WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined management zones

  1. DEFINING MANAGEMENT ZONES BASED ON SOIL ATTRIBUTES AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO TOMAZ RAMOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demarcating soil management zones can be useful, for instance, delimiting homogeneous areas and selecting attributes that are generally correlated with plant productivity, but doing so involves several different steps. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical and physical attributes of soil and soybean plants that explain crop productivity, in addition to suggesting and testing a methodological procedure for defining soil management zones. The procedure consisted of six steps: sample collection, data filtering, variable selection, interpolation, grouping, and evaluation of management zones. The samples were collected in an experimental area of 12.5 ha cultivated with soybean during the 2013/14 crop in Dystrophic Red Latosol, in Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 117 pairs of plant and soil samples were collected. Student’s t - test was used ( α = 0.02 to verify that the number of samples was adequate for correlation analysis. Results showed that only the P and Mn content in the grains explained (based on R 2 values the variation in soybean grain productivity the area. Based on the interpolation of these contents by ordinary kriging, the fuzzy C - means algorithm was used to separate them into groups by similarity. Division into two groups was the best option, which could be differentiated by Mann – Whitney test (P < 0.05, resulting in a map with 10 management zones.

  2. [Defining of wheat growth management zones based on remote sensing and geostatistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Meng-Li; Wang, Hang; Cao, Wei-Xing; Tian, Yong-Chao

    2011-02-01

    Taking the winter wheat planting areas in Rugao City and Haian County of Jiangsu Province as test objects, the clustering defining of wheat growth management zones was made, based on the spatial variability analysis and principal component extraction of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data calculated from the HJ-1A/B CCD images (30 m resolution) at different growth stages of winter wheat, and of the soil nutrient indices (total nitrogen, organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium). The results showed that the integration of the NDVI at heading stage with above-mentioned soil nutrient indices produced the best results of wheat growth management zone defining, with the variation coefficients of NDVI and soil nutrient indices in each defined zone ranged in 4.5% -6.1% and 3.3% -87.9%, respectively. However, the variation coefficients were much larger when the wheat growth management zones were defined individually by NDVI or by soil nutrient indices, suggesting that the newly developed defining method could reduce the variability within the defined management zones and improve the crop management precision, and thereby, contribute to the winter wheat growth management and process simulation at regional scale.

  3. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  4. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  6. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  7. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  8. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  9. Optimizing Lighting Design for Hospital Wards by Defining User Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Niels; Stidsen, Lone; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    of lighting design in private and public settings are often not similar. The purpose of this article is therefore present a approach dividing the hospital ward in 3 user zones for patients, staff and visitors. The main user of the zone should be in control of the light scenario and thereby a refining......Studying Standard and recommendations for lighting in hospital environment its often suggest a uniform light distribution to facilitate the needs of the staff. At the same time the standards recommend a lighting design supporting the patients feeling a homely and pleasant atmosphere, and point out...... that the light should not be disrupting the patients wellbeing. These two approaches are not necessarily consistent because the right quality and quantity of light in wards is highly depending on the functionality of the space and the wished and expected lighting atmosphere of the space, and a comparison...

  10. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  11. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  12. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LI; Zhou SHI; Ci-fang WU; Hong-yi LI; Feng LI

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

  13. Defining the crisis and crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Racaj, Muhamet

    2016-01-01

    The crisis can now be played with little or no warning, anywhere, anytime. But it is not necessarily badnews. I tisa reality. The ability to manage changing situation and to bring sober decision - which is just another way of perceiving the crisis management - is vital to achieving success in the critical milestones in life, politics, the world in general. In the new circumstances arise new opportunities for successful early crisis management. What is the crisis? What is crisis manag...

  14. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining management competencies anno 2025: A Business-University collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a business – university collaborative research project on defining lower management competencies in the year 2025. The purpose of the research was to help a large local airport to define and understand what competencies lower management will need in order to functi

  16. Definition of management zones for enhancing cultivated land conservation using combined spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  17. The Approximative Hamiltonian for the Dicce model defined in term one-zone potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rasulova, M Yu

    2002-01-01

    The Approximative Hamiltonian (AHM) for the Dicce model is defined in terms of the one-zone potential. We investigate the Dicce model on the base of Petrins-Belokolos's method. This method offers the following advantages. It makes it possible to simplify the construction of the self-consistent equation and the structure of approximative Hamiltonians. In addition, the AHM allows the exact solution of the self-consistent equation to be found and, thus, the approximative Hamiltonian for the Dicce model to be defined in terms of one-zone potential.

  18. Definition of Management Zones of Soil Nutrientsbased on Fcm Algorithm in Oasis Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Chen, Yan

    The objective of this research was to define management zones of oasis cotton field. The variables of organic matter, available N, available P and available K data determined in 193 topsoil (0-30cm) samples were selected as data sources. Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to delineate management zones. In order to determine the optimum fuzzy control parameters, the fuzziness performance index (FPI), c-Ф combinations and the multiple regression based on external variable were used in this study. Meanwhile, the cotton yield was chosen as the external variable. The whole field was divided in four management zones. And fuzziness exponent was 1.6. The zoning statistics showed that variation coefficient of soil nutrients decreased, while the means of the soil nutrients differed sharply between management zones. The average confusion index was 0.19 in all management zones. The overlapping of fuzzy classes at points was low and the spatial distribution of membership grades was unambiguous. The results indicated that fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm could be used to delineate management zones by selecting the appropriate external variables. The defined management zones can be used for fertilizer recommendation to manage soil nutrient more efficiently.

  19. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions : framework and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business interoperability

  20. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  1. Programmable bandwidth management in software-defined EPON architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Weisheng; Xia, Ming

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a software-defined EPON architecture which replaces the hardware-implemented DBA module with reprogrammable DBA module. The DBA module allows pluggable bandwidth allocation algorithms among multiple ONUs adaptive to traffic profiles and network states. We also introduce a bandwidth management scheme executed at the controller to manage the customized DBA algorithms for all date queues of ONUs. Our performance investigation verifies the effectiveness of this new EPON architecture, and numerical results show that software-defined EPONs can achieve less traffic delay and provide better support to service differentiation in comparison with traditional EPONs.

  2. DEFINING PRIORITY ZONES FOR CONSERVATION AND ECOTOURISM IN A PROTECTED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taynan de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the objective of promoting nature conservation, this study proposes an environmental zoning for a protected area that contains part of the remaining Atlantic Forest, a global hotspot that is home to several endangered species of flora and fauna. Conflicting therewith, the protected area is an important tourist attraction in the region and receives many visitors throughout the year. For the zoning preparation, the main factors and constraints of each objective (ecotourism and conservation are established, and a multi-criteria analysis is used, in addition to the MOLA (Multi-Objective Land Allocation algorithm, to establish the most suitable areas for each use. Extreme protection areas are defined through the intersection of endemic vegetation and soils and altitudes above 1,500 m. Thus, a fraction of 18% is obtained for extreme protection, 59% for conservation, and 23% for areas destined for ecotourism development. The results demonstrate the advantages of using these methods, due to their simplicity, which can support administrators in planning the protected area. The zoning is in accordance with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN recommendation because the conservation area corresponds to approximately 77% of the park area, reinforcing the suitability and applicability of the methodology that is used for the zoning of a protected area.

  3. Frameworks for defining and managing the wilderness experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning

    2012-01-01

    A large and growing body of research on outdoor recreation and the wilderness experience has been conducted over the nearly 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. A number of conceptual and empirical frameworks have emerged from this body of knowledge that can be used to help define and manage the wilderness experience.

  4. Simplifying Development and Management of Software-Defined Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Perešíni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Computer networks are an important part of our life. Yet, they are traditionally hard to manage and operate. The recent shift to Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is promised to change the way in which the networks are run by their operators. However, SDN is still in its initial stage and as such it lags behind traditional networks in terms of correctness and reliability; both the properties being vitally important for the network operators. Meanwhile, general purpose computers were followin...

  5. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  6. Defining the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone: the 1008 AD tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Goesta

    2016-04-01

    correlated to the 1008 AD earthquake and tsunami inundation. The boulder deposits as well as the archaeological remains testify for a maximum tsunami runup of 15m, exceeding by far the inundation as observed in 1945. We define this as the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone. However, the return period is rather large (>500 years).

  7. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  8. An Efficient Method for Detecting Misbehaving Zone Manager in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Asadinia, Sanaz

    In recent years, one of the wireless technologies increased tremendously is mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in which mobile nodes organize themselves without the help of any predefined infrastructure. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attack due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point and lack of a clear defense line. In this paper, we report our progress in developing intrusion detection (ID) capabilities for MANET. In our proposed scheme, the network with distributed hierarchical architecture is partitioned into zones, so that in each of them there is one zone manager. The zone manager is responsible for monitoring the cluster heads in its zone and cluster heads are in charge of monitoring their members. However, the most important problem is how the trustworthiness of the zone manager can be recognized. So, we propose a scheme in which "honest neighbors" of zone manager specify the validation of their zone manager. These honest neighbors prevent false accusations and also allow manager if it is wrongly misbehaving. However, if the manger repeats its misbehavior, then it will lose its management degree. Therefore, our scheme will be improved intrusion detection and also provide a more reliable network.

  9. Optimal savings management for individuals with defined contribution pension plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides some guidelines to individuals with defined contribution (DC) pension plans on how to manage pension savings both before and after retirement. We argue that decisions regarding investment, annuity payments, and the size of death sum should not only depend on the individual’s age...... characterizing the individual. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multi-stage stochastic programming. The first method is common in financial and actuarial literature, but produces theoretical results. However, the latter, which...

