow covered area is more important, with a classification of 5 to 8 steps being generally sufficient. Meteorologists tend to focus on albedo and snow coverage data, with 5% steps desired for albedo. Geometric resolution and accuracy is less important, temporal resolution and delivery time is more important than in water resource management. For avalanche use, most snow variables except water equivalent are important, several in depth profiles. Spatial and temporal requirements are high. In all user groups there is a desire for models which can use measured values quantitatively. Today, measured snow information is largely interpreted manually and subjectively and lead to actions based on experience and judgement. The organizing of measurements, simulations and calibrated sub-models with varying uncertainty levels is partly a conceptual problem, partly a software problem. 1 ref.

  15. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  16. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  17. Optimizing Lighting Design for Hospital Wards by Defining User Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Niels; Stidsen, Lone; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    of lighting design in private and public settings are often not similar. The purpose of this article is therefore present a approach dividing the hospital ward in 3 user zones for patients, staff and visitors. The main user of the zone should be in control of the light scenario and thereby a refining......Studying Standard and recommendations for lighting in hospital environment its often suggest a uniform light distribution to facilitate the needs of the staff. At the same time the standards recommend a lighting design supporting the patients feeling a homely and pleasant atmosphere, and point out...... that the light should not be disrupting the patients wellbeing. These two approaches are not necessarily consistent because the right quality and quantity of light in wards is highly depending on the functionality of the space and the wished and expected lighting atmosphere of the space, and a comparison...

  18. User-Defined Clocks in the Real-Time Specification for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellings, Andy; Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the new user-defined clock model that is to be supported in Version 1.1 of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). The model is a compromise between the current position, where there is no support for user-defined clocks, and a fully integrated model. The paper investigat...

  19. 48 CFR 311.7000 - Defining electronic information technology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defining electronic information technology requirements. 311.7000 Section 311.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH... Accessibility Standards 311.7000 Defining electronic information technology requirements. HHS staff that...

  20. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Standoli, Carlo Emilio; Perego, Paolo

    2016-05-26

    Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user's age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors-also influencing user comfort-are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents' effects for preserving the sensors' efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  1. COMPARING LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gristina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport has always played an important role in a country’s growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety, both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the “Road Cadastre” (the Italian road inventory as established by law, it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users’ needs. The study aims to: a determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects; b define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries.

  2. Generating anagrams from multiple core strings employing user-defined vocabularies and orthographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R; Monteiro, Axel

    2003-02-01

    Anagrams are used widely in psychological research. However, generating a range of strings with the same letter content is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for humans, and current computer-based anagram generators do not provide the controls necessary for psychological research. In this article, we present a computational algorithm that overcomes these problems. Specifically, the algorithm processes automatically each word in a user-defined source vocabulary and outputs, for each word, all possible anagrams that exist as words (or as nonwords, if required) as defined by the same source vocabulary. Moreover, we show how the output of the algorithm can be filtered to produce anagrams within specific user-defined orthographic parameters. For example, the anagrams produced can be filtered to produce words that share, with each other or with other words in the source vocabulary, letters in only certain positions. Finally, we provide free access to the complete Windows-based program and source code containing these facilities for anagram generation.

  3. Improving agile requirements: the Quality User Story framework and tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Garm; Dalpiaz, Fabiano|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369508394; van der Werf, Jan Martijn E. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36950674X; Brinkkemper, Sjaak|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07500707X

    2016-01-01

    User stories are a widely adopted requirements notation in agile development. Yet, user stories are too often poorly written in practice and exhibit inherent quality defects. Triggered by this observation, we propose the Quality User Story (QUS) framework, a set of 13 quality criteria that user

  4. USER-DEFINED CONTENT IN A MODERN LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOLGA Lia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New pedagogic methods are developed during the current “knowledge-based era”. They replace the “taught lesson” by collaboration, reflection and iteration; in this context, the internet should not remain only a convenient and cheep (if not free mechanism for delivering traditional materials online. As the amount of available information continues to enlarge and diversify, the skills needed to access and process this information become quickly outdated. The ability to use new technologies and a wide range of multimedia tools will define success. This paper outlines the important role played by the user-generated content in defining new pedagogical approaches to learning in the context of online communities. Graphical subjects, like “Computer Graphics” and “Computer Aided Design” require an active participation of the student. Students-led lessons and students generated content give consistency and aid value to the educational process. The term of “teaching” transforms in “studying”.

  5. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  6. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    for a given problem is presented. Based on climate science, meteorology, and the details of the question in hand, this approach identifies necessary (never sufficient) conditions required for the rational use of climate model output in quantitative decision support tools. Inasmuch as climate forecasting is a problem of extrapolation, there will always be harsh limits on our ability to establish where a model is fit for purpose, this does not, however, limit us from identifying model noise as such, and thereby avoiding some cases of the misapplication and over interpretation of model output. It is suggested that failure to clearly communicate the limits of today’s climate model in providing quantitative decision relevant climate information to today’s users of climate information, would risk the credibility of tomorrow’s climate science and science based policy more generally.

  7. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  8. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Standoli, Carlo Emilio; Perego, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability. PMID:27240361

  9. Identification of needs and requirements defined by services subordinated to the Minister of the Interior and Administration in key technology and user interfaces to develop a concept of the Video Signals Integrator (VSI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecka, Danuta; Tyburska, Agata; Struniawski, Jarosław; Jastrzebski, Pawel; Jewartowski, Blazej; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Trochimiuk, Maciej; Abramowski, Andrzej; Gaska, Michal; Frasunek, Przemysław; Nalbach-Moszynska, Małgorzata; Brawata, Sebastian; Bubak, Iwona; Gloza, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Preventing and eliminating the risks of terrorist attacks or natural disasters as well as an increase in the security of mass events and critical infrastructure requires the application of modern technologies. Therefore there is a proposal to construct a tool that integrates video signals transmitted by devices that are a part of video monitoring systems functioning in Poland. The article presents selected results of research conducted by the Police Academy in Szczytno under the implemented project for national defense and security on "Video Signals Integrator" Acronym - VSI. Project Leader: Warsaw University of Technology. The consortium: Police Academy in Szczytno, Atende Software Ltd., VORTEX Ltd. No. DOBBio7/ 01/02/2015 funded by the National Centre for Research and Development.

  10. Conflicting Interests in User Requirements for Customization and Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The term 'user requirements' appears unproblematic until it is confronted with conflicting interests of who 'the user' is or should be. Customization and personalization can in this context be understood as designers' attempt to avoid or soften the conflict related to the shaping of user requirem......The term 'user requirements' appears unproblematic until it is confronted with conflicting interests of who 'the user' is or should be. Customization and personalization can in this context be understood as designers' attempt to avoid or soften the conflict related to the shaping of user...

  11. Traveller: An Interactive Cultural Training System Controlled by User-Defined Body Gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, F.; André, E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Silva, A.; Paiva, A.; Degens, D.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Krumhuber, E.; Kappas, A.; Aylett, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cultural training system based on an interactive storytelling approach and a culturally-adaptive agent architecture, for which a user-defined gesture set was created. 251 full body gestures by 22 users were analyzed to find intuitive gestures for the in-game actions in

  12. Requirements for user interaction support in future CACE environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Szymkat, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a review of user interaction modes and the specific needs of the CACE domain the paper describes requirements for user interaction in future CACE environments. Taking another look at the design process in CACE key areas in need of more user interaction support are pointed out. Three...

  13. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruefli Terry

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change, and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time. Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT to develop the outcomes (phase 1 and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2. Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1 making money; 2 getting something good to eat; 3 being housed/homeless; 4 relating to families; 5 getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6 handling health problems; 7 handling negative emotions; 8 handling legal problems; 9 improving oneself; and 10 handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized

  14. Process Model for Defining Space Sensing and Situational Awareness Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    process model for defining systems for space sensing and space situational awareness is presented. The paper concentrates on eight steps for determining the requirements to include: decision maker needs, system requirements, exploitation methods and vulnerabilities, critical capabilities, and identify attack scenarios. Utilization of the USAF anti-tamper (AT) implementation process as a process model departure point for the space sensing and situational awareness (SSSA...is presented. The AT implementation process model , as an

  15. 75 FR 27927 - Diversification Requirements for Certain Defined Contribution Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... disclosure of the fund's portfolio holdings (for example, Form N-CSR, ``Certified Shareholder Report of... securities that violate the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section. (2) Definitions, effective dates, and transition rules. The definitions of applicable defined contribution plan, employer...

  16. Understanding your users a practical guide to user requirements methods, tools, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Today many companies are employing a user-centered design (UCD) process, but for most companies, usability begins and ends with the usability test. Although usability testing is a critical part of an effective user-centered life cycle, it is only one component of the UCD process. This book is focused on the requirements gathering stage, which often receives less attention than usability testing, but is equally as important. Understanding user requirements is critical to the development of a successful product. Understanding Your Users is an easy to read, easy to implement, how-to guide on

  17. Translation of User Needs to System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    written under the premise that the current state of the art of system development does not warrant or support a formal standards document.” Experience...1992). C4I for the warrior. Washington, D.C. Carson, R., Aslaksen, E., Caple, G., Davies, P., Griego , R., Kohl, R., et al. (2004). Requirements...Hilliard, R. (2004). ANSI/IEEE 1471 and systems engineering. Systems Engineering Journal, 7(3), 257-270. Maier, M., & Rechtin, E. (2002). The art of

  18. Patient Accounting Systems: Are They Fit with the Users' Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Nazemi, Zahra; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A patient accounting system is a subsystem of a hospital information system. This system like other information systems should be carefully designed to be able to meet users' requirements. The main aim of this research was to investigate users' requirements and to determine whether current patient accounting systems meet users' needs or not. This was a survey study, and the participants were the users of six patient accounting systems used in 24 teaching hospitals. A stratified sampling method was used to select the participants (n = 216). The research instruments were a questionnaire and a checklist. The mean value of ≥3 showed the importance of each data element and the capability of the system. Generally, the findings showed that the current patient accounting systems had some weaknesses and were able to meet between 70% and 80% of users' requirements. The current patient accounting systems need to be improved to be able to meet users' requirements. This approach can also help to provide hospitals with more usable and reliable financial information.

  19. A User Requirements Analysis Approach Based on Business Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yue-bin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    Requirements analysis is the most important phase of information system development.Existing requirements analysis techniques concern little or no about features of different business processes.This paper presents a user requirements analysis approach which focuses business processes on the early stage of requirements analysis. It also gives an example of the using of this approach in the analysis of an enterprise information system.

  20. User Requirements & Demand for Services and Applications in PNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo

    services and applications need to be developed with a much stronger focus on the end-users' needs and demands. The paper is based on ongoing work in WP1 of the MAGNET project (My personal Adaptive Global NET)including contributions to determine, clarify and understand user requirements and the future...... demand for services and applications in a PN setting. This further includes discussion of service categorization, service description and human-value issues as personalization, security and privacy, billing and price and human-computer interaction paradigms.......This paper focuses on the methodology for analyses of user requirements and demand for specific services and applications in relation to personal networks (PNs). The paper has a strong user-centric approach to service and application development based on the widely accepted fact that future...

  1. Analisis Pemanfaatan Metode Markerless User Defined Target Pada Augmented Reality Sholat Shubuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Gusman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi augmented reality pada umumnya menggunakan marker khusus untuk menjalankan aplikasi (marker based. Penggunaan marker tersebut membuat aplikasi menjadi ketergantungan, karena aplikasi hanya akan dapat dijalankan jika marker tersedia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menampilkan objek 3 dimensi pada lingkungan augmented reality tanpa menggunakan marker khusus pada perangkat android. Aplikasi dibuat menggunakan metode markerless user defined target dan melakukan pengujian tentang pemanfaatan metode tersebut menggunakan parameter seperti kontras warna permukaan datar, bentuk objek, jarak, cahaya dan sudut kamera pada saat tracking. Hasil dari penelitian didapatkan bahwa seluruh benda dapat digunakan pada metode markerless user defined target. Benda terbaik untuk menampilkan objek 3 dimensi adalah permukaan datar kertas dengan kontras bagus, sudut tracking 45°, menggunakan sumber cahaya terang yang tidak tegak lurus dengan marker dan jarak ideal 15 cm sampai 25 cm

  2. Defining environmental river flow requirements – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Acreman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, there is an increasing desire, supported by national and regional policies and legislation, to conserve or restore the ecological health and functioning of rivers and their associated wetlands for human use and biodiversity. To achieve this, many organisations have developed methods for defining “environmental flows‿, i.e. the flow regime required in a river to achieve desired ecological objectives. This paper reviews the various methods available and suggests a simple categorisation of the methods into four types: look-up tables, desk-top analysis; functional analysis and hydraulic habitat modelling. No method is necessarily better than another; each may be suitable for different applications. Whilst look-up methods are easy and cheap to apply, they can be expensive to develop, are less accurate and more suitable for scoping studies; in contrast, although hydraulic habitat modelling is more expensive to apply, it is suitable for impact assessment at specific sites. Each method would need to be used within a wider decision-support framework. These are generally either objective-based to define a target flow regime for a specific desired river status, or scenario-based to indicate the relative merits of various flow regime options for the river environment. Keywords: environmental flow, instream flow, river habitat modelling, building block method, flow scenario analysis, objective setting.

  3. Graphical user interface prototyping for distributed requirements engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Scheibmayr, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Finding and understanding the right requirements is essential for every software project. This book deals with the challenge to improve requirements engineering in distributed software projects. The use of graphical user interface (GUI) prototypes can help stakeholders in such projects to elicit and specify high quality requirements. The research objective of this study is to develop a method and a software artifact to support the activities in the early requirements engineering phase in order to overcome some of the difficulties and improve the quality of the requirements, which should eventu

  4. No Code Required Giving Users Tools to Transform the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Cypher, Allen; Lau, Tessa; Nichols, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Revolutionary tools are emerging from research labs that enable all computer users to customize and automate their use of the Web without learning how to program. No Code Required takes cutting edge material from academic and industry leaders - the people creating these tools -- and presents the research, development, application, and impact of a variety of new and emerging systems. *The first book since Web 2.0 that covers the latest research, development, and systems emerging from HCI research labs on end user programming tools *Featuring contributions from the creators of Adobe's Zoet

  5. MyProteinNet: build up-to-date protein interaction networks for organisms, tissues and user-defined contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Omer; Flom, Dvir; Barshir, Ruth; Smoly, Ilan; Tirman, Shoval; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2015-07-01

    The identification of the molecular pathways active in specific contexts, such as disease states or drug responses, often requires an extensive view of the potential interactions between a subset of proteins. This view is not easily obtained: it requires the integration of context-specific protein list or expression data with up-to-date data of protein interactions that are typically spread across multiple databases. The MyProteinNet web server allows users to easily create such context-sensitive protein interaction networks. Users can automatically gather and consolidate data from up to 11 different databases to create a generic protein interaction network (interactome). They can score the interactions based on reliability and filter them by user-defined contexts including molecular expression and protein annotation. The output of MyProteinNet includes the generic and filtered interactome files, together with a summary of their network attributes. MyProteinNet is particularly geared toward building human tissue interactomes, by maintaining tissue expression profiles from multiple resources. The ability of MyProteinNet to facilitate the construction of up-to-date, context-specific interactomes and its applicability to 11 different organisms and to tens of human tissues, make it a powerful tool in meaningful analysis of protein networks. MyProteinNet is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/myproteinnet. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Defining Requirements and Applying Information Modeling for Protecting Enterprise Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Stephen C.; Volk, Jennifer H.

    The advent of terrorist threats has heightened local, regional, and national governments' interest in emergency response and disaster preparedness. The threat of natural disasters also challenges emergency responders to act swiftly and in a coordinated fashion. When a disaster occurs, an ad hoc coalition of pre-planned groups usually forms to respond to the incident. History has shown that these “system of systems” do not interoperate very well. Communications between fire, police and rescue components either do not work or are inefficient. Government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private industry use a wide array of software platforms for managing data about emergency conditions, resources and response activities. Most of these are stand-alone systems with very limited capability for data sharing with other agencies or other levels of government. Information technology advances have facilitated the movement towards an integrated and coordinated approach to emergency management. Other communication mechanisms, such as video teleconferencing, digital television and radio broadcasting, are being utilized to combat the challenges of emergency information exchange. Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina and the tsunami in Indonesia, have illuminated the weaknesses in emergency response. This paper will discuss the need for defining requirements for components of ad hoc coalitions which are formed to respond to disasters. A goal of our effort was to develop a proof of concept that applying information modeling to the business processes used to protect and mitigate potential loss of an enterprise was feasible. These activities would be modeled both pre- and post-incident.

  7. National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Pilot Project summary report: summary of moderate resolution imaging user requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnais, Carolyn; Stensaas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Under the National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing a functional capability to obtain, characterize, manage, maintain and prioritize all Earth observing (EO) land remote sensing user requirements. The goal is a better understanding of community needs that can be supported with land remote sensing resources, and a means to match needs with appropriate solutions in an effective and efficient way. The NLIR Project is composed of two components. The first component is focused on the development of the Earth Observation Requirements Evaluation System (EORES) to capture, store and analyze user requirements, whereas, the second component is the mechanism and processes to elicit and document the user requirements that will populate the EORES. To develop the second component, the requirements elicitation methodology was exercised and refined through a pilot project conducted from June to September 2013. The pilot project focused specifically on applications and user requirements for moderate resolution imagery (5–120 meter resolution) as the test case for requirements development. The purpose of this summary report is to provide a high-level overview of the requirements elicitation process that was exercised through the pilot project and an early analysis of the moderate resolution imaging user requirements acquired to date to support ongoing USGS sustainable land imaging study needs. The pilot project engaged a limited set of Federal Government users from the operational and research communities and therefore the information captured represents only a subset of all land imaging user requirements. However, based on a comparison of results, trends, and analysis, the pilot captured a strong baseline of typical applications areas and user needs for moderate resolution imagery. Because these results are preliminary and represent only a sample of users and application areas, the information from this report should only

  8. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 1. User Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    2 entitled Human Computer Interface ( HCI )Design Criteria Volume 1: User Interlace Requirements which contains the following major changes from...MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER Air Force Space Command 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and...and efficient model of how the system works and can generalize this knowledge to other systems. According to Mayhew in Principles and Guidelines in

  9. Geosensors to support crop production: current applications and user requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessler, Sirpa; Kooistra, Lammert; Teye, Frederick; Huitu, Hanna; Bregt, Arnold K

    2011-01-01

    Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load.

  10. Geosensors to Support Crop Production: Current Applications and User Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammert Kooistra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load.

  11. Visual display requirements: on standards and their users

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2005-01-01

    A new ISO standard for visual displays: "Ergonomic requirements and measurement techniques for electronic visual displays" is soon to be released as a Draft International Standard. The core of the new standard is the part with generic ergonomic requirements for visual displays. Three parts of the standard describe three types of measurements: electro-optical ones, to be used in general; user performance test methods, for innovative displays for which no electro-optical methods exist; and field assessment methods, to be used outside of the laboratory, under the conditions of use at the workplace. The last part of the standard describes five compliance routes and procedures for five different display technologies and contexts of use. A number of choices and problems that standard writers have to face are mentioned. Should a visual display standard be written primarily for young users, with mostly a high visual acuity and in possession of their full accommodative power, wanting to use tiny hand-held displays featuring very small characters ? Or should the standard be focused on the elderly, with their reduction in visual faculties, barring the use of small characters that may irritate or disable such older users ? The question how to put human factors principles in standards sometimes seems a battle between idealists and realists. It therefore is important to strike a balance between different attitudes, backgrounds and interests in a standards writing committee - as indeed happens in ISO/TC 159/SC 4/WG 2, "Visual Display Requirements". The author is convener of this Working Group.

  12. Sequential growth of long DNA strands with user-defined patterns for nanostructures and scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Graham D.; Rahbani, Janane F.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2015-05-01

    DNA strands of well-defined sequence are valuable in synthetic biology and nanostructure assembly. Drawing inspiration from solid-phase synthesis, here we describe a DNA assembly method that uses time, or order of addition, as a parameter to define structural complexity. DNA building blocks are sequentially added with in-situ ligation, then enzymatic enrichment and isolation. This yields a monodisperse, single-stranded long product (for example, 1,000 bases) with user-defined length and sequence pattern. The building blocks can be repeated with different order of addition, giving different DNA patterns. We organize DNA nanostructures and quantum dots using these backbones. Generally, only a small portion of a DNA structure needs to be addressable, while the rest is purely structural. Scaffolds with specifically placed unique sites in a repeating motif greatly minimize the number of components used, while maintaining addressability. This combination of symmetry and site-specific asymmetry within a DNA strand is easily accomplished with our method.

  13. Superpose3D: a local structural comparison program that allows for user-defined structure representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Federico Gherardini

    Full Text Available Local structural comparison methods can be used to find structural similarities involving functional protein patches such as enzyme active sites and ligand binding sites. The outcome of such analyses is critically dependent on the representation used to describe the structure. Indeed different categories of functional sites may require the comparison program to focus on different characteristics of the protein residues. We have therefore developed superpose3D, a novel structural comparison software that lets users specify, with a powerful and flexible syntax, the structure description most suited to the requirements of their analysis. Input proteins are processed according to the user's directives and the program identifies sets of residues (or groups of atoms that have a similar 3D position in the two structures. The advantages of using such a general purpose program are demonstrated with several examples. These test cases show that no single representation is appropriate for every analysis, hence the usefulness of having a flexible program that can be tailored to different needs. Moreover we also discuss how to interpret the results of a database screening where a known structural motif is searched against a large ensemble of structures. The software is written in C++ and is released under the open source GPL license. Superpose3D does not require any external library, runs on Linux, Mac OSX, Windows and is available at http://cbm.bio.uniroma2.it/superpose3D.

  14. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  15. Spectral resampling based on user-defined interband correlation filter: C3 and C4 grass species classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adjorlolo, C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a user-defined inter-band correlation filter function was used to resample hyperspectral data and thereby mitigate the problem of multicollinearity in classification analysis. The proposed resampling technique convolves the spectral...

  16. A rationale and approach for defining and structuring testability requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klion, J.

    1985-08-01

    Testability concepts and requirements are being applied to many Air Force electronic equipment/system development programs. Insufficient guidance exists as to the definition and structure of testability requirements and the interface between such requirements and maintainability, availability, and integrated diagnostics. The purpose of this report is to provide one logical approach and associated guidance to the definition and structure of testability needs and: (1) the relationship of testability to other system parameters; (2) the translation of testability needs to testability requirements; (3) the interpretation of testability terms, concepts and requirements; (4) the structure and scope of testability requirements; (5) and the identification of those factors, constraints and contingencies which must be considered when invoking testability requirements.

  17. Prediction of ThAI TH-13 Experiment Using CFX User Defined Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Hee; Hong, Soon Joon [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chun Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Steam with high energy and non-condensable gas induce very complex behaviors of the atmosphere inside the containment which include condensation and evaporation phenomena when an accident happens such as LOCA (Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident). Prediction of these complicated behaviors of the atmosphere inside the containment is highly important when designing a device to prevent rapid pressure increase like a passive heat exchanger in the containment. In this paper, ThAI-TH13 experiment was simulated using the ANSYS-CFX15.0. The wall condensation was modeled using Uchida correlation in a single-phase calculation by User-Defined Functions included in the CFX. A similar study was performed using CFX as described in Ref. 3. The purpose of this study is to obtain detail methods and analytical technology of the previous study throughout reproduction of the simulation. Also this study is a preliminary calculation to simulate behaviors of atmosphere in the containment based on the recreation of the previous study. ThAI-TH13 experiment was simulated using CFX based on the previous study. The wall condensation has been modeled in the single-phase simulation using Uchida correlation by user-fortran routines in CFX code. The results of this simulation predicted TH-13 experiment properly and physically in pressure distribution of the atmosphere in a THAI vessel.

  18. User requirements for hydrological models with remote sensing input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    1997-10-01

    Monitoring the seasonal snow cover is important for several purposes. This report describes user requirements for hydrological models utilizing remotely sensed snow data. The information is mainly provided by operational users through a questionnaire. The report is primarily intended as a basis for other work packages within the Snow Tools project which aim at developing new remote sensing products for use in hydrological models. The HBV model is the only model mentioned by users in the questionnaire. It is widely used in Northern Scandinavia and Finland, in the fields of hydroelectric power production, flood forecasting and general monitoring of water resources. The current implementation of HBV is not based on remotely sensed data. Even the presently used HBV implementation may benefit from remotely sensed data. However, several improvements can be made to hydrological models to include remotely sensed snow data. Among these the most important are a distributed version, a more physical approach to the snow depletion curve, and a way to combine data from several sources. 1 ref.

  19. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  20. mGrid: a load-balanced distributed computing environment for the remote execution of the user-defined Matlab code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Almeida, Jonas S

    2006-03-15

    Matlab, a powerful and productive language that allows for rapid prototyping, modeling and simulation, is widely used in computational biology. Modeling and simulation of large biological systems often require more computational resources then are available on a single computer. Existing distributed computing environments like the Distributed Computing Toolbox, MatlabMPI, Matlab*G and others allow for the remote (and possibly parallel) execution of Matlab commands with varying support for features like an easy-to-use application programming interface, load-balanced utilization of resources, extensibility over the wide area network, and minimal system administration skill requirements. However, all of these environments require some level of access to participating machines to manually distribute the user-defined libraries that the remote call may invoke. mGrid augments the usual process distribution seen in other similar distributed systems by adding facilities for user code distribution. mGrid's client-side interface is an easy-to-use native Matlab toolbox that transparently executes user-defined code on remote machines (i.e. the user is unaware that the code is executing somewhere else). Run-time variables are automatically packed and distributed with the user-defined code and automated load-balancing of remote resources enables smooth concurrent execution. mGrid is an open source environment. Apart from the programming language itself, all other components are also open source, freely available tools: light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server. Transparent, load-balanced distribution of user-defined Matlab toolboxes and rapid prototyping of many simple parallel applications can now be done with a single easy-to-use Matlab command. Because mGrid utilizes only Matlab, light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server, installation and configuration are very simple. Moreover, the web-based infrastructure of mGrid allows for it to be easily extensible over

  1. mGrid: A load-balanced distributed computing environment for the remote execution of the user-defined Matlab code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matlab, a powerful and productive language that allows for rapid prototyping, modeling and simulation, is widely used in computational biology. Modeling and simulation of large biological systems often require more computational resources then are available on a single computer. Existing distributed computing environments like the Distributed Computing Toolbox, MatlabMPI, Matlab*G and others allow for the remote (and possibly parallel execution of Matlab commands with varying support for features like an easy-to-use application programming interface, load-balanced utilization of resources, extensibility over the wide area network, and minimal system administration skill requirements. However, all of these environments require some level of access to participating machines to manually distribute the user-defined libraries that the remote call may invoke. Results mGrid augments the usual process distribution seen in other similar distributed systems by adding facilities for user code distribution. mGrid's client-side interface is an easy-to-use native Matlab toolbox that transparently executes user-defined code on remote machines (i.e. the user is unaware that the code is executing somewhere else. Run-time variables are automatically packed and distributed with the user-defined code and automated load-balancing of remote resources enables smooth concurrent execution. mGrid is an open source environment. Apart from the programming language itself, all other components are also open source, freely available tools: light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server. Conclusion Transparent, load-balanced distribution of user-defined Matlab toolboxes and rapid prototyping of many simple parallel applications can now be done with a single easy-to-use Matlab command. Because mGrid utilizes only Matlab, light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server, installation and configuration are very simple. Moreover, the web

  2. Modeling pyramidal sensors in ray-tracing software by a suitable user-defined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antichi, Jacopo; Munari, Matteo; Magrin, Demetrio; Riccardi, Armando

    2016-04-01

    Following the unprecedented results in terms of performances delivered by the first light adaptive optics system at the Large Binocular Telescope, there has been a wide-spread and increasing interest on the pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS), which is the key component, together with the adaptive secondary mirror, of the adaptive optics (AO) module. Currently, there is no straightforward way to model a PWFS in standard sequential ray-tracing software. Common modeling strategies tend to be user-specific and, in general, are unsatisfactory for general applications. To address this problem, we have developed an approach to PWFS modeling based on user-defined surface (UDS), whose properties reside in a specific code written in C language, for the ray-tracing software ZEMAX™. With our approach, the pyramid optical component is implemented as a standard surface in ZEMAX™, exploiting its dynamic link library (DLL) conversion then greatly simplifying ray tracing and analysis. We have utilized the pyramid UDS DLL surface-referred to as pyramidal acronyms may be too risky (PAM2R)-in order to design the current PWFS-based AO system for the Giant Magellan Telescope, evaluating tolerances, with particular attention to the angular sensitivities, by means of sequential ray-tracing tools only, thus verifying PAM2R reliability and robustness. This work indicates that PAM2R makes the design of PWFS as simple as that of other optical standard components. This is particularly suitable with the advent of the extremely large telescopes era for which complexity is definitely one of the main challenges.

  3. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Leggat Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers...

  4. Factors affecting riboflavin requirements of oral contraceptive users and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, D A; Bogusz, S; Sheu, J; McCormick, D B

    1982-03-01

    Riboflavin depletion has been identified in women on oral contraceptives (OC) but change in riboflavin nutriture has not been consistently demonstrated in all OC user groups studied. Discrepant findings in reports have been attributed to differences of pill formulation or riboflavin intake. Aims of this study were to compare the riboflavin requirements of healthy OC users and nonusers on diets prepared in a metabolic unit. A single daily menu and meal pattern was used. The basic diet providing riboflavin at a level of 0.6 mg/1000 kcal was used in the period of acclimation and period 1. In periods 2 and 3, the riboflavin content of the diet was increased to 0.8 and 1.0 mg/1000 kcal, respectively. The riboflavin status of subjects was monitored by erythrocyte glutathione reductase assay and urinary riboflavin excretion. Eight women on OC and 10 nonusers participated. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase assay values and urinary riboflavin excretion showed intersubject and interperiod differences but no significant group differences (OC versus non-OC) in erythrocyte glutathione reductase values or in urinary riboflavin per g creatinine. It was concluded that when dietary intake is controlled, OC do not significantly influence riboflavin status. Riboflavin needs were related to energy requirements of the subjects.