  10. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  11. Defining chronic cancer: patient experiences and self-management needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Velikova, Galina

    2015-12-01

    Chronic cancer is poorly defined and strategies for supporting patients during this disease phase are lacking. This research defines chronic cancer, explores patient experiences and reviews patients' support needs against those described in the 2007 Department of Health Generic Choice Model for Long-term Conditions (DoH-GCM). Semistructured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data explored for emergent themes. The a priori themes from DoH-GCM were applied: clinical support; self-care and self-management; supporting independence; psychological support; and social and economic factors. 56 patients >12 months postdiagnosis of advanced cancer were recruited from five clinics at a Yorkshire cancer centre: breast (n=11); renal (n=11); colorectal/gastrointestinal (n=12); gynaecological (n=12); and prostate (n=10). Most patients aspired to living normal lives. Challenges included frequent and lengthy hospital appointments, long-term symptom control and uncertainty. Only renal and prostate patients reported routine access to specialist nursing. Uptake of support services was varied and there was generally poor understanding of support pathways for non-medical problems and issues occurring when patients were not receiving active treatment. There was variation in coping strategies and ability of patients to attain a positive outlook on life. For patients to do well in this cancer phase requires good self-management of symptoms plus taking an active role in accessing appropriate services as needed. Care planning at the point of transition to the chronic phase of cancer should focus on evaluating patients' needs, clarifying support pathways, increasing the profile and involvement of community services and organisations, and supporting patients and families develop effective self-management skills. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  13. A risk-informed approach to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Economic and population growth have led to an unprecedented increase in the value at risk in coastal zones over the last century. To avoid excessive future losses, particularly in the light of projected climate change impacts, coastal zone managers have various instruments at their disposal. These

  14. Data interpolation in the definition of management zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelyn Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA comprises the use of management zones (MZs. Sample data are usually interpolated to define MZs. Current research checks whether there is a need for data interpolation by evaluating the quality of MZs by five indices – variance reduction (VR, fuzzy performance index (FPI, modified partition entropy index (MPE, Kappa index and the cluster validation index (CVI, of which the latter has been focused in current assay. Soil texture, soil resistance to penetration, elevation and slope in an experimental area of 15.5 ha were employed as attributes to the generation of MZ, correlating them with data of soybean yield from 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 harvests. Data interpolation prior to MZs generation is important to achieve MZs as a smoother contour and for a greater reduction in data variance. The Kriging interpolator had the best performance. CVI index proved to be efficient in choosing MZs, with a less subjective decision on the best interpolator or number of MZs.

  15. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  16. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  17. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills, sh

  18. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills,

  19. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships.

  20. Lymph node detection in IASLC-defined zones on PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihua; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lymph node detection is challenging due to the low contrast between lymph nodes as well as surrounding soft tissues and the variation in nodal size and shape. In this paper, we propose several novel ideas which are combined into a system to operate on positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) images to detect abnormal thoracic nodes. First, our previous Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) approach is modified where lymph node zones predominantly following International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) specifications are modeled as objects arranged in a hierarchy along with key anatomic anchor objects. This fuzzy anatomy model built from diagnostic CT images is then deployed on PET/CT images for automatically recognizing the zones. A novel globular filter (g-filter) to detect blob-like objects over a specified range of sizes is designed to detect the most likely locations and sizes of diseased nodes. Abnormal nodes within each automatically localized zone are subsequently detected via combined use of different items of information at various scales: lymph node zone model poses found at recognition indicating the geographic layout at the global level of node clusters, g-filter response which hones in on and carefully selects node-like globular objects at the node level, and CT and PET gray value but within only the most plausible nodal regions for node presence at the voxel level. The models are built from 25 diagnostic CT scans and refined for an object hierarchy based on a separate set of 20 diagnostic CT scans. Node detection is tested on an additional set of 20 PET/CT scans. Our preliminary results indicate node detection sensitivity and specificity at around 90% and 85%, respectively.

  1. Defining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossey, Jana M

    2011-01-01

    ... the disparities.Scientific literature was selectively reviewed addressing pain epidemiology, differences in pain management of non-Hispanic whites versus racial/ethnic minority groups, and patient and physician...

  2. Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Holder-Murray; Alessandro Fichera

    2009-01-01

    Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis;these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.

  3. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). Efficiently managing and distributing electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, which is being developed...... to distribute and produce electricity more efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS and the Smart Grid. Additionally, it provides an overview on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is involved in the Smart Grid and how they help to achieve the emerging...... functionalities that the Smart Grid can provide....

  4. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  5. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). Efficiently managing and distributing electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, which is being developed...... to distribute and produce electricity more efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS and the Smart Grid. Additionally, it provides an overview on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is involved in the Smart Grid and how they help to achieve the emerging...... functionalities that the Smart Grid can provide....

  6. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  7. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, Spyros; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    weather forecast information a model based on Fluid Computational Dynamics (CFD), was developed. The use of a CFD model provides for the consideration of factors such as field topology, geometrical features and local weather conditions.     Management zones were created for the specific field based...... executed in an open and un-controlled environment.  The main objectives of the project were to investigate the potential of selective biomass harvesting based on biomass moisture content. A field experiment was conducted in the University farm of Aarhus University in Denmark in 2009. About 450...... on the initial biomass moisture content. The CFD model took into account, field topography and local weather conditions. Based on this model the data were produced for a 6-hour interval and the biomass moisture map were created. The results demonstrated specific management zones for the biomass moisture which...

  8. Managing spatial development in zones undergoing major structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper considers different aspects of spatial development management in the zones characterized by significant spatial interventions, whose consequences are structural changes in usage of space, social and economic development, environmental and ambient quality. Those are, above all, big mining regions, zones of big water accumulations and main infrastructure corridors. Paper deals with normative, institutional and organizational assumptions for managing spatial development, planning approaches, construction and spatial arrangement, searching and structuring data basis and development of information system, system of indicators and monitoring system. Special attention is given to balance and synchronization of activities during compilation of study, planning and technical documentation, as well as procedures of considering and enacting appropriate decisions by competent authorities on national, regional and local level.

  9. Buffer zone water repellency: effects of the management practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa, Kimmo; Räty, Mari; Nikolenko, Olga; Horn, Rainer; Yli-Halla, Markku; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Pietola, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Water repellency index R was measured in a heavy clay and a sandy loam, used as arable land or buffer zone (BZ). Further, effect of management practise and ageing of BZs were studied. Water repellency was proved to be a common phenomenon on these soils. Harvesting and grazing increased water repellency as does ageing.Low water repellency is supposed to prevent preferential flows and provide evenly distributed water infiltration pattern through large soil volume, which favours nutrient retention.

  10. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of lar

  11. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of lar

  12. Usability of Security Management:Defining the Permissions of Guests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Stajano, Frank

    Within the scenario of a Smart Home, we discuss the issues involved in allowing limited interaction with the environment for unidentified principals, or guests. The challenges include identifying and authenticating guests on one hand and delegating authorization to them on the other. While the technical mechanisms for doing so in generic distributed systems have been around for decades, existing solutions are in general not applicable to the smart home because they are too complex to manage. We focus on providing both security and usability; we therefore seek simple and easy to understand approaches that can be used by a normal computer-illiterate home owner, not just by a trained system administrator. This position paper describes ongoing research and does not claim to have all the answers.

  13. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  14. Structural Dynamics of Management Zones for the Site-Specific Control of Tarnished Plant Bugs in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision-based agricultural application of insecticide relies on a non-random distribution of pests; tarnished plant bugs (Lygus lineolaris) are known to prefer vigorously growing patches of cotton. Management zones for various crops have been readily defined using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vege...

  15. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  16. Small mammal communities of streamside management zones in intensively managed pine forests of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren A. Miller; Ronald E. Thill; M. Anthony Melchiors; T. Bently Wigley; Philip A. Tappe

    2004-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs), composed primarily of hardwoods in the southeastern United States, provide habitat diversity within intensively managed pine (Pinus spp.) plantations. However, effects of SMZ width and adjacent plantation structure on riparian wildlife communities are poorly understood. Therefore, during 1990-1995, we examined small mammal...

  17. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  18. Habitat Management on Refuge Lands: defining objectives, efficacy, and metrics of success

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Research poster on reducing uncertainty of habitat management on refuges by clearly defining benchmarks for success and Inventory and Monitoring programs. This study...

  19. Environmental analysis and zoning for an urban park management purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Maria Zanin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysis and zoning were carried out for management purpose of the Longines Malinowski Municipal Park (LMMP. With an area of 24.85 ha, this urban park includes a patch of sub-tropical humid forest, completely surrounded by residential and commercial areas in the City of Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul State,Brazil. Landscape features derived from aerophotogrametric maps, based on the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS-IDRISI, resulted in several thematic maps, through which a proposal of environmental zoning was perfomed, observing the definition of five zones of use. The environmental diagnosis identified several types of activities potentially harmful to the biodiversity of the LMMP and city's environmental quality. The implementation of a management plan would be essential to maintain and preseve this urban park, aiming to ensure its participation in the urban quality of life.Foram realizados a análise e o zoneamento ambiental com a finalidade do manejo do Parque Municipal Longines Malinowski (PMLM. Com 24,85 ha, este parque urbano inclui um fragmento de floresta sub-tropical úmida, completamente cercado por áreas residenciais e comerciais na cidade de Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul. As características da paisagem, obtidas de cartas aerofotogramétricas, com base no uso de Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIG-IDRISI, resultaram em diversas cartas temáticas, pelas quais foi efetuada uma proposta do zoneamento ambiental, observando a definição de cinco zonas de uso. O diagnóstico ambiental identificou diversos tipos de atividades potencialmente prejudiciais à biodiversidade do PMLM e à qualidade ambiental da cidade. A implementação de um plano de manejo é essencial à manutenção e à conservação deste parque urbano, assegurando sua participação na qualidade de vida urbana.

  20. Marine disaster prevention and integrated coastal zone management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许富祥; 韦锋余

    2001-01-01

    Ocean is home town of wind and rain, treasury of resources. To exploit and use ocean will make great contribution to people′s existence and development. China is a great oceanic country with precinct sea area of 3,000,000 km2. The eastern coastal region with only 60 km width, 15 % area and 40% of population of China, has created about 60 % of GDP and has become the most developed region. But marine disaster in China is frequent and serious. From statistical data, economy loss made by surge.billow, sea ice, tsunami, red tide, oil spill, coast erosion, bay deposit, sea water intrusion, sea levelrise. land salinization. sea water pollution, etc. increase quickly. Economy loss per year is one billionin the 1980s, 10 billion in the 1990s, exceeded 20 billion in 1996, and 30 billion in 1997. About 80% of it happened in the coastal area. So, marine disaster at present has become obstacle of society progress and economy development in coastal area. To mitigate marine disaster has become need for the economy development, also important task of the integrated coastal zone management. In this article, we briefly introduce countermeasures for marine disaster prevention, coastal zone management, and achievements made in the past 50 years, its problems now confronted, and the main countermeasures in the 21 st century.

  1. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy Mp; Bouma, Geiske M; Botelho, Maria; Pereira, Patrícia; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Conides, Alexis; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Isaksson, Ingela; Wolf, Christina; Breedveld, Gijs D; Slob, Adriaan

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU directives have a strong focus on public participation; however, a recent review found that the actual involvement of stakeholders was variable. The "Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons" (ARCH) research project has developed and implemented participative methodologies at different case study sites throughout Europe. These cases represent a broad range of coastal systems, and they highlight different legislative frameworks that are relevant for coastal zone management. Stakeholder participation processes were subsequently evaluated at 3 case study sites in order to assess the actual implementation of participation in the context of their respective legislative frameworks: 1) Byfjorden in Bergen, Norway, in the context of the WFD; 2) Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece, in the context of the MSFD; and 3) Nordre Älv Estuary, Sweden, in the context of the MSP Directive. An overall assessment of the evaluation criteria indicates that the ARCH workshop series methodology of focusing first on the current status of the lagoon or estuary, then on future challenges, and finally on identifying management solutions provided a platform that was conducive for stakeholder participation. Results suggest that key criteria for a good participatory process were present and above average at the 3 case study sites. The results also indicate that the active engagement that was initiated at the 3 case study sites has led to capacity building among the participants, which is an important intermediary outcome of public participation. A strong connection between participatory processes and policy can ensure the legacy of the intermediary outcomes, which is an important and necessary

  2. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2005. Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for...

  3. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  4. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  5. AQUAZONE: A Spatial Decision Support System for Aquatic Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhri A. Arezki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the Sebkha Lake of Oran (Algeria has been the subject of many studies for its protection and recovery. Many environmental and wetlands experts are a hope on the integration of this rich and fragile space, ecologically, as a pilot project in "management of water tides". Support the large of Sebkha (Lake of Oran is a major concern for governments looking to make this a protected natural area and viable place. It was a question of putting in place a management policy to respond to the requirements of economic, agricultural and urban development and the preservation of this natural site through management of its water and the preservation of its quality. The objective of this study is to design and develop a Spatial Decision Support System, namely AQUAZONE, able to assist decision makers in various natural resource management projects. The proposed system integrates remote sensing image processing methods, from display operations, to analysis results, in order to extract useful knowledge to best natural resource management, and in particular define the extension of Sebkha Lake of Oran (Algeria. Two methods were applied to classify LANDSAT 5 TM images of Oran (Algeria: Fuzzy C-Means (FCM applied on multi spectral images, and the other that comes with the manual which is the Ordered Queue-based Watershed (OQW. The FCM will serve as initialization phase, to automatically discover the different classes (urban, forest, water, etc.. from a LANDSAT 5 TM images, and also minimize ambiguity in grayscale and establish Land cover map of this region.

  6. Coastal zone management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization along Dubai Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Al Zahed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to achieve the conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone. The present study titled “Coastal Zone Management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization” is an effort to consider critical water quality and ecological issues in the current and f...

  7. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... importance of U.S. coastal areas, the U.S. Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA),...

  8. 78 FR 48046 - Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2013-0666] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego... safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the Kuoni Destination Management... San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7656, email d11marineeventssandiego@uscg.mil . If you have...

  9. Model for defining the level of implementation of the management functions in small enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mišetić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Small enterprises, based on private ownership and entrepreneurial capability, represent, for the majority of the scientific and professional public, the prime movers of economic growth, both in developed market economies and in the economies of countries in transition. At the same time, various studies show that the main reason for the bankruptcy of many small enterprises (more than 90% can be found in weak management, i.e. unacquaintance with management functions (planning, organization, human resources management, leading and control and with the need of implementing those functions in practice. Although it is not easy to define the ingredients of the recipe for success or to define precisely the importance of different elements, and regardless of the fact that many authors think that the management theory for large enterprises is inapplicable for the small ones, we all agree that the owner/manager and his implementation of the management theory has a decisive influence on small enterprises in modern economic circumstances. Therefore, the author of this work is hereby representing the model, which defines the level of implementation of management functions in small enterprises, as well as three systems/levels (danger, risk, progress in which small enterprises may find themselves. After the level of implementation of the management function is identified, it is possible to undertake some corrective actions, which will remove the found failures. While choosing the variables of the model, the author took into consideration specific features of a small enterprise, as well as specific features of its owner/manager.

  10. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haille N. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

  11. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers.

  12. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  13. Software Defined Networking for Improved Wireless Sensor Network Management: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Musa; Hancke, Gerhard P.; Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular with the advent of the Internet of things (IoT). Various real-world applications of WSNs such as in smart grids, smart farming and smart health would require a potential deployment of thousands or maybe hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes/actuators. To ensure proper working order and network efficiency of such a network of sensor nodes, an effective WSN management system has to be integrated. However, the inherent challenges of WSNs such as sensor/actuator heterogeneity, application dependency and resource constraints have led to challenges in implementing effective traditional WSN management. This difficulty in management increases as the WSN becomes larger. Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution in flexible management WSNs by allowing the separation of the control logic from the sensor nodes/actuators. The advantage with this SDN-based management in WSNs is that it enables centralized control of the entire WSN making it simpler to deploy network-wide management protocols and applications on demand. This paper highlights some of the recent work on traditional WSN management in brief and reviews SDN-based management techniques for WSNs in greater detail while drawing attention to the advantages that SDN brings to traditional WSN management. This paper also investigates open research challenges in coming up with mechanisms for flexible and easier SDN-based WSN configuration and management. PMID:28471390

  14. Software Defined Networking for Improved Wireless Sensor Network Management: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Musa; Hancke, Gerhard P; Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2017-05-04

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular with the advent of the Internet of things (IoT). Various real-world applications of WSNs such as in smart grids, smart farming and smart health would require a potential deployment of thousands or maybe hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes/actuators. To ensure proper working order and network efficiency of such a network of sensor nodes, an effective WSN management system has to be integrated. However, the inherent challenges of WSNs such as sensor/actuator heterogeneity, application dependency and resource constraints have led to challenges in implementing effective traditional WSN management. This difficulty in management increases as the WSN becomes larger. Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution in flexible management WSNs by allowing the separation of the control logic from the sensor nodes/actuators. The advantage with this SDN-based management in WSNs is that it enables centralized control of the entire WSN making it simpler to deploy network-wide management protocols and applications on demand. This paper highlights some of the recent work on traditional WSN management in brief and reviews SDN-based management techniques for WSNs in greater detail while drawing attention to the advantages that SDN brings to traditional WSN management. This paper also investigates open research challenges in coming up with mechanisms for flexible and easier SDN-based WSN configuration and management.

  15. Software Defined Networking for Improved Wireless Sensor Network Management: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ndiaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly popular with the advent of the Internet of things (IoT. Various real-world applications of WSNs such as in smart grids, smart farming and smart health would require a potential deployment of thousands or maybe hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes/actuators. To ensure proper working order and network efficiency of such a network of sensor nodes, an effective WSN management system has to be integrated. However, the inherent challenges of WSNs such as sensor/actuator heterogeneity, application dependency and resource constraints have led to challenges in implementing effective traditional WSN management. This difficulty in management increases as the WSN becomes larger. Software Defined Networking (SDN provides a promising solution in flexible management WSNs by allowing the separation of the control logic from the sensor nodes/actuators. The advantage with this SDN-based management in WSNs is that it enables centralized control of the entire WSN making it simpler to deploy network-wide management protocols and applications on demand. This paper highlights some of the recent work on traditional WSN management in brief and reviews SDN-based management techniques for WSNs in greater detail while drawing attention to the advantages that SDN brings to traditional WSN management. This paper also investigates open research challenges in coming up with mechanisms for flexible and easier SDN-based WSN configuration and management.

  16. Delineation of Site-Specific Management Zones Based on Temporal and Spatial Variability of Soil Electrical Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SHI Zhou; LI Feng

    2007-01-01

    A coastal saline field of 10.5 ha was selected as the study site and 122 bulk electrical conductivity(ECb)measurements were performed thrice in situ in the topsoil(0-20 cm)across the field using a hand held device to assess the spatial variability and temporal stability of the distribution of soil electrical conductivity(EC),to identify the management zones using cluster analysis based on the spatiotemporal variability of soil EC,and to evaluate the probable potential for sitespecific management in coastal regions with conventional statistics and geostatistical techniques.The results indicated high coefficients of variation for topsoil salinity over all the three samplings.The spatial structure of the salinity variability remained relatively stable with time.Kriged contour maps,drawn on the basis of spatial variance structure of the data.showed the spatial trend of the salinity distribution and revealed areas of consistently high or consistently low salinity,while a temporal stability map indicated stable and unstable regions.On the basis of the spatiotemporal characteristics.cluster analysis divided the site into three potential management zones.each with difierent characteristics that could have an impact on the way the field was managed.On the basis of the clearly defined management zones it was concluded that coastal saline land could be managed in a site-specific way.

  17. Wildlife Co-management defined: The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of indigenous and scientific forms of wildlife data gathering and conservation/management reveals similarities and differences. The two systems are needed to effectively manage wildlife in northern Canada, particularly migratory, trans-boundary species. The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board brought multi-jurisdictional caribou users and managers together to co-manage two large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlan-dicus. The advisory Board's principal duties and responsibilities are communication and to maintain the two herds at population levels that will meet user needs. Goals, objectives, and principles are set out in a management plan. Board activities are structured in 15 action plans under major categories of communication, supply of caribou, use of caribou, and habitat. Board successes are attributed to use of the plan to guide actions; to the Chairmen and vice-Chairmen; to the quality of founding members and their continuity; to effective vehicles of communication such as a newspaper, radio, video, and community meetings; to a spirit of cooperation; and to high caribou numbers because of high productivity combined with poor accessibility. Problem areas include technical limitations, members' decreasing powers and increasing turnover, inadequate communication of Board objectives and activities within the communities, and accountability. Future challenges include the management of caribou shortages, obtaining better herd data, and the need for more intensive management as user populations grow.

  18. Precision control of soil N cycling via soil functional zone management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the soil nitrogen (N) cycle is a major component of agricultural sustainability. Soil functional zone management (SFZM), a novel framework of agroecosystem management, may improve soil N management compared with conventional and no-tillage approaches by focusing on the timing and location (...