  5. Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Mark; Murey, Kim; Marsh, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) located at the Marshall Space Flight Center has the responsibility of integrating US payload science requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). All payload operations must request ISS system resources so that the resource usage will be included in the ISS on-board execution timelines. The scheduling of resources and building of the timeline is performed using the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). The ISS resources are quite complex due to the large number of components that must be accounted for. The planners at the POIC simplify the process for Payload Developers (PD) by providing the PDs with a application that has the basic functionality PDs need as well as list of simplified resources in the User Requirements Collection (URC) application. The planners maintained a mapping of the URC resources to the CPS resources. The process of manually converting PD's science requirements from a simplified representation to a more complex CPS representation is a time-consuming and tedious process. The goal is to provide a software solution to allow the planners to build a mapping of the complex CPS constraints to the basic URC constraints and automatically convert the PD's requirements into systems requirements during export to CPS.

  6. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggat Sandra G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.

  7. Interactive and scale invariant segmentation of the rectum/sigmoid via user-defined templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Tobias; Egger, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Among all types of cancer, gynecological malignancies belong to the 4th most frequent type of cancer among women. Besides chemotherapy and external beam radiation, brachytherapy is the standard procedure for the treatment of these malignancies. In the progress of treatment planning, localization of the tumor as the target volume and adjacent organs of risks by segmentation is crucial to accomplish an optimal radiation distribution to the tumor while simultaneously preserving healthy tissue. Segmentation is performed manually and represents a time-consuming task in clinical daily routine. This study focuses on the segmentation of the rectum/sigmoid colon as an Organ-At-Risk in gynecological brachytherapy. The proposed segmentation method uses an interactive, graph-based segmentation scheme with a user-defined template. The scheme creates a directed two dimensional graph, followed by the minimal cost closed set computation on the graph, resulting in an outlining of the rectum. The graphs outline is dynamically adapted to the last calculated cut. Evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentations of the rectum/sigmoid colon to results achieved with the proposed method. The comparison of the algorithmic to manual results yielded to a Dice Similarity Coefficient value of 83.85+/-4.08%, in comparison to 83.97+/-8.08% for the comparison of two manual segmentations of the same physician. Utilizing the proposed methodology resulted in a median time of 128 seconds per dataset, compared to 300 seconds needed for pure manual segmentation.

  8. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  9. The role of user requirements research in medical device development

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, A; Alshawi, S

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This research aims to suggest a concise framework to help in the better conceptualisation and integration of users in the medical device development (MDD) process. The current economic, political and social climate concerning the matter of healthcare delivery has resulted in the emergence of numerous users and user groups for whom the healthcare system has not previously catered for. These users have created ambiguity for the designers and manufacturers of ...

  10. 40 CFR 35.929-2 - General requirements for all user charge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for all user charge systems. 35.929-2 Section 35.929-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... hookups or discharges to the users; (iv) Property valuation of the users, if the grantee has a user...

  11. A Balanced Approach to Capturing User Requirements in Business- to- Consumer Web Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lane

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of business-to-consumer web information systems pose special challenges in the requirements analysis phase. It is difficult to capture user requirements given that users are relatively autonomous and anonymous and there are no major incentives for users to become involved in the development of a web information system. The researchers reviewed traditional requirement elicitation techniques, marketing research techniques and web usage analysis techniques. Current practice was assessed and the findings suggest that a balanced approach to user requirements capture will result in more complete and user centred requirements. This approach should lead to more effective business-to consumer web information systems.

  12. User Requirements from the Climate Modelling Community for Next Generation Global Products from Land Cover CCI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; van Groenestijn, Annemarie; Kalogirou, Vasileios; Arino, Olivier; Herold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Land Cover has been selected as one of 11 Essential Climate Variables which will be elaborated during the first phase of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (2010- 2013). In the first stage of the Land Cover CCI project, an user requirements analysis has been carried out on the basis of which the detailed specifications of a global land cover product can be defined which match the requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the climate modelling community. As part of the requirements analysis, an user consultation mechanism was set-up to actively involve different climate modelling groups by setting out surveys to different type of users within the climate modelling community and the broad land cover data user community. The evolution of requirements from current models to future new modelling approaches was specifically taken into account. In addition, requirements from the GCOS Implementation Plan 2004 and 2010 and associated strategic earth observation documents for land cover were assessed and a detailed literature review was carried out. The outcome of the user requirements assessment shows that although the range of requirements coming from the climate modelling community is broad, there is a good match among the requirements coming from different user groups and the broader requirements derived from GCOS, CMUG and other relevant international panels. More specific requirements highlight that future land cover datasets should be both stable and have a dynamic component; deal with the consistency in relationships between land cover classes and land surface parameters; should provide flexibility to serve different scales and purposes; and should provide transparency of product quality. As a next step within the Land Cover CCI project, the outcome of this user requirements analysis will be used as input for the product specification of the next generation Global Land Cover datasets.

  13. Analysis of GNSS integrity requirements for road user charging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Salós, Daniel; Macabiau, Christophe; Martineau, Anaïs; Bonhoure, Bernard; Kubrak, Damien

    2010-01-01

    International audience; GNSS-based Road User Charging (RUC) systems are particularly interesting because of their flexibility and reduced roadside infrastructure. At present, truck toll collection systems based on GPS receivers installed on the vehicles are already deployed in German and Slovak motorways. Reliability of road tolling systems is fundamental in order to limit the loss of revenue because of undercharging and the user claims because of overcharging. Consequently, GNSS integrity mo...

  14. IEC 61850 interoperability : user requirements and implementation experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawidczak, H.; Englert, H. [Siemens AG, Nurnberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    IEC 61850 edition 1 was published in 2004 as the global standard for communication networks and systems for power utility automation. As of 2010, there were over 100,000 Siemens intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with IED 61850 interface in operation. This presentation discussed the IEC 61850 situation in Germany. Specific topics that were addressed included German transmission system operators (TSOs) and the high standardization of layouts and processes; the introduction of IEC 61850 as more than just a replacement; a working group of the German National Committee set up to design an object data model of an example substation with the substation configuration language IEC 61850; and German experiences and resulting requirements. The presentation provided a definition of interoperability as being the ability of two or more IEDs from the same vendor, or different vendors, to exchange information and use that information for correct co-operation. Interchangeability was defined as the ability to replace a device supplied by one manufacturer with a device supplied by another manufacturer, without making changes to the other elements in the system. The presentation concluded with a discussion of resulting engineering and testing by replacement of IED with a different object addressing scheme. figs.

  15. User requirements and future expectations for geosensor networks – an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Thessler, S.; Bregt, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made on the technical development of sensor networks. However increasing attention is now also required for the broad diversity of end-user requirements for the deployment of sensor networks. An expert survey on the user requirements and future expectations for sensor

  16. Defining Gas Turbine Engine Performance Requirements for the Large Civil TiltRotor (LCTR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Defining specific engine requirements is a critical part of identifying technologies and operational models for potential future rotary wing vehicles. NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project has identified the Large Civil TiltRotor (LCTR) as the configuration to best meet technology goals. This notional vehicle concept has evolved with more clearly defined mission and operational requirements to the LCTR-iteration 2 (LCTR2). This paper reports on efforts to further review and refine the LCTR2 analyses to ascertain specific engine requirements and propulsion sizing criteria. The baseline mission and other design or operational requirements are reviewed. Analysis tools are described to help understand their interactions and underlying assumptions. Various design and operational conditions are presented and explained for their contribution to defining operational and engine requirements. These identified engine requirements are discussed to suggest which are most critical to the engine sizing and operation. The most-critical engine requirements are compared to in-house NASA engine simulations to try to ascertain which operational requirements define engine requirements versus points within the available engine operational capability. Finally, results are summarized with suggestions for future efforts to improve analysis capabilities, and better define and refine mission and operational requirements.

  17. The Synergism of User Needs, System Requirements, and Technological Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Gwen R.

    User perception of data importance and the economic feasibility of hardware and storage devices will determine the future direction of online systems. A retrieval system's functions are ultimately dictated by database design. Early online sytems were designed for bibliographic information limited to citations only using sequential files. When…

  18. USER REQUIREMENTS CUSTOMIZATION AND ATTRACTIVE QUALITY CREATION FOR DESIGN IMPROVEMENT ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to customize user requirements and quality creation for design improvement of furniture. The major purpose has been achieved with the use of Quality Function Deployment technique and Kano Model. The study involved 564 students from 3 engineering colleges. Extensive user requirements were identified with the help of Questionnaires. The use of House of Quality, Kano Model and Pareto Diagram helped in prioritizing all important features which are needed in customizing user requirements. The prioritized requirements include ergonomic design, desk adjustability, comfortability, product corners (sharp corners and latest material. All these factors both got high relative and absolute weight. Therefore, more engineering efforts need to be directed towards these requirements for achieving user customization for design improvement. The developed House of Quality with the help of Kano Model results has proved to be a good tool in customizing user requirements.

  19. Same description, different values. How service users and providers define patient and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit By; Solbjør, Marit; Lara, Mariela C; Westerlund, Heidi; Grimstad, Hilde; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-09-01

    Patient and public involvement in health care is important, but the existing definitions of the concept do not integrate the stakeholders' own perceptions. To investigate and compare service users' and service providers' own definitions of patient and public involvement and their implications. Qualitative study with mainly individual in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted between June 2007 and June 2009. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A total of 20 patients, 13 public representatives and 44 health service providers/managers in both somatic and mental health care were interviewed. A common definition of patient and public involvement emerged: It is founded on mutual respect, carried out through dialogue aiming at achieving shared decision making. Nevertheless, users and providers assigned different values to the core aspects: Respect was imperative for service users and implied for providers, dialogue was a way to gain respect for service users and to achieve good outcome for providers, and both worried that the other party wanted to make sole decisions. Users and providers need to consider that although they have a common definition of involvement in health care, they assign different values to its aspects. Increasing and improving patient and public involvement therefore requires knowledge on and dialogue between the parties about these differences. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. User privacy in well-being and well-working applications : Requirements and approaches for user controlled privacy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, W.; Hulsebosch, B.; Schoonhoven, B.H.A. van; Sappelli, M.; Wouters, K.

    2012-01-01

    Well-being applications at work and at home are expected to help people to continue contributing to society, the marketplace and the economy. To make them adaptive and intuitive, and allow them to provide personalized information and coaching to the user at the right time requires the availability

  1. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  2. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  3. User requirements and conceptual design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carannante, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Carannante@F4E.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Cavinato, Mario [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Gandini, Franco [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Granucci, Gustavo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Henderson, Mark; Purohit, Dharmesh [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, Gabriella; Sartori, Filippo [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sozzi, Carlo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Electron Cyclotron (EC) plant is a complex system, essential for plasma operation. The system is being designed to supply up to 20 MW of power at 170 GHz; it consists of 24 RF sources (or Gyrotrons) connected by switchable transmission lines to four upper and one equatorial launcher. The complexity of the EC plant requires a Plant Controller, which provides the functional and operational interface with CODAC and the Plasma Control System and coordinates the various Subsystem Control Units, i.e. the local controllers of power supplies, Gyrotrons, transmission lines and launchers. A conceptual design of the Electron Cyclotron Control System (ECCS) was developed, starting from the collection of the user requirements, which have then been organized as a set of operational scenarios exploiting the EC system. The design consists in a thorough functional analysis, including also protection functions, and in the development of a conceptual I&C architecture. The main aim of the work was to identify the physics requirements and to translate them into control system requirements, in order to define the interfaces within the components of the ECCS. The definition of these interfaces is urgent because some of the subsystems are already in an advanced design phase. The present paper describes both the methodology used and the resulting design.

  4. Big Data in Healthcare – Defining the Digital Persona through User Contexts from the Micro to the Macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, H.; Petersen, C.; Weber, J.; Borycki, E. M.; Adams, S.; Collins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives While big data offers enormous potential for improving healthcare delivery, many of the existing claims concerning big data in healthcare are based on anecdotal reports and theoretical vision papers, rather than scientific evidence based on empirical research. Historically, the implementation of health information technology has resulted in unintended consequences at the individual, organizational and social levels, but these unintended consequences of collecting data have remained unaddressed in the literature on big data. The objective of this paper is to provide insights into big data from the perspective of people, social and organizational considerations. Method We draw upon the concept of persona to define the digital persona as the intersection of data, tasks and context for different user groups. We then describe how the digital persona can serve as a framework to understanding sociotechnical considerations of big data implementation. We then discuss the digital persona in the context of micro, meso and macro user groups across the 3 Vs of big data. Results We provide insights into the potential benefits and challenges of applying big data approaches to healthcare as well as how to position these approaches to achieve health system objectives such as patient safety or patient-engaged care delivery. We also provide a framework for defining the digital persona at a micro, meso and macro level to help understand the user contexts of big data solutions. Conclusion While big data provides great potential for improving healthcare delivery, it is essential that we consider the individual, social and organizational contexts of data use when implementing big data solutions. PMID:25123726

  5. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thiangtum, W; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T; C. Yuangklang; M.W.A. Verstegen; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requirement of lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions by measuring Na levels in saliva, milk and faeces. RESULTS: The concentrations of Na and potassium (K) in milk, faeces and serum were not affecte...

  6. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requiremen

  7. A living laboratory approach in the design of the user requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A living laboratory approach in the design of the user requirements of a spatial .... that have some systems design or ... breakthrough concepts and test the potential ... complete. The living-lab concept ...... distributed mobile networking testbed.

  8. Evolved Control of Natural Plants: Crossing the Reality Gap for User-Defined Steering of Growth and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Wahby, Mostafa; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Mixing societies of natural and artificial systems can provide interesting and potentially fruitful research targets. Here we mix robotic setups and natural plants in order to steer the motion behavior of plants while growing. The robotic setup uses a camera to observe the plant and uses a pair...... of light sources to trigger phototropic response, steering the plant to user-defined targets. An evolutionary robotic approach is used to design a controller for the setup. Initially, preliminary experiments are performed with a simple predetermined controller and a growing bean plant. The plant behavior...... in response to the simple controller is captured by image processing, and a model of the plant tip dynamics is developed. The model is used in simulation to evolve a robot controller that steers the plant tip such that it follows a number of randomly generated target points. Finally, we test the simulation...

  9. Systems engineering and the user: Incorporation of user requirements into the SE process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, John E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is organized into four parts. In the Gestation Phase, I describe the process of starting a new mission and establishing its rough boundaries. Next I show how the scientific experiments are selected. Then we enter the Preliminary Design Phase, where we incorporate the scientist's instruments into the systems engineering process. Finally, I show how the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) assures NASA management and the scientists that the scientific requirements have been incorporated into the systems engineering process to everyone's satisfaction.

  10. Software Configuration and Management System. User requirements document Scam/ URD/ WORD/ Issue 1/ revision 0

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolomé, R; Hatziangeli, Eugenia; Last, I; Ninin, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    This document is the output of the User Requirements phase of the project. It contains a classification of the requirements stated by the users and it will serve as a basis for the selection of a software configuration management tool and for the derivation of a software configuration management procedure for SL and ST. This document has been reviewed by the SLAPS administrators and SL/CO management .

  11. Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

  12. User Requirements for a Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Decision Support Tool to Promote Timely Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulla, Joy; Neri, Pamela M; Bates, David W; Samal, Lipika

    2017-05-01

    Timely referral of patients with CKD has been associated with cost and mortality benefits, but referrals are often done too late in the course of the disease. Clinical decision support (CDS) offers a potential solution, but interventions have failed because they were not designed to support the physician workflow. We sought to identify user requirements for a chronic kidney disease (CKD) CDS system to promote timely referral. We interviewed primary care physicians (PCPs) to identify data needs for a CKD CDS system that would encourage timely referral and also gathered information about workflow to assess risk factors for progression of CKD. Interviewees were general internists recruited from a network of 14 primary care clinics affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). We then performed a qualitative analysis to identify user requirements and system attributes for a CKD CDS system. Of the 12 participants, 25% were women, the mean age was 53 (range 37-82), mean years in clinical practice was 27 (range 11-58). We identified 21 user requirements. Seven of these user requirements were related to support for the referral process workflow, including access to pertinent information and support for longitudinal co-management. Six user requirements were relevant to PCP management of CKD, including management of risk factors for progression, interpretation of biomarkers of CKD severity, and diagnosis of the cause of CKD. Finally, eight user requirements addressed user-centered design of CDS, including the need for actionable information, links to guidelines and reference materials, and visualization of trends. These 21 user requirements can be used to design an intuitive and usable CDS system with the attributes necessary to promote timely referral. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding service user-defined continuity of care and its relationship to health and social measures: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Angela; Rose, Diana; Clement, Sarah; Jichi, Fatima; Jones, Ian Rees; Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn; Mclaren, Susan; Wykes, Til

    2012-06-08

    Despite the importance of continuity of care [COC] in contemporary mental health service provision, COC lacks a clearly agreed definition. Furthermore, whilst there is broad agreement that definitions should include service users' experiences, little is known about this. This paper aims to explore a new construct of service user-defined COC and its relationship to a range of health and social outcomes. In a cross sectional study design, 167 people who experience psychosis participated in structured interviews, including a service user-generated COC measure (CONTINU-UM) and health and social assessments. Constructs underlying CONTINU-UM were explored using factor analysis in order to understand service user-defined COC. The relationships between the total/factor CONTINU-UM scores and the health and social measures were then explored through linear regression and an examination of quartile results in order to assess whether service user-defined COC is related to outcome. Service user-defined COC is underpinned by three sub-constructs: preconditions, staff-related continuity and care contacts, although internal consistency of some sub-scales was low. High COC as assessed via CONTINU-UM, including preconditions and staff-related COC, was related to having needs met and better therapeutic alliances. Preconditions for COC were additionally related to symptoms and quality of life. COC was unrelated to empowerment and care contacts unrelated to outcomes. Service users who had experienced a hospital admission experienced higher levels of COC. A minority of service users with the poorest continuity of care also had high BPRS scores and poor quality of life. Service-user defined continuity of care is a measurable construct underpinned by three sub-constructs (preconditions, staff-related and care contacts). COC and its sub-constructs demonstrate a range of relationships with health and social measures. Clinicians have an important role to play in supporting service users to

  14. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model Users Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This user's guide describes the functions, logical operations and subroutines, input data requirements, and available outputs of the Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD), a computerized analytical life cycle cost modeling system for use in the early stages of system design. Operable in a stand-alone mode, TRAMOD can be used for the…

  15. Eliciting and Defining Requirements Based on Metaevaluation: the Case of the CRAS 2008 Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Ferneda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger (MDS regularly promotes the evaluation of its social programs, such as those developed in the Reference Centers for Social Assistance (CRAS. Such evaluations make use of a web system that supports the collection and processing of information as well as the dissemination of its results to local, regional and central government officials through the so-called CRAS Census. A meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census was carried out based on criteria specified by the Joint Committee (1994, from which we elicited requirements that enabled improvements of the web system. The article reports new requirements elicited from the meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census, held in the period 2009-2010. The approach of meta-evaluation as an alternative source of requirements elicitation took into consideration results from evaluations of social programs in order to identify system problems without the usual need of intense interaction with users. This approach revealed opportunities for improvements in the evaluation process that led to the elicitation of requirements for the computerized system. Some of the elicited features were incorporated into the Census 2010 and others may be incorporated in future censuses.

  16. Discrete Element Modeling of Asphalt Concrete Cracking Using a User-defined Tlree-dimensional Micromechanical Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; PAN Tongyan; HUANG Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    We established a user-defined micromechanical model using discrete element method (DEM) to investigate the cracking behavior of asphalt concrete (AC).Using the “Fish” language provided in the particle flow code in 3-Demensions (PFC3D),the air voids and mastics in asphalt concrete were realistically built as two distinct phases.With the irregular shape of individual aggregate particles modeled using a clump of spheres of different sizes,the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element model was able to account for aggregate gradation and fraction.Laboratory uniaxial complex modulus test and indirect tensile strength test were performed to obtain input material parameters for the numerical simulation.A set of the indirect tensile test were simulated to study the cracking behavior of AC at two levels of temperature,i e,-10 ℃ and 15 ℃.The predicted results of the numerical simulation were compared with laboratory experimental measurements.Results show that the 3D DEM model is able to predict accurately the fracture pattern of different asphalt mixtures.Based on the DEM model,the effects of air void content and aggregate volumetric fraction on the cracking behavior of asphalt concrete were evaluated.

  17. Iterative-cuts: longitudinal and scale-invariant segmentation via user-defined templates for rectosigmoid colon in gynecological brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Tobias; Egger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Among all types of cancer, gynecological malignancies belong to the fourth most frequent type of cancer among women. In addition to chemotherapy and external beam radiation, brachytherapy is the standard procedure for the treatment of these malignancies. In the progress of treatment planning, localization of the tumor as the target volume and adjacent organs of risks by segmentation is crucial to accomplish an optimal radiation distribution to the tumor while simultaneously preserving healthy tissue. Segmentation is performed manually and represents a time-consuming task in clinical daily routine. This study focuses on the segmentation of the rectum/sigmoid colon as an organ-at-risk in gynecological brachytherapy. The proposed segmentation method uses an interactive, graph-based segmentation scheme with a user-defined template. The scheme creates a directed two-dimensional graph, followed by the minimal cost closed set computation on the graph, resulting in an outlining of the rectum. The graph's outline is dynamically adapted to the last calculated cut. Evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentations of the rectum/sigmoid colon to results achieved with the proposed method. The comparison of the algorithmic to manual result yielded a dice similarity coefficient value of [Formula: see text], in comparison to [Formula: see text] for the comparison of two manual segmentations by the same physician. Utilizing the proposed methodology resulted in a median time of [Formula: see text], compared to 300 s needed for pure manual segmentation.

  18. Spectral resampling based on user-defined inter-band correlation filter: C3 and C4 grass species classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjorlolo, Clement; Mutanga, Onisimo; Cho, Moses A.; Ismail, Riyad

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a user-defined inter-band correlation filter function was used to resample hyperspectral data and thereby mitigate the problem of multicollinearity in classification analysis. The proposed resampling technique convolves the spectral dependence information between a chosen band-centre and its shorter and longer wavelength neighbours. Weighting threshold of inter-band correlation (WTC, Pearson's r) was calculated, whereby r = 1 at the band-centre. Various WTC (r = 0.99, r = 0.95 and r = 0.90) were assessed, and bands with coefficients beyond a chosen threshold were assigned r = 0. The resultant data were used in the random forest analysis to classify in situ C3 and C4 grass canopy reflectance. The respective WTC datasets yielded improved classification accuracies (kappa = 0.82, 0.79 and 0.76) with less correlated wavebands when compared to resampled Hyperion bands (kappa = 0.76). Overall, the results obtained from this study suggested that resampling of hyperspectral data should account for the spectral dependence information to improve overall classification accuracy as well as reducing the problem of multicollinearity.

  19. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  20. Understanding service user-defined continuity of care and its relationship to health and social measures: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Angela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuity of care [COC] in contemporary mental health service provision, COC lacks a clearly agreed definition. Furthermore, whilst there is broad agreement that definitions should include service users’ experiences, little is known about this. This paper aims to explore a new construct of service user-defined COC and its relationship to a range of health and social outcomes. Methods In a cross sectional study design, 167 people who experience psychosis participated in structured interviews, including a service user-generated COC measure (CONTINU-UM and health and social assessments. Constructs underlying CONTINU-UM were explored using factor analysis in order to understand service user-defined COC. The relationships between the total/factor CONTINU-UM scores and the health and social measures were then explored through linear regression and an examination of quartile results in order to assess whether service user-defined COC is related to outcome. Results Service user-defined COC is underpinned by three sub-constructs: preconditions, staff-related continuity and care contacts, although internal consistency of some sub-scales was low. High COC as assessed via CONTINU-UM, including preconditions and staff-related COC, was related to having needs met and better therapeutic alliances. Preconditions for COC were additionally related to symptoms and quality of life. COC was unrelated to empowerment and care contacts unrelated to outcomes. Service users who had experienced a hospital admission experienced higher levels of COC. A minority of service users with the poorest continuity of care also had high BPRS scores and poor quality of life. Conclusions Service-user defined continuity of care is a measurable construct underpinned by three sub-constructs (preconditions, staff-related and care contacts. COC and its sub-constructs demonstrate a range of relationships with health and social measures

  1. Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    . In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling...

  2. ITS as a data resource: Preliminary requirements for a user service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margiotta, R.

    1998-04-01

    Contents of this report are: Executive Summary; Introduction; The Need for an Archived Data User Service; Technical and Institutional Issues for Implementation; Basic Requirements; Appendix A: Summary of Recent Data Needs Identification Efforts; Appendix B: Supplemental Information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance Traffic Data Structure.

  3. 77 FR 22689 - Revisions to Authorization Validated End-User Provisions: Requirement for Notice of Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ...-User Provisions: Requirement for Notice of Export, Reexport, or Transfer (In-Country) and Clarification Regarding Termination of Conditions on VEU Authorizations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce... further proposes to amend the EAR to clarify that when items subject to item-specific conditions...

  4. Defining the Natural Atmospheric Environment Requirements for the NASA Constellation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration began developing a new vehicle under the Constellation Program to replace the Space Shuttle. The Ares-1 launch vehicle and the Orion capsule will be used to ferry crew and some payloads to the International Space Station and will also be used for new missions to the moon, As development of this new vehicle begins, the Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center has been tasked with defining the natural environments the vehicle will encounter and working with the program to develop natural environmental requirements for the vehicles' elements. An overview of the structure of the program is given, along with a description of the Constellation Design Specification for Natural Environments and the Constellation Natural Environments Definition for Design documents and how they apply to the Ares-I and Orion vehicles.

  5. How Much Feedback Is Required for TDD Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channels with User Selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Umer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enormous gains in a multi-antenna transmitter broadcast channel require the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT. Although the fundamental question "How much feedback is required for a broadcast channel?" has been treated in the literature to some extent, a more comprehensive treatment is certainly desirable. We study the time-division duplex broadcast channel with initial assumption of channel state information (CSI neither at the base station (BS nor at the users' side. We provide two transmission strategies through which the BS and the users get necessary CSI. We derive novel lower and upper bounds for the sum rate reflecting the rate loss compared to a perfect CSIT system. Corresponding approximate sum rate expressions are also developed for both schemes. These expressions fully capture the benefits of the CSIT feedback, allowing multi-user diversity gain and better inter-user interference cancellation, and the cost of exchange of information required. These expressions can be optimized for any set of system parameters to unveil the trade-off between the cost and the gains associated to feedback. Thus they allow to characterize the optimal amount of feedback which maximizes the sum rate of the broadcast channel, a well-accepted metric of system performance at the physical layer.

  6. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-12-01

    Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care.

  7. User Requirements of Furniture Influenced by a Move to a Senior Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Jonsson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available User-centred design approaches within the field of furniture design for old people involves an act of embracing and balancing various end-user needs and assessing their relative importance for the product experience. It is often assumed that older people’s physiological needs dominate their other needs. In the present study, three focus group interviews were carried out with the exploratory purpose of gaining an understanding of how people feel and think about changes when moving to and living in an apartment in senior housing, outside the housing market, and what impact this has on their opinions of furniture and other interior products. Twelve people aged 59–93 took part. The outcomes of the focus group interviews point to demands on products that support the physical, psychological and social changes that relocation and aging may bring, and correspond to an independent and self-determinant identity. User requirements related to usability and affective product experience for the design of totally new or improved products are proposed. The paper discusses the complexity in the research assignment to communicate and bring end-user knowledge and experiences to life, and suggests that designers will benefit from carrying out or being involved in user-centred research.

  8. 在 ArcToolbox 中实现用户自定义工具%Implementation of User Defined Tools in ArcToolbox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国庆; 顾钰培; 赵明瑜

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了ArcToolbox的相关概念以及在ArcToolbox中开发实现用户自定义工具的方法与技巧;并以一个常见的应用场景为例,使用Python脚本语言在ArcToolbox中实现了一个用户自定义工具;最后经实践验证,在ArcToolbox中开发实现用户自定义工具的方法能显著提高测绘生产中地理信息数据处理的效率。%This paper briefly describes the concept of ArcToolbox and the methods and tips of Implementation of User Defined Tools in ArcToolbox , and then using a common user case as an example , developing a user defined tool in ArcToolbox .As practice shows , u-sing user defined tools can notably enhance efficiency of geospatial data processing in survey and mapping .

  9. Privacy and data security in E-health: requirements from the user's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-09-01

    In this study two currently relevant aspects of using medical assistive technologies were addressed-security and privacy. In a two-step empirical approach that used focus groups (n = 19) and a survey (n = 104), users' requirements for the use of medical technologies were collected and evaluated. Specifically, we focused on the perceived importance of data security and privacy issues. Outcomes showed that both security and privacy aspects play an important role in the successful adoption of medical assistive technologies in the home environment. In particular, analysis of data with respect to gender, health-status and age (young, middle-aged and old users) revealed that females and healthy adults require, and insist on, the highest security and privacy standards compared with males and the ailing elderly.

  10. How Does the Great Firewall of China Affect Online User Behavior? Isolated 'Internets' as Culturally Defined Markets on the WWW

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    Internet access blockage is widely understood to isolate Chinese Internet users and 'balkanize' the Internet. Drawing from the literature on global cultural consumption, we question this assumption and argue that online user behavior is structured by cultural factors. We develop a framework that integrates access blockage with other structural factors to explain web users' choices. Analyzing online audience traffic among the 1000 most visited websites globally, we find that websites cluster according to language and geography. Chinese websites constitute one cluster, which resembles other such geo-linguistic clusters in terms of both its composition and degree of isolation. Our study demonstrates that cultural proximity has a greater role than access blockage in shaping people's web usage. It also calls for sociological investigation of the impact of Internet blockage.

  11. USTOPIA Requirements -- Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Diepen, N.W.P.; Koster, C.H.A.; Partsch, H.A.; Völker, N.

    1992-01-01

    E.A. Boiten , http://adam.fwi.uva.nl/~markvdb/ , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/niekd.html , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/kees.html , http://www.informatik.uni-ulm.de/pm/mitarbeiter/helmuth.html & http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/DVT/Mitarbeiter/voelker.html : USTOPIA Requirements - Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto Transformational programming is a program development method which is usually...

  12. USTOPIA Requirements -- Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Diepen, N.W.P. van; Koster, C.H.A.; Partsch, H.A.; Völker, N.

    1992-01-01

    E.A. Boiten , http://adam.fwi.uva.nl/~markvdb/ , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/niekd.html , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/kees.html , http://www.informatik.uni-ulm.de/pm/mitarbeiter/helmuth.html & http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/DVT/Mitarbeiter/voelker.html : USTOPIA Requirements - Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto Transformational programming is a program development method which is usually...

  13. Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web-Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web -Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking Shadi Ghajar-Khosravi...Conclusion A web -based collaborative sensemaking system is proposed to support the user tasks involved in the Intelligence Cycle of Canadian Forces...parentheses after the title.) Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web -Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking 4

  14. Characterization of users of remotely-sensed data in the Alabama coastal zone. [user requirements, surveys - technology utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittor, B. A. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Federal, State, local, universities and private companies were polled to determine their needs for remote sensing data. A total of 62 users were polled. Poll results are given in tables. A comprehensive research program was developed to satisfy user needs, and is examined for the disciplines of Geology, Water Resources, Archaeology, Geography, and Conservation. An investigation of silt plume discharge from Mobile Bay is also examined. Sample poll forms used in the surveys are shown.

  15. Versions in the lifecycle of academic papers user requirements and guidelins fo digital repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    An academic research paper evolves through various stages during its lifecycle, for example from early conference presentation through working paper to final published refereed journal article. Different versions can co-exist in publicly available electronic form. Finding out researchers’ attitudes towards storing, labelling and making accessible these different versions, both of their own and of their peers’ work is at the heart of the VERSIONS Project, funded by the JISC under the Digital Repositories Programme. The project addresses the issues and uncertainties relating to versions of academic papers in digital repositories. By including a user requirements study, the project will clarify the needs of researchers and other stakeholders for deposit, storage and accessibility of different versions in the lifecycle of a digital resource. In addition to looking at user needs, the project will analyse researchers’ current practice in terms of retention of author copies of their own material. This investig...

  16. Beware of Geeks Bearing Gifts - Are we Meeting the Requirements of our User Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.

    2007-12-01

    The 20th century brought about an "information revolution" that has forever altered the way we work, communicate, and live. The way science has been conducted for the past 200 years has been challenged by new media of communication and for the dissemination of data. We now have the tools at hand, commonly called cyberinfrastructure, that enable new forms of global collaboration. But are we fully realising the potential of cyberinfrastructure? Has it become an integral part of our scientific culture? Tools developed in Earth and Space Science Informatics projects suffer the same effects like informatics developments in other fields. Many of the projects fail to meet user requirements, and they do so for a number of reasons. Besides a certain reluctance on the side of scientists to adopt new tools for conducting their research, many cyberinfrastructure projects suffer from "marketing myopia" (Levitt, 1960) in the way they try to "sell" their applications. According to Levitt, the difference between selling and marketing is that the former fulfils the needs of the seller and the latter the needs of the buyer. Cyberinfrastructure projects must stop trying to sell their achievements to the scientific community, and instead market them by considering the scientists" needs right at the beginning of their endeavours. Admittedly, the requirements of scientific user communities are "moving targets", because scientific workflows are often subject to ad-hoc changes, depending on the outcome of the preceding step. Another important risk factor, faced by many cyberinfrastructure projects, is that the designated user community is not aware of the availability of this new resource. This is where training and outreach are essential, especially to draw in early adopters of new technology and multipliers among researchers. Only cyberinfrastructure tools that truly serve their designated user community will eventually become part of the scientific infrastructure. This presentation

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network for Hospital Security: From User Requirements to Pilot Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaseva Ville

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications require low network delays. However, current research on WSNs has mainly concentrated on optimizing energy-efficiency omitting low network delays. This paper presents a novel WSN design targeted at applications requiring low data transfer delays and high reliability. We present the whole design flow from user requirements to an actual pilot deployment in a real hospital unit. The WSN includes multihop low-delay data transfer and energy-efficient mobile nodes reaching lifetime of years with small batteries. The nodes communicate using a low-cost low-power 2.4 GHz radio. The network is used in a security application with which personnel can send alarms in threatening situations. Also, a multitude of sensor measurements and actuator control is possible with the WSN. A full-scale pilot deployment is extensively experimented for performance results. Currently, the pilot network is in use at the hospital.

  18. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. [ed.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG&G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  19. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M. (ed.); Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  20. 3D virtual world remote laboratory to assist in designing advanced user defined DAQ systems based on FlexRIO and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpeño, A., E-mail: antonio.cruiz@upm.es [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Contreras, D.; López, S.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Arcas, G. de; Esquembri, S. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Assist in the design of FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO. • Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios. • Virtual actions simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process. • Virtual actions can make real changes remotely in the physical ITER’s Fast Controller. - Abstract: iRIO-3DLab is a platform devised to assist developers in the design and implementation of intelligent and reconfigurable FPGA-based data acquisition systems using EPICS and FlexRIO technologies. Although these architectures are very powerful in defining the behavior of DAQ systems, this advantage comes at the price of greater difficulty in understanding how the system works, and how it should be configured and built according to the hardware available and the processing demanded by the requirements of the diagnostics. In this regard, Virtual Reality technologies are highly effective at creating rich training scenarios due to their ability to provide immersive training experiences and collaborative environments. The designed remote laboratory is based on a 3D virtual world developed in Opensim, which is accessible through a standard free 3D viewer. Using a client-server architecture, the virtual world connects with a service running in a Linux-based computer executing EPICS. Through their avatars, users interact with virtual replicas of this equipment as they would in real-life situations. Some actions can be used to simulate the behavior of a real system to enhance the training process, while others can be used to make real changes remotely in the physical system.

  1. The GEOSS User Requirement Registry (URR): A Cross-Cutting Service-Oriented Infrastructure Linking Science, Society and GEOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.-P.; Foley, G.; Jules-Plag, S.; Ondich, G.; Kaufman, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as a user-driven service infrastructure responding to the needs of users in nine interdependent Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of Earth observations (EOs). GEOSS applies an interdisciplinary scientific approach integrating observations, research, and knowledge in these SBAs in order to enable scientific interpretation of the collected observations and the extraction of actionable information. Using EOs to actually produce these societal benefits means getting the data and information to users, i.e., decision-makers. Thus, GEO needs to know what the users need and how they would use the information. The GEOSS User Requirements Registry (URR) is developed as a service-oriented infrastructure enabling a wide range of users, including science and technology (S&T) users, to express their needs in terms of EOs and to understand the benefits of GEOSS for their fields. S&T communities need to be involved in both the development and the use of GEOSS, and the development of the URR accounts for the special needs of these communities. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) at the core of GEOSS includes system-oriented registries enabling users to discover, access, and use EOs and derived products and services available through GEOSS. In addition, the user-oriented URR is a place for the collection, sharing, and analysis of user needs and EO requirements, and it provides means for an efficient dialog between users and providers. The URR is a community-based infrastructure for the publishing, viewing, and analyzing of user-need related information. The data model of the URR has a core of seven relations for User Types, Applications, Requirements, Research Needs, Infrastructure Needs, Technology Needs, and Capacity Building Needs. The URR also includes a Lexicon, a number of controlled vocabularies, and

  2. Educational Requirements for Mobile Applications in Nursing: Applying the User-Task-Context Matrix to Identify User Classes and Contexts of Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Turner, Paul; Kaipio, Johanna; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications are increasingly being deployed in healthcare and nurses are expected to use them during their education, practice and during training of patients. In this paper we describe how an approach to modelling user needs known as the user-task-context matrix has been applied to help guide in developing requirements for new mobile applications as well as for selecting applications to be used in different aspects of nursing and patient education. The approach involves first brainstorming the different classes of users of an application and then specifying possible tasks the application can be used for. In addition, different contexts of use of the application are then specified. Application of the method is described for improving understanding of user needs in both design and procurement of healthcare apps related to nursing education.

  3. 78 FR 32581 - Tobacco Products, User Fees, Requirements for the Submission of Data Needed To Calculate User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx.

  5. Big Data in Healthcare - Defining the Digital Persona through User Contexts from the Micro to the Macro. Contribution of the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues WG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, C E; Monkman, H; Petersen, C; Weber, J; Borycki, E M; Adams, S; Collins, S

    2014-08-15

    While big data offers enormous potential for improving healthcare delivery, many of the existing claims concerning big data in healthcare are based on anecdotal reports and theoretical vision papers, rather than scientific evidence based on empirical research. Historically, the implementation of health information technology has resulted in unintended consequences at the individual, organizational and social levels, but these unintended consequences of collecting data have remained unaddressed in the literature on big data. The objective of this paper is to provide insights into big data from the perspective of people, social and organizational considerations. We draw upon the concept of persona to define the digital persona as the intersection of data, tasks and context for different user groups. We then describe how the digital persona can serve as a framework to understanding sociotechnical considerations of big data implementation. We then discuss the digital persona in the context of micro, meso and macro user groups across the 3 Vs of big data. We provide insights into the potential benefits and challenges of applying big data approaches to healthcare as well as how to position these approaches to achieve health system objectives such as patient safety or patient-engaged care delivery. We also provide a framework for defining the digital persona at a micro, meso and macro level to help understand the user contexts of big data solutions. While big data provides great potential for improving healthcare delivery, it is essential that we consider the individual, social and organizational contexts of data use when implementing big data solutions.

  6. User-centered requirements engineering in health information systems: a study in the hemophilia field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2012-06-01

    The use of sophisticated information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health care domain is a way to improve the quality of services. However, there are also hazards associated with the introduction of ICTs in this domain and a great number of projects have failed due to the lack of systematic consideration of human and other non-technology issues throughout the design or implementation process, particularly in the requirements engineering process. This paper presents the methodological approach followed in the design process of a web-based information system (WbIS) for managing the clinical information in hemophilia care, which integrates the values and practices of user-centered design (UCD) activities into the principles of software engineering, particularly in the phase of requirements engineering (RE). This process followed a paradigm that combines a grounded theory for data collection with an evolutionary design based on constant development and refinement of the generic domain model using three well-known methodological approaches: (a) object-oriented system analysis; (b) task analysis; and, (c) prototyping, in a triangulation work. This approach seems to be a good solution for the requirements engineering process in this particular case of the health care domain, since the inherent weaknesses of individual methods are reduced, and emergent requirements are easier to elicit. Moreover, the requirements triangulation matrix gives the opportunity to look across the results of all used methods and decide what requirements are critical for the system success.

  7. Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager: a discussion on user requirements and instrument features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, D.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Melfi, D.; Laquale, P.; Labate, D.

    2009-04-01

    For the next generation of earth observation geostationary satellite, major operating agencies are planning to insert an optical imaging mission, that continuously observes lightning pulses in the atmosphere; EUMETSAT has decided at the end of 2008 that one of the mission to be flown on MTG is LI, a Lightning Imager. The Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica recently hosted a fellowship sponsored by Selex Galileo, with the intent to study and perform a simulation of Meteosat Third Generation - Lightning Imager (MTG-LI) sensor behavior through Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Lightning Imaging Sensor data (TRMM-LIS). MTG-LI mission has no Meteosat Second Generation heritage, but users need to evaluate the possible real time data output of the instrument to agree in inserting it on MTG payload. Authors took the expected LI design from MTG Mission Requirement Document, and reprocess real lightning dataset, acquired from space by TRMM-LIS instrument, to produce a simulated MTG-LI lightning dataset. The simulation is performed in several run, varying Minimum Detectable Energy, taking into account processing steps from event detection to final lightning information. A discussion on user requirements and instrument features is presented.

  8. User RF requirements for a Ka-band data relay satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Aleman, Roberto M.

    1989-01-01

    The user G/T and EIRP requirements were determined for a data relay satellite link consisting of a forward link to 360 Mbps at 23 GHz and a return link to 2 Gbps at 26.5 GHz. Hardware for this data link would be a modular expansion to the NASA Data Link Module. Calculations were based on a data relay satellite model of predetermined characteristics patterned after the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). The desired data rates could be achieved with a G/T of 21.7 dB/deg K (forward link) and an EIRP of 68.2 dBW (return link) for the user satellite. Hardware configurations meeting these requirements are discussed in terms of RF performance, efficiency, reliability, and modular flexibility. A planar array configuration emerges as the logical candidate for most NASA missions. Pertinent Ka-band technology and certain ongoing research efforts are reviewed. Areas of particular interest include new power device families, 0.25-micron low-noise HEMT technology, and fiber optic distribution and control of RF arrays.

  9. The implications of user requirements for the functionality and content of a future EGDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Tulstrup, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    The FP7 co-funded EGDI-Scope project is conducting analyses, which forms the basis for the development of an implementation plan for a future European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) the aim of which will be to serve pan-European geological information from the European geological survey organisations. An important aspect of the project has been to consult stakeholders in order to deduce requirements, which is a fundamental prerequisite for making recommendations on the content and technical design of the system. It is indisputable that EGDI will have to build on international standards such as OGC and CGI and take into account legislative requirements from e.g. the INSPIRE directive. This will support the tasks of data providers and facilitate integration with other e-Infrastructures, but will not in itself lever the end user experiences. In order to make the future EGDI a successful online contributor of geological information, EGDI-Scope has therefore been looking very concretely into the needs and expectations of various user groups Most people have clear expectations anno 2014. They want to be able to search the web for information, and once found, they expect fast-performing, intuitive web applications with buttons to click, maps to navigate and reliable content to fulfil their immediate needs. In order for the EGDI to handle such requirements, a number of use cases for various thematic areas have been assessed. The use cases reveal (for example) that information about the geological composition of the ground is critical for the assessment of things like ecosystems or ground water quality. But where ecosystem assessment relies on the composition of the surface layers, groundwater geochemistry rely on the lithology of subsurface layers. For both scenarios, harmonised, pan-European geological maps are very important, but the harmonisation should not only relate to lithological classes, but also to the depth representation. The use cases also make clear

  10. Calculating the thermodynamic properties of burnt gas and vapor fuel for user-defined fuels; Berechnung der thermodynamischen Stoffwerte von Rauchgas und Kraftstoffdampf beliebiger Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grill, M.; Chiodi, M.; Berner, H.J. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS) (Germany); Bargende, M. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS) (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen

    2007-05-15

    For real working-process simulations it is essential to know the caloric properties of the working fluid, such as the specific enthalpy and the real gas constant. When using standard-fuels there are established models which describe the caloric variables as functions of temperature, air/fuel-ratio and pressure. In each case, these models were developed for a certain fuel composition and their application to alternative fuels is limited or not valid at all. Thus, an approach is discussed, which is valid for any user-defined fuel. (orig.)

  11. User requirements for geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data in a web-based virtual globe environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovcheva, Zornitza; van Elzakker, Corné P J M; Köbben, Barend

    2013-11-01

    Web-based tools developed in the last couple of years offer unique opportunities to effectively support scientists in their effort to collaborate. Communication among environmental researchers often involves not only work with geographical (spatial), but also with temporal data and information. Literature still provides limited documentation when it comes to user requirements for effective geo-collaborative work with spatio-temporal data. To start filling this gap, our study adopted a User-Centered Design approach and first explored the user requirements of environmental researchers working on distributed research projects for collaborative dissemination, exchange and work with spatio-temporal data. Our results show that system design will be mainly influenced by the nature and type of data users work with. From the end-users' perspective, optimal conversion of huge files of spatio-temporal data for further dissemination, accuracy of conversion, organization of content and security have a key role for effective geo-collaboration.

  12. Concept Paper : Defining wetland water requirements and evaporative rates relative to the Lahontan Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The calculations in this report are to determine average surface water requirements are for planning purposes and are not intended to represent actual Lahontan...

  13. Using the critical incident technique to define a minimal data set for requirements elicitation in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvingson, Christina; Hallberg, Niklas; Timpka, Toomas; Greenes, Robert A

    2002-12-18

    The introduction of computer-based information systems (ISs) in public health provides enhanced possibilities for service improvements and hence also for improvement of the population's health. Not least, new communication systems can help in the socialization and integration process needed between the different professions and geographical regions. Therefore, development of ISs that truly support public health practices require that technical, cognitive, and social issues be taken into consideration. A notable problem is to capture 'voices' of all potential users, i.e., the viewpoints of different public health practitioners. Failing to capture these voices will result in inefficient or even useless systems. The aim of this study is to develop a minimal data set for capturing users' voices on problems experienced by public health professionals in their daily work and opinions about how these problems can be solved. The issues of concern thus captured can be used both as the basis for formulating the requirements of ISs for public health professionals and to create an understanding of the use context. Further, the data can help in directing the design to the features most important for the users.

  14. User-defined shortcut key in the AutoCAD to efficiently draw%AutoCAD自定义快捷键高效绘图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥正皆; 石仲华

    2013-01-01

    Analyses the way of efficiently draw by the user-defined shortcut key of the AutoCAD as well as the methods and steps to define the shortcut keys and examples the keys that used in the two dimension drawing.It has some referential for the drawing by AutoCAD software.%分析了AutoCAD用户使用自定义快捷键能提高绘图效率的原因,阐述了自定义快捷键的方法和步骤,并给出二维绘图时自定义的快捷键实例,对使用AutoCAD软件绘图有一定参考意义.

  15. Defining System Requirements: a critical assessment of the Niam conceptual design procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Darke

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements definition is a fundamental activity within information systems development. Social and organisational issues are at the centre of many of the problems experienced during the development and implementation of information systems, and these need to be explored during requirements definition. The NIAM Conceptual Schema Design Procedure (CSDP is a method for identifying and describing information requirements using fact types. This paper discusses some limitations of the information requirements definition step of the CSDP which result from its lack of focus on the socio-organisational dimension of information systems development. Four different approaches to exploring the socio-organisational contexts of systems are discussed. It is proposed that one of these, viewpoint development, be incorporated into the NIAM CSDP to provide a means of exploring and understanding a system's socio organisational context and to ensure that contextual information is a major input to the requirements definition process. This results in an enhanced design procedure. Future and current research areas are identified.

  16. Needs Assessment to Define the Training Requirements for a Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP) Curriculum Development. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    NA H lA NAIJ T AP!, - 747. . . - .r>.r-- .rr- Lfl * NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO DEFINE THE TRAINI1C REZUIRME~S FOR A t BASIC SKIIlS EDUCATION PRORAM CBSEP...8217 s. He."she must possess good speaking and hond ,rlting skills to communicate effectively oraily ’ ar.d in written. Some basic math skills are required

  17. GMES and Down-stream Services Following User Requirements: Examples on Regional And Coastal Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noehren, I.; Breitbach, G.; Schroeder, F.

    2012-04-01

    MyOcean as part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) services provides information on the state of the oceans on a regular basis. The products are delivered on a global as well as on a regional scale like EU, covering the physical state of the ocean and primary ecosystem parameters. For local or coastal scales these Core Services very often do not meet the requirements of the potential end-user who needs information on e. g. marine safety, oil spills, marine resources and coastal management. For these local information needs Downstream Services derived from GMES Core Services, e.g. MyOcean products, but also directly from observation infrastructure are necessary. With Cosyna (Coastal Observation System for Northern and Arctic Seas) a national project between MyOcean and downstream services is established. The core of the project is an integrated pre-operational observation system which combines in-situ observations and remote sensing procedures with numerical models to obtain synoptic data sets of the southern North Sea and make basic infrastructure and continuous data available to the scientific community. The network provides intermediate products in terms of quality-assured time series and maps with high temporal and spatial resolution; end-users might produce their own end products. Integrated products cover processed information based on a combination of different observations and models, accompanied by instructions of use and optionally by interpretations. To enhance operational services in coastal areas improved forecasts with coupled models and data assimilation are developed in the EC funded FIELD_AC project (Fluxes, Interactions and Environment at the Land-Ocean Boundary. Downscaling, Assimilation and Coupling). The application area of the German partner is the German Bight. By means of a strong interaction with the Cosyna observational network main emphasis is laid on the user needs (e.g. of national agencies, coastal and harbour

  18. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  19. Defining cosQ, the site required for termination of bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczorek, D J; Feiss, M

    2001-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a double-stranded DNA virus that processes concatemeric DNA into virion chromosomes by cutting at specific recognition sites termed cos. A cos is composed of three subsites: cosN, the nicking site; cosB, required for packaging initiation; and cosQ, required for termination of chromosome packaging. During packaging termination, nicking of the bottom strand of cosN depends on cosQ, suggesting that cosQ is needed to deliver terminase to the bottom strand of cosN to carry ...

  20. User requirements for a practice-integrated nurse-administered online communication service for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Borosund, Elin; Varsi, Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of participatory design methods in the development of a nurse-administered online patient-provider communication (OPPC) service that is designed to be integrated into routine clinical practice. The OPPC service let patients stay connected with expert nurses and other health care providers to ask questions and receive advice from home. Through focus groups, workshops, heuristic evaluations and usability testing, we identified patients' and clinicians' (nurses' and physicians') user requirements, factors important for successful adoption, implementation and maintenance of the OPPC service, and usability. This paper shares important insights from these participatory design processes that may be helpful for other researchers who wish to implement clinical applications into routine practice.

  1. Defining cosQ, the site required for termination of bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, D J; Feiss, M

    2001-06-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a double-stranded DNA virus that processes concatemeric DNA into virion chromosomes by cutting at specific recognition sites termed cos. A cos is composed of three subsites: cosN, the nicking site; cosB, required for packaging initiation; and cosQ, required for termination of chromosome packaging. During packaging termination, nicking of the bottom strand of cosN depends on cosQ, suggesting that cosQ is needed to deliver terminase to the bottom strand of cosN to carry out nicking. In the present work, saturation mutagenesis showed that a 7-bp segment comprises cosQ. A proposal that cosQ function requires an optimal sequence match between cosQ and cosNR, the right cosN half-site, was tested by constructing double cosQ mutants; the behavior of the double mutants was inconsistent with the proposal. Substitutions in the 17-bp region between cosQ and cosN resulted in no major defects in chromosome packaging. Insertional mutagenesis indicated that proper spacing between cosQ and cosN is required. The lethality of integral helical insertions eliminated a model in which DNA looping enables cosQ to deliver a gpA protomer for nicking at cosN. The 7 bp of cosQ coincide exactly with the recognition sequence for the Escherichia coli restriction endonuclease, EcoO109I.

  2. Study on user-defined macro technology in tool integration%工具集成中自定义宏技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖娜; 张建华

    2012-01-01

    A method named user-defined macro based on message stimulation is presented to integrate tools which don't provide the interface and source code effectively in tool integration. The message simulation technology dependent on effective operation is analyzed in detail. Then an architecture to generate and execute the user-defined macro was designed.%在工具集成中存在一些未提供接口和源代码的工具,为了对这些工具进行有效集成,提出了一种基于消息模拟的自定义宏方法.在对依赖于有效操作的消息模拟技术做了详细的分析之后,设计了自定义宏的生成和执行架构,也可应用于如教学自动演示及计算机使用情况监控等领域.

  3. The design of user-defined CRM software based on Android%基于Android的自定制CRM软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑胜龙; 姚铮; 陈从华

    2015-01-01

    To shorten the development process of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software, improve the maintenance of system and capability of upgrading, a design method of User-defined interface based on Android system is presented. Control the process steps, activities, flows by JavaScript language, the parsing engines of User-defined interface was constructed, and the customized functions control by server configuration is implemented. The result show that the method can effective reduce the CRM's design crystal, to be rather sophisticated customized CRM soft rapidly in a short time.%为了缩短CRM软件的开发进程,提高软件的后台升级和维护能力,提出了一种基于Android系统的自定义界面的设计方法.采用JavaScript脚本语言控制流程步骤、表单元数据间的数据逻辑,建立自定义表单界面解析引擎,实现了CRM软件的自定义功能模版由中心后台配置管理. 分析结果表明, 该设计方法能够有效地缩短软件的研发周期,帮助开发者快速地按需定制较为成熟的CRM软件原型.

  4. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Capellera-Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs. We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development.

  5. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellera-Garcia, Sandra; Pulecio, Julian; Dhulipala, Kishori; Siva, Kavitha; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Singbrant, Sofie; Sommarin, Mikael N E; Walkley, Carl R; Soneji, Shamit; Karlsson, Göran; Raya, Ángel; Sankaran, Vijay G; Flygare, Johan

    2016-06-14

    Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC) development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs). We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM) can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development.

  6. Defining risk of prescription opioid overdose: pharmacy shopping and overlapping prescriptions among long-term opioid users in medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuo; Wilsey, Barth; Bohm, Michele; Weyrich, Meghan; Roy, Kakoli; Ritley, Dominique; Jones, Christopher; Melnikow, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Use of multiple pharmacies concurrently (pharmacy shopping) and overlapping prescriptions may be indicators of potential misuse or abuse of prescription opioid medications. To evaluate strategies for identifying patients at high risk, we first compared different definitions of pharmacy shopping and then added the indicator of overlapping opioid prescriptions. We identified a cohort of 90,010 Medicaid enrollees who used ≥ 3 opioid prescriptions for ≥ 90 days during 2008 to 2010 from a multistate Medicaid claims database. We compared the diagnostic odds ratios for opioid overdose events of 9 pharmacy shopping definitions. Within a 90-day interval, a threshold of 4 pharmacies had the highest diagnostic odds ratio and was used to define pharmacy shopping. The overdose rate was higher in the subgroup with overlapping prescriptions (18.5 per 1,000 person-years [PYs]) than in the subgroup with pharmacy shopping as the sole indicator (10.7 per 1,000 PYs). Among the subgroup with both conditions, the overdose rate was 26.3 per 1,000 PYs, compared with 4.3 per 1,000 PYs for those with neither condition. Overlapping opioid prescriptions and pharmacy shopping measures had adjusted hazard ratios of 3.0 and 1.8, respectively, for opioid overdose. Using these measures will improve accurate identification of patients at highest risk of opioid overdose, the first step in implementing targeted prevention policies. Long-term prescription opioid use may lead to adverse events, including overdose. Both pharmacy shopping and overlapping opioid prescriptions are associated with adverse outcomes. This study demonstrates that using both indicators will better identify those at high risk of overdose. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. User Requirements Analysis For Digital Library Application Using Quality Function Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Lily; Sularto, Lana; Yusnitasari, Tristyanti; Ikasari, Diana

    2017-03-01

    This study attemp to build Smart Digital Library to be used by the wider community wherever they are. The system is built in the form of Smart Digital Library portal which uses semantic similarity method (Semantic Similarity) to search journals, articles or books by title or author name. This method is also used to determine the recommended books to be read by visitors of Smart Digital Library based on testimony from a previous reader automatically. Steps being taken in the development of Smart Digital Library system is the analysis phase, design phase, testing and implementation phase. At this stage of the analysis using WebQual for the preparation of the instruments to be distributed to the respondents and the data obtained from the respondents will be processed using Quality Function Deployment. In the analysis phase has the purpose of identifying consumer needs and technical requirements. The analysis was performed to a digital library on the web digital library Gunadarma University, Bogor Institute of Agriculture, University of Indonesia, etc. The questionnaire was distributed to 200 respondents. The research methodology begins with the collection of user requirements and analyse it using QFD. Application design is funded by the government through a program of Featured Universities Research by the Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI). Conclusions from this research are identified which include the Consumer Requirements of digital library application. The elements of the consumers requirements consists of 13 elements and 25 elements of Engineering Characteristics digital library requirements. Therefore the design of digital library applications that will be built, is designed according to the findings by eliminating features that are not needed by restaurant based on QFD House of Quality.

  8. Requirements for the successful market adoption of adaptive user interfaces for accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Peissner, Matthias; Schuller, Andreas; Ziegler, Daniel; Knecht, Christian; Zimmermann, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    The concept of adaptive user interfaces is a promising solution for providing users with a wide range of individual needs with accessible technology. Developers only have to implement one generic solution to offer a multitude of individually optimised concrete user interfaces. Whereas a lot of technical functionalities and characteristics of adaptive user interfaces are already solved, there is still no widespread market adoption of adaptive UI technologies. This paper presents a collection o...

  9. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H.-J.

    1976-01-01

    The modeling process of a complex system, based on the calculation and optimization of the system parameters, is complicated in that some parameters can be expressed only as probability distributions. In the present paper, a Monte Carlo technique was used to determine the daily range requirements of an electric road vehicle in the United States from probability distributions of trip lengths, frequencies, and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a daily range of 82 miles meets to 95% of the car-owner requirements at all times with the exception of long vacation trips. Further, it is shown that the requirement of a daily range of 82 miles can be met by a (intermediate-level) battery technology characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 Watt-hours per pound. Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. These results imply that long-term research goals for battery systems should be focused on lower cost and longer service life, rather than on higher energy densities

  10. User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Robinson, P.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement.