  19. Model of managing pension assets of the defined contribution mandatory state pension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudensky Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the defined contribution mandatory state pension system in Ukraine actualises the issue of efficient management of its pension assets. The goals of the article are development of theoretical and methodical provisions and development of the economic and mathematical model of management of pension assets of the defined contribution pension system on the basis of the fuzzy set approach. The necessity to refer to the theory of fuzzy sets when modelling this process is caused by, firstly, absence of rather complete consistent “a priori” information, secondly, uncertainty of flows of insurance contributions and pension payments and, thirdly, significant influence of the instable market environment upon investment processes. The proposed fuzzy set economic and mathematical model of the task of optimal management of pension assets of the defined contribution system is a target function of minimisation of the investment risk as the risk of insufficiency of net pension assets and system of restrictions that reflect restriction of the investment activity with pension assets of the defined contribution pension system, determined by the current pension legislation.

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2008-09-11

    The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in January 2007. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within waste management area (WMA) C. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data compiled on vadose zone sediment recovered from direct-push samples collected around the site of an unplanned release (UPR), UPR-200-E-82, adjacent to the 241-C-152 Diversion Box located in WMA C.

  1. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  2. Defining the Concept of Supply Chain Management and its Relevance to Romanian Academics and Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Albăstroiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe an extended approach to supply chain management by exploring some of the more prevalent Supply Chain Management definitions, frameworks and terminology. As regards the methodology of our study, should be noted that it was based on content analysis of the most important and popular definitions of the Supply Chain Management and associated terms, through a variety of secondary sources consisting of scientific papers and publications of professional organizations and practitioners. In our undertaking, we pursued the study and analysis of the above-mentioned concept’s definitions, to set conceptual delimitations meant to clarify the extent of the Supply Chain Management concept, in the vision of both theorists and practitioners, but also to identify criteria/attributes depending on which has been defined over the years by both academics and business representatives, in order to propose new ways of defining the concept. Moreover, based on Romanian literature as reference, we took into consideration the presentation of the ways in which the term “Supply Chain Management” from English language was adopted and adapted to the Romanian language, which allowed us to identify the proper manner of transposing and defining the concept in the Romanian literature.

  3. Defining disaster resilience: comparisons from key stakeholders involved in emergency management in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Spencer, Caroline; McArdle, Dudley; Archer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Three years after the introduction of the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience there remains no unanimously adopted definition of disaster resilience within Australia's emergency management sector. The aim of this study is to determine what the concept means to key stakeholders in the emergency management sector in the Australian State of Victoria, and how these conceptualisations overlap and diverge. Via an online survey, 113 people were asked how they define disaster resilience in their work in the emergency management sector. A data mining software tool, Leximancer, was employed to uncover the relationships between the definitions provided. The findings show that stakeholders see resilience as an 'ability' that encompasses emergency management activities and personal responsibility. However, the findings also highlight some possible points of conflict between stakeholders. In addition, the paper outlines and discusses a number of potential consequences for the implementation and the success of the resilience-based approach in Australia.

  4. Optical Network Models and Their Application to Software-Defined Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Szyrkowiec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking is finding its way into optical networks. Here, it promises a simplification and unification of network management for optical networks allowing automation of operational tasks despite the highly diverse and vendor-specific commercial systems and the complexity and analog nature of optical transmission. Common abstractions and interfaces are a fundamental component for software-defined optical networking. Currently, a number of models for optical networks are available. They all claim to provide open and vendor agnostic management of optical equipment. In this work, we survey and compare the most important models and propose an intent interface for creating virtual topologies which is integrated in the existing model ecosystem.

  5. IODE's Role in Managing and Exchanging Ocean Data from Coastal Zones

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The coastal zones in the world are exposed to continuously increasing environmental stresses: pollution, eutrophication, erosion problems which are amplified by steadily growing economic and recreational use and demographic changes. In view of the position of the coastal environment as a buffering zone and interface between land and open ocean, an effort in integrated coastal zone management is required to achieve sustainable development. Besides the possible impact of global climate change a...

  6. The importance of defining 'data' in data management policies: Commentary on: "Issues in data management".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2010-12-01

    What comprises 'data' varies from one institution to another based on the information which is deemed important by individual institutions. To effectively and efficiently produce, collect, and retain data, an organization develops specific defining characteristics of data to meet its informational needs. Procedures to maintain and retain knowledge among laboratory members and principal investigators will allow for improved efficiency of data collection. Optimization of communication, maintenance of inventories, record keeping, and updating relevant training programs are all critical to supporting the quality and integrity of a particular organization's data. Concurrent revisions to such procedures will ensure that the definition of data as well as the means by which it is collected and maintained remain appropriate to the needs of the individual organization.

  7. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  8. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  9. Sage-grouse Management Zones in the Western U.S. and Canada - DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts a preliminary version of the management zone boundaries for Greater and Gunnison sage-grouse in the western United States and Canada. These...

  10. Mapping The Best Practices of XP and Project Management: Well defined approach for Project Manager

    CERN Document Server

    Javed, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    Software engineering is one of the most recent additions in various disciplines of system engineering. It has emerged as a key obedience of system engineering in a quick succession of time. Various Software Engineering approaches are followed in order to produce comprehensive software solutions of affordable cost with reasonable delivery timeframe with less uncertainty. All these objectives are only satisfied when project's status is properly monitored and controlled; eXtreme Programming (XP) uses the best practices of AGILE methodology and helps in development of small size software very sharply. In this paper, authors proposed that via XP, high quality software with less uncertainty and under estimated cost can be developed due to proper monitoring and controlling of project. Moreover, authors give guidelines that how activities of project management can be embedded into development life cycle of XP to enhance the quality of software products and reduce the uncertainty.

  11. Application of zoning and "limits of acceptable change" to manage snorkelling tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, George S J; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  12. Application of Zoning and ``Limits of Acceptable Change'' to Manage Snorkelling Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, George S. J.; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and “Limits of Acceptable Change” (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of <30 snorkellers per site, and (IV) General Use Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  13. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphology, acoustics and satellite tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Sveegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structure, seasonal range and overlap with animals from neighbouring populations is required to manage each unit separately. Previous studies on genetic structure and morphologic separation suggests three distinct populations of harbour porpoises with limited geographic overlap in the North Sea (NS, the Belt Sea (BS and the Baltic Proper (BP region. In this study, we aim to identify a management unit for the BS population of harbour porpoises. We use Argos satellite data and genetics from biopsies of tagged harbour porpoises as well as acoustic data from 40 passive acoustic data loggers to determine management areas with the least overlap between populations and thus the least error when abundance and population status is estimated. Discriminant analysis of the satellite tracking data from the BS and NS populations showed that the best fit of the management unit border during the summer months was an east–west line from Denmark to Sweden at latitude 56.95°N. For the border between BS and BP, satellite tracking data indicate a sharp decline in population density at 13.5°E, with 90% of the locations being west of this line. This was supported by the acoustic data with the average daily detection rate being 27.5 times higher west of 13.5°E as compared to east of 13.5°E. By using this novel multidisciplinary approach, we defined a management unit for the BS harbour porpoise population. We recommend that these boundaries are used for future monitoring efforts of this population under the EU directives. The boundaries may also be used for conservation efforts during the summer months, while seasonal movements of harbour porpoises should be considered during

  14. Consistent assessment of the status and prospects of institutional and innovational subsurface resources management in the arctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the available information about the problem of development of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management in the Arctic zone, and the relevance of studies of this problem is proved, the interpretation of a number of terms of the study is defined. The main institutions, mechanisms, and instruments governing the innovative subsurface resource management are determined. Most important conventional institutional instruments of regulation are known to rigorously include regulatory support, program and project support, organizational support and financial support. A consistent approach to the assessment of the level of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management and its impact on socio-economic development of the regions of the arctic countries is produced. This paper estimates loss of profits caused by incomplete development of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management, which prevents the deployment of the mineral and resource potential of the Arctic zone. We propose the directions of possible Russian cooperation with arctic countries in order to improve the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management in the Arctic.

  15. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor

    2016-06-06

    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease.

  16. The potential of high spatial resolution information to define within vineyard zones related to vine water status

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Opazo, C.; Tisseyre, B.; Guillaume, S.; Ojeda, H.

    2008-01-01

    L'objectif est d'utiliser des images aériennes et des cartes de résistivité du sol, informations disponibles à large échelle, pour définir des zones homogènes du point de vue de l'état hydrique. L'étude porte sur un large domaine, présentant une variété de cépages, dates de plantation, type de sol, ..., situé dans le Languedoc-Roussillon. 9 parcelles non irriguées ont été étudiées en 2006 et 2007. / The goal of this study was to test the usefulness of high-spatial resolution information provi...

  17. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oen, A.M.P.; Bouma, G.M.; Botelho, M.; Pereira, P.; Haeger-Eugensson, M.; Conides, A.; Przedrzymirska, J.; Isaksson, I.; Wolf, C.; Breedveld, G.D.; Slob, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU

  18. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to consi

  19. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to consi

  20. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure...

  1. Influence of Variable Streamside Management Zone Configurations on Water Quality after Forest Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma L. Witt; Christopher D. Barton; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Randy Kolka; Mac A. Cherry

    2016-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are a common best management practice (BMP) used to reduce water quality impacts from logging. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of varying SMZ configurations on water quality. Treatments (T1, T2, and T3) that varied in SMZ width, canopy retention within the SMZ, and BMP utilization were applied at the...

  2. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    . This trend has created tremendous pressures and the ecological balance is disturbing. There are various factors which are degrading the coastal waters. The Integrated Coastal Management is relatively a recent concept, which involves multidisciplinary approach...

  3. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso Caraguay, Ángel Leonardo; García Villalba, Luis Javier

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics) related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors. PMID:28362346

  4. Managing Swedish forestry's impact on mercury in fish: Defining the impact and mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Karin; Lidskog, Rolf; Bishop, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Inputs of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) to the environment have led to accumulation of Hg in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, contributing to fish Hg concentrations well above the European Union standards in large parts of Fennoscandia. Forestry operations have been reported to increase the concentrations and loads of Hg to surface waters by mobilizing Hg from the soil. This summary of available forestry effect studies reveals considerable variation in treatment effects on total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at different sites, varying from no effect up to manifold concentration increases, especially for the bioavailable MeHg fraction. Since Hg biomagnification depends on trophic structures, forestry impacts on nutrient flows will also influence the Hg in fish. From this, we conclude that recommendations for best management practices in Swedish forestry operations are appropriate from the perspective of mercury contamination. However, the complexity of defining effective policies needs to be recognized.