  11. Defining the metabolic requirements for the growth and colonization capacity of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreuter, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. This facultative intracellular pathogen is a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and requires microaerobic atmosphere and nutrient rich media for efficient proliferation in vitro. Its catabolic capacity is highly restricted in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium and other enteropathogenic bacteria because several common pathways for carbohydrate utilization are either missing or incomplete. Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant. Moreover, C. jejuni is tremendously successful in competing with the human intestinal microbiota; an infectious dose of few hundreds bacteria is sufficient to overcome the colonization resistance of humans and can lead to campylobacteriosis. Besides the importance and clear clinical manifestation of this disease, the pathogenesis mechanisms of C. jejuni infections are still poorly understood. In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. Because C. jejuni harbors distinct properties in establishing an infection in comparison to pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, it represents an excellent organism for elucidating new aspects of the dynamic interaction and metabolic cross talk between a bacterial pathogen, the microbiota and the host.

  12. Requirements on the LWFA electron beam for the user-oriented photon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodozhentsev, Alexander; Přibyl, Lukáš; Korn, Georg; Winkler, Paul; Maier, Andreas R.

    2017-05-01

    The laser-driven Undulator X-ray source (LUX) is designed to be a user beamline providing ultra-short EUV photon pulses with a central wavelength tuneable in the range of 0.4 to 4.5 nm and a peak brilliance of up to 1021 photons/(s.mrad2.mm2.0.1% B.W.), which makes this source comparable with modern synchrotron sources. The source shall provide a focal spot size well below 10 μm and a range of auxiliary beams for complex pump-and-probe experiments and it is also an important experimental milestone towards a future laser driven Free Electron Laser. Unique femtosecond nature of the laser-plasma electron acceleration in combination with extremely small transverse emittance of the electron beam is the major advantage of the LWFA technique. Preservation of the electron beam quality is a complicated task for a dedicated electron beam line, which has to be designed to transport the electron beam from the LWFA source up to the undulator. In this report we discuss main requirements on the LWFA source and the electron beam optics of the LUX source and solutions to produce required quality photon beam in the undulator and we also discuss the effect of realistic setup parameters on the quality of the electron beam in the undulator within the range of systematic errors.

  13. Renewable energy data requirements: A review of user opinions and data collection efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G.G.

    1991-11-01

    Interest in the contribution of renewable energy to US energy supply is growing. This interest stems from environmental and energy security concerns and the desire to develop domestic resources. In order to plan for the use of renewable energy, data are essential to a variety of users both inside and outside the government. The purpose of this study is to identify priorities and requirements for gathering different types of renewable energy data. Results of this study are to be used by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), in planning and evaluating its ongoing and future renewable energy information programs. The types of renewable energy addressed in this study include biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and crops grown for energy), municipal solid waste, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind. To assess the relative importance of different types of information, we reviewed existing renewable energy data collection efforts and asked the opinions of renewable energy data users. Individuals in government, private industry, research organizations, industry trade associations, and public interest research groups were contacted and questioned about particular renewable energy data items. An analysis of their responses provides the basis for the conclusions in this report. The types of information; about which we asked each respondent included resource stock and flow information; quantities of energy inputs (e.g., wood) and outputs (e.g., electricity, heat); energy input and output costs and prices; numbers, location, and production capacities of energy conversion facilities; quantities and costs of energy conversion equipment; and quantities of pollutant emissions from energy conversion. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  14. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  15. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation process was used to develop the U.S. daily range requirements for an electric vehicle from probability distributions of trip lengths and frequencies and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a car in the U.S. with a practical daily range of 82 miles (132 km) can meet the needs of the owner on 95% of the days of the year, or at all times other than his long vacation trips. Increasing the range of the vehicle beyond this point will not make it more useful to the owner because it will still not provide intercity transportation. A daily range of 82 miles can be provided by an intermediate battery technology level characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 watt-hours per pound (66 to 110 W-hr/kg). Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. The implication of these results for the research goals of far-term battery systems suggests a shift in emphasis toward lower cost and greater life and away from high energy density.

  16. The USEtox story: A survey of model developer visions and user requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Torbjørn Bochsen; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , we analyzed user expectations and experiences and compared them with the developers’ visions. Methods We applied qualitative and quantitative data collection methods including an online questionnaire, semistructured user and developer interviews, and review of scientific literature. Questionnaire...... in LCA and to provide global guidance for practitioners. Model developers show different perceptions of some underlying aspects including model transparency and expected user expertise. Users from various sectors and geographic regions apply USEtox mostly in research and for consulting. Questionnaire...... that understanding interactions between USEtox and its users helps guiding model development and dissemination. USEtox-specific recommendations are to (1) respect the application context for different user types, (2) provide detailed guidance for interpreting model and factors, (3) facilitate consistent integration...

  17. Model Based User's Access Requirement Analysis of E-Governance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shilpi; Jeon, Seung-Hwan; Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    The strategic and contemporary importance of e-governance has been recognized across the world. In India too, various ministries of Govt. of India and State Governments have taken e-governance initiatives to provide e-services to citizens and the business they serve. To achieve the mission objectives, and make such e-governance initiatives successful it would be necessary to improve the trust and confidence of the stakeholders. It is assumed that the delivery of government services will share the same public network information that is being used in the community at large. In particular, the Internet will be the principal means by which public access to government and government services will be achieved. To provide the security measures main aim is to identify user's access requirement for the stakeholders and then according to the models of Nath's approach. Based on this analysis, the Govt. can also make standards of security based on the e-governance models. Thus there will be less human errors and bias. This analysis leads to the security architecture of the specific G2C application.

  18. Accessible Capacity of Secondary Users

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao; Lin, Lei; Bai, Baoming

    2010-01-01

    A new problem formulation is presented for the Gaussian interference channels (GIFC) with two pairs of users, which are distinguished as primary users and secondary users, respectively. The primary users employ a pair of encoder and decoder that were originally designed to satisfy a given error performance requirement under the assumption that no interference exists from other users. In the case when the secondary users attempt to access the same medium, we are interested in the maximum transmission rate (defined as {\\em accessible capacity}) at which secondary users can communicate reliably without affecting the error performance requirement by the primary users under the constraint that the primary encoder (not the decoder) is kept unchanged. By modeling the primary encoder as a generalized trellis code (GTC), we are then able to treat the secondary link as a finite state channel (FSC). The relation of the accessible capacity to the capacity region of the GIFC is revealed. Upper and lower bounds on the acce...

  19. El producto de la atención primaria definido por profesionales y usuarios Primary health care product defined by health professionals and users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Pujol Ribera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Definir los componentes del producto de la atención primaria de salud (APS a partir de las opiniones de profesionales y usuarios, para establecer indicadores de evaluación. Métodos: Estudio con metodología cualitativa, con técnicas grupales: grupo nominal (profesionales y grupos focales (usuarios. Ámbito de realización: APS de Catalunya. Se realizaron 7 grupos: a médicos de familia y pediatras; b enfermeras y trabajadoras sociales; c personal de la unidad de admisión y atención al usuario; d otros médicos especialistas; e usuarios, y f gestores, farmacéuticos y farmacólogos y técnicos de salud. Los participantes respondieron a la pregunta: «Respecto a los servicios que debería ofrecer la APS, ¿cuáles son los aspectos que se deberían valorar?». Se realizó un análisis de contenido. Los datos textuales se descompusieron en unidades, posteriormente agrupadas en categorías, siguiendo el criterio de analogía. Se tuvo en cuenta el contexto de interpretación del equipo investigador. Resultados: Profesionales y usuarios identifican 4 dimensiones del producto de la APS, coincidentes con sus atributos básicos: a accesibilidad a los servicios; b coordinación y continuidad del equipo de APS con otros niveles asistenciales; c relación entre profesionales y usuarios, y d calidad científico-técnica de los equipos de atención primaria y cartera de servicios. Equidad, satisfacción y eficiencia aparecen en los discursos como ejes transversales de todos los componentes del producto identificados. Conclusión: Hay una gran coincidencia en la definición del producto entre profesionales y usuarios. La relación profesional-paciente aparece como un elemento clave en todos los grupos. Estas 4 dimensiones deberían formar parte de la evaluación de los equipos de APS.Objective: To identify the components of the primary health care (PHC product defined by health professionals and users in order to establish indicators for

  20. The USEtox story: A survey of model developer visions and user requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Torbjørn Bochsen; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    expertise to integrate sound revision and update procedures and to facilitate modularity, data import/export, and incorporation into relevant software and databases during model design and development. Our fully documented approach can inspire performing similar surveys on other LCA-related tools......, we analyzed user expectations and experiences and compared them with the developers’ visions. Methods We applied qualitative and quantitative data collection methods including an online questionnaire, semistructured user and developer interviews, and review of scientific literature. Questionnaire...... into LCA software and methods, (4) improve update/testing procedures, (5) strengthen communication between developers and users, and (6) extend model scope. By generalizing our recommendations to guide scientific model development in a broader context, we emphasize to acknowledge different levels of user...

  1. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  2. Interplay between requirements, software architecture, and hardware constraints in the development of a home control user interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, M.S.; Nielsen, S.S.; Nørskov, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new graphical user interface for a home control device for a large industrial customer. In this industrial case study, we first present our approaches to requirements engineering and to software architecture; we also describe the given hardware platform. Then we make two...

  3. User Requirements for PN to Drive the Definition of a Valid Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H.; Jiang, B.; Butkus, A.

    This deliverable presents a comprehensive survey of all the user scenarios, cases and case studies that have been analysed and proposed within the first year of the MAGNET project. Among the 11 cases presented in this report, 5 of them are presented in separate chapters with a catalogue of scenar...... a discussion on some of the necessary user-centric support functions in a PN service architecture, and a survey of future development trends that could impact the MAGNET vision....

  4. Bridging user-centered design and requirements engineering with GRL and persona cases

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Sharmal

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large body of i* research, there has been com- paratively little work on how goal-modelling techniques can help identify usability concerns. Recent work has considered how goal models might better integrate with User-Centered Design. This paper takes an alterna- tive perspective by examining how work in User-Centered Design, specifi- cally Persona Cases, can be re-framed as goal models. We briefly describe an approach for doing this, and present some preliminary results from apply...

  5. Cross-vendor evaluation of key user-defined clinical decision support capabilities: a scenario-based assessment of certified electronic health records with guidelines for future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-09-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) is essential for delivery of high-quality, cost-effective, and safe healthcare. The authors sought to evaluate the CDS capabilities across electronic health record (EHR) systems. We evaluated the CDS implementation capabilities of 8 Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology Authorized Certification Body (ONC-ACB)-certified EHRs. Within each EHR, the authors attempted to implement 3 user-defined rules that utilized the various data and logic elements expected of typical EHRs and that represented clinically important evidenced-based care. The rules were: 1) if a patient has amiodarone on his or her active medication list and does not have a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) result recorded in the last 12 months, suggest ordering a TSH; 2) if a patient has a hemoglobin A1c result >7% and does not have diabetes on his or her problem list, suggest adding diabetes to the problem list; and 3) if a patient has coronary artery disease on his or her problem list and does not have aspirin on the active medication list, suggest ordering aspirin. Most evaluated EHRs lacked some CDS capabilities; 5 EHRs were able to implement all 3 rules, and the remaining 3 EHRs were unable to implement any of the rules. One of these did not allow users to customize CDS rules at all. The most frequently found shortcomings included the inability to use laboratory test results in rules, limit rules by time, use advanced Boolean logic, perform actions from the alert interface, and adequately test rules. Significant improvements in the EHR certification and implementation procedures are necessary. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A user-centred approach to requirements elicitation in medical device development: a case study from an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Clark, Daniel J; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare industry is dependent upon the provision of well designed medical devices. To achieve this it is recommended that user-centred design should begin early, and continue throughout device development. This is a challenge, particularly for smaller companies who may lack the necessary expertise and knowledge. The aim of this study was to conduct a rigorous yet focused investigation into the user requirements for a new medical imaging device. Open-ended semi-structured interviews were conducted with potential clinical users of the device to investigate the clinical need for the device and the potential benefits for patients and clinical users. The study identified a number of new and significant clinical needs that suggested that the concept of the device should be fundamentally changed. The clinical and organisational priorities of the clinical users were identified, as well as a number of factors that would act as barriers to the safe and effective adoption of the device. The developers reported that this focused approach to early requirements elicitation would result in an improved product, reduce the time to market, and save the time and cost of producing and evaluating an inappropriate prototype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Asymmetric Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in Symmetric Planar Sudden Expansion Geometry Based on User-Defined Function in FLUENT CFD Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.

  8. Towards elicitation of users requirements for hospital information system: from a care process modelling technique to a web based collaborative tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Pascal M; Joubert, Michel; Quaranta, Jean-Francois; Fieschi, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Growing attention is being given to the use of process modeling methodology for user requirements elicitation. In the analysis phase of hospital information systems, the usefulness of care-process models has been investigated to evaluate the conceptual applicability and practical understandability by clinical staff and members of users teams. Nevertheless, there still remains a gap between users and analysts in their mutual ability to share conceptual views and vocabulary, keeping the meaning of clinical context while providing elements for analysis. One of the solutions for filling this gap is to consider the process model itself in the role of a hub as a centralized means of facilitating communication between team members. Starting with a robust and descriptive technique for process modeling called IDEF0/SADT, we refined the basic data model by extracting concepts from ISO 9000 process analysis and from enterprise ontology. We defined a web-based architecture to serve as a collaborative tool and implemented it using an object-oriented database. The prospects of such a tool are discussed notably regarding to its ability to generate data dictionaries and to be used as a navigation tool through the medium of hospital-wide documentation.

  9. Eliciting User Input for Requirements on Personalization: The Case of a Dutch ERP System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van Lex; Huijs, Corrie; Geest, van der Thea

    2008-01-01

    For small and medium-sized companies, the fit between their business processes and their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a critical success factor. The functions and features for essential tasks must be geared to the demands and skills of the individual users. This article reports on th

  10. Supporting Dynamic Service Composition at Runtime based on End-user Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Sinderen, van Marten; Dustdar, S.; Hauswirth, M.; Hierro, J. J.; Soriano, J.; Urmetzer, F.; Möller, K.; Rivera, I.

    2009-01-01

    Network-based software application services are receiving a lot of attention in recent years, as observed in developments as Internet of Services, Software as a Service and Cloud Computing. A service-oriented computing ecosystem is being created where the end-user is having an increasingly more acti

  11. 77 FR 42559 - End-User Exception to the Clearing Requirement for Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Marketers & Convenience Store Association (IPM&CSA) stated that the end-user exception should be narrowly... meaning of ``financial entity'' in the regulation. According to IECA, because of the implications of being...\\ 12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq. The Commission recognizes that there are important public policy...

  12. Smart Dairy Farming in practice : design requirements for user-friendly data based services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, C.A. van der; Kort, J.; Boer, J. de; Paradies, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Key for precision dairy farming is the management of different kinds of (sensor) data from multiple sources and its disclosure to users. The data can be used to implement services that support farmers to care for individual animals and work more effectively. Naturally, these services need to provide

  13. Eliciting User Input for Requirements on Personalization: The Case of a Dutch ERP System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Huijs, C.; van der Geest, Thea

    2008-01-01

    For small and medium-sized companies, the fit between their business processes and their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a critical success factor. The functions and features for essential tasks must be geared to the demands and skills of the individual users. This article reports on

  14. 40 CFR 403.12 - Reporting requirements for POTW's and industrial users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... verifiable estimates of these flows where justified by cost or feasibility considerations. (5) Measurement of... the regulated processes. (4) Flow measurement. The User shall submit information showing the measured... pollutant is neither present nor expected to be present in the Discharge, or is present only at...

  15. Rhomboid Enhancer Activity Defines a Subset of Drosophila Neural Precursors Required for Proper Feeding, Growth and Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Gresser

    Full Text Available Organismal growth regulation requires the interaction of multiple metabolic, hormonal and neuronal pathways. While the molecular basis for many of these are well characterized, less is known about the developmental origins of growth regulatory structures and the mechanisms governing control of feeding and satiety. For these reasons, new tools and approaches are needed to link the specification and maturation of discrete cell populations with their subsequent regulatory roles. In this study, we characterize a rhomboid enhancer element that selectively labels four Drosophila embryonic neural precursors. These precursors give rise to the hypopharyngeal sensory organ of the peripheral nervous system and a subset of neurons in the deutocerebral region of the embryonic central nervous system. Post embryogenesis, the rhomboid enhancer is active in a subset of cells within the larval pharyngeal epithelium. Enhancer-targeted toxin expression alters the morphology of the sense organ and results in impaired larval growth, developmental delay, defective anterior spiracle eversion and lethality. Limiting the duration of toxin expression reveals differences in the critical periods for these effects. Embryonic expression causes developmental defects and partially penetrant pre-pupal lethality. Survivors of embryonic expression, however, ultimately become viable adults. In contrast, post-embryonic toxin expression results in fully penetrant lethality. To better define the larval growth defect, we used a variety of assays to demonstrate that toxin-targeted larvae are capable of locating, ingesting and clearing food and they exhibit normal food search behaviors. Strikingly, however, following food exposure these larvae show a rapid decrease in consumption suggesting a satiety-like phenomenon that correlates with the period of impaired larval growth. Together, these data suggest a critical role for these enhancer-defined lineages in regulating feeding, growth and

  16. Rhomboid Enhancer Activity Defines a Subset of Drosophila Neural Precursors Required for Proper Feeding, Growth and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresser, Amy L; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Gauck, Mackenzie K; Hartenstein, Volker; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Organismal growth regulation requires the interaction of multiple metabolic, hormonal and neuronal pathways. While the molecular basis for many of these are well characterized, less is known about the developmental origins of growth regulatory structures and the mechanisms governing control of feeding and satiety. For these reasons, new tools and approaches are needed to link the specification and maturation of discrete cell populations with their subsequent regulatory roles. In this study, we characterize a rhomboid enhancer element that selectively labels four Drosophila embryonic neural precursors. These precursors give rise to the hypopharyngeal sensory organ of the peripheral nervous system and a subset of neurons in the deutocerebral region of the embryonic central nervous system. Post embryogenesis, the rhomboid enhancer is active in a subset of cells within the larval pharyngeal epithelium. Enhancer-targeted toxin expression alters the morphology of the sense organ and results in impaired larval growth, developmental delay, defective anterior spiracle eversion and lethality. Limiting the duration of toxin expression reveals differences in the critical periods for these effects. Embryonic expression causes developmental defects and partially penetrant pre-pupal lethality. Survivors of embryonic expression, however, ultimately become viable adults. In contrast, post-embryonic toxin expression results in fully penetrant lethality. To better define the larval growth defect, we used a variety of assays to demonstrate that toxin-targeted larvae are capable of locating, ingesting and clearing food and they exhibit normal food search behaviors. Strikingly, however, following food exposure these larvae show a rapid decrease in consumption suggesting a satiety-like phenomenon that correlates with the period of impaired larval growth. Together, these data suggest a critical role for these enhancer-defined lineages in regulating feeding, growth and viability.

  17. Defining environmental flows requirements at regional scale by using meso-scale habitat models and catchments classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Rosso, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    oxygen were collected for each sampled area and considered as independent variables. According to the MesoHABSIM method, we performed a stepwise forward logistic regression in order to build up a biological model identifying the habitat characteristics mostly used by a target fish. For each stream we predicted changes in habitat area over a range of discharges by building the habitat-flow rating curves. Finally, in order to define a regional criteria needed to fulfill environmental flow requirements, we split the study domain according to the regression tree classification criterion defining homogenous sub-regions distinct on both environmental flows and catchment characteristics.

  18. Drought Predictability and Prediction in a Changing Climate: Assessing Current Predictive Knowledge and Capabilities, User Requirements and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought is fundamentally the result of an extended period of reduced precipitation lasting anywhere from a few weeks to decades and even longer. As such, addressing drought predictability and prediction in a changing climate requires foremost that we make progress on the ability to predict precipitation anomalies on subseasonal and longer time scales. From the perspective of the users of drought forecasts and information, drought is however most directly viewed through its impacts (e.g., on soil moisture, streamflow, crop yields). As such, the question of the predictability of drought must extend to those quantities as well. In order to make progress on these issues, the WCRP drought information group (DIG), with the support of WCRP, the Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences, the La Caixa Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Science Foundation, has organized a workshop to focus on: 1. User requirements for drought prediction information on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 2. Current understanding of the mechanisms and predictability of drought on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 3. Current drought prediction/projection capabilities on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 4. Advancing regional drought prediction capabilities for variables and scales most relevant to user needs on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales. This introductory talk provides an overview of these goals, and outlines the occurrence and mechanisms of drought world-wide.

  19. Testing Web Services Based on User Requirements%用户需求驱动的Web服务测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许蕾; 陈林; 徐宝文

    2011-01-01

    Web service testing can be carried out by developers, providers, integrators, thirdparty certifiers and users, and different testers have different testing objects, testing resources and testing techniques. In realities, testing Web services in the view of users is more practical than others, and can improve testing efficiency in the case study. The authors set up user requirement model firstly, which began with general and abstract object requirements, and then decomposed and refined into concrete and determined atomic Web services, together with such key elements as layer relationships, control structures and restrict conditions, presented as a tree-style model; Next, test case generation and selection is carried out for the object level, service combination level and atomic service level of the user requirement model, and the corresponding techniques are based on equivalence division, data flow analysis and mutation testing; Then, the regression testing would have better efficiency. Based on the dependence relationships in the user requirement model and the fluctuation analysis method, the related paths and variables of Services under testing could be determined quickly; Finally, the workflow and case study are shown with the travel scheduling example.%Web服务涉及开发者、提供者、注册中心、用户等多方,各方测试目的、所掌握的资源以及所使用的测试方法各异.以用户需求来驱动Web服务测试,更切合现状且能提升测试效率.文中建立了用户需求特征模型,引入层次关系、控制结构、约束条件等要素;对照目标级、服务组合、原子服务需求,分别进行基于等价类划分、数据流分析和变异测试的测试用例生成选择;当需求变动时,通过波动分析能迅速定位到服务的相关路径和变量,保证回归测试的效率;最后通过行程安排实例展示了工作流程和实验结果.

  20. The challenge of setting appropriate intake recommendations for vitamin E: considerations on status and functionality to define nutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Moser, Ulrich; Pilz, Stefan; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Weber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The main function of vitamin E is to protect against scavenging of reactive oxygen species; it is the primary protective agent against lipid peroxidation. Overt vitamin E deficiency is present only in patients with severe malnutrition and certain chronic diseases. The latest Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin E is based on the correlation between hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte lysis and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations (Institute of Medicine, United States), or the prevention of lipid peroxidation (National Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, D-A-CH). According to the current recommendations, the reference plasma concentration for vitamin E is 12 - 46 µmol/L (daily intake of 15 - 30 mg α-tocopherol equivalents). Epidemiological studies suggest a beneficial effect of vitamin E on cardiovascular health at a plasma concentration of 30 µmol/L (a daily intake of ~ 50 IU). Vitamin E is also an important micronutrient for maintaining the immune system, especially in the elderly. A workshop was organized with the main objective to propose a concept for developing markers of status, functionality, and health in the field of nutritional research, in order to define desirable vitamin E requirements in healthy individuals.

  1. User requirement analysis of social conventions learning applications for non-natives and low-literates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Dylan; Smets, Nanja; Driessen, Marianne; Hanekamp, Marieke; Cremers, Ania

    2013-01-01

    Learning and acting on social conventions is problematic for low-literates and non-natives, causing problems with societal participation and citizenship. Using the Situated Cognitive Engineering method, requirements for the design of social conventions learning software are derived from demographic

  2. Mission from Mars - a method for exploring user requirements for children in a narrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Ludvigsen, Martin; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  3. User requirement analysis of social conventions learning applications for Non-natives and low-literates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.; Smets, N.; Driessen, M.; Hanekamp, M.; Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and acting on social conventions is problematic for low-literates and non-natives, causing problems with societal participation and citizenship. Using the Situated Cognitive Engineering method, requirements for the design of social conventions learning software are derived from demographic

  4. User requirement analysis of social conventions learning applications for Non-natives and low-literates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.; Smets, N.; Driessen, M.; Hanekamp, M.; Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and acting on social conventions is problematic for low-literates and non-natives, causing problems with societal participation and citizenship. Using the Situated Cognitive Engineering method, requirements for the design of social conventions learning software are derived from demographic

  5. Performance Analysis of Live-Virtual-Constructive and Distributed Virtual Simulations: Defining Requirements in Terms of Temporal Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    of the users head and hand in the CAVE. The viewer wears LCD shutter glasses to mediate the stereo images. The viewers head and hand position and...orientation are tracked through sensors on the shutter glasses and on the CAVE input device. The viewer can grab and move objects in the virtual world...system under study itself. 78 Player RF EOIR Aero Propulsion Sensor Dynamics Figure 5.6: Hierarchical Player Model An example of this hierarchy is shown

  6. A conceptual design for an integrated data base management system for remote sensing data. [user requirements and data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, P. A.; Lefler, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of potential users were considered in the design of an integrated data base management system, developed to be independent of any specific computer or operating system, and to be used to support investigations in weather and climate. Ultimately, the system would expand to include data from the agriculture, hydrology, and related Earth resources disciplines. An overview of the system and its capabilities is presented. Aspects discussed cover the proposed interactive command language; the application program command language; storage and tabular data maintained by the regional data base management system; the handling of data files and the use of system standard formats; various control structures required to support the internal architecture of the system; and the actual system architecture with the various modules needed to implement the system. The concepts on which the relational data model is based; data integrity, consistency, and quality; and provisions for supporting concurrent access to data within the system are covered in the appendices.

  7. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Mission from Mars - a method for exploring user requirements for children in a narrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Ludvigsen, Martin; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...... school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children....

  9. Evaluating an Online Cognitive Training Platform for Older Adults: User Experience and Implementation Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesner, Marten; Steinert, Anika; O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Weichenberger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform. Communication or assistive features were not used often. Good usability ratings were given to the cognitive exercises. Subjective improvements of cognitive functions due to the training were reported. The current article presents concrete requirements and recommendations for deploying cognitive training software in older adult residential homes.

  10. User Defined Excitation System Models in PSS/Ebased on FORTRAN Programming%基于FORTRAN编程的PSS/E用户自定义励磁系统建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱叶牛; 董亚旭; 李国庆

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the basic principle and main difficulties of user-defined modeling have been introduced firstly.Secondly,with an appropriate equivalent transformation between ordinary links in excitation system,state variables can be extracted.And the excitation system of user-defined SEXS type and Vco Type16 are realized with FORTRAN language.The simulation of WSCC 9 bus system shows that the two types are reasonable.The user-defined modeling method proposed in this particle is also suitable for other electric elements,especially for the new control elements.%本文基于PSS/E电力系统仿真软件,采用Fortran语言对电力系统励磁系统进行了自定义建模。首先介绍了PSS/E用户自定义建模的基本原理及主要难点,其次对励磁系统中常见环节进行等价变换以方便选取状态变量;然后利用Fortran自定义了SEXS型和Vco Type 16型励磁系统;最后在WSCC 9节点测试系统上进行仿真验证,仿真结果验证了本文自定义模型的可行性和合理性。

  11. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with development of subclinical coronary artery disease in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham-defined cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong Lai,1 Elliot K Fishman,1 Gary Gerstenblith,2 Richard Moore,2 Jeffrey A Brinker,2 Jeanne C Keruly,2 Shaoguang Chen,3 Barbara Detrick,3 Shenghan Lai1–31Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Chronic cocaine use may lead to premature atherosclerosis, but the prevalence of and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD in asymptomatic cocaine users have not been reported. The objective of this study was to examine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of CAD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk.Methods: In this prospective follow-up study, we investigated 169 HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham risk at baseline. The main outcome measures were incidence of subclinical CAD and development of subclinical CAD.Results: Fifty of the 169 African Americans had evidence of subclinical disease on the initial cardiac computed tomography. A second cardiac computed tomography was performed on the 119 African Americans without disease on the first scan. The total sum of person-years of follow-up was 289.6. Subclinical CAD was detected in 11 of these, yielding an overall incidence of 3.80/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 1.90–6.80. Among the factors investigated, only vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with development of subclinical CAD. The study did not find significant associations between CD4 count, HIV viral load, or antiretroviral treatment use and the incidence of subclinical CAD. This study appears to suggest that there is a threshold level of vitamin D (10 ng/mL above which the effect of vitamin D on subclinical CAD is diminished.Conclusion: The incidence of subclinical CAD in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk is high, especially in those with vitamin D deficiency. Well designed

  12. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  13. Differential requirements of BMP and Wnt signalling during gastrulation and neurulation define two steps in neural crest induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Ben; Araya, Claudio; Linker, Claudia; Kuriyama, Sei; Mayor, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The neural crest is induced by a combination of secreted signals. Although previous models of neural crest induction have proposed a step-wise activation of these signals, the actual spatial and temporal requirement has not been analysed. Through analysing the role of the mesoderm we show for the first time that specification of neural crest requires two temporally and chemically different steps: first, an induction at the gastrula stage dependent on signals arising from the dorsolateral mesoderm; and second, a maintenance step at the neurula stage dependent on signals from tissues adjacent to the neural crest. By performing tissue recombination experiments and using specific inhibitors of different inductive signals, we show that the first inductive step requires Wnt activation and BMP inhibition, whereas the later maintenance step requires activation of both pathways. This change in BMP necessity from BMP inhibition at gastrula to BMP activation at neurula stages is further supported by the dynamic expression of BMP4 and its antagonists, and is confirmed by direct measurements of BMP activity in the neural crest cells. The differential requirements of BMP activity allow us to propose an explanation for apparently discrepant results between chick and frog experiments. The demonstration that Wnt signals are required for neural crest induction by mesoderm solves an additional long-standing controversy. Finally, our results emphasise the importance of considering the order of exposure to signals during an inductive event.

  14. User and technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The program LP1 calculates outbound and return trajectories between low earth orbit (LEO) and libration point no. 1 (L1). Libration points (LP) are defined as locations in space that orbit the Earth such that they are always stationary with respect to the Earth-Moon line. L1 is located behind the Moon such that the pull of the Earth and Moon together just cancel the centrifugal acceleration associated with the libration point's orbit. The input required from the user to define the flight is described. The contents of the six reports produced as outputs are presented. Also included are the instructions needed to execute the program.

  15. Requirements for future control room and visualization features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines an overview of the general requirements for the control rooms of the future power systems (2030+). The roles and activities in the future control centres will evolve with respect to the switching, dispatching and restoration functions currently active. The control centre...... operators will supervise on the power system and intervene - when necessary - thanks to the maturation and wide scale deployment of flexible controls. For the identification of control room requirements, general trends in power system evolution are considered and mainly the outcomes of the ELECTRA IRP...... project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualization features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  16. The ChIP-seq-defined networks of Bcl-3 gene binding support its required role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Jackman

    Full Text Available NF-kappaB transcriptional activation is required for skeletal muscle disuse atrophy. We are continuing to study how the activation of NF-kB regulates the genes that encode the protein products that cause atrophy. Using ChIP-sequencing we found that Bcl-3, an NF-kB transcriptional activator required for atrophy, binds to the promoters of a number of genes whose collective function describes two major aspects of muscle wasting. By means of bioinformatics analysis of ChIP-sequencing data we found Bcl-3 to be directing transcription networks of proteolysis and energy metabolism. The proteolytic arm of the Bcl-3 networks includes many E3 ligases associated with proteasomal protein degradation, including that of the N-end rule pathway. The metabolic arm appears to be involved in organizing the change from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in atrophying muscle. For one gene, MuRF1, ChIP-sequencing data identified the location of Bcl-3 and p50 binding in the promoter region which directed the creation of deletant and base-substitution mutations of MuRF1 promoter constructs to determine the effect on gene transcription. The results provide the first direct confirmation that the NF-kB binding site is involved in the muscle unloading regulation of MuRF1. Finally, we have combined the ChIP-sequencing results with gene expression microarray data from unloaded muscle to map several direct targets of Bcl-3 that are transcription factors whose own targets describe a set of indirect targets for NF-kB in atrophy. ChIP-sequencing provides the first molecular explanation for the finding that Bcl3 knockout mice are resistant to disuse muscle atrophy. Mapping the transcriptional regulation of muscle atrophy requires an unbiased analysis of the whole genome, which we show is now possible with ChIP-sequencing.

  17. PLGG1, a plastidic glycolate glycerate transporter, is required for photorespiration and defines a unique class of metabolite transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Thea R; Bräutigam, Andrea; Schulz, Matthias A; Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-02-19

    Photorespiratory carbon flux reaches up to a third of photosynthetic flux, thus contributes massively to the global carbon cycle. The pathway recycles glycolate-2-phosphate, the most abundant byproduct of RubisCO reactions. This oxygenation reaction of RubisCO and subsequent photorespiration significantly limit the biomass gains of many crop plants. Although photorespiration is a compartmentalized process with enzymatic reactions in the chloroplast, the peroxisomes, the mitochondria, and the cytosol, no transporter required for the core photorespiratory cycle has been identified at the molecular level to date. Using transcript coexpression analyses, we identified Plastidal glycolate glycerate translocator 1 (PLGG1) as a candidate core photorespiratory transporter. Related genes are encoded in the genomes of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and all Archaeplastida and have previously been associated with a function in programmed cell-death. A mutant deficient in PLGG1 shows WT-like growth only in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mutant accumulates glycolate and glycerate, leading to the hypothesis that PLGG1 is a glycolate/glycerate transporter. This hypothesis was tested and supported by in vivo and in vitro transport assays and (18)O(2)-metabolic flux profiling. Our results indicate that PLGG1 is the chloroplastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter, which is required for the function of the photorespiratory cycle. Identification of the PLGG1 transport function will facilitate unraveling the role of similar proteins in bacteria, archaea, and fungi in the future.

  18. DESIGN OF USER-DEFINED ANTIVIRUS TOOLS%自定义计算机病毒杀毒工具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁忠林; 张瑾

    2013-01-01

    Being a great menace, computer virus may bring great loss to world economy, while the update of the virus library is far more behind the development of viruses. So in this paper we generate the MD5 value of virus files by referring to the behaviour characteristics of computer virus files and using MD5 algorithm, and then use it as the feature codes for virus detecting. Then, information administrators could use these feature codes to define virus and develop different kinds of virus-specific killing tools. Consequently, the problem of virus library update being delayed can be solved, and viruses can be killed immediately.%计算机病毒给世界经济带来巨大威胁和损失,而病毒库的更新具有滞后性.利用计算机病毒文件的行为特征和MD5算法来产生病毒文件MD5值,并以它作为病毒检测特征码.信息管理人员自己根据这些特征码来定义病毒,生成各种病毒专杀工具,来解决现杀毒软件病毒库更新在时间具有滞后性问题,使病毒处理的效率达到即时性.

  19. Defining the stoichiometry of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding required to initiate Ca2+ release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayady, Kamil J; Wang, Liwei; Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Wagner, Larry E; Van Petegem, Filip; Yule, David I

    2016-04-05

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels with each subunit containing a binding site for IP3in the amino terminus. We provide evidence that four IP3molecules are required to activate the channel under diverse conditions. Comparing the concentration-response relationship for binding and Ca(2+)release suggested that IP3Rs are maximally occupied by IP3before substantial Ca(2+)release occurs. We showed that ligand binding-deficient subunits acted in a dominant-negative manner when coexpressed with wild-type monomers in the chicken immune cell line DT40-3KO, which lacks all three genes encoding IP3R subunits, and confirmed the same effect in an IP3R-null human cell line (HEK-3KO) generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Using dimeric and tetrameric concatenated IP3Rs with increasing numbers of binding-deficient subunits, we addressed the obligate ligand stoichiometry. The concatenated IP3Rs with four ligand-binding sites exhibited Ca(2+)release and electrophysiological properties of native IP3Rs. However, IP3failed to activate IP3Rs assembled from concatenated dimers consisting of one binding-competent and one binding-deficient mutant subunit. Similarly, IP3Rs containing two monomers of IP3R2short, an IP3binding-deficient splice variant, were nonfunctional. Concatenated tetramers containing only three binding-competent ligand-binding sites were nonfunctional under a wide range of activating conditions. These data provide definitive evidence that IP3-induced Ca(2+)release only occurs when each IP3R monomer within the tetramer is occupied by IP3, thereby ensuring fidelity of Ca(2+)release.

  20. DBCreate: A SUPCRT92-based program for producing EQ3/6, TOUGHREACT, and GWB thermodynamic databases at user-defined T and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Saar, Martin O.

    2013-02-01

    SUPCRT92 is a widely used software package for calculating the standard thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions. However, it is labor-intensive and error-prone to use it directly to produce databases for geochemical modeling programs such as EQ3/6, the Geochemist's Workbench, and TOUGHREACT. DBCreate is a SUPCRT92-based software program written in FORTRAN90/95 and was developed in order to produce the required databases for these programs in a rapid and convenient way. This paper describes the overall structure of the program and provides detailed usage instructions.

  1. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil,Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ballance, Robert [SNL; Haskell, Karen [SNL

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  2. Proposed Requirements-driven User-scenario Development Protocol for the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Car, N.; Percivall, G.; Allen, D.; Fitch, P. G.; Baumann, P.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) is designed to foster a global community to collaborate on e-infrastructure challenges. One of the deliverables is an implementation plan to address global data infrastructure interoperability challenges and align existing domestic and international capabilities. Work package three (WP3) of the CRA focuses on the harmonization of global data infrastructure for sharing environmental data. One of the subtasks under WP3 is the development of user scenarios that guide the development of applicable deliverables. This paper describes the proposed protocol for user scenario development. It enables the solicitation of user scenarios from a broad constituency, and exposes the mechanisms by which those solicitations are evaluated against requirements that map to the Belmont Challenge. The underlying principle of traceability forms the basis for a structured, requirements-driven approach resulting in work products amenable to trade-off analyses and objective prioritization. The protocol adopts the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a top level framework. User scenarios are developed within RM-ODP's "Enterprise Viewpoint". To harmonize with existing frameworks, the protocol utilizes the conceptual constructs of "scenarios", "use cases", "use case categories", and use case templates as adopted by recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Project (AIP) deliverables and CSIRO's eReefs project. These constructs are encapsulated under the larger construct of "user scenarios". Once user scenarios are ranked by goodness-of-fit to the Belmont Challenge, secondary scoring metrics may be generated, like goodness-of-fit to FutureEarth science themes. The protocol also facilitates an assessment of the ease of implementing given user scenario using existing GEOSS AIP deliverables. In summary, the protocol results in a traceability graph that can be extended to coordinate

  3. User Requirements for the Application of Remote Sensing in the Planning and Management of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Data relating to hydrologic and water resource systems and subsystems management are reported. Systems models, user application, and remote sensing technology are covered. Parameters governing water resources include evaportranspiration, vegetation, precipitation, streams and estuaries, reservoirs and lakes, and unsaturate and saturated soil zones.

  4. Training Requirements and Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user's guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  5. Different requirements for EDS1 and NDR1 by disease resistance genes define at least two R gene-mediated signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, N; Metz, M; Holub, E; Staskawicz, B J; Daniels, M J; Parker, J E

    1998-08-18

    The Arabidopsis genes EDS1 and NDR1 were shown previously by mutational analysis to encode essential components of race-specific disease resistance. Here, we examined the relative requirements for EDS1 and NDR1 by a broad spectrum of Resistance (R) genes present in three Arabidopsis accessions (Columbia, Landsberg-erecta, and Wassilewskija). We show that there is a strong requirement for EDS1 by a subset of R loci (RPP2, RPP4, RPP5, RPP21, and RPS4), conferring resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Peronospora parasitica, and to Pseudomonas bacteria expressing the avirulence gene avrRps4. The requirement for NDR1 by these EDS1-dependent R loci is either weak or not measurable. Conversely, three NDR1-dependent R loci, RPS2, RPM1, and RPS5, operate independently of EDS1. Another RPP locus, RPP8, exhibits no strong exclusive requirement for EDS1 or NDR1 in isolate-specific resistance to P. parasitica, although resistance is compromised weakly by eds1. Similarly, resistance conditioned by two EDS1-dependent RPP genes, RPP4 and RPP5, is impaired partially by ndr1, implicating a degree of pathway cross-talk. Our results provide compelling evidence for the preferential utilization of either signaling component by particular R genes and thus define at least two disease resistance pathways. The data also suggest that strong dependence on EDS1 or NDR1 is governed by R protein structural type rather than pathogen class.

  6. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  7. The Animated Character Data Conversion Tool for User-Defined Format%面向自定义格式的动画角色数据转换工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文超; 李琳; 刘晓平

    2014-01-01

    In order to use the animated character data from common modeling software to research on animated character algorithm more sufficiently, an animated character data conversion tool is developed. This conversion tool includes an export module and an import one. Through analysis of the animated character’s data structure in 3ds max, based on max SDK, in the export module, some secondary developments are done to export the data in 3ds max to an user-defined formatted file which is used to store the information of the animated character, so that the user can do their research on mesh and data merge of the animated character with the exported formatted file easily. In the import module, the max SDK is used to import and reconstruct the animated character from the data in the user-defined formatted file, so that the user can observe the animated character after processing by their algorithm in 3ds max conveniently. The animated character data conversion tool greatly reduces the burdens on the researchers and that makes the researchers be able to concentrate on researching the algorithm of the most essential data of the animated character without considering reconstructing and rendering the data.%为了充分利用常用建模软件里动画角色数据信息,进行动画角色算法的研究,开发了动画角色数据转换工具。该转换工具包括导出模块和导入模块。其中导出模块通过对3ds max动画角色数据结构的分析,采用max SDK进行二次开发,将3ds max中的数据导出到用于存储动画角色信息的自定义格式的文件中,便于使用者通过导出的文件数据进行动画角色网格与运动数据融合等方面的算法研究;导入模块通过max SDK读取自定义文件中的数据进行动画角色的导入重建,便于使用者在3ds max里对经过算法操作后的动画角色进行观察。动画角色数据转换工具大大减轻了研究人员的负担,使研究人员可以对最本质的

  8. Transparent User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking text examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication -- where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure. Topics and features: discu

  9. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  10. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  11. Function realization of user-defined soft switches of FANUC CNC system%FANUC系统用户自定义软操作开关功能的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志斌; 李文斌; 武俊光

    2012-01-01

    设定FANUC系统的用户自定义软开关,实现数控机床操作面板上不具备、但生产过程中又需要的功能,如DNC加工、手动绝对值、手轮中断、卡盘内卡/外卡等功能,避免了重新设计、改造机床操作面板的弊端.该方法在数控机床中具有较大的推广应用价值.%Set FANUC CNC system user - defined soft switches, achieve the function needed in the production process, but CNC machine operator's panel does not have,such as the DNC operation,manual absolute, manual handle and chuck internal clamp/external clamp. It avoids the drawbacks of redesign and transforms the machine operator's panel. This method has a greater application value in CNC machine tools.

  12. Developing requirements for a mobile app to support citizens in dealing with ticks and tick bites via end-user profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Lex; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wentzel, Jobke; Van Steenbergen, Jim E; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2015-03-01

    Tick bites and tick-borne infections are an increasingly large problem. There is a wide range of precautions that citizens can take, but compliance is low. Mobile technology can offer a solution here, as they allow citizens to access health information in context. In this article, we discuss the development of requirements for a mobile app to support citizens in dealing with ticks and tick bites. First, we identified organizational stakeholders based on relevant protocols, and primary end-users via a systematic risk determination procedure. Then, we profiled end-users based on 25 in-depth interviews. We consulted organizational stakeholders via a focus group. The mobile app should primarily motivate citizens to check themselves for tick bites after visiting a risk area. The app should also include a tick radar, alerts to remind people to check for tick bites, and the possibility to document tick bites. Our experiences underline the necessity of thoroughly investigating the designated end-users and their context of use in order to tailor preventive health advice, and we demonstrate how this can be done. Finally, this case shows the need to create persuasive health technology in order to maximize citizen compliance.

  13. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  14. Exploring end users' system requirements for a handheld computer supporting both sepsis test workflow and current IT solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Lasse Lefevre; Pape-Haugaard, Louise Bilenberg; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic response associated with very high mortality. Early initiation of the correct antimicrobial therapy remains a cornerstone in the treatment of sepsis. Currently, a new microbiological test is under development, which aims to detect major, prevalent pathogens in positive blood cultures within an hour. Concurrently, a tablet-based data entry and reporting system will be developed to facilitate the workflow of the test. This study investigated the system requirements for the tablet-based data entry and reporting system in order to support the clinical workflow. By observing the workflow of the blood culture analysis and through interviews with medical laboratory technicians, four main system requirements were identified. The system requirements are; the ability to receive and send data to the laboratory information system, support for the use of barcodes, the ability to access a browser based instruction system, and communication of results between medical laboratory technicians and physicians. These system requirements will be used as a basis in the future development of the tablet-based data entry and reporting system.

  15. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  16. The vitamin B6 requirement in oral contraceptive users. II. Assessment by tryptophan metabolites, vitamin B6, and pyridoxic acid levels in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, E A; Bossé, T R

    1979-05-01

    The requirement for vitamin B6 in oral contraceptive users was studied in 8 college-age women who used combined (7) or sequential (1) oral contraceptives. The subjects and 8 controls consumed a basal diet supplemented to result in daily intake of 2.06 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride for 10 days (predepletion) and then containing only .36 mg of vitamin B6 for 32 days. After the depletion period, the diet was supplemented with pyridoxine hydrochloride to increase the intake of B6 to .96, 1.56, and 5.06 mg for 8, 9, and 7 days respectively. Complete 14-hour urine collections were analyzed for xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acids, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine after administration of a l load-dose of 2 gm L-trytophan on days 2, 11, 18, 25, 32, 39, 43, 50 , 59, and 66 for the subjects and days 2 and 10 for the controls. Pretryptophan urine was analyzed for vitamin B6. Posttryptophan urine was analyzed for 4-pyridoxic acid. It was found that during the depletion phase the excretion of tryptophan metabolites increased significantly. Excretion dropped significantly upon supplementation with 1.56 or 5.06 mg of vitamin B6, returning values to normal. Levels of vitamin B6 and 4-pyridoxic acid in the urine decreased during depletion to be restored to normal upon supplementation with 1.56 mg/day. Since an intake of 5.0 mg vitamin B6 caused a loss of the vitamin in the urine and all levels were returned to normal with an intake of 1.56 mg, it is suggested that 1.5 mg of vitamin B6 is sufficient to meet the needs of most oral contraceptive users and that there is no significant difference in the vitamin B6 requirement of oral contraceptive users and nonusers.

  17. Small-scale (flash) flood early warning in the light of operational requirements: opportunities and limits with regard to user demands, driving data, and hydrologic modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Büttner, Uwe; Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the Free State of Saxony (Eastern Germany) was repeatedly hit by both extensive riverine flooding, as well as flash flood events, emerging foremost from convective heavy rainfall. Especially after a couple of small-scale, yet disastrous events in 2010, preconditions, drivers, and methods for deriving flash flood related early warning products are investigated. This is to clarify the feasibility and the limits of envisaged early warning procedures for small catchments, hit by flashy heavy rain events. Early warning about potentially flash flood prone situations (i.e., with a suitable lead time with regard to required reaction-time needs of the stakeholders involved in flood risk management) needs to take into account not only hydrological, but also meteorological, as well as communication issues. Therefore, we propose a threefold methodology to identify potential benefits and limitations in a real-world warning/reaction context. First, the user demands (with respect to desired/required warning products, preparation times, etc.) are investigated. Second, focusing on small catchments of some hundred square kilometers, two quantitative precipitation forecasts are verified. Third, considering the user needs, as well as the input parameter uncertainty (i.e., foremost emerging from an uncertain QPF), a feasible, yet robust hydrological modeling approach is proposed on the basis of pilot studies, employing deterministic, data-driven, and simple scoring methods.

  18. Home care robot for socially supporting the elderly: focus group studies in three European countries to screen user attitudes and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsiga, Katalin; Edelmayer, Georg; Rumeau, Pierre; Péter, Orsolya; Tóth, András; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The growing number of elderly individuals presents new challenges for society. Many elderly individuals have physical or cognitive impairments and require support from caregivers. An attempt to overcome the limitations caused by the lack of human caregivers is the inclusion of assistive technology such as socially active robots. The Domeo-project of the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme of the European Union aims to develop a new companion robotic system that would allow assistance to the elderly. The requirements and attitude of the potential users and caregivers have been assessed in Austria, France and Hungary. The robot functions were demonstrated to the participants. Three focus groups were formed: potential end users, older caregivers and younger caregivers. The discussions were recorded and processed according to six aspects: (i) acceptability and privacy, (ii) pertinence of services, (iii) possible obstacles, (iv) motivation level to use the proposed services, (v) organizational issues and (vi) recommendations. Minor differences were observed between the countries, but there were considerable differences regarding the age of the participants. The younger caregivers want to be assured of the safety of their client and to receive immediate notification in case of an emergency. As for the elderly, the most important aspect is to gain a companion and a physical helper. Many of the recommendations can be taken into consideration during robot development, but some of them are not realistic at present.

  19. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition, Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume III. Ammunition Post Processor User’s Manual (APP-UM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    preparation of the Distribution Requirement Report and the 3 - Day Report; these are produced and copied into the output file REPORTI by the program, and is...day in the study the number of samples or postures that are being played, and the AMMO (or DATA) expenditure file. The main output file ** REPORTI is...34 is to be used instead of the Program File name for the remainder of the processing; o The old output file REPORTI (56REPORT)is deleted o The input

  20. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  1. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  2. TRLAN User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Simon, H.

    1999-03-09

    TRLAN is a program designed to find a small number of extreme eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix. Denote the matrix as A, the eigenvalue as {lambda}, and the corresponding eigenvector as x, they are defined by the following equation, Ax = {lambda}x. There are a number of different implementations of the Lanczos algorithm available. Why another one? Our main motivation is to develop a specialized version that only target the case where one wants both eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large real symmetric eigenvalue problems that can not use the shift-and-invert scheme. In this case the standard non-restarted Lanczos algorithm requires one to store a large number of Lanczos vectors which can cause storage problem and make each iteration of the method very expensive. The underlying algorithm of TRLAN is a dynamic thick-restart Lanczos algorithm. Like all restarted methods, the user can choose how many vectors can be generated at once. Typically, th e user chooses a moderate size so that all Lanczos vectors can be stored in core. This allows the restarted methods to execute efficiently. This implementation of the thick-restart Lanczos method also uses the latest restarting technique, it is very effective in reducing the time required to compute a desired solutions compared to similar restarted Lanczos schemes, e.g., ARPACK.

  3. System Requirement in View of Users and Process for Content Management and Academic Support System for Computer Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Ce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The system for Laboratory Information will take focus on determining the need for information systems related to the management, content development and academic management in the laboratory. These processes will focus on understanding the need and system requirement for a laboratory information system that focus on content management and the way to design a process to make sure the continuation of content creation can be done. With the design of the laboratory information system is expected to serve as a sample in the development of similar application for the course in general. The methodology to be used is to use the study of literature, design, and testing of laboratory information systems.

  4. User Privacy and Empowerment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2017-01-01

    of personal information and its manage-ment. Thus, empowering users and enhancing awareness are essential to compre-hending the value of secrecy. This paper also introduced latest advances in the domain of privacy issues like User Managed Access (UMA) can state suitable requirements for user empowerment...... and will cater to redefine the trustworthy relationship between service providers and users. Subsequently, this paper con-cludes with suggestions for providing empowerment to the user and developing user-centric, transparent business models.......Today, the service providers are capable of assembling a huge measure of user information using Big data techniques. For service providers, user infor-mation has become a vital asset. The present business models are attentive to collect extensive users’ information to extract useful knowledge...

  5. Evaluation of Legal Data Protection Requirements in Cloud Services in the Context of Contractual Relations with End-Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyse the compliance with basic principles of data protection in selected consumer oriented cloud services contracts, and also to highlight the adequate level of data protection in the mentioned contracts, evaluating existing data protection directive 95/46/EC, also proposed General data protection regulation.Design/methodology/approach – various survey methods have been used in the work integrated. Documental analysis method has been used in analysis of scientific literature, legal acts and other documents, where aspects of legal data protection requirements have been included. Legal documents analysis method together with logical-analytic method has been used in analysing Directive 95/46/EU, Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council and jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Comparative method has been applied for revealing difference between particular cloud services contracts and also comparing the compliance of cloud services contracts to requirements of basic European data protection principles, established in the international documents.Findings – from the brief analysis of selected consumer oriented cloud service providers, it may be implied that more or less all the legal principles, established in the legal acts, are reflected in the privacy policies and/or service agreements. However, it shall be noted that there is a big difference in wording of the analysed documents. Regarding other principles, all examined cloud service providers do not have indemnification provisions regarding unlawful use of personal data.Research limitations/implications – the concept of the contract was presented in a broad sense, including the privacy policies and/or terms and conditions of the service providers. In accordance with the content of the principles, the authors grouped data protection principles, applied in cloud services into fundamental and recommendatory.Practical implications

  6. Putting User Stories First: Experiences Adapting the Legacy Data Models and Information Architecture at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to Accommodate the New Information Lifecycle Required by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Hausman, J.; Laurencelle, J. C.; Toaz, R., Jr.; McAuley, J.; Freeborn, D. J.; Stoner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Surface Water & Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings together two communities focused on a better understanding of the world's oceans and its terrestrial surface waters. U.S. and French oceanographers and hydrologists and international partners have joined forces to develop this new space mission. At NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, the team is currently engaged in the gathering of SWOT User Stores (access patterns, metadata requirements, primary and value added product requirements, data access protocols, etc.) to better inform the adaptive planning of what will be known as the next generation PO.DAAC Information Architecture (IA). The IA effort acknowledges that missions such as SWOT (and NISAR) have few or no precedent in terms of data volume, hot and cold storage, archival, analysis, existing system engineering complexities, etc. and that the only way we can better understand the projected impacts of such requirements is to interface directly with the User Community. Additionally, it also acknowledges that collective learning has taken place to understand certain limitations in the existing data models (DM) underlying the existing PO.DAAC Data Management and Archival System. This work documents an evolutionary, use case based, standards driven approach to adapting the legacy DM and accompanying knowledge representation infrastructure at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to address forthcoming DAAC mission requirements presented by missions such as SWOT. Some of the topics covered in this evolution include, but are not limited to: How we are leveraging lessons learned from the development of existing DM (such as that generated for SMAP) in an attempt to map them to SWOT. What is the governance model for the SWOT IA? What are the `governing' entities? What is the hierarchy of the `governed entities'? How are elements grouped? How is the design-working group formed? How is model independence maintained and what choices/requirements do we have for the implementation language? The use of

  7. Objectivating nasality in healthy and velopharyngeal insufficient children with the Nasalance Acquisition System (NasalView). Defining minimal required speech tasks assessing normative values for Dutch language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogen Esch, Thijs T; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2004-08-01

    (1) To define normative nasalance data for Dutch language with "the NasalView System", and obtain a reference for normality when nasality is evaluated in children. (2) To investigate the minimal number of required speech tasks for a reliable nasalance measurement. 55 children (30 normal and 25 velopharyngeal insufficient), aged between 4 and 11 were included. All children had to read or repeat two Dutch passages ((one with a normal amount of nasal consonants (normal passage) and one with none (nonnasal passage)). Further, one normal and one velopharyngeal insufficient subject read a passage in repetition to test the NasalViews reproducibility: (1) For both passages, group means (GM) and standard deviations (S.D.) were used to compute "pathological nasalance boundaries" [GM +/- (2 x S.D.)], in combination with the coefficient of variation (CV), sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values. (2) With ANOVA all sentences within each passage were tested for significant differences in nasalance. (1) The pathological boundaries were 28.6-41.4% (GM: 35.0) and 21.4-34.7% (GM: 28.1), for the normal and nonnasal passage, respectively. For the normal passage a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 92% was computed. For the nonnasal passage these parameters were 96, 95 and 96%, respectively. Intra subject CVs of 3.6% (normal subject) and 1.5% (VI subject) showed good reproducibility of measurements. (2) Within the normal passage only the third sentence was significantly different in nasalance, compared to the entire passage (31.2% versus 35.0%). Within the nonnasal passage the second and fifth sentences were significantly different (23.8 and 24.8% versus 28.1%). However, the individual nonsignificantly different sentences showed a higher variation in nasalance compared to the entire passages. The NasalView System seems to be reliable and quantifies valid nasalance values when nasality is evaluated. Within both passages high

  8. Incorporating Prioritized User Preferences in Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashal Alqudah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Web services are increasing daily and users are looking to find relevant services in a quick manner. Browsing irrelevant pages presented in a retrieval hitlist would consume time and effort. Hence, there is a need to reduce the search space which will then present users with a higher retrieval precision. The idea carried out by a priority based retrieval system is that, when one attributes links to another, it is basically indicating the importance of the other attribute. The higher the value, the more important the attribute is. In this work, the search requirements defined by users are accompanied by priority values. Relevant documents identified from various resources are sorted based on the priority values. Results obtained indicate that by using priority values, users of a retrieval system are better satisfied. The undertaken precision analysis shows that relevancy of the retrieved results is improved.

  9. Adding and Removing Web Area Users, and Changing User Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webmasters can add users to a web area, and assign or change roles, which define the actions a user is able to take in the web area. Non-webmasters must use a request form to add users and change roles.

  10. Assessment of the portable radiophone users' exposure to electromagnetic fields, with use of numerical simulations and Directive 2013/35/EU requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Zradziński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of electromagnetic field distribution near radiophones and their use warranted an analysis of thermal exposure hazards and related health effects, based on i.e. numerical calculations of specific energy absorption rate (SAR. Materials and Methods: The investigation concerned radiophones of conventional and trunked communication systems. Electromagnetic hazards assessment involved numerical simulations of SAR inside users' models (male and female for 5 radiophones locations - near the ear, arm, chest, hip and face. Results: Maximum SAR (10 g values depend on radiophone type, output power and locations. Near the chest, hip and face they are 6-, 2- and 2-fold higher than for location near the ear. SAR (10 g may exceed Directive 2013/35/EU limits at maximum (4 W output power of conventional radiophones, and the distance between antenna and worker's body shorter than 5 cm. SAR (10 g values near trunked radiophones do not exceed 35% of the Directive limits. The Polish safety and health regulations in particular cases of radiophones use and local exposure may not guarantee the compliance with Directive 2013/35/EU requirements, i.e. SAR (10 g may locally exceed exposure limit values (ELVs during exposure to electromagnetic fields of hazardous, and even intermediate zones. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that exposure of trunked radiophones users does not exceed the limits laid down in the Polish safety and health regulations and Directive 2013/35/EU, however, in particular scenarios of the conventional radiophones use overexposure can be observed. The results showed that in exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by sources located near workers' body there is a need for more detailed analysis of the compliance of Polish safety and health regulations with Directive 2013/35/EU requirements. Med Pr 2013;64(6:817–827

  11. A New Perspective on Multi-user Power Control Games in Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of how to allocate power among competing users sharing a frequency-selective interference channel. We model the interaction between these selfish users as a non-cooperative game. As opposed to the existing iterative water-filling algorithm, which studies the myopic behavior of users, this paper studies how a foresighted user, who knows the channel state information and response strategies of its competing users, should behave. To characterize this multi-user interaction, the Stackelberg equilibrium is introduced, and the existence of this equilibrium for the investigated non-cooperative game is shown. We analyze such interactions in more detail using a simple two-user example, where we define the strategic behavior of a foresighted user as a bi-level programming problem, and derive the necessary optimality conditions. It is analytically shown that a foresighted user can improve its performance, if it has the required information about its competitors. Due to the computationall...