  5. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraguay, Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso; Villalba, Luis Javier García

    2017-03-31

    This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics) related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors.

  6. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors.

  7. Construction and implementation of multisource spatial data management system of China's coastal zone and offshore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yunyan; WANG Jinggui; WANG Zuoyong; YANG Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of national spatial database infrastructureconstruction and application, a concept modelof China' s coastal zone scientific data platform is established based on the information feature analysis of a compounddataset, consisting of remote sensing data and conventional data. Based on this concept model, the detailed logicaldatabase structure and the storage strategy of remote sensing data and their metadata using ArcSDE are designed. Thecomplicated technology of multisources data combination in this research is crucial to the future coastal zone andoffshore database construction and practical nmning, which will provide intelligent information analysis andtechnological service for coastal zone and offshore investigation, research, development and management.

  8. Defining terms for proactive management of resistance to Bt crops and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Mota-Sanchez, David; Whalon, Mark E; Hollingworth, Robert M; Carrière, Yves

    2014-04-01

    Evolution of pest resistance to pesticides is an urgent global problem with resistance recorded in at least 954 species of pests, including 546 arthropods, 218 weeds, and 190 plant pathogens. To facilitate understanding and management of resistance, we provide definitions of 50 key terms related to resistance. We confirm the broad, long-standing definition of resistance, which is a genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide, and the definition of "field-evolved resistance," which is a genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide in a population caused by exposure to the pesticide in the field. The impact of field-evolved resistance on pest control can vary from none to severe. We define "practical resistance" as field-evolved resistance that reduces pesticide efficacy and has practical consequences for pest control. Recognizing that resistance is not "all or none" and that intermediate levels of resistance can have a continuum of effects on pest control, we describe five categories of field-evolved resistance and use them to classify 13 cases of field-evolved resistance to five Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in transgenic corn and cotton based on monitoring data from five continents for nine major pest species. We urge researchers to publish and analyze their resistance monitoring data in conjunction with data on management practices to accelerate progress in determining which actions will be most useful in response to specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of resistance.

  9. A Dynamic GIS as an Efficient Tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Gourmelon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses both the role of geographical information in participatory research of coastal zones, and its potential to bridge the gap between research and coastal zone management. Over a one year period, heterogeneous data (spatial, temporal, qualitative and quantitative were obtained which included the process of interviews, storing in a spatio-temporal database. The GIS (Geographic Information System produced temporal snapshots of daily human activity patterns allowing it to map, identify and quantify potential space-time conflicts between activities. It was furthermore used to facilitate the exchange of ideas and knowledge at various levels: by mapping, simulation, GIS analysis and data collection. Results indicated that both captured data and the participatory workshop added real value to management and therefore it was deemed well managed by stakeholders. To incorporate a dynamic GIS would enhance pro-active integrated management by opening the path for better discussions whilst permitting management simulated scenarios.

  10. Is it necessary to define the ictal onset zone with EEG prior to performing resective epilepsy surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John W; Cole, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    When evaluating candidates for neurosurgical treatment for medically intractable epilepsy, is it always necessary to define the region of seizure onset with EEG? A simple answer to this question is not possible. There are specific situations where surgery is commonly performed without clear EEG ictal localization, and other situations where electrical localization is mandatory. However, opinions differ in many other situations. What are the core issues for determining when EEG localization is necessary? Neuroimaging is imperfect. It does not always accurately identify the site of seizure origination, because seizures do not always arise from visible structural lesions. EEG localization is also imperfect, as well as expensive and time consuming. Sometimes the site of origin is not identified, or a region of spread is misidentified as site of origin. False localization and lateralization can occur. Finally, epilepsy surgery is imperfect. It can produce life-changing results, but it carries risk, and surgical failure is not rare. The limitations of these methods, and the high stakes of epilepsy surgery imply that we should be very cautious to omit EEG studies. The desire to improve access to epilepsy surgery, and to minimize the expense and risk from inpatient EEG studies, must be weighed against the possibility of an ineffective resection. To improve outcomes, improvements in both neuroimaging and EEG techniques are needed.

  11. Implementing Database Lookup Method in Mobile Wimax for Location Management Area Based Mbs Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivaranjani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile WiMAX plays a vital role in accessing the delay sensitive audio, video streaming and mobile IPTV. To minimize the handover delay, a Location Management Area (LMA based Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS zone is established. The handover delay is increased based on the size of the MBS zone. In this paper, Location Management Area is easily identified by using Database Lookup Method to obtain efficient bandwidth utilization along with reduced handover delay and increased throughput. The handover delay and throughput is calculated by implementing this scenario in OPNET tool.

  12. Alternate technique in managing adhesions after zone 3 extensor tendon repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangatharam, Sudhagar; LeBlanc, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are given less importance than the flexor tendon injuries; however, the extensor mechanism is more complicated than flexor tendon system, and regaining satisfactory function is a challenge. It has been reported that loss of digital flexion would affect grasp and power grip imposing greater functional loss than digital extensor lag. Zone 3 extensor tendon management is complex because of excessive scar formation limiting composite digital flexion and extension. The adhesions are more common if the tendon is immobilized for long period. The purpose of this care report is to describe the alternate technique in managing adhesion after prolong immobilization in zone 3 extensor tendon injuries.

  13. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  14. Internal flow management in a multi-zone climate control unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, C.; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    of each zone is strongly affected by those in the neighbor zones. We discuss a control strategy which, by acting on the heating and ventilation devices of the overall system, is able to achieve the control task while efficiently managing the internal flow. It is pointed out that the controller is hybrid......In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior...... and decentralized. An additional feature of the controller is that it takes on values in a finite set. The possible implementation in a networked environment is briefly discussed....

  15. An idealized rural coastal zone management integrating land and water use

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoon, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Various countries have formulated special integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) strategies which seek to both manage development and conserve natural resources and integrate and coordinate the relevant people sectors and their functions and roles within the bounds of this rich realm. Concerns that may be addressed by ICZM include: 1) Natural resources degradation; 2) Pollution; 3) Land use conflicts; and, 4) Destruction of life and property by natural hazards. Some prevalent sources of en...

  16. Supply Chain Management Strategies in Terms of Decoupling Points and Decoupling Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; Supply chain management is concerned with decisions related to the physical perspective of the enterprise and how the flow of goods and services is arranged. A wide set of strategies have evolved over time to provide guidelines for the decision makers but many of these strategies share a common foundation in process management that is based on decoupling points and decoupling zones. The strategies concerned here are segmentation...

  17. Migrant farmers as information brokers: agroecosystem management in the transition zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marney E. Isaac; Luke C. N. Anglaaere; Daniel S. Akoto; Evans Dawoe

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally induced farmer migration is an important livelihood strategy, yet little is known of the effects on the destination region agroecosystem information networks and management practices. In the forest-savanna transition zone (Brong Ahafo Region) of Ghana, where migration from northern regions (migrant) and from neighboring regions (settler) is active, we chart the role of migrant famers and the type of agroecosystem management practices embedded in information networks using a so...

  18. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Secondary School Administration in Umuahia Education Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejionueme, L. K.; Oyoyo, Anthonia Oluchi

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in secondary school administration in Umuahia Education Zone. Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population of the study comprised 1365 administrators. Multi-stage…

  19. 76 FR 11161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  20. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  1. Managing riparian zone vegetation to sustain streamflow: results of paired catchment experiments in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Managing reparian zone vegetation to sustain streamflow: Results of paired c... David F Scott Canadian Journal of Forest Research; Jul 1999; 29, 7; ProQuest Agriculture Journals pg. 1149...

  2. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  3. Spatial information for coastal zone management: the example of the Banten Bay seagrass ecosystem, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, W.J.A.M.; Buurman, J.J.G.; Kiswara, W.

    2003-01-01

    Geo-information technology can be useful in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). The benefits lie in the fact that geo-information technology can process large amounts of spatial data and can integrate different types and sources of data. The general aim of this paper is to demonstrate these b

  4. Strengthening coastal zone management in the Wadden Sea by applying ‘knowledge-practice interfaces’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente Rodriguez, D.; Giebels, D.; Jonge, de V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge management (e.g., production, mobilization, integration) is key to achieve socio-ecological sustainability and to handle the many challenges that distress coastal zones – e.g. finding a balance between ecological conservation and economic development. Building on the concept of

  5. Defining trauma in complex care management: Safety-net providers' perspectives on structural vulnerability and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Lastad, Ariana; Yen, Irene H; Fleming, Mark D; Van Natta, Meredith; Rubin, Sara; Shim, Janet K; Burke, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we delineate how staff of two complex care management (CCM) programs in urban safety net hospitals in the United States understand trauma. We seek to (1) describe how staff in CCM programs talk about trauma in their patients' lives; (2) discuss how trauma concepts allow staff to understand patients' symptoms, health-related behaviors, and responses to care as results of structural conditions; and (3) delineate the mismatch between long-term needs of patients with histories of trauma and the short-term interventions that CCM programs provide. Observation and interview data gathered between February 2015 and August 2016 indicate that CCM providers define trauma expansively to include individual experiences of violence such as childhood abuse and neglect or recent assault, traumatization in the course of accessing health care and structural violence. Though CCM staff implement elements of trauma-informed care, the short-term design of CCM programs puts pressure on the staff to titrate their efforts, moving patients towards graduation or discharge. Trauma concepts enable clinicians to name structural violence in clinically legitimate language. As such, trauma-informed care and structural competency approaches can complement each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 5.15. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 41-09-39 installed adjacent to tank SX-109.

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  8. Identification of functional zones and methods of target management in Sanjiangyuan National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional zones are the key link for the master planning and scientific management of national parks. We established an evaluation index system to comprehensively analyze regional ecological and environmental features in our study area, the source region of the Yellow River in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. The evaluation index system contains 13 evaluation indices, which include ecosystem services, potential habitat for key species, ecological sensitivity, and ecological pressure classes. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and experts marking methods and combining the requirements of management and control measures, the study area was divided into four primary functional zones, including a core reserve area, ecological restoration area, traditional utilization area, and residential and recreational service area. The protection gradation for each zone is reduced in turn, and the gradation of utilization and public accessibility is enhanced. This functional zones method laid a solid foundation for the effective planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park, while at the same time, our study provides new insight into the functional zones of national parks.

  9. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  10. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... more efficient vessels that are able to meet modern vessel safety standards. This action is intended to... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  11. Methodology To Define Drought Management Scenarios Based On Accumulated Future Projections Of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Monteagudo, David; Solera-Solera, Abel; Andreu-Álvarez, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Drought is a serious threat to many water resources systems in the world. Especially to those in which the equilibrium between resources availability and water uses is very fragile, making that deviation below normality compromises the capacity of the system to cope with all the demands and environmental requirements. Since droughts are not isolated events but instead they develop through time in what could be considered a creeping behavior, it is very difficult to determine when an episode starts and how long will it last. Because this is a major concern for water managers and society in general, scientific research has strived to develop indices that allow evaluating the risk of a drought event occurrence. These indices often have as basis previous and current state variables of the system that combined between them supply decision making responsible with an indication of the risk of being in a situation of drought, normally through the definition of a drought scenario situation. While this way of proceeding has found to be effective in many systems, there are cases in which indicators systems fail to define the appropriate on-going drought scenario early enough to start measures that allowed to minimize the possible impacts. This is the case, for example, of systems with high seasonal precipitation variability. The use of risk assessment models to evaluate future possible states of the system becomes handy in cases like the previous one, although they are not limited to such systems. We present a method to refine the drought scenario definition within a water resources system. To implement this methodology, we use a risk assessment model generalized to water resources systems based in the stochastic generation of multiple possible future streamflows generation and the simulation of the system from a Monte-Carlo approach. We do this assessment every month of the year up to the end of the hydrologic year that normally corresponds with the end of the irrigation

  12. Need for science-policy linkages for river basins and coastal zone management: Meeting report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sardessai, S.

    SCIENCE, VOL. 90, NO. 12, 25 JUNE 2006 * A report on the workshop on ? Science ? policy interactions on river basins and coastal zone manageme nt, Goa? held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa during 7 ? 8 March 2006. services, front line... shop on science ? policy interactions on river basins and coastal zone management held at the N a tional Institute of Oceanography, Goa. S u gandha Sardessai had co n vened this workshop with an overall objective of bringing t o- gether releva nt...

  13. Application of the ETOM framework for defining processes in the telecommunication systems management network of the Serbian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Suša

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with management system requirements in telecommunications. A TMN (Telecommunication Management Network is necessary to be well designed and constantly upgraded. The  ETOM (Enhanced Telecommunication Operation Map framework, defined by the ITU-T Recommendation M.3050, is used to describe various processes that occur in the network for monitoring and control of military telecommunications systems. Their definition is an essential precondition for introducing management applications that would manage all of the processes in their end-to-end structure. Telecommunication networks are categorized in  accordance withg their functions. A set of relevant network processes important for supervision and management is explained for each described subsystem. This defining represents a prerequisite for the management application configuration which aims to automate management functions and services. eTOM frame and its implementation in telecommunication management networks ETOM is defined as a telecommunication conceptual frame which includes all the processes that exist in a telecommunication network. It does not represent a telecommunication model, but gives a basic frame for all the processes to be included within. It ranges throughout three basic areas: operation processes, planning and development processes and production management. ETOM supports two different process grouping perspectives: horizontal and vertical. The aim of this kind of grouping is to provide the complete overview in all the processes a telecommunication management network should include. Horizontal grouping includes functional processes within the same managed system. Vertical grouping includes all the processes within a TMN. Overlapped horizontal and vertical group constellations enable a connected matrix structure of the eTOM frame. Operational processes within a TMN can be divided into a few categories: user-network interaction, services management and

  14. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.22. The data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The remaining text is unchanged from the original report issued in 2002. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 299-E33-45 installed northeast of tank BX-102.

  15. Delineation and Scale Effect of Precision Agriculture Management Zones Using Yield Monitor Data Over Four Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; PAN Yu-chun; GE Zhong-qiang; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, precision agriculture management zones were delineated using yield data over four years from the combine harvester equipped with yield monitor and DGPS receiver. Relative yields measured during each year were interpolated to 4 m2 grid size using ordinary kriging. The resultant interpolated yield maps were averaged across years to create a map of the mean relative yield, which was then used for cluster analysis. The mean yield map of post-classification was processed by applying majority filtering with window sizes that were equivalent to the grid sizes of 12, 20, 28, 36, 44, 52 and 60 m. The scale effect of management zones was evaluated using relative variance reduction, test of significant differences of the means of yield zones, spatial fragmentation, and spatial agreement. The results showed that the post-classification majority filtering (PCMF) eliminated lots of isolated cells or patches caused by random variation while preserving yield means, high variance reduction, general yield patterns, and high spatial agreement. The zoned result can be used as yield goal map for preplant or in-season fertilizer recommendation in precision agriculture.

  16. Management of Contaminants Stored in Low Permeability Zones - A State of the Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    229 USEPA, 2006. Evaluation of the Role of Dehalococcoides Organisms in the Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Ground Water. US...Supporting Information for Section 4: Transport in Heterogeneous Media Appendix D. Screening Method To Estimate if a Chlorinated Solvent Site is...effort is a conviction that managing contaminants in low k zones is central to developing sound solutions at sites where releases of chlorinated

  17. Climate Change, Offshore Wind Power, and the Coastal Zone Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    have begun to plan and develop coastal and offshore wind energy farms,9 the largest and best-known being Cape Wind Associates’ proposal for a 130...is produced. Offshore wind energy projects can conversely take advantage of the relatively consistent nature of coastal winds, caused by the...coastal zone management programs. The CZMA provides for two types of federal consistency, the second of which is directly relevant to offshore wind energy development

  18. Developing a Geological Management Information System: National Important Mining Zone Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Geo-data is a foundation for the prediction and assessment of ore resources, so managing and making full use of those data, including geography database, geology database, mineral deposits database, aeromagnetics database, gravity database, geochemistry database and remote sensing database, is very significant. We developed national important mining zone database (NIMZDB) to manage 14 national important mining zone databases to support a new round prediction of ore deposit. We found that attention should be paid to the following issues: ① data accuracy: integrity, logic consistency, attribute,spatial and time accuracy; ② management of both attribute and spatial data in the same system; ③transforming data between MapGIS and ArcGIS; ④ data sharing and security; ⑤ data searches that can query both attribute and spatial data. Accuracy of input data is guaranteed and the search, analysis and translation of data between MapGIS and ArcGIS has been made convenient via the development of a checking data module and a managing data module based on MapGIS and ArcGIS. Using ArcSDE, we based data sharing on a client/server system, and attribute and spatial data are also managed in the same system.

  19. Business and Commerce, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department...

  20. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  1. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  2. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  3. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphlogy, acoustics and satellite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Galatius, Anders; Dietz, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structur...

  4. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions.

  5. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shapefile for 492 Coastal Zone Management Program (CZMP) counties and county equivalents, 2009, extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau's MAF/TIGER database of U.S....

  6. Patterns of zone management uncertainty in cotton using tarnished plant bug distributions, NDVI, soil EC, yield and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management zones for various crops have been delineated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), apparent bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa - Veris), and yield data; however, estimations of uncertainty for these data layers are equally important considerations. The objective of this...

  7. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS, AMI and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José;

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has increased considerably in the recent years. The way to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient has become of great interest for researchers. One of the research areas is the reduction of energy consumption in users’ residences. Efficiently managing and distributing...... electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). In addition, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and smart grids are also...

  8. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, the social subsystem, thetechnical subsystem, the informative subsystem. The relationship between those subsystems leads to the continuous improvement of quality in health services.

  9. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

  11. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  12. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  13. Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

  14. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  15. Airline company management: 'Defining of necessary number of employees in airline by using artificial intelligence tools'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the model for preliminary estimation of number of employees in airline by using of artificial intelligence tools. It is assumed that the tools of artificial intelligence can be applied even for complex tasks such as defining the number of employees in the airline. The results obtained can be used for planning the number of employees, ie. planning the necessary financial investments in human resources, and may also be useful for a preliminary analysis of the airlines that choose to do restructuring or plan to increase/decrease the number of operations. Results were compared with those obtained by regression analysis.

  16. Ethics and Vulnerability in Street Prostitution; An Argument in Favour of Managed Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carline

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the work of Judith Butler, in particular her approach to ethics and the concepts of vulnerability and „liveable lives,‟ in order to provide a critical analysis of reform proposals contained in the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill (now Act 2008 in relation to street prostitution. The article will argue that the proposals presented in the Bill problematically use the vulnerability of street sex workers in order to promote a moralistic agenda. In contrast it will be argued that managed zones, as proposed by Liverpool City Council, provide a potentially more ethical approach to the issue of street prostitution.

  17. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS, AMI and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). In addition, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and smart grids are also...... being developed to distribute and produce electricity efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS. Additionally, it gives an overview of Advanced Metering Infrastructure benefits and smart grids objectives....

  18. Defining Quality Indicators for Best-Practice Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of published data regarding the quality of care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Canada. Clinical quality indicators are quantitative end points used to guide, monitor and improve the quality of patient care. In Canada, where universal health care can vary significantly among provinces, quality indicators can be used to identify potential gaps in the delivery of IBD care and standardize the approach to interprovincial management.

  19. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS, AMI and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). In addition, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and smart grids are also...... being developed to distribute and produce electricity efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS. Additionally, it gives an overview of Advanced Metering Infrastructure benefits and smart grids objectives....

  20. Defining the culture and attitude towards dietary management actions in people undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbe, Hiromi; Oka, Michiyo; Shimada, Mikiko; Motegi, Emiko; Motoi, Yuji; Okabe, Ayako

    2013-06-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the structure of culture and the three components of attitude in a desirable attitude toward dietary management actions in outpatient haemodialysis patients who are in the maintenance phase of treatment. The participants in the study included nine patients undergoing chronic maintenance haemodialysis who have received guidance related to diet and had good test results. Ethnography, by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, was chosen as the research method. Desirable attitude of haemodialysis patients in dietary management actions was found to have a chronological progression in one of the components of attitude: propensity of behaviour. Change in behaviour was influenced by affect and cognition. At the base of the structure of attitude lay three factors: valuing cooking with seasonal ingredients and creating special meals for seasonal occasions; family draws near, shows care and gives support; and belief in information perceived to be good for the health, which was influenced by three components of attitude: affect, cognition, and propensity of behaviour, as well as culture. Participants continue to value the food culture that they grew up with, which involves their affect towards, and cognition of, dietary management. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  1. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, J. (FERMCO Technology Development, Cincinnati, OH); Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Mann, Michael J. A.; Holt, Robert M.; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-08-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods.