  12. Defining the minimal structural requirements for partial agonism at the type I myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R A; Fauq, A; Kozikowski, A P; Nahorski, S R

    1997-02-03

    The novel synthetic analogues D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1,5-bisphosphate-4-phosphorothioate, [3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS], D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate-5-phosphorothioate [3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS], and D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1-phosphate-4,5-bisphosphorothioate [3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2] were utilised to define the structure-activity relationships which could produce partial agonism at the Ca2+ mobilising myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptor. Based on prior structure-activity data we hypothesised that the minimal structural requirements for lns(1,4,5)P3 receptor partial agonism, were phosphorothioate substitution of the crucial vicinal 4,5-bisphosphate pair accompanied by another structural perturbation, such fluorination of 3-position of the myo-inositol ring. All the analogues fully displaced [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 from a single Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding site in pig cerebellar membranes [3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS (1C50 = 26 nM), 3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS (IC50 = 80 nM) and 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 (IC50 = 109 nM) cf. Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IC50 = 11 nM)]. In contrast, 3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS (IC50 = 424 nM) and 3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS (IC50 = 3579 nM) were weak full agonists at the Ca2+ mobilising Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor of permeabilised SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, being respectively 4- and 36-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 (EC50 = 99 nM). While 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 (EC50 = 11345 nM) was a partial agonist releasing only 64.3 +/- 1.9% of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools. 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 was unique among the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor partial agonists so far identified in having a relatively high affinity for the Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding site, accompanied by a significant loss of intrinsic activity for Ca2+ mobilisation. This improved affinity was probably due to the retention of the 1-position phosphate, which enhances interaction with the Ins-(1,4,5)P3 receptor. 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 may be an important lead compound for the development of efficient Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

  13. Involving service users in trials: developing a standard operating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bridie Angela; Bedson, Emma; Bell, Philip; Hutchings, Hayley; Lowes, Lesley; Rea, David; Seagrove, Anne; Siebert, Stefan; Smith, Graham; Snooks, Helen; Thomas, Marie; Thorne, Kym; Russell, Ian

    2013-07-17

    Many funding bodies require researchers to actively involve service users in research to improve relevance, accountability and quality. Current guidance to researchers mainly discusses general principles. Formal guidance about how to involve service users operationally in the conduct of trials is lacking. We aimed to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) to support researchers to involve service users in trials and rigorous studies. Researchers with experience of involving service users and service users who were contributing to trials collaborated with the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health, a registered clinical trials unit, to develop the SOP. Drafts were prepared in a Task and Finish Group, reviewed by all co-authors and amendments made. We articulated core principles, which defined equality of service users with all other research team members and collaborative processes underpinning the SOP, plus guidance on how to achieve these. We developed a framework for involving service users in research that defined minimum levels of collaboration plus additional consultation and decision-making opportunities. We recommended service users be involved throughout the life of a trial, including planning and development, data collection, analysis and dissemination, and listed tasks for collaboration. We listed people responsible for involving service users in studies and promoting an inclusive culture. We advocate actively involving service users as early as possible in the research process, with a minimum of two on all formal trial groups and committees. We propose that researchers protect at least 1% of their total research budget as a minimum resource to involve service users and allow enough time to facilitate active involvement. This SOP provides guidance to researchers to involve service users successfully in developing and conducting clinical trials and creating a culture of actively involving service users in research at all stages. The UK

  14. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  15. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...

  16. E-health Support in People with Parkinson's Disease with Smart Glasses: A Survey of User Requirements and Expectations in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Heida, Tjitske; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in smart glasses, wearable computers in the form of glasses, bring new therapeutic and monitoring possibilities for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). For example, it can provide visual and auditory cues during activities of daily living that have long been used to improve gait disturbances. Furthermore, smart glasses can personalize therapies based on the state of the user and/or the user environment in real-time using object recognition and motion tracking. To provide guidelines for developers in creating new PD applications for smart glasses, a self-reported questionnaire was designed to survey the requirements, constraints, and attitudes of people with PD with respect to this new technology. The survey was advertised online over an 11 month period on the website of the Parkinson Vereninging. The results were derived from 62 participants (54.8% men and 45.2% women, average age of 65.7 ± 9.1), representing a response rate of 79.5% . The participants were overall very enthusiastic about smart glasses as an assistive technology to facilitate daily living activities, especially its potential to self-manage motor problems and provide navigational guidance, thereby restoring their confidence and independence. The reported level of usage of mobile technologies like tablets and smartphones suggests that smart glasses could be adopted relatively easily, especially by younger people with PD. However, the respondents were concerned about the cost, appearance, efficacy, and potential side effects of smart glasses. To accommodate a wide range of symptoms, personal preferences, and comfort level with technology, smart glasses should be designed to allow simple operation and personalization.

  17. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  18. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  19. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and environment, and each has had its effect on the development of technology. The closer we come to the current generation, the bigger is the effect of technology on the characteristics of that generation. User needs guide the technology and the technology shapes the users. This WWRF Outlook analyses......The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had...

  20. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. The PANTHER User Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  3. Turning off flagellum rotation requires the pleiotropic gene pleD: pleA, pleC, and pleD define two morphogenic pathways in Caulobacter crescentus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, J M; Newton, A

    1989-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three pleiotropic genes, pleA, pleC, and pleD, that are required for differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. pleA and pleC mutants were isolated in an extensive screen for strains defective in both motility and adsorption of polar bacteriophage phi CbK; using temperature-sensitive alleles, we determined the time at which the two genes act. pleA was required for a short period at 0.7 of the swarmer cell cycle for flagellum biosynthesis, whereas pleC was requi...

  4. Antenna Test Facility (ATF): User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility (VATF): User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the VATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  6. A Study of User Involvement in the Military Construction Program Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    sion change). B. Incomplete requirements during programming . C . Poorly defined requirements. D. Other *. E. There was no change in user...requirements during the MCP process. 30. Were you the responsible individual during the programming and design phase? A. Yes B. Only during programming C . Only

  7. Defining the antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the requirements for a multi-allele vaccine against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien R Drew

    define polymorphisms important for vaccine escape.

  8. Information for the user in design of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations are made for improving intelligent system reliability and usability based on the use of information requirements in system development. Information requirements define the task-relevant messages exchanged between the intelligent system and the user by means of the user interface medium. Thus, these requirements affect the design of both the intelligent system and its user interface. Many difficulties that users have in interacting with intelligent systems are caused by information problems. These information problems result from the following: (1) not providing the right information to support domain tasks; and (2) not recognizing that using an intelligent system introduces new user supervisory tasks that require new types of information. These problems are especially prevalent in intelligent systems used for real-time space operations, where data problems and unexpected situations are common. Information problems can be solved by deriving information requirements from a description of user tasks. Using information requirements embeds human-computer interaction design into intelligent system prototyping, resulting in intelligent systems that are more robust and easier to use.

  9. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. A methodology to define the flow rate and pressure requirements for transfer of double-shell tank waste slurries. Strategy plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents an analysis of the pressure drop and flow rate double-shell tank slurries. Experiments to requirements for transport of characterize the transport of double-shell tank slurries through piping networks and to resuspend materials that settle during pump outages are proposed. Reported values of physical properties of double-shell tank slurries were analyzed to evaluate the flow regimes that are likely to occur during transport. The results of these evaluations indicate that the slurry will be pseudohomogeneous during transport and that the slurry rheology is sufficiently non-Newtonian to affect both the pressure drop achieved during transport and the critical Reynolds number. The transport data collected in the non-Newtonian experiment will be used to determine whether a non-Newtonian correlation developed by Hanks (1978) adequately describes the experimental results.

  11. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  12. User design

    CERN Document Server

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A

    2012-01-01

    User Design offers a fresh perspective on how front-line learners (users) can participate in the design of learning environments. The author challenges the universal assumption that front-line users must be relegated to the role of offering input, and that the actual design activity of learning systems must still be conducted only by experts. The book presents a new set of methods and strategies that show how the tools of professional designers can be effectively shared with broad groups of users and other participants in the process of creating their own learning. Drawing

  13. Truncation of the membrane-spanning domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein defines elements required for fusion, incorporation, and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ling; Shang, Liang; Hunter, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein from human (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency viruses plays a key role in anchoring the Env complex into the viral membrane but also contributes to its biological function in fusion and virus entry. In HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it has been predicted to span 27 amino acids, from lysine residue 681 to arginine 707, and encompasses an internal arginine at residue 694. By examining a series of C-terminal-truncation mutants of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein that substituted termination codons for amino acids 682 to 708, we show that this entire region is required for efficient viral infection of target cells. Truncation to the arginine at residue 694 resulted in an Env complex that was secreted from the cells. In contrast, a region from residues 681 to 698, which contains highly conserved hydrophobic residues and glycine motifs and extends 4 amino acids beyond 694R, can effectively anchor the protein in the membrane, allow efficient transport to the plasma membrane, and mediate wild-type levels of cell-cell fusion. However, these fusogenic truncated Env mutants are inefficiently incorporated into budding virions. Based on the analysis of these mutants, a "snorkeling" model, in which the flanking charged amino acid residues at 681 and 694 are buried in the lipid while their side chains interact with polar head groups, is proposed for the HIV-1 MSD.

  14. Stat3 defines three populations of Müller glia and is required for initiating maximal müller glia proliferation in the regenerating zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig M; Gorsuch, Ryne A; Bailey, Travis J; Ackerman, Kristin M; Kassen, Sean C; Hyde, David R

    2012-12-15

    We analyzed the role of Stat3, Ascl1a, and Lin28a in Müller glia reentry into the cell cycle following damage to the zebrafish retina. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the temporal and spatial expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a proteins following rod and cone photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Stat3 expression was observed in all Müller glia, whereas Ascl1a expression was restricted to only the mitotic Müller glia. Knockdown of Stat3 protein expression did not affect photoreceptor apoptosis, but significantly reduced, without abolishing, the number of proliferating Ascl1a-positive Müller glia. Knockdown of Ascl1a protein also did not change the extent of photoreceptor apoptosis, but did yield significantly fewer Müller glia that reentered the cell cycle relative to the stat3 morphant and significantly decreased the number and intensity of Stat3-expressing Müller glia. Finally, introduction of lin28a morpholinos resulted in decreased Müller glia expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a, significantly reducing the number of proliferating Müller glia. Thus, there are three populations of Müller glia in the light-damaged zebrafish retina: 1) Stat3-expressing Ascl1a-nonexpressing nonproliferating (quiescent) Müller glia; 2) Stat3-dependent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia; and 3) Stat3-independent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia. Whereas Ascl1a and Lin28a are required for Müller glia proliferation, Stat3 is necessary for the maximal number of Müller glia to proliferate during regeneration of the damaged zebrafish retina.

  15. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey

    2014-01-01

    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  16. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  17. FAST User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  18. Supporting the planning for the evolution of the EOSDIS through an in-depth understanding of user requirements for NASA's world-class Earth science data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, V. L.; Behnke, J.; Maiden, M.; Fontaine, K.

    2004-12-01

    NASA is planning for the evolution of the Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for the evolution planning is developing thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS users and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research and or applications endeavors. This paper provides charts and tables of results from NASA studies that characterized our users, data and techniques. Using these metrics, other projects can apply NASA's 'lessons learned' to the development and operations of their data systems. In 2004, NASA undertook an intensive study of the users and usage of EOSDIS data. The study considered trends in the types and levels of EOS data products being ordered, the expanding number of users requesting products, and the "domains" of those users. The study showed that increasing numbers of users are using the validated, geophysical products produced from the radiance measurements recorded by the EOS instruments; while there remains a steady demand for the radiance products themselves. In 2003, over 2.1 million individuals contacted EOSDIS (as identified by unique email and/or URL) with just over 10% requesting a product or service. The users came from all sectors including 40% from more than 125 countries outside the U.S. University researchers and students (.edu) received over 40% of the some 29 million data and information products disseminated by EOSDIS. The trend in method of delivery for EOSDIS data has been away from receiving data on hard media (tapes, CD-ROM, etc.) to receiving the data over the network. Over 75% of the EOSDIS data products were disseminated via electronic means in 2003 contrasted with just under 30% in 2000. To plan for system-wide evolution you need to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA

  19. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  20. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  1. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region.

  2. Defining and Enforcing Hardware Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    states are and are not distinguishable, and record them in a distinguishability matrix. If two states are found to be distinguishable (not equivalent...A. Cimatti, M. Roveri, S. Semprini, and S. Tonetta, “From PSL to NBA : a modular symbolic encod- ing,” in Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design

  3. 一种基于眼动追踪的产品用户需求获取方法%Way of getting user requirements based on eye tracking technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍; 苟秉宸; 初建杰; 杨延璞

    2015-01-01

    为提高用户需求获取的准确性,提出一种基于眼动追踪的产品设计用户需求获取方法。通过设计眼动实验,分析人眼对不同风格产品形态观察时的运动轨迹并得出实验数据。从心理学角度研究眼动实验参数与用户消费心理的联系,选出首次注视持续时间、首次注视时间、注视总次数、平均瞳孔直径四项参数构建用户需求获取指标评判体系。使用综合赋权法确定参数的权重,加权各样本并比较,最终确定用户需求。以手机设计的用户需求获取为案例对该方法进行了验证。%In order to improve the accuracy of user requirements, a way of eye tracking technology to acquire user require-ments in product design has been put forward. This paper brings forward an eye tracking experiment, which can capture eye movement locus and gives the results of data processing when staring at different styles of products. The average fixation time for the first time, fixation time, the total fixation times and the average pupil diameter four parameters to build users requirements for indicators evaluation system will all be selected through studying the connection between eye tracking experiment datum and user consumption psychology from the psychological perspective. It uses comprehensive weighting method to determine the weights of parameters, and weights scheme and compares each product form style to confirm user requirements. User needs getting of telephone design is used as an example to test this theory.

  4. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casajus Ramo, A [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sapunov, M, E-mail: sapunov@in2p3.f [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  5. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation: Appendix 2B, User's guide to the LWR assemblies data base, Appendix 2C, User's guide to the LWR radiological data base, Appendix 2D, User's guide to the LWR quantities data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-12-01

    This User's Guide for the LWR Assemblies data base system is part of the Characteristics Data Base being developed under the Waste Systems Data Development Program. The objective of the LWR Assemblies data base is to provide access at the personal computer level to information about fuel assemblies used in light-water reactors. The information available is physical descriptions of intact fuel assemblies and radiological descriptions of spent fuel disassembly hardware. The LWR Assemblies data base is a user-oriented menu driven system. Each menu is instructive about its use. Section 5 of this guide provides a sample session with the data base to assist the user.

  6. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  7. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  8. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  9. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  10. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  11. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, M.; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables analys

  12. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables

  13. Non-professional user`s understanding of Geographic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2003-01-01

    -based online services and comprehend the information contents? Using the Gi-based online services qualitatively in the participatory process obviously requires knowledge of the non-professional user`s understanding and use of GI. This paper discusses the needs for research into this field as well as relevant...... research methods....

  14. SDN Based User-Centric Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of mobile data traffic, more and more basestations and access points (APs have been densely deployed to provide users with ubiquitous network access, which make current wireless network a complex heterogeneous network (HetNet. However, traditional wireless networks are designed with network-centric approaches where different networks have different quality of service (QoS strategies and cannot easily cooperate with each other to serve network users. Massive network infrastructures could not assure users perceived network and service quality, which is an indisputable fact. To address this issue, we design a new framework for heterogeneous wireless networks with the principle of user-centricity, refactoring the network from users’ perspective to suffice their requirements and preferences. Different from network-centric approaches, the proposed framework takes advantage of Software Defined Networking (SDN and virtualization technology, which will bring better perceived services quality for wireless network users. In the proposed user-centric framework, control plane and data plane are decoupled to manage the HetNets in a flexible and coadjutant way, and resource virtualization technology is introduced to abstract physical resources of HetNets into unified virtualized resources. Hence, ubiquitous and undifferentiated network connectivity and QoE (quality of experience driven fine-grained resource management could be achieved for wireless network users.

  15. TRANS-USERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to redesign production and business processes to accommodate for users' requirements (Maisons MACCHI), and the client as driver of innovation on the construction and renovation of the low budget hotel brand Formule 1 of ACCOR Hotels. In the third part, the discussion and conclusion addresses three interlinked...... in Denmark, Sweden and France. The five case studies are: The industrialised home building concept BoKlok, a web based product configurator for kitchens by HTH, the innovative potential of the dual role of employees as both user and employee in Rockwool, the application of quality management systems...

  16. Numerical analysis on pool boiling using user defined function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong Guk; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) of Korea is one such application. When PAFS is activated with an actuation signal, steam from the steam generator passes through heat exchanger tubes submerged in a water tank of the PAFS. Outside these heat exchanger tubes, nucleate boiling phenomena appears. In the present work, a numerical study is reported on three-dimensional transient state pool boiling of water having an immersed heat source. The velocity vector fields during the decrease in the water level are numerically investigated in a pool, and the accuracy of the results is checked by comparing the experimental results conducted using the PIV techniques by Kim et al. These numerical results can be used as basic research data for an analysis and prediction of the natural circulation phenomena in the cooling tank of the passive safety system in a nuclear power plant.

  17. Optimizing Lighting Design for Hospital Wards by Defining User Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Niels; Stidsen, Lone; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Studying Standard and recommendations for lighting in hospital environment its often suggest a uniform light distribution to facilitate the needs of the staff. At the same time the standards recommend a lighting design supporting the patients feeling a homely and pleasant atmosphere, and point ou...

  18. Defining useful surrogates for user participation in online medical learning.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, Peter

    2012-02-01

    "School for Surgeons" is a web-based distance learning program which provides online clinical-based tutorials to surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine surrogates of active participation and to assess the efficacy of methods to improve usage. Server logs of the 82 participants in the "School for Surgeons" were assessed for the two terms of the first year of the program. Data collected included total time online, mean session time, page requests, numbers of sessions online and the total number of assignments. An intervention regarding comparative peer usage patterns was delivered to the cohort between terms one and two. Of the 82 trainees enrolled, 83% (85% second term) logged into the program. Of all participants 88% (97% second term) submitted at least one assignment. Median submissions were four (eight second term) per trainee. Assignment submission closely correlated with number of sessions, total time online, downloads and page requests. Peer-based comparative feedback resulted in a significant increase in the number of assignments submitted (p < 0.01). Despite its recent introduction, "School for Surgeons" has a good participation rate. Assignment submission is a valid surrogate for usage. Students can be encouraged to move from passive observation to active participation in a virtual learning environment by providing structured comparative feedback ranking their performance.

  19. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  20. Heterogeneous Clustering: Operational and User Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Saita Wood

    1999-01-01

    Heterogeneous clustering can improve overall utilization of multiple hosts and can provide better turnaround to users by balancing workloads across hosts. Building a cluster requires both operational changes and revisions in user scripts.

  1. Superfluid helium orbital resupply - The status of the SHOOT flight experiment and preliminary user requirements. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment is designed to demonstrate the components and techniques necessary to resupply superfluid helium to satellites or Space Station based facilities. A top level description as well as the development status of the critical components to be used in SHOOT are discussed. Some of these components include the thermomechanical pump, the fluid acquisition system, the normal helium and superfluid helium phase separators, Venturi flow meter, cryogenic valves, burst disks, and astronaut-compatible EVA coupler and transfer line. The requirements for the control electronics and software are given. A preliminary description of the requirements that must be met by a satellite requiring superfluid helium servicing is given. In particular, minimum and optimum plumbing arrangements are shown, transfer line flow impedance and heat input impacts are assessed, instrumentation is described, and performance parameters are considered.

  2. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  3. Metadata: A user`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretherton, F.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Singley, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  4. Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF). User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ARMSEF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) users manual: solar heating and cooling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) provides the software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple remote sites. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consists of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. The CDPS Users Manual identifies users of the performance data base, procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance. The manual also defines the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  6. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  7. XMGR5 users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Fisher, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    ACE/gr is XY plotting tool for workstations or X-terminals using X. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Read and write parameters used during a session. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker.mif format. While ACE/gr has a convenient point-and-click interface, most parameter settings and operations are available through a command line interface (found in Files/Commands).

  8. Trilinos users guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbring, James M.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2003-08-01

    The Trilinos Project is an effort to facilitate the design, development, integration and ongoing support of mathematical software libraries. A new software capability is introduced into Trilinos as a package. A Trilinos package is an integral unit usually developed by a small team of experts in a particular algorithms area such as algebraic preconditioners, nonlinear solvers, etc. The Trilinos Users Guide is a resource for new and existing Trilinos users. Topics covered include how to configure and build Trilinos, what is required to integrate an existing package into Trilinos and examples of how those requirements can be met, as well as what tools and services are available to Trilinos packages. Also discussed are some common practices that are followed by many Trilinos package developers. Finally, a snapshot of current Trilinos packages and their interoperability status is provided, along with a list of supported computer platforms.

  9. Financial Information Extraction Using Pre-defined and User-definable Templates in the LOLITA System

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino, Marco; Morgan, Richard G.; Collingham, Russell J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of information extraction in the financial domain within the framework of a large Natural Language Processing system: LOLITA. The LOLITA system, Large-scale Object-based Linguistic Interactor Translator and Analyser, is a general purpose natural language processing system. Different kinds of applications have been built around the system's core. One of these is the financial information extraction application, which has been designed in close contact with expert...

  10. SILMUSCEN and CLIGEN User`s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [Water and Environment Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    This User`s Guide has been prepared to provide recommendations for the selection and application of climatic scenarios in the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). These scenarios are required for conducting impact studies in SILMU. They should reflect the current range of estimates of future climate in the Finnish region. In addition, they should be consistent with other projections of importance in impact studies, such as future atmospheric composition and sea level. Section 2 provides some background information about the types of scenarios required in SILMU and Section 3 offers a general description of the scenarios. In Section 4 there is some advice on applying sensitivity studies to complement the use of scenarios. Section 5 explains the installation of the SILMUSCEN program and Section 6 guides the user through some examples to illustrate how SILMUSCEN can be used. Section 7 offers some recommendations on which scenarios to adopt for different impact assessments. In order to ensure some compatibility between impact studies in SILMU, it is very important that the recommendations in this section are followed as far as possible. Section 8 addresses important omissions from the computer program and suggests procedures to adopt in their absence. Section 9 explores alternative methods of specifying the baseline climate, and shows how scenario adjustments to the baseline can be made. in Section 10, the stochastic weather generator, CLIGEN, is described and its use illustrated by means of examples. Finally, possible refinements of the programs are outlined in Section 11, along with contact names and addresses for obtaining further information. (36 refs.)

  11. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  12. A comparative study between user research in academia and user research in commercially driven companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hörding, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The following degree project is written within the department of Information Technology at Uppsala University. The subject studied is the difference between academic user research and such user research performed by professionals at commercially driven companies. Academic’s and professional’s agendas, interests and approaches seem to differ and consequently a gap emerges. To perform a comparison between academically defined and practically defined user research a case study and a literature s...

  13. User-Design in the Creation of Human Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alison A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses and defines participatory or user-design in the fields of instructional design and performance technology and describes systemic change as a context for user-design. Topics include stakeholder involvement, ethnographic field methods, cooperative design, action research-based user-design, user-design decision guidelines, and leadership.…

  14. Study of user influence in routine SPM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, D.; Klapetek, P.

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative results obtained using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are influenced not only by instrumentation factors, but also by humans—the SPM users that perform the data processing and the evaluation of statistical characteristics, dimensions and other parameters from the images. We investigate this user influence empirically by performing several experiments in which real humans process SPM data in different settings using the same software, and statistically characterise the results. Two types of experiments are conducted: one in a well-defined laboratory setting where prescribed procedures requiring user input are applied by experienced users to large ensembles of similar data; the other in an open setting in which a large group of SPM users evaluate the same images to obtain specified parameters but without external guidance. The open study in particular brings about results that should be alarming for the SPM community and SPM metrology in particular. We also attempt to derive some guidance for the design of SPM data processing software functions from the results and classify the amount of user input in the data processing functions.

  15. Personalized summarization using user preference for m-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sihyoung; Yang, Seungji; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Hyoung Joong

    2008-02-01

    As the Internet and multimedia technology is becoming advanced, the number of digital multimedia contents is also becoming abundant in learning area. In order to facilitate the access of digital knowledge and to meet the need of a lifelong learning, e-learning could be the helpful alternative way to the conventional learning paradigms. E-learning is known as a unifying term to express online, web-based and technology-delivered learning. Mobile-learning (m-learning) is defined as e-learning through mobile devices using wireless transmission. In a survey, more than half of the people remarked that the re-consumption was one of the convenient features in e-learning. However, it is not easy to find user's preferred segmentation from a full version of lengthy e-learning content. Especially in m-learning, a content-summarization method is strongly required because mobile devices are limited to low processing power and battery capacity. In this paper, we propose a new user preference model for re-consumption to construct personalized summarization for re-consumption. The user preference for re-consumption is modeled based on user actions with statistical model. Based on the user preference model for re-consumption with personalized user actions, our method discriminates preferred parts over the entire content. Experimental results demonstrated successful personalized summarization.

  16. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  17. Development of the User-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Patrick H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the design and development of the user-computer interface in terms of the personal computer user's psychological needs and physical, perceptual, and conceptual contact with the system. Principles for the development of a user-system dialog that meets the requirements of transparency and visibility are suggested. Twenty-six references are…

  18. Penn State's Visual Image User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Henry A.; Dooris, Michael J.; Frost, James; Halm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Visual Image User Study (VIUS), an extensive needs assessment project at Penn State University, describes academic users of pictures and their perceptions. These findings outline the potential market for digital images and list the likely determinates of whether or not a system will be used. They also explain some key user requirements for…

  19. Audit result and its users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalimova Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. The article offers to define audit results user as a person, persons or category of persons for whom the auditor prepares the audit report and, in cases, envisaged by international standards of the audit and domestic legislative and regulatory acts, provides other additional information concerning audit issues. In order to identify the key audit results user the article distributes all audit tasks into two groups depending on possibilities of identification of users. The article proves that the key user should be identified especially in cases of a mandatory audit and this process should go in interconnection with the mechanism of allocation of a key user of financial reports. It offers to consider external users with direct financial interests, who cannot request economic subjects directly to provide information and who should rely on general financial reports and audit report when receiving significant portion of information they need, as the key user. The article makes proposals on specification of the categorical mechanism in the sphere of audit, which are the basis for audit quality assessment, identification of possibilities and conditions of appearance of the necessary and sufficient trust to the auditor opinion.

  20. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  1. A Domain Knowledge Driven Approach for User Interface Software Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鹰; 刘慎权

    1991-01-01

    A domain knowledge driven user interface development approach is described.As a conceptual design of the user interface,the domain knowledge defines the user interface in terms of objects,actions and their relationships that the user would use to interact with the application system.It also serves as input to a user interface management system (UIMS) and is the kernel of the target user interface.The principal ideas and the implementation techniques of the approach is discussed.The user interface model,user interface designer oriented high-level specification notatiopn,and the transformation algorithms on domain knowledge are presented.

  2. User involvement in identifying health needs and shaping and evaluating services: is it being realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B C

    1999-12-01

    The rhetoric of user involvement has featured in health policy documents for over a decade. However, there is mixed evidence as to the extent to which it is being achieved. This paper explores what is meant by user involvement, proposing that it exists at a series of levels ranging from information giving to true empowerment. Examples are presented from two practice development projects. The first sought to develop multidisciplinary audit in primary care, attempting to involve users in defining health needs and determining services. Although the project co-ordinators were highly committed to user involvement this was only achieved to a limited extent. It was concluded that there was a resistance to user involvement grounded in the fear that such involvement would increase user expectations and add to the pressures of overworked primary care teams. The second project used interviews with service users to assess the effectiveness of a team building initiative. Users were found to be knowledgeable about practitioner roles and how to access the care they required. The overall conclusion is that there needs to be a shift from rhetoric to reality at governmental and practitioner level if true user involvement is to be achieved.

  3. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  4. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  5. User Empowerment in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Munjin, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A key concern in the Internet of Things (IoT) has been the integration of mundane objects in the Internet. Although increasingly interconnected, the IoT ecosystem is largely industry-centered. This leads to the creation of limited and incompatible services disempowering users by hampering their participation. In this thesis, we address this issue by empowering users to create, personalize, and distribute services in the IoT ecosystem. We define a general framework for user empowerment relying...

  6. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; Shao, Ling; Shan, Caifeng; Luo, Jiebo; Etoh, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user’s perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface,

  7. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, Wim; Vet, van der Paul; Nijholt, Anton; Shao, Ling; Shan, Caifeng; Luo, Jiebo; Etoh, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user’s perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface, int

  8. User interface design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Debbie; Woodroffe, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Whether you are a professional new to the user-centered design field, or an experienced designer who needs to learn the fundamentals of user interface design and evaluation, this book can lead the way.What will you get from this book? Based on a course from the Open University, UK which has been taught to over a thousand professionals and students, this book presents an overview of the field. It illustrates the benefits of a user-centered approach to the design of software, computer systems, and web sites, and provides a clear and practical discussion of requirements gathering; develop

  9. IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment for a smart space management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoan-Suk; Rhee, Woo-Seop

    2014-11-20

    The existing Internet environment has been extended to the Internet of Things (IoT) as an emerging new paradigm. The IoT connects various physical entities. These entities have communication capability and deploy the observed information to various service areas such as building management, energy-saving systems, surveillance services, and smart homes. These services are designed and developed by professional service providers. Moreover, users' needs have become more complicated and personalized with the spread of user-participation services such as social media and blogging. Therefore, some active users want to create their own services to satisfy their needs, but the existing IoT service-creation environment is difficult for the non-technical user because it requires a programming capability to create a service. To solve this problem, we propose the IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment to provide an easy way to create IoT services. Also, the proposed environment deploys the defined service to another user. Through the personalization and customization of the defined service, the value and dissemination of the service is increased. This environment also provides the ontology-based context-information processing that produces and describes the context information for the IoT-based user-driven service.