  2. SU-E-T-222: How to Define and Manage Quality Metrics in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A; Cooper, K; DeGregorio, N; Doyle, L; Yu, Y

    2012-06-01

    Since the 2001 IOM Report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, the need to provide quality metrics in health care has increased. Quality metrics have yet to be defined for the field of radiation oncology. This study represents one institutes initial efforts defining and measuring quality metrics using our electronic medical record and verify system(EMR) as a primary data collection tool. This effort began by selecting meaningful quality metrics rooted in the IOM definition of quality (safe, timely, efficient, effective, equitable and patient-centered care) that were also measurable targets based on current data input and workflow. Elekta MOSAIQ 2.30.04D1 was used to generate reports on the number of Special Physics Consults(SPC) charged as a surrogate for treatment complexity, daily patient time in department(DTP) as a measure of efficiency and timeliness, and time from CT-simulation to first LINAC appointment(STL). The number of IMRT QAs delivered in the department was also analyzed to assess complexity. Although initial MOSAIQ reports were easily generated, the data needed to be assessed and adjusted for outliers. Patients with delays outside of radiation oncology such as chemotherapy or surgery were excluded from STL data. We found an average STL of six days for all CT-simulated patients and an average DTP of 52 minutes total time, with 23 minutes in the LINAC vault. Annually, 7.3% of all patient require additional physics support indicated by SPC. Utilizing our EMR, an entire year's worth of useful data characterizing our clinical experience was analyzed in less than one day. Having baseline quality metrics is necessary to improve patient care. Future plans include dissecting this data into more specific categories such as IMRT DTP, workflow timing following CT-simulation, beam-on hours, chart review outcomes, and dosimetric quality indicators. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Recognising self-esteem in our pupils: how do we define and manage it?

    OpenAIRE

    Kilbride, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores issues surrounding inconsistencies in the identification and the definition of self-esteem as well as querying the very presence of self-esteem in the United Kingdom-based classroom. It seeks to examine how increased self-esteem leads to increased academic achievement and identifies whether there is a mismatch between teachers’ and pupils’ judgements of self-esteem. Furthermore, the way in which low self-esteem is managed within the classroom is discussed, as well as how...

  4. Migrant farmers as information brokers: agroecosystem management in the transition zone of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marney E. Isaac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced farmer migration is an important livelihood strategy, yet little is known of the effects on the destination region agroecosystem information networks and management practices. In the forest-savanna transition zone (Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, where migration from northern regions (migrant and from neighboring regions (settler is active, we chart the role of migrant famers and the type of agroecosystem management practices embedded in information networks using a social networks approach. Based on empirical network data from 44 respondents across three communities, we illustrate a diffuse information network, with variable tie frequency between settlement categories (local, settler, or migrant of farmers. The cohesion of this network is dependent on a few strategic bridging ties initiated by migrant farmers, who are thus centrally positioned to exchange agroecosystem management practices between geographically and socially distant groups. At the individual level, migrant and settler farmers are more likely: (1 to have larger networks with more ties between members of their networks, (2 to be brokers positioned between non-migrant farmers, and (3 to tend (although not statistically significantly to use pro-environmental management regimes, including agroforestry practices, new planting methods, and plot-scale weeding. We conceptualize this phenomenon as extended social and environmental experience and the deployment of social-ecological memory, with migrant farmers as potential agents of innovation and adaptive management.

  5. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  6. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  7. A European initiative to define research needs and foster the adoption of Managed Aquifer Recharge into river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneppers, Angeline; Grützmacher, Gesche; Kazner, Christian; Zojer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The European Technology Platform for Water (WssTP) was initiated by the European Commission to federate a highly fragmented sector with the aim to foster competitive innovations and promote sustainable solutions. To achieve this, pilot programmes endorsing a bottom-up approach were launched in 2007 with a variety of stakeholders having representative water issues to solve. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was adopted as a balancing process for the safe and sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of current and future social, economic and environmental objectives. As a result key drivers were selected and a methodology was followed to identify and validate the needs with stakeholders and experts, and demonstrate solutions as an integrated part of the river basin management plans. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) was identified as a key component of integrated water resources management, especially in water scarce regions and an area relevant for further research. The paper shall summarize the process followed by the WssTP, initiating a Task Force with 36 representatives from European research institutes and industry partners with participation of a few international experts. During a workshop conducted in Graz in June 2009 these experts developed the basis for a report that has now been submitted to the European Commission for consideration in future research calls. Implementing IWRM and MAR is made difficult by the number of different water bodies, but also by the large number of stakeholders, policies, legislations and conflicting interests. The results of the MAR Task Force initiative set the basis for further discussions with the international MAR community on the relevance of the identified research needs but also on the importance and process to associate the institutional and managerial entities for capacity building and the adoption of MAR into the overall management strategies.

  8. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01).

  9. Abdominal compartment syndrome – Intra-abdominal hypertension: Defining, diagnosing, and managing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Marinis, Athanasios D; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidou, Nicki

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management. PMID:21769216

  10. Defining the suitability for nectar production, bee bread and honeydew in managed forests (Trentino, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miori M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The project’s aim was to locate the wooden areas suitable for beekeeping activities. This has been possible thanks to the use of a multi-parametric model. This permits to define, for each of 85 forestal types of Trentino, the suitability for the production of nectar, bee bread and honeydew. According to the results, forestal types have been divided into 4 productivity classes. Datas have been reprocessed with GIS methodology so that high and medium productivity areas have been mapped. Following, new parameters have been introduced (distance from roads, slope, exposure in order to highlight in the map the economically most important areas for beekeeping activities. In the next stage the apiaries’ position in the examined areas have been registered with the GPS. These registrations have been used in order to compare the theoretical results with the actual beekeeping activities’ distribution. The experimental stage showed that this methodology represents an useful tool to support beekeeping and, more in general, forest planning.

  11. Defining “Adverse Environmental Impact” and Making § 316(b Decisions: A Fisheries Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term “adverse environmental impact” and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on “unacceptable risk to the population’s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function.” This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the § 316(b decision by considering the facility’s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA’s Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve

  12. Defining the multi-dimensional aspects of household waste management: A study of reported behavior in Devon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Stewart; Gilg, Andrew; Ford, Nicholas [Department of Geography, School of Geography, Archaeology and Earth Resources, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, Devon EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the structure of waste reduction, reuse and recycling behavior within the context of wider research on environmental action in and around the home. Using a sample of 1265 households from Devon, England, the research examined a range of environmental behaviors, focusing on energy saving, water conservation, green consumerism and waste management. Using factor analysis, the data were analysed to examine how the different behavioral variables related to each other. The research found that waste management behaviors were evident in two of the three factors identified. These related not only to recycling or reuse behaviors but also to consumption practices, such as purchasing recycled products. However, an analysis of the frequency of each of these factorially-defined behaviors revealed that recycling was still the activity most practised by individuals, with reduction behaviors least popular. This was explored further by the use of cluster analysis, which defined four distinctive behavioral types with different demographic characteristics. Accordingly, the research demonstrates that examining waste management behaviors within the context of wider environmental actions can be of use.

  13. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must.... “Information” as required by 15 CFR 930.76(a) and 15 CFR 930.58(a)(2)) and “Analysis” as required by 15 CFR...

  14. Defining the drivers for accepting decision making automation in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C; Williamson, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators are under increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of their operation to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution involves increasing the utilisation of automation within the ATM system. The success of this approach is contingent on Air Traffic Control Operators' (ATCOs) willingness to accept increased levels of automation. The main aim of the present research was to examine the drivers underpinning ATCOs' willingness to accept increased utilisation of automation within their role. Two fictitious scenarios involving the application of two new automated decision-making tools were created. The results of an online survey revealed traditional predictors of automation acceptance such as age, trust and job satisfaction explain between 4 and 7% of the variance. Furthermore, these predictors varied depending on the purpose in which the automation was to be employed. These results are discussed from an applied and theoretical perspective. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Efficiency improvements in ATM are required to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution is to increase the utilisation of automation within Air Traffic Control. The present research examines the drivers underpinning air traffic controllers' willingness to accept increased levels of automation in their role.

  15. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached

  16. Unidades de manejo a partir de dados de produtividade = Determination of management zones using yield data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairton Milani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura de precisão é um conjunto de tecnologias que visa o aumento da eficiência com base no manejo diferenciado de áreas agrícolas. Neste contexto, é importante estabelecer metodologias nos quais informações de produtividade, solo ou indicadores compostos possam ser utilizados para a determinação de unidades de manejo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para definição de unidades de manejo em função de mapas de produtividade de cinco safras agrícolas. Foi medida a produtividade da cultura soja, durante os anos de 1998 a 2002, de uma área localizada no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, e utilizando técnicas de geoestatística foram gerados mapas de produtividade. A área amostrada possui 1,74 ha, sendo constituída de 256 parcelas, 128 com manejo químico localizado e 128 sem manejo químico localizado. Na colheita, utilizou-se uma colhedora de parcelas e verificou-se dependência espacial para os sistemas de cultivo, em todos os anos. Os valores pontuais de produtividade de soja de cada ano foram padronizadosutilizando-se a técnica denominada escore padrão, em seguida reclassificados em baixo, médio e alto, o que possibilitou a comparação das produtividades de diferentes anos e a geração de um mapa de produtividade média. Com a produtividade padronizada e ocoeficiente de variação classificados em baixo, médio e alto foi gerado um mapa com as unidades de manejo. A metodologia mostrou-se eficiente para identificar regiões homogêneas.Precision agriculture is a set of technologies that aims the efficiency increase based on the differentiated management of agricultural areas. In this context, it is important to establish methodologies to use the yield information, soil or indicators in the determination of management zones. The aim of this paper was to develop a methodology for the definition of management zones according to yield maps of five growing seasons. The soybean yield was

  17. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions; La cooperation internationale pour une gestion integree de la zone cotiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique - AIEA, Vienna (Austria); Scholten, J.; Betti, M. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique (AIEA) Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-06-15

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  18. Population Health Research: Early Description of the Organizational Shift Toward Population Health Management and Defining a Vision for Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldararo, Kristi L; Nash, David B

    2017-03-06

    As health care delivery systems adapt to the changing marketplace, many struggle to define a clear strategy that will prove successful in managing the health of entire populations. The federal government continues to put increasing pressure on organizations to shift away from the traditional way of delivering episodic care and move toward managing populations as a whole-before, during, and after a patient presents in a health care facility. Private payers have begun to follow suit as risk-based payer contracts and bundled payment models become increasingly popular. For organizations to adequately influence the health outcomes of a population, they must be responsible for more than just a patient's medical care. They must partner with the community to create a strategy that encompasses the psychosocial and environmental factors that contribute to one's health. Although health care leaders know this industry transformation is imminent, there is minimal research that shares best practices in regard to designing and implementing a successful population health management strategy. Interviews were conducted with leadership from 10 organizations in order to understand the strategic approach taken by delivery systems and health care institutions that view population health as a key aspect of their overall mission. Responses were recorded and outlined in a detailed response grid. The objective is to provide a qualitative overview of how industry leaders are currently responding to population health. Additionally, common themes and recommendations are presented to serve as guidance for other health care organizations that are at the start of their journey toward population health management.