  10. Comparing Text-based and Graphic User Interfaces for novice and expert users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Wei; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-10-11

    Graphic User Interface (GUI) is commonly considered to be superior to Text-based User Interface (TUI). This study compares GUI and TUI in an electronic dental record system. Several usability analysis techniques compared the relative effectiveness of a GUI and a TUI. Expert users and novice users were evaluated in time required and steps needed to complete the task. A within-subject design was used to evaluate if the experience with either interface will affect task performance. The results show that the GUI interface was not better than the TUI for expert users. GUI interface was better for novice users. For novice users there was a learning transfer effect from TUI to GUI. This means a user interface is user-friendly or not depending on the mapping between the user interface and tasks. GUI by itself may or may not be better than TUI.

  11. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  12. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  13. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Grid user support is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the Grid. The variety of users and Virtual Organisations adds further to the challenge. Support requests come from Grid beginners, from users with specific applications, from site administrators, or from Grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the Grid. The current use of the system shows that the goal has been achieved with success. The Grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned "regional support with central coordination". This model is realised through a support process which is clearly defined and involves all the parties that are needed to run a project-wide support service. This process is sustained by a help desk system which consists of a central platform integrated with several satellite systems belonging to the Regional Operations Centres (ROCs) and the Virtual Organisations (VOs). The central system (Global Grid User Support, GGUS)...

  14. User-Driven CHAOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette

    2016-01-01

    CHAOS (Cultural Heritage Archive Open System) provides streaming access to more than 500.000 broad-casts by the Danish Broadcast Corporation from 1931 and onwards. The archive is part of the LARM project with the purpose of enabling researchers to search, annotate, and interact with recordings....... To optimally sup-port the researchers a user-centred approach was taken to develop the platform and related metadata scheme. Based on the requirements a three level metadata scheme was developed: (1) core archival metadata, (2) LARM metadata, and (3) project-specific metadata. The paper analyses how.......fm’s strength in providing streaming access to a large, shared corpus of broadcasts....

  15. XTV users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearing, J.F.; Johns, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1996-09-01

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities.

  16. MOSS user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Larry; Gropper, James; Hamill, John; Gentry, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) Users' Manual is specialized document has been designed for trained users of the MOSS interactive graphics software. Those totally unfamiliar with MOSS or Geographic Information Systems are referred elsewhere as described below: -- If you know nothing about MOSS or what it can do for you, and you wish introductory information on MOSS, or you want to deign an application and data entry process compatible with MOSS, or you want "hands-on" training, contact the WELUT Team Leader at the address below for a "hands-on" GIS training session. -- If you have been introduced to MOSS, have your application defined, data entered, and want to know how to use MOSS, start reading at Section 1 of this Manual. --If you are interested in the MOSS data structure, refer to Section 2 of this Manual. --If you have some experience in using MOSS and want to refer to the general types of MOSS commands, read Section 3 of this Manual. --If you are an experience MOSS user and want details on individual MOSS commands, refer to Section 4.3 of this Manual. --If you are interested in the Federation of Rocky Mountain States -- WELUT 02 Project contractual background results, turn to Appendices D and E of this Manual. MOSS has been operation for less than 3 months, and has received limited operational testing at the date of this printing (October 1978). Undiscovered software limitations and bugs may yet appear. All such bugs as well as documentation errors, obscurities, and inadequacies should be reported to: Team Leader

  17. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  18. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  19. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;

    2016-01-01

    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  20. User Driven Innovative Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Steffensen, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    to the broad introduction of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). VICMET is a general method for user involvement in every phase of the construction process and with a unique setup for each type of user. VICMET can use already created information in the building process and emphasis...... that the users are the key to next level of successful building projects. VICMET defines four spaces to support the activities in a innovative/creative design process; The Contextual Inquiry Space, the Conceptual Modeling and Game Space, the Functional Building Systems (FBS) Consolidation Space, and the Solution......During recent years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as on the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving due...

  1. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  2. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  3. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  4. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  5. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  6. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  7. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  8. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  9. User Experience Design in Professional Map-Based Geo-Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Zimmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently been witnessing the growing establishment of map-centered web-based geo-portals on national, regional and local levels. However, a particular issue with these geo-portals is that each instance has been implemented in different ways in terms of design, usability, functionality, interaction possibilities, map size and symbologies. In this paper, we try to tackle these shortcomings by analyzing and formalizing the requirements for map-based geo-portals in a user experience based approach. First, we propose a holistic definition the term of a “geo-portal”. Then, we present our approach to user experience design for map-based geo-portals by defining the functional requirements of a geo-portal, by analyzing previous geo-portal developments, by distilling the results of our empirical user study to perform practically-oriented user requirements, and finally by establishing a set of user experience design guidelines for the creation of map-based geo-portals. These design guidelines have been extracted for each of the main components of a geo-portal, i.e., the map, the search dialogue, the presentation of the search results, symbologies, and other aspects. These guidelines shall constitute the basis for future geo-portal developments to achieve standardization in the user-experience design of map-based geo-portals.

  10. Expert knowledge as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance. Directive on competence and expert knowledge in radiation protection, required for operators of X-ray equipment in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance of January 8, 1987. Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung. Richtlinie Fachkunde und Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz fuer den Betrieb von Roentgeneinrichtungen in der Medizin, Zahnmedizin und Tiermedizin nach der Roentgenverordnung vom 8. Januar 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection officer or any person responsible for radiation safety have to give proof of their expert knowledge in accordance with sections 3, 4 of the X-Ray Ordinance. Proof of expert knowledge has to be furnished within the procedure of appointment (sec. 13, sub-sec. (3) X-Ray Ordinance). The directive defines the scope of the expert knowledge required, and the scope of expert knowledge persons must have, or acquire, who are responsible for radiation protection within the preview of sec. 23, no. 2, 4 and sec. 29, sub-sec. 1, no. 3 of the X-Ray Ordinance.

  11. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  12. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  13. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  14. Franklin: User Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  15. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  16. Investigating the Number of Users And Months to Make Tulungan Effective Against Self-Promoting Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis V. Pantola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulungan is a reputation system for collaborative web filtering that is both consensus-independent and self-promoting resistant. Simulation results show that Tulungan requires less than 50% good users in order to become effective against malicious and self-promoting users (i.e., bad users. Being effective means that it is able to give high reputation values to good users relative to bad users. In addition, the effectiveness of Tulungan is also confirmed by comparing the number of correct URL categorizations that it made against the wrong ones. This is in contrast with other reputation systems that require at least 50% good users in order to be effective against malicious users and even a greater percentage of good users to work against self-promoting users. Although previous studies show the consensus-independent and self-promoting resistant properties of Tulungan, the simulation covers only a fixed number of total users and months. This paper presents additional simulation involving Tulungan that confirms the number of users and months needed for it to become effective. Results show that the reputation values of good users suffer if it involves less than 200 users and 2 simulated months.

  17. Defining the fascial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-01-01

    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  19. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  20. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical...... artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer......, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...

  1. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  2. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  3. Presenting Provenance Based on User Roles - Experiences from the ACOS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    One goal of provenance is to provide users an understanding of the steps a system took to generate data products. Here, the level of detail captured by provenance becomes an important consideration. As detail is added, more questions can be hypothetically addressed. However, presenting significant provenance detail may also overwhelm end users, for one of two reasons: (i) the detail presented is irrelevant to the objectives, or (ii) the detail requires background knowledge a user lacks. Both of these challenges are present for data generated by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photometer-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into data products consumable by end users. To fully understand these sequences of steps, background knowledge corresponding to various areas (e.g., astronomy, digital imaging, and ACOS specific techniques) is required by end users. This makes reviewing provenance difficult for users outside the ACOS development team, where varying degrees of background may be expected (ranging from outside domain experts in Solar Physics to citizen scientists). Likewise, even when steps taken by ACOS are understandable, they may provide undesired detail to an end user if presented. The work with ACOS involved the development of a Semantic Web based framework to selectively present provenance detail for data products in ACOS. Here, provenance is captured according to two sets of ontologies, the Proof Markup Language, which is an ontology based domain-independent provenance model, and a step ontology, designed to capture hierarchies of provenance steps. Used in combination, these ontology sets enable the creation of multiple levels of provenance, ranging from coarse to fine grained detail. In this setting, users may choose to expand/collapse provenance steps to view desired details. However, the specific provenance details a user initially sees is defined through

  4. Decidability of definability

    CERN Document Server

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor

    2010-01-01

    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  5. PTC '87: Telecommunications--Asia, Americas, Pacific. Pacific Telecommunications Users: A Spectrum of Requirements. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (9th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 18-21, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Bissell, Mary Sue, Ed.

    More than 60 papers presented at the 1987 Pacific Telecommunications Council (PTC) conference on telecommunications needs, primarily in and around the Pacific region, are included in this volume. Contributions from major industry user groups, governments, developmental institutions, and the small user are represented. Four keynote addresses open…

  6. User involvement and the NHS reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew

    1998-11-01

    The policy of 'user involvement' in the UK National Health Service emerged during the 1990s along with the reforms that created an internal market. Despite the official rhetoric, progress has been limited. Critics suggest that, not only was the policy flawed in its conception by the construction of service users as consumers and the conflation of consumerism with empowerment, but collaborative models of involvement have tended to legitimate rather than challenge existing provision. Some commentators have questioned the value of user involvement initiatives and proposed that alternative approaches, such as a strengthening of procedural rights or alignment with broader political campaigns, would be more appropriate. The low prominence given in the recent Government White Paper The New NHS1 to the contribution of service users, however, represents less of an ideological shift than a concentration on other, in the Government's view, more pressing priorities: namely, a concern to address the problems of public legitimacy and low staff morale by engaging in greater public participation and giving health professionals a more central role. The result has been a weakening of the users' voice by a conflation of user involvement with public participation and giving health professionals the authority to define users' needs for them. Service users risk, not only having their contribution devalued, but losing the right to an independent and distinctive voice. There is a real danger that the issues of user involvement will not be included on local agendas and the disparities between provision and need and between professionals' and users' views will increase.

  7. Heating 7.2 user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, K.W.

    1993-02-01

    HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  8. GOCE user toolbox and tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made...

  9. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. The role of focus groups in the identification of user needs and data availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L.T. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)); French, D.K.; Preston, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Federal agencies with survey responsibilities often face competing demands. On the one hand, data users frequently require additional information or more detailed information in order to address current issues. On the other hand, data providers, citing increased respondent burden and, possibly, a lack of specific data, often resist changes to existing survey forms. This article describes how the EIA simplified the development of an expanded version of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) through the use of focus groups. These focus groups defined user needs and examined the feasibility of collecting these data. 1 fig.

  11. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  12. Freeze the BCI until the user is ready: a pilot study of a BCI inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    George, Laurent; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) inhibitor, which is meant to standby the BCI until the user is ready, in order to improve the overall performance and usability of the system. BCI inhibitor can be defined as a system that monitors user's state and inhibits BCI interaction until specific requirements (e.g. brain activity pattern, user attention level) are met. In this pilot study, a hybrid BCI is designed and composed of a classic synchronous BCI system based on motor imagery and a BCI inhibitor. The BCI inhibitor initiates the control period of the BCI when requirements in terms of brain activity are reached (i.e. stability in the beta band). Preliminary results with four participants suggest that BCI inhibitor system can improve BCI performance.

  13. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  14. NASA scientific and technical program: User survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an intensive user requirements survey conducted by NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program with the goal of improving the foundation for the user outreach program. The survey was carried out by interviewing 550 NASA scientists, engineers, and contractors and by analyzing 650 individual responses to a mailed out questionnaire. To analyze the user demographic data, a data base was built and used, and will be applied to ongoing analysis by the NASA STI Program.

  15. NASA Scientific and Technical Program - User survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an intensive user requirements survey conducted by NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program with the goal of improving the foundation for the user outreach program. The survey was carried out by interviewing 550 NASA scientists, engineers, and contractors and by analyzing 650 individual responses to a mailed out questionnaire. To analyze the user demographic data, a data base was built and used, and will be applied to ongoing analysis by the NASA STI Program.

  16. Defining Z in Q

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsmann, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  17. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  18. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  19. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  20. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  1. Defining Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Nelson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Open Source Initiative and the Free Software Foundation share a common goal: that everyone should be free to modify and redistribute the software they commonly use. 'Should' is of course a normative word. For the FSF, 'should' is a moral imperative. Anything else is an immoral restriction on people's activities, just as are restrictions on speech, press, movement, and religion. For the OSI, freedom is a necessary precondition for a world where "software doesn't suck", in the words of a founder of the OSI. The FSF started from its founder's GNU Manifesto widely published in 1985. Given the manifesto's hostility to copyright, and given the failure of the Free Software Foundation to gain any traction amongst commercial users of software even with a 13-year head start, a group of people gathered together in 1998 to talk about a new strategy to get the corporate world to listen to hackers. They were impressed by Eric Raymond's Cathedral and the Bazaar's take-up among business leaders.

  2. QUEST Hanford Site Computer Users - What do they do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITHERSPOON, T.T.

    2000-03-02

    The Fluor Hanford Chief Information Office requested that a computer-user survey be conducted to determine the user's dependence on the computer and its importance to their ability to accomplish their work. Daily use trends and future needs of Hanford Site personal computer (PC) users was also to be defined. A primary objective was to use the data to determine how budgets should be focused toward providing those services that are truly needed by the users.

  3. SERVICE USER INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čekić Bašić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the social work profession is considered to be a profession “promoting ... empowerment and liberation of individuals in order to attain greater level of well-being“, the inclusion of the user perspective is a relatively new and still much debated phenomenon. Having in mind that the involvement of service users as experience experts in social work practice, education and research is a very demanding and complex process, the paper analyses a number of challenges faced by social workers, teachers and researchers in their everyday work due to the requirement of inclusion of the service user perspective. The idea of service user involvement in planning, execution and evaluation of curricular contents is a quite recent one in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the social work education reflects the idea on professionals (social workers, teachers or researchers as ultimate knowledge holders. The author defines two categories of factors obstructing the service user involvement in the education and research process: one is related to education institutions and the other to service users, i.e. their organizations, and discusses necessary prerequisites for stronger connections between institutions (departments of social work, practice and service users.

  4. Designing the user experience of game development tools

    CERN Document Server

    Lightbown, David

    2015-01-01

    The Big Green Button My Story Who Should Read this Book? Companion Website and Twitter Account Before we BeginWelcome to Designing the User Experience of Game Development ToolsWhat Will We Learn in This Chapter?What Is This Book About?Defining User ExperienceThe Value of Improving the User Experience of Our ToolsParallels Between User Experience and Game DesignHow Do People Benefit From an Improved User Experience?Finding the Right BalanceWrapping UpThe User-Centered Design ProcessWhat Will We

  5. Rivet user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  6. User-centered agile method

    CERN Document Server

    Deuff, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  7. Solar information user priority study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report identifies for each solar technology those members or potential members of the solar community who, either currently or in the future, will require solar information. In addition, it rates each user's relative need for information within the next three years. This information will be used as input for subsequent studies that will identify specific user needs information. These studies, in turn, will be the basis for information product and data base development for the Solar Energy Information Data Bank (SEIDB). In addition, they will be input for the Technical Information Dissemination (TID) Program.

  8. Lightweight Adaptation of Classifiers to Users and Contexts: Trends of the Emerging Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vildjiounaite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent computer applications need to adapt their behaviour to contexts and users, but conventional classifier adaptation methods require long data collection and/or training times. Therefore classifier adaptation is often performed as follows: at design time application developers define typical usage contexts and provide reasoning models for each of these contexts, and then at runtime an appropriate model is selected from available ones. Typically, definition of usage contexts and reasoning models heavily relies on domain knowledge. However, in practice many applications are used in so diverse situations that no developer can predict them all and collect for each situation adequate training and test databases. Such applications have to adapt to a new user or unknown context at runtime just from interaction with the user, preferably in fairly lightweight ways, that is, requiring limited user effort to collect training data and limited time of performing the adaptation. This paper analyses adaptation trends in several emerging domains and outlines promising ideas, proposed for making multimodal classifiers user-specific and context-specific without significant user efforts, detailed domain knowledge, and/or complete retraining of the classifiers. Based on this analysis, this paper identifies important application characteristics and presents guidelines to consider these characteristics in adaptation design.

  9. Lightweight Adaptation of Classifiers to Users and Contexts: Trends of the Emerging Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildjiounaite, Elena; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Kyllönen, Vesa; Peltola, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent computer applications need to adapt their behaviour to contexts and users, but conventional classifier adaptation methods require long data collection and/or training times. Therefore classifier adaptation is often performed as follows: at design time application developers define typical usage contexts and provide reasoning models for each of these contexts, and then at runtime an appropriate model is selected from available ones. Typically, definition of usage contexts and reasoning models heavily relies on domain knowledge. However, in practice many applications are used in so diverse situations that no developer can predict them all and collect for each situation adequate training and test databases. Such applications have to adapt to a new user or unknown context at runtime just from interaction with the user, preferably in fairly lightweight ways, that is, requiring limited user effort to collect training data and limited time of performing the adaptation. This paper analyses adaptation trends in several emerging domains and outlines promising ideas, proposed for making multimodal classifiers user-specific and context-specific without significant user efforts, detailed domain knowledge, and/or complete retraining of the classifiers. Based on this analysis, this paper identifies important application characteristics and presents guidelines to consider these characteristics in adaptation design. PMID:26473165

  10. Effortless Passive BCIs for Healthy Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Heylen, D.; Jensen, O.; Poel, M.

    2013-01-01

    While a BCI usually aims to provide an alternative communication channel for disabled users who have difficulties to move or to speak, we focused on BCIs as a way to retrieve and use information about an individual’s cognitive or affective state without requiring any effort or intention of the user

  11. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  12. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  13. Software-defined Quantum Networking Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The software enables a user to perform modeling and simulation of software-defined quantum networks. The software addresses the problem of how to synchronize transmission of quantum and classical signals through multi-node networks and to demonstrate quantum information protocols such as quantum teleportation. The software approaches this problem by generating a graphical model of the underlying network and attributing properties to each node and link in the graph. The graphical model is then simulated using a combination of discrete-event simulators to calculate the expected state of each node and link in the graph at a future time. A user interacts with the software by providing an initial network model and instantiating methods for the nodes to transmit information with each other. This includes writing application scripts in python that make use of the software library interfaces. A user then initiates the application scripts, which invokes the software simulation. The user then uses the built-in diagnostic tools to query the state of the simulation and to collect statistics on synchronization.

  14. Universal Service for Socially Excluded Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bakmaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about defining special measures within a universal service for potential socially excluded users, as a part of Project on US in Serbia. In the centre of research are people with disabilities, low income households, and welfare institutions in the Republic of Serbia. After analyzing regulations and statistical data, proposals for telecommunications services for these users are analyzed together with the costs of their realizations. At the end preliminary results of research are discussed.

  15. WIRELESS ADVERTISING: A STUDY OF MOBILE PHONE USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Topic: Using a qualitative methodology, this study attempts to provide a general framework of the functions of mobile communication, and to identify the specific preferences of mobile phone users regarding the commercial messages received on their personal devices. Research objectives: (1 To identify the specific characteristics of mobile communication as perceived by mobile users; (2 to define and analyze the functions of wireless communication as perceived by mobile phone users; and (3 to investigate users preference regarding the content of commercial wireless communication. Previous research: Bauer et al. (2002 identified time, location, information and personalization as relevant acceptance factors for mobile advertising. Barwise and Strong (2002 developed a conceptual model, arguing that social norms, user's motives, mode, time, location and personal characteristics will affect the processing of mobile information by consumers. Tsang et al. (2004 evidenced the influence of entertainment, informativeness and irritation, while Bauer et al. (2005 argued that consumer attitudes are influenced by perceived information, entertainment, and social utility. In a similar study, Xu and Gutierrez (2006 tested the effect of entertainment, irritation, informativeness, credibility and personalization on the attitudes of Chinese consumers. Research methodology: First, a series of academic and practical articles and reports have been accessed in order to assess the existing knowledge on this topic. Second, five focus groups have been organized with six mobile phone users, aged between 20 and 40 years old. Each focus group comprised an equal number of male and female participants. The focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and addressed three main issues: the specific characteristics of the mobile phones as a commercial communication media, the functions of mobile phone communication, and the specific preferences of mobile phones users regarding the

  16. Authentication of Primary User in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sudesh Gupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR or soft ware defined radio is a new concept for maximizing the utilization of the radio spectrum. The CR can sense the unused frequency spectrum at any time from the wide range of wireless radio spectrum. This gives the efficient use of radio resources. In cognitive radio environment, a primary licensed user (PU can share spectrum availability information with a secondary user, the secondary user will then be able to access available frequency spectrum. However, a secondary user should always need to verify the authenticity of the spectrum occupancy information whether it comes from the authentic primary users. Without the verification, a malicious user can give false information about the spectrum occupancy. This can result interference to the primary users and minimize available spectrum for the secondary usage. In this paper, we have develop an efficient technique to verify the source of the spectrum occupancy information is to be from the authentic primary user , by doing this we are maximizing the spectrum utilization efficiency and minimizing any interference to the primary licensed users.

  17. User evaluation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    2004-01-01

    The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented......The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented...

  18. IT Department User Survey PDF Usage Report

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Pete

    2017-01-01

    During 2016 the IT-CDA group carried out a study of IT users and their working environments and habits with the aim of understanding the user community better. This project involved interviews with users from different working backgrounds and an online survey containing questions of user devices and software preferences. A section of the questions was aimed at understanding how people handle PDF documents and this note analyses the responses to these. This analysis will help IT-CDA to better understand the PDF requirements and so help us to improve the services that rely on these documents.

  19. An Ontology-Based Framework for Modeling User Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of user modeling and semantically enhanced representations for personalization. This paper presents a generic Ontology-based User Modeling framework (OntobUMf), its components, and its associated user modeling processes. This framework models the behavior of the users....... The results of this research may contribute to the development of other frameworks for modeling user behavior, other semantically enhanced user modeling frameworks, or other semantically enhanced information systems....... and classifies its users according to their behavior. The user ontology is the backbone of OntobUMf and has been designed according to the Information Management System Learning Information Package (IMS LIP). The user ontology includes a Behavior concept that extends IMS LIP specification and defines...

  20. The expert knowledge as defined by the X-ray Ordinance. Directive on competence and expert knowledge in radiation protection, required for the personnel applying X-ray equipment in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as defined by the X-ray Ordinance/medicine. Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung. Richtlinie Fachkunde und Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz fuer den Betrieb von Roentgeneinrichtungen in der Medizin, Zahnmedizin und bei der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlen auf Tiere - Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung/Medizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Persons applying within their role responsibility X-rays in medicine or veterinary medicine, or persons with a responsibility as radiation protection officer or according to section 24, sub-sec. (3) Radiation Protection Ordinance have to give proof of the required expert knowledge (section 3, sub-sec. (2), no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. (1) no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 23 no.s. 1 and 3 of the X-ray Ordinance). In addition, persons applying X-rays under the supervision and responsibility of a medical specialist or dentist, have to acquire the knowledge in radiation protection as defined by section 23, no. 2 and 4 X-ray Ordinance. As to the application of X-rays in veterinary medicine, the expert knowledge required is defined in section 3, sub-sec. (2) no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. 1 no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 29 sub-sec. (1) no. 4 of the X-ray Ordinance. The knowledge to be acquired in radiation protection is given in section 29, sub-sec. (1) no. 3 of the X-ray Ordinance. The radiation protection officer or persons responsible for radiation protection have to give proof of their expert knowledge within the course of the licensing or notification procedure in accordance with sections 3 and 4 of the X-ray Ordinance, or in the course of the procedure for appointment of a radiation protection officier in accordance with section 13, sub-sec. (3) of the X-ray Ordinance. (orig.).

  1. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  2. CaMath user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ben-chin; Daly, B.

    1994-07-13

    CaMath is an external Mathematica package which can be loaded into Mathematica by a user. CaMath consists of a special set of channel access functions which provides the Mathematica users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. The available functions for CaMath, their functionality, and their syntax are described herein. This document also gives examples how a Mathematica user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using Mathematica. Few examples of Mathematica module of using CaMath functions are also given in this document.

  3. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. A Functional Approach to User Guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    The functional approach opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography. It encourages lexicographers to adopt a new way of thinking when planning and compiling dictionaries and when discussing and developing new lexicographic principles. One area in which it impacts...... to fulfil the requirements of users. By applying the functional approach lexicographers are forced to reconsider the scope of the user guide. The user guide has traditionally centred on the structures of entries - and consequently on the word list - but its scope should be widened, so as to include all......-oriented and/or cognitive functions and relate the data in the entire dictionary, not merely the entries, to these functions. Finally, the lexicographers should consider the classes of language functions involved in writing user guides. In order to guide and instruct the user in the best way possible, user...

  5. Defining The Other Solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, Valerie; Bates, Joanna

    1990-01-01

    The changing content of urban-based family practice needs to be redefined so that appropriate family medicine training programs can be planned to meet the primary care health needs of Canada's urban-based population. Although the core content of family practice is common to both rural and urban areas, each requires specific skills and attitudes dictated by differences in patient characteristics, disease incidence, physician expectations, and professional contexts. A challenge for the future is the development of both rural-based and urban-based streams of family medicine training that will unite rather than divide the profesiion. PMID:21233947

  6. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  7. Mutations at positions 547-553 of rat glucocorticoid receptors reveal that hsp90 binding requires the presence, but not defined composition, of a seven-amino acid sequence at the amino terminus of the ligand binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sunil; Murphy, Patrick J M; Chen, Jun; Brown, Lloyd; Pratt, William B; Simons, S Stoney

    2002-09-27

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) must heterocomplex with hsp90 to have an open steroid binding cleft that can be accessed by steroid. We reported that a seven-amino acid sequence (547-553 of rat GR) overlapping the amino-terminal end of the ligand binding domain is required for hsp90 binding to GR. We have now conducted saturation mutagenesis of this sequence, which appears to be part of the surface where the ligand binding cleft merges with the surface of the ligand binding domain. No single point mutation causes significant changes in any of a variety of biochemical and biological properties in addition to hsp90 binding. A triple mutation (P548A/T549A/V551A) increases by >100-fold the steroid concentration required for half-maximal induction without affecting the level of maximal induction or coactivator response. Interestingly, this triple mutant displays reduced binding of steroid and hsp90 in whole cells, but it possesses wild type affinity for steroid and normal hsp90 binding capacity under cell-free conditions. This phenotype of a dramatic shift in the dose response for transactivation would be expected from an increase in the rate of disassembly of the triple mutant GR.hsp90 heterocomplex in the cell. Mutation of the entire seven-amino acid region to CAAAAAC maintains the presence of a critical alpha-helical structure and heterocomplex formation with hsp90 but eliminates steroid binding and transcriptional activation, thus disconnecting hsp90 binding from opening of the ligand binding cleft and steroid binding.

  8. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  9. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  10. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators. The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users.

  11. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  12. User research & technology, pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2011-01-01

    This e-book is Part 2 on the theme "User Research and Technology". The research covers the testing of online digital library resources using various methods. Library and information science as a field is changing and the requirements for top quality research are growing more stringent. This is typical of the experience of other professional fields as they have moved from practitioners advising practitioners to researchers building on past results. This e-book contains 12 papers on this theme.

  13. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  14. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  15. Extending a User Interface Prototyping Tool with Automatic MISRA C Code Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with systems, particularly safety-critical systems, that involve interaction between users and devices, such as the user interface of medical devices. We therefore developed a MISRA C code generator for formal models expressed in the PVSio-web prototyping toolkit. PVSio-web allows developers to rapidly generate realistic interactive prototypes for verifying usability and safety requirements in human-machine interfaces. The visual appearance of the prototypes is based on a picture of a physical device, and the behaviour of the prototype is defined by an executable formal model. Our approach transforms the PVSio-web prototyping tool into a model-based engineering toolkit that, starting from a formally verified user interface design model, will produce MISRA C code that can be compiled and linked into a final product. An initial validation of our tool is presented for the data entry system of an actual medical device.

  16. Recommendation System for Product Using User Interest, Social Circle and Location of User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himgauri D. Ambulkar , Apashabi Pathan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation System (RS is used to discover users interested items. The present testimonial framework is not efficient as desire. It has to require enhancement in framework for current and future necessities to getting best results for recommendation qualities. This paper combines four factors such as users interest, personal interest similarity, interpersonal impact and user’s location information. In propose system we add user location in dataset also use PCC similarity method which reduce the RMSE and MAE errors

  17. Modelling User Needs: Students as Enterprise Analysts%Modelling User Needs: Students as Enterprise Analysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIANMARIO Motta; THIAGO Barroero Daniele Sacco

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate a case study, where students designed enterprise architectures, that were not only welcome but successfully implemented. The success key was threefold. First the analysis framework, that integrates all the aspects of the systems that are relevant to users, namely user interface, rules, and information. Second, the analysis approach, that guides, trough confirmatory sessions, to elicit real requirements from users. Third, the model-to-model transformation, that assures consistency from the highest aggregate abstraction down to an executable model.

  18. POSA: a user-driven, interactive multiple protein structure alignment server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanwen; Natarajan, Padmaja; Ye, Yuzhen; Hrabe, Thomas; Godzik, Adam

    2014-07-01

    POSA (Partial Order Structure Alignment), available at http://posa.godziklab.org, is a server for multiple protein structure alignment introduced in 2005 (Ye,Y. and Godzik,A. (2005) Multiple flexible structure alignment using partial order graphs. Bioinformatics, 21, 2362-2369). It is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement, albeit there is an option to register and store results in individual, password-protected directories. In the updated POSA server described here, we introduce two significant improvements. First is an interface allowing the user to provide additional information by defining segments that anchor the alignment in one or more input structures. This interface allows users to take advantage of their intuition and biological insights to improve the alignment and guide it toward a biologically relevant solution. The second improvement is an interactive visualization with options that allow the user to view all superposed structures in one window (a typical solution for visualizing results of multiple structure alignments) or view them individually in a series of synchronized windows with extensive, user-controlled visualization options. The user can rotate structure(s) in any of the windows and study similarities or differences between structures clearly visible in individual windows. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  20. Building a Relationship between Robot Characteristics and Teleoperation User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Michael; Horan, Ben; Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi

    2017-03-14

    The Robot Operating System (ROS) provides roboticists with a standardized and distributed framework for real-time communication between robotic systems using a microkernel environment. This paper looks at how ROS metadata, Unified Robot Description Format (URDF), Semantic Robot Description Format (SRDF), and its message description language, can be used to identify key robot characteristics to inform User Interface (UI) design for the teleoperation of heterogeneous robot teams. Logical relationships between UI components and robot characteristics are defined by a set of relationship rules created using relevant and available information including developer expertise and ROS metadata. This provides a significant opportunity to move towards a rule-driven approach for generating the designs of teleoperation UIs; in particular the reduction of the number of different UI configurations required to teleoperate each individual robot within a heterogeneous robot team. This approach is based on using an underlying rule set identifying robots that can be teleoperated using the same UI configuration due to having the same or similar robot characteristics. Aside from reducing the number of different UI configurations an operator needs to be familiar with, this approach also supports consistency in UI configurations when a teleoperator is periodically switching between different robots. To achieve this aim, a Matlab toolbox is developed providing users with the ability to define rules specifying the relationship between robot characteristics and UI components. Once rules are defined, selections that best describe the characteristics of the robot type within a particular heterogeneous robot team can be made. A main advantage of this approach is that rather than specifying discrete robots comprising the team, the user can specify characteristics of the team more generally allowing the system to deal with slight variations that may occur in the future. In fact, by using the

  1. Building a Relationship between Robot Characteristics and Teleoperation User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mortimer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Robot Operating System (ROS provides roboticists with a standardized and distributed framework for real-time communication between robotic systems using a microkernel environment. This paper looks at how ROS metadata, Unified Robot Description Format (URDF, Semantic Robot Description Format (SRDF, and its message description language, can be used to identify key robot characteristics to inform User Interface (UI design for the teleoperation of heterogeneous robot teams. Logical relationships between UI components and robot characteristics are defined by a set of relationship rules created using relevant and available information including developer expertise and ROS metadata. This provides a significant opportunity to move towards a rule-driven approach for generating the designs of teleoperation UIs; in particular the reduction of the number of different UI configurations required to teleoperate each individual robot within a heterogeneous robot team. This approach is based on using an underlying rule set identifying robots that can be teleoperated using the same UI configuration due to having the same or similar robot characteristics. Aside from reducing the number of different UI configurations an operator needs to be familiar with, this approach also supports consistency in UI configurations when a teleoperator is periodically switching between different robots. To achieve this aim, a Matlab toolbox is developed providing users with the ability to define rules specifying the relationship between robot characteristics and UI components. Once rules are defined, selections that best describe the characteristics of the robot type within a particular heterogeneous robot team can be made. A main advantage of this approach is that rather than specifying discrete robots comprising the team, the user can specify characteristics of the team more generally allowing the system to deal with slight variations that may occur in the future. In fact, by

  2. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...... status of the pilot services. The evaluation will be conducted on two pilot services, that are being implemented - the Lifestyle companion and the Icebreaker. The plan of the evaluation is to carry out combinations of different types of user evaluation methods. These are user panel workshops, situated...

  3. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  4. The User Reconfigured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    Foundational to HCI is the notion of “the user.” Whether a cognitive processor, social actor, consumer, or even a non- user, the user in HCI has always been as much a technical construct as actual people using systems. We explore an emerging formulation of the user—the subjectivity of in- formation......, and activism. We argue that subjectivi- ties of information clarifies the relationships between de- sign choices and embodied experiences, ways that designers design users and not just products, and ways to cultivate and transform, rather than merely support, human agency....

  5. Continuous Briefing and User Participation in Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design pro-posals fulfill the needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the pre-project stage to create a basis for the project decision....... It includes an initial strategic brief-ing to define the overall vision and objectives. Parallel to the design briefing it is necessary to carry out a briefing process related to interior design and building operation and before the building is commissioned a briefing process related to moving...... into the building is required. A building project is often part of a change process of the organisation that is going to occupy the building, and this change process should be management carefully to reach a successful result. An important aspect of briefing is to manage the par-ticipation of the coming users...

  6. MRDAP User/Developer Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua Cogliati; Michael Milvich

    2009-09-01

    The Multi-Reactor Design and Analysis Platform (MRDAP) is designed to simplify the creation, transfer and processing of data between computational codes. MRDAP accomplishes these objectives with three parts: 1. allows each integrated code, through a plugin, to specify the required input for execution and the required output needed, 2. creates an interface for execution and data transfer, 3. enables the creation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to assist with input preparation and data visualization. Ultimately, the main motivation of this work is to enable analysts (who perform reactor physics calculations routinely), by providing a tool that increases efficiency and minimizes the potential for errors or failed executions.

  7. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  8. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Sørensen, Bodil; Jochumsen, Bente Würtz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  9. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Knudsen, P.

    2013-12-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Recently, the second version of the GOCE User Toolbox (GUT) was developed to enhance the exploitation of GOCE level 2 data with ERS ENVISAT altimetry. The developments of GUT focused on the following issues: Data Extraction, Generation, Filtering, and Data Save and Restore Without any doubt the development of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for oceanography. The results of the preliminary analysis carried out in this phase of the GUTS project have already demonstrated a significant advance in the ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features compared with earlier satellite only solutions. Calculation of the geostrophic surface currents from the MDT reveals improvements for all of the ocean's major current systems.

  10. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  11. Demonstrator 1: User Interface and User Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Describes the user interface and its functionality in a prototype system used for a virtual seminar session. The functionality is restricted to what is needed for a distributed seminar discussion among not too many people. The system is designed to work with the participants distributed at several...

  12. Incorporating User-oriented Security into CC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Current versions of the Common Criteria concentrate very heavily on technical security issues which are relevant for the design of secure systems. This approach largely ignores a number of questions which can have great significance for whether or not the system can be operated securely...... in an environment which contains not only other computer systems, but also human users. A case study involving the design of a secure medical instrumentation system will be used to illustrate the problems involved in incorporating user requirements into a secure design, so that system, when implemented, will help...... users to understand whether they are operating the system in a secure manner, thus avoiding user-related pitfalls such as leaking of confidential data as a result of inappropriate input, loss of patient privacy, inappropriate user reactions due to slow system response, or other similar threats...

  13. An Authentication Framework for Nomadic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    Security and usability are often horn locked and system administrators tend to configure systems so that they favor security over usability. In many cases, however, the increased security results in usability that is so poor that users feel the need to circumvent the security mechanisms....... This is probably best explained by considering password based authentication, where a user is actively involved in the process. If the time required to log in to an account is considered too high, users tend to leave their terminals logged in throughout the day and share their account with other users....... This is particularly true for nomadic users who move around in ubiquitous computing environments and avail from different IT services from many different locations. In many ubiquitous computing environments, where information processing is not considered the main priority, management often accepts this practise...

  14. Development concept for Dutch user support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, C. N. A.; Koopman, N.; Dehoop, D.

    1992-06-01

    The main development approaches and some technologies developed in support of the different objectives of the Dutch Utilization Center (DUC) are reported. The DUC acts as a point of coordination of Dutch user support activities. The support needs of the user are analyzed and from there the required support efforts of the entities in the Dutch User Support Organization (DUSO) are activated. The main objectives of the DUSO are to promote the availability of the Columbus Space Station infrastructure among potential Dutch users, and to assist the users during the process of experiment definition, development, execution, and results evaluation. The DUSO support activities cover promotion and familiarization, and administrative, scientific, technical, and operational support to microgravity and space experimentation. The DUC developmental approaches consist of two approaches: a top down or formal approach; and a bottom up approach.

  15. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple......The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  16. User programmable virtualized networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.J.; Strijkers, R.J.; Gommans, L.; Laat, C.de

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a User Programmable Virtualized Network, which allows networks to deliver application specific services using network element components that developers can program as part of a users application. The use of special tokens in data or control packets is the basis

  17. Additional user needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.

    1986-08-15

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs.

  18. EMI New User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M

    2013-01-01

    This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.

  19. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  20. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    , deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case......User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create...

  1. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...... a company’s general attitude and approach to (1) international markets and (2) user studies. Lastly, we present the theoretical ideas and concepts about culture that has informed the research....... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...

  2. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  3. TMAP7 User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-12-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  4. 16 CFR 303.1 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that solicit ultimate consumers to purchase such textile products by mail, telephone, electronic mail... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.1 Terms defined. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The term Act means the Textile Fiber...

  5. Data Extraction from the Web Based on Pre-Defined Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小峰; 陆宏钧; 王海燕; 谷明哲

    2002-01-01

    With the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web has become an invaluable information source for most organizations. However, most documents available from the Web are in HTML form which is originally designed for document formatting with little consideration of its contents. Effectively extracting data from such documents remains a nontrivial task. In this paper, we present a schema-guided approach to extracting data from HTML pages. Under the approach, the user defines a schema specifying what to be extracted and provides sample mappings between the schema and the HTML page. The system will induce the mapping rules and generate a wrapper that takes the HTML page as input and produces the required data in the form of XML conforming to the user-defined schema. A prototype system implementing the approach has been developed. The preliminary experiments indicate that the proposed semi-automatic approach is not only easy to use but also able to produce a wrapper that extracts required data from inputted pages with high accuracy.

  6. Dynamic optical resource allocation for mobile core networks with software defined elastic optical networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xinbo

    2016-07-25

    Driven by the forthcoming of 5G mobile communications, the all-IP architecture of mobile core networks, i.e. evolved packet core (EPC) proposed by 3GPP, has been greatly challenged by the users' demands for higher data rate and more reliable end-to-end connection, as well as operators' demands for low operational cost. These challenges can be potentially met by software defined optical networking (SDON), which enables dynamic resource allocation according to the users' requirement. In this article, a novel network architecture for mobile core network is proposed based on SDON. A software defined network (SDN) controller is designed to realize the coordinated control over different entities in EPC networks. We analyze the requirement of EPC-lightpath (EPCL) in data plane and propose an optical switch load balancing (OSLB) algorithm for resource allocation in optical layer. The procedure of establishment and adjustment of EPCLs is demonstrated on a SDON-based EPC testbed with extended OpenFlow protocol. We also evaluate the OSLB algorithm through simulation in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, traffic load distribution, and resource utilization ratio compared with link-based load balancing (LLB) and MinHops algorithms.

  7. Defining the required infrastructure supporting co-operative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Kievit, M.; Maas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Systems will play a critical role in enabling safe, smart and clean transport, as well as meeting the European Commission's 2020 policy goals. There is today a general understanding of the benefits of cooperative systems but there is still a need for further validation of the estimated b

  8. Defining Antimicrobial Textile Requirements for Military Applications - A Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    bacterial population (Figure 2). External factors include ambient temperature, humidity, and light exposure, while internal or host factors include...a Warfighter-specific baseline microbiome. This baseline would set the stage to evaluate changes in skin population to prolonged exposure to AMTs...that they do NOT use antimicrobial sleeping bags (75%), boxers/underwear (75%), t- shirts (66%), and socks (59%). This is true across all of the

  9. Defining the medical imaging requirements for a rural health center

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book establishes the criteria for the type of medical imaging services that should be made available to rural health centers, providing professional rural hospital managers with information that makes their work more effective and efficient. It also offers valuable insights into government, non-governmental and religious organizations involved in the planning, establishment and operation of medical facilities in rural areas. Rural health centers are established to prevent patients from being forced to travel to distant urban medical facilities. To manage patients properly, rural health centers should be part of regional and more complete systems of medical health care installations in the country on the basis of a referral and counter-referral program, and thus, they should have the infrastructure needed to transport patients to urban hospitals when they need more complex health care. The coordination of all the activities is only possible if rural health centers are led by strong and dedicated managers....

  10. Defining Army Capabilities to Meet Building Partnership Capacity Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    111 Lolita C. Baldor, “U.S. officials plan deep changes in combat brigades,” Philly.com, entry posted January 26, 2012, http://articles.philly.com... Lolita C., “U.S. officials plan deep changes in combat brigades.” Philly.com, entry posted January 26, 2012, http://articles.philly.com/2012-01-26

  11. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  12. Microbial and cytopathological study of intrauterine contraceptive device users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Krishna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is a commonly used birth-spacing method which is fitted into maternal system. Clinical, microbial and cytopathological monitoring of women using these devices are important for ascertaining their side effects, risk of genital tract infection and carcinogenic potential. AIMS: To study clinical, microbial and cytopathological changes in IUCD users in a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN: Prospective analytic. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: women visiting Family Planning clinic for follow up (IUCD users, n=100 or for IUCD insertion (controls, n=50 were enrolled in the study. Each subject underwent detailed history, general physical, systemic, and per local examination. Vaginal discharge was subjected to pH testing, KOH and wet mount examination, gram staining, and for culture and sensitivity. Bacterial vaginosis was defined using Nugent criteria. Cervical smears were examined and reported as per Bethesda system. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The information was entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The results were analyzed using EPI Info version-6 and Stata statistical software version 7 packages. Two-tailed t-test, chi2 test with Yates correction and two-tailed Fisher Exact tests were applied. RESULTS: Most women used CuT 200 (92%. Median duration of use was 2 years. Chief complaints of IUCD users included backache (54%, vaginal discharge (46%, pain lower abdomen (34%, dyspareunia (22%, menorrhagia (18% and dysmenorrhea (14%. Mean hemoglobin was lower in IUCD users than controls (11.2±1.7 versus 11.9±1.8 g/dL, p 0.02. Proportion of women with anemia was higher in IUCD users than in controls (29% versus 16%, p 0.12. Cervical erosion was significantly increased in study group as compared the controls (20% versus 0%, p=0.00 whereas only insignificant increase in vaginitis (6% versus 0%, p=0.17. Trichomonas vaginalis and fungal hyphae positivity and gram stain findings and bacterial

  13. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process......Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... a number of different processes with varying purposes before and during the design and construction activities. Thus, briefing can be regarded as a continuous process but it should also be an inclusive and interactive process with the involvement of all stakeholders, including end users. This article...

  14. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... a number of different processes with varying purposes before and during the design and construction activities. Thus, briefing can be regarded as a continuous process but it should also be an inclusive and interactive process with the involvement of all stakeholders, including end users. This article...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  15. User`s guide to MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Chun, K.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  16. Users prod FERC to encourage electricity wheeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, M.

    1985-08-19

    Some users urging the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage or require utilities to transmit user-owned power draw parallels with the natural gas industry. Utilities contend that wheeling in this way does not necessarily improve system-wide efficiency, and can threaten reliability, although all agree that excess capacity should be moved to areas of less efficient generation or capacity need. Legislation giving FERC authority to order wheeling for customers could increase rates to remaining customers who cannot shop around.

  17. User-Centred Design Using Gamestorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    User-centered design (UX) is becoming a standard in software engineering and has tremendous potential in healthcare. The purpose of this tutorial will be to demonstrate and provide participants with practice in user-centred design methods that involve 'Gamestorming', a form of brainstorming where 'the rules of life are temporarily suspended'. Participants will learn and apply gamestorming methods including persona development via empathy mapping and methods to translate artefacts derived from participatory design sessions into functional and design requirements.

  18. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing via a Novel User-Classification Scheme in Cognitive Radios for Future Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication networks would be required to deliver data on a far greater scale than is known to us today, thus mandating the maximal utilization of the available radio spectrum using cognitive radios. In this paper, we have proposed a novel cooperative spectrum sensing approach for cognitive radios. In cooperative spectrum sensing, the fusion center relies on reports of the cognitive users to make a global decision. The global decision is obtained by assigning weights to the reports received from cognitive users. Computation of such weights requires prior information of the probability of detection and the probability of false alarms, which are not readily available in real scenarios. Further, the cognitive users are divided into reliable and unreliable categories based on their weighted energy by using some empirical threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to classify the cognitive users into reliable, neutral and unreliable categories without using any pre-defined or empirically-obtained threshold. Moreover, the computation of weights does not require the detection, or false alarm probabilities, or an estimate of these probabilities. Reliable cognitive users are assigned the highest weights; neutral cognitive users are assigned medium weights (less than the reliable and higher than the unreliable cognitive users’ weights; and unreliable users are assigned the least weights. We show the performance improvement of our proposed method through simulations by comparing it with the conventional cooperative spectrum sensing scheme through different metrics, like receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and mean square error. For clarity, we also show the effect of malicious users on detection probability and false alarm probability individually through simulations.

  19. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  20. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  1. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  2. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  3. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  4. The User Reconfigured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    , and activism. We argue that subjectivi- ties of information clarifies the relationships between de- sign choices and embodied experiences, ways that designers design users and not just products, and ways to cultivate and transform, rather than merely support, human agency.......—by laying out what it means and why research- ers are being drawn to it. We then use it to guide a case study of a relatively marginal use of computing—digitally mediated sexuality—to holistically explore design in rela- tion to embodiment, tactual experience, sociability, power, ideology, selfhood......Foundational to HCI is the notion of “the user.” Whether a cognitive processor, social actor, consumer, or even a non- user, the user in HCI has always been as much a technical construct as actual people using systems. We explore an emerging formulation of the user—the subjectivity of in- formation...

  5. Interactive Office user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  6. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  7. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  8. User-Perceived Quality Assessment for VoIP Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, R; CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    We designed and implemented a system that permits the measurement of network Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. This system allows us to objectively evaluate the requirements of network applications for delivering user-acceptable quality. To do this we compute accurately the network QoS parameters: one-way delay, jitter, packet loss and throughput. The measurement system makes use of a global clock to synchronise the time measurements in different points of the network. To study the behaviour of real network applications specific metrics must be defined in order to assess the user-perceived quality (UPQ) for each application. Since we measure simultaneously network QoS and application UPQ, we are able to correlate them. Determining application requirements has two main uses: (i) to predict the expected UPQ for an application running over a given network (based on the corresponding measured QoS parameters) and understand the causes of application failure; (ii) to design/configure networks that provide the ne...

  9. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  10. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  11. Engaging Non-traditional User Communities Through NVO Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, N.; Demorest, P.; Spitz, R.; Malina, R.; Schultz, G.; Hawkins, I.

    2002-05-01

    The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) can establish an effective and highly visible Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program that builds upon existing NASA EPO activities. The success of the NVO EPO program will be dependent on identifying potential users and their needs. There are a number of user communities that go beyond the traditional audiences served by NASA and NSF data-driven initiatives. We are exploring how NVO imagery, information, and tools can best engage a variety of non-traditional user communities including SETI@home teachers, educators in teacher preparation programs, and the art and entertainment communities. We are investigating the most appropriate methods of assessing the needs of the various communities, including computer usability labs, focus groups, surveys, interviews, etc. Implementing the results of user requirements research will maximize the likelihood that NVO resources will actually be used and will be of benefit to the largest possible number of people. We will discuss results from a survey of SETI@home educators who were asked to identify the most useful resources that a program such as NVO could provide. In addition, we will present our strategy and plans for assessing the needs of the arts community. This research will inform future prototyping of NVO interfaces for the public at large, and tailored tools such as automated systems on the Web that utilize user-profile defining technology.

  12. INTELLIGENT USER INTERFACE IN FUZZY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Khayut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-Computer Interaction with the traditional User Interface is done using a specified in advance script dialog “menu”, mainly based on human intellect and unproductive use of navigation. This approach doesn’t lead to making qualitative decision in control systems, where the situations and processes cannot be structured in advance. Any dynamic changes in the controlled business process (as example, in organizational unit of the information fuzzy control system make it necessary to modify the script dialogue in User Interface. This circumstance leads to a redesign of the components of the User Interface and of the entire control system. In the Intelligent User Interface, where the dialog situations are unknown in advance, fuzzy structured and artificial intelligence is crucial, the redesign described above is impossible. To solve this and other problems, we propose the data, information and knowledge based technology of Smart/ Intelligent User Interface (IUI design, which interacts with users and systems in natural and other languages, utilizing the principles of Situational Control and Fuzzy Logic theories, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Knowledge Base technologies and others. The proposed technology of IUI design is defined by multi-agents of a Situational Control and of data, information and knowledge, b modelling of Fuzzy Logic Inference, c Generalization, Representation and Explanation of knowledge, c Planning and Decisionmaking, d Dialog Control, e Reasoning and Systems Thinking, f Fuzzy Control of organizational unit in real-time, fuzzy conditions, heterogeneous domains, and g multi-lingual communication under uncertainty and in Fuzzy Environment.

  13. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  14. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  15. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  16. Research on Bayesian Network Based User's Interest Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weifeng; XU Baowen; CUI Zifeng; XU Lei

    2007-01-01

    It has very realistic significance for improving the quality of users' accessing information to filter and selectively retrieve the large number of information on the Internet. On the basis of analyzing the existing users' interest models and some basic questions of users' interest (representation, derivation and identification of users' interest), a Bayesian network based users' interest model is given. In this model, the users' interest reduction algorithm based on Markov Blanket model is used to reduce the interest noise, and then users' interested and not interested documents are used to train the Bayesian network. Compared to the simple model, this model has the following advantages like small space requirements, simple reasoning method and high recognition rate. The experiment result shows this model can more appropriately reflect the user's interest, and has higher performance and good usability.

  17. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  18. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Knudsen, Per

    2016-07-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid earth studies. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has: - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox, - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  19. Fuzzy Clustering Method for Web User Based on Pages Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li-qiang; LIU Da-xin

    2004-01-01

    A new method for Web users fuzzy clustering based on analysis of user interest characteristic is proposed in this article.The method first defines page fuzzy categories according to the links on the index page of the site, then computes fuzzy degree of cross page through aggregating on data of Web log.After that, by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the method constructs user interest vectors according to page viewing times and frequency of hits, and derives the fuzzy similarity matrix from the interest vectors for the Web users.Finally, it gets the clustering result through the fuzzy clustering method.The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Predicting user click behaviour in search engine advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaie Zanjani, Mohammad; Khadivi, Shahram

    2015-10-01

    According to the specific requirements and interests of users, search engines select and display advertisements that match user needs and have higher probability of attracting users' attention based on their previous search history. New objects such as user, advertisement or query cause a deterioration of precision in targeted advertising due to their lack of history. This article surveys this challenge. In the case of new objects, we first extract similar observed objects to the new object and then we use their history as the history of new object. Similarity between objects is measured based on correlation, which is a relation between user and advertisement when the advertisement is displayed to the user. This method is used for all objects, so it has helped us to accurately select relevant advertisements for users' queries. In our proposed model, we assume that similar users behave in a similar manner. We find that users with few queries are similar to new users. We will show that correlation between users and advertisements' keywords is high. Thus, users who pay attention to advertisements' keywords, click similar advertisements. In addition, users who pay attention to specific brand names might have similar behaviours too.

  1. Challenges for user-interface designers of telemedicine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, A V

    1999-01-01

    Problems associated with telemedicine systems include high telecommunications costs, lack of physician interest, and failure to build evaluation into the design process from the onset of the telemedicine project. An overview of the human-factors engineering approach to systems design and how it can be applied to the development of telemedicine systems is described. Design of an interface is based on an analysis of user capabilities, tasks, and work environment. Task analyses are performed to understand and document the interaction between a user's work activities and a system. Two characteristics of a human factors approach that are important for telemedicine are: (1) defining and measuring user performance, and (2) involving users in the design and testing of a system. Usability goals are operationally defined and tracked to quantify performance. Having users participate in the design, testing, and critique of a system also increases the likelihood that the system will be accepted and used after it is released.

  2. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  3. User Participation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2011-01-01

    of it is evaluated by the end-users in the (4) 'Solution space'. Three on-going construction projects were used as cases in the development and in the testing of VICMET. Collaborative Virtual Reality environments were tested in order to present and discuss the suggested solutions with users. The virtual environments......Virtual Innovation in Construction (VIC) is a project aiming to develop an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported methodology VIC-MET, to involve building end-users in a creative innovation process together with building designers, and to capture and formulate end-user needs...... building systems (FBS), which are realized as component building systems (CBS), which will form parts in the total building solution. The formulated needs provide input to specific requirements in order to assure expected performance of the building components. The final virtual building model or part...

  4. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  5. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  6. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  7. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  8. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  9. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we discuss ways in which we as design educators can teach fashion and textile students ways to engage with users during...... the creative process. To a large degree it is not common to engage direct with users in fashion and textile design. However, we see an increasing interest in this subject among the design students and also in recent research within fashion and textiles. We therefore argue that there is a need for participatory...... with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we...

  10. End User Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Caroline; Lunn, Darren; Michailidou, Eleni

    As new technologies emerge, and Web sites become increasingly sophisticated, ensuring they remain accessible to disabled and small-screen users is a major challenge. While guidelines and automated evaluation tools are useful for informing some aspects of Web site design, numerous studies have demonstrated that they provide no guarantee that the site is genuinely accessible. The only reliable way to evaluate the accessibility of a site is to study the intended users interacting with it. This chapter outlines the processes that can be used throughout the design life cycle to ensure Web accessibility, describing their strengths and weaknesses, and discussing the practical and ethical considerations that they entail. The chapter also considers an important emerging trend in user evaluations: combining data from studies of “standard” Web use with data describing existing accessibility issues, to drive accessibility solutions forward.

  11. GLAST User Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Science Support Center, GLAST

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission will provide the user community with many scientific opportunities. The mission's interface with the user community is the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). Yearly guest investigator (GI) cycles will support research related to GLAST. After the first year GIs may propose pointed observations; however, as a consequence of the large field-of-view of GLAST's instruments, pointed observations will rarely have an advantage over the default survey mode. Data, analysis software and documentation will be provided through the GSSC website (http://glast.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/); the website also includes a library of scientific results, and a helpdesk.

  12. User Centered Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach of User Centered Design is presented here with a focus on innovation in the design and use of hearing technologies as well as on the potential of innovation in interaction. This approach is geared towards developing new products, systems, technologies and practices...... based on an understanding of why so few persons with hearing loss use the highly advanced hearing technologies. In integrating Conversation Analysis (“CA”), audiology and User Centered Design, three disciplines which are collaborating together for the first time, we are addressing the following...

  13. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  14. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  15. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  16. TIA Software User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-01-01

    This user's manual describes the installation and operation of TIA, the Thermal-Imaging acquisition and processing Application, developed by the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. TIA is a user friendly graphical interface application for the Macintosh 2 and higher series computers. The software has been developed to interface with the Perceptics/Westinghouse Pixelpipe(TM) and PixelStore(TM) NuBus cards and the GW Instruments MacADIOS(TM) input-output (I/O) card for the Macintosh for imaging thermal data. The software is also capable of performing generic image-processing functions.

  17. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    . Unfortunately if donated in the school they are rarely being used by the students. In the case of virtual reality or artistic installations it is extremely difficult to provide such equipment to users. Last but not least we are not sure how the software will be used and if the experience will continue...... after the conduct of the research. If not due to restrictions, user should at least continue to be part of the research’s debrief and next steps. While I was in Nottingham I realised that sometimes our research, our playful educational experience, our DIY VR helmet, our beta, glitchy, research-only game...

  18. Discovering the process of user expectating in a pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    feedback on their usage experience. The theoretical implications are that researchers should be wary of attempting to assess and measure users expectations in an ISD project using prior prevalent theories on user expectations since they do not fully seem to explain the phenomenon in an ISD context......This Ph.D.-dissertation addresses the call for more research on “how” and “why” users change their expectations in Information Systems Development (ISD). Contrary to many previous studies on user expectations in the IS literature, the study takes an interpretative, qualitative approach to address...... the research question of: "How do users change their expectations in an Information Systems Development (ISD) project?" The findings of the study are that users in the case studied characterised their expectations in different ways and did not define an expectation, as previously assumed, as belonging...

  19. Software reuse environment user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document describes the services provided by the prototype Software Reuse Environment, which was developed by CTA for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 520. This is one of three guides delivered by CTA as part of the environment. The other two guides are: Software Generation and Installation Guide; and SEMANTX--Defining the Schema. The Software Generation and Installation Guide describes the software source modules that make up the Reuse Environment, with instructions on how to generate and install an executable system from the source code. SEMANTX--Defining the Schema describes how a reuse database is created. Actually this guide is more general than the reuse database, as it describes how to generate a SEMANTX database. SEMANTX is an off-the-shelf tool that we have used to implement the reuse database. It is a product of Semantyk Systems, Inc. The Software Reuse Environment is built upon SEMANTX as well as on the IDE Structured Analysis Integrated Environment. (IDE is Interactive Development Environments, Inc.) SEMANTX itself is built on top of the Unify Database Management System. To use the Software Reuse Environment you should have the User's Manuals for SEMANTX, for Unify, and for the IDE software. CTA has provided all of these with the environment.

  20. Perspectives on User Satisfaction Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2001-01-01

    Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…