  19. Identifying soil management zones in a sugarcane field using proximal sensed electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerley, Claire; Huang, Jingyi; Nielson, Rod; Sefton, Michael; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Over 70% of the Australian sugarcane industry operates in alluvial-estuarine areas characterised by sodic and infertile soils. There is a need to supply ameliorants and improve fertilisers and minimise off-farm pollution to the Great Barrier Reef. Therefore, information is required about the spatial variation in soils. However, traditional approaches are cost-prohibitive. Herein we showed how a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach can be used to identify soil management zones. In the first instance, ancillary data, including electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data were collected. Using a fuzzy k-means clustering algorithm management zones from two to six were identified. Using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of various topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil (0.6-0.9m) physical (e.g. clay) and chemical (e.g. exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP], exchangeable calcium and magnesium) properties, 3 zones were determined from minimising the mean squared prediction error. To manage the moderately sodic topsoil ESP of zones 3A and 3C and sodic 3B, different gypsum requirements were prescribed. Lime can also be added differentially to address low exchangeable Ca in zone 3A, 3B and 3C. With regard to exchangeable Mg, zones 3A and 3C do not require any fertiliser, whereas zone 3A requires the addition of a moderate amount. The results were consistent with percentage yield variance, suggesting the lower yield in 3C due to topsoil sodicity and strongly sodic subsoil with higher clay content. We concluded that the DSM approach was successful in identifying soil management zones and can be used to improve structural stability and soil fertility.

  20. Evaluating Groundwater Management Sustainability under Limited Data Availability in Semiarid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted their efforts to finding an objective measurement of sustainability by developing evaluation tools based on sustainability indices. These indexes not only reveal the current state of water resources in a given area but also contribute to the development and implementation of effective sustainable water management and decision-making. The great disadvantage of these indices is that for proper application, a number of variables are necessary and they are usually not available in data-scarce aquifers. This study was designed to evaluate sustainability in groundwater resource management in an aquifer in a semiarid zone, using readily available parameters and under a pressure-state-response framework. This methodology has been applied to an aquifer in Southeast Spain with satisfactory results, since the indicators that were evaluated reflect the two main problems that hinder sustainable resource management: the contamination of groundwater by intensive local farming; and the need for external inputs from other basins to alleviate water stress. Therefore, the methodology used can be replicated in other areas with similar characteristics to those of the case study.

  1. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  2. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    -diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. The model has been further developed to include the effects of density variations on surface water and groundwater flow, while the already built-in solute transport capabilities are used to simulate salinity interactions. The refined model is based on the finite volume method using a cell-centred structured grid, providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. For addressing water resources management problems, simulation models are usually externally coupled with optimisation-based management models. However this usually requires a very large number of iterations between the optimisation and simulation models in order to obtain the optimal management solution. As an alternative approach, for improved computational efficiency, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained as an approximate simulator of IRENE. The trained ANN is then linked to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimisation model for managing salinisation problems in the coastal zone. The linked simulation-optimisation model is applied to a hypothetical study area for performance evaluation. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the protection of surface water and groundwater in the coastal zone', (2013 - 2015). References Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek). Ph.D. Thesis, National Technical

  3. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Nazemi; Roudbari, Aliakbar; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2014-01-14

    The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  4. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

  5. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

  6. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  7. The Nordic maintenance care program: case management of chiropractic patients with low back pain – defining the patients suitable for various management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance care is a well known concept among chiropractors, although there is little knowledge about its exact definition, its indications and usefulness. As an initial step in a research program on this phenomenon, it was necessary to identify chiropractors' rationale for their use of maintenance care. Previous studies have identified chiropractors' choices of case management strategies in response to different case scenarios. However, the rationale for these management strategies is not known. In other words, when presented with both the case, and different management strategies, there was consensus on how to match these, but if only the management strategies were provided, would chiropractors be able to define the cases to fit these strategies? The objective with this study was to investigate if there is a common pattern in Finnish chiropractors' case management of patients with low back pain (LBP, with special emphasis on long-term treatment. Methods Information was obtained in a structured workshop. Fifteen chiropractors, members of the Finnish Chiropractors' Union, and present at the general assembly, participated throughout the entire workshop session. These were divided into five teams each consisting of 3 people. A basic case of a patient with low back pain was presented together with six different management strategies undertaken after one month of treatment. Each team was then asked to describe one (or several suitable case(s for each of the six strategies, based on the aspects of 1 symptoms/findings, 2 the low back pain history in the past year, and 3 other observations. After each session the people in the groups were changed. Responses were collected as key words on flip-over boards. These responses were grouped and counted. Results There appeared to be consensus among the participants in relation to the rationale for at least four of the management strategies and partial consensus on the rationale for the

  8. Investigation of Industrial Waste Management in Industries Located Between Tehran and Karaj Zone in 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimaee; M. R Gohari; R Nabizade; A Jonidi; Farzadkia, M.; Karami, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In recent years, poor industrial waste managements have created many crises in human societies. The aim of this study was to investigate industrial waste management located between Tehran and Karaj zone in 2009-2010.Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and sectional which was done by site visits, (Iranian environmental protection organization)  use of questionnaires, database production and results analysis. The questionnaire consisted of 45 questio...

  9. Ecological characteristics and management of geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothroyd, Ian K.G. [Golder Associates Ltd., P.O. Box 33849, Takapuna, and School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    New Zealand has an array of geothermal systems with distinctive ecological features, with many occurring in the Taupo Volcanic Zone in the Central North Island. Associated with these geothermal features are characteristic geophysical and geochemical components, and distinctive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with many attributes that are common across a range of the biotic groups. Zonation amongst vegetation communities is closely related to soil temperature and these associations generally occur in a predictable sequence along the soil temperature gradient. Similarly, clear distinctions in aquatic flora and fauna occur longitudinally downstream from the source of thermal springs and vertically on geyser mounds. The characteristic vegetation communities associated with geothermal fields and the invertebrate and algal communities found in geothermally influenced springs and streams are described, in particular the features of the Wairakei geothermal field. At this field four plant associations are recognized (non-vegetated soilfield, prostrate kanuka shrubland, prostrate kanuka scrub, mixed fernland), but all the major aquatic macroinvertebrate groups are represented and commonly found in natural freshwaters throughout New Zealand. The current management of geothermal ecosystems is reviewed with particular reference to the Waikato region of New Zealand. Management of geothermal resources in New Zealand aims to balance development with the protection of highly valued surface features via a series of regional policies, rules and regulations. Geothermal habitats, ecological gradients, and at-risk geothermal plants are included in the definition of geothermal systems for management purposes. With the recognition of the unique ecological diversity and function of geothermal ecosystems, knowledge and understanding of their ecological characteristics will be critical to the ability to utilize and sustain geothermal resources into the future. (author)

  10. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  12. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Multi-Skilled, Self-Managing Work Teams in a Zone-Construction Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM Multi- SkiIled , Self-Managing Work Teams in a Zone-Construction Environment U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...at NASSCO in 1980, the mere fact that the shipyard was successful in overcoming union resistance to the project, speaks well for the shipyard. Unions

  13. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ..., and sport fisheries in their regions of origin. The ] State of Alaska Board of Fisheries adopts..., sport, and personal use fisheries. The first management priority is to meet spawning escapement goals to... the U.S. exclusive economic zone, and observing vessels fishing in international waters is outside...

  14. Livestock-rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admasu, T.; Abule, E.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is

  15. An Analysis of Coastal Zone Management Program Proposals to Determine their Effect on the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    with brief policy summaries. Areas covered are: Agricul- tural Practices, Archaeological Areas and Historic Sites, Aquaculture , Breakwaters...Bulkheads, Commercial Development, Dredging, Forest Management Practices, Jetties and Groins, Landfill, Marinas , Mining, Outdoor Advertising, Piers, Ports and...consistent with other CZMP policies. Accessibility to the coastal zone will be accomplished through a coastal trails system and expansion of marinas

  16. Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies between Teachers and School Leaders in Primary Schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanka, Engdawork Birhanu; Thuo, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various strategies used to manage and resolve conflict between teachers and school leaders in government primary schools of Wolaita zone. The study employed a descriptive survey design where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to correct and analyze data, concurrently. From six…

  17. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118 ...

  18. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... sectors as well as representatives for the six western Alaska Community Development Quota Program... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  19. Utilizing management zones for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton: Effects on nematode levels, crop damage, and Pasteuria sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode management zones (MZs) based on soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for soil texture) have not been published for R. reniformis. We tested 1) whether R. reniformis levels and the amount of damage caused to cotton differed among MZs, 2) if the relative effectiveness of nematicides dif...

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near B 110 in the B BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; mccain, r. G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-ectractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in December 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. This report is the third in a series of three reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) northeast of tank B- 110 (borehole 299-E33-46).

  1. Monitoring and Management of Coastal Zones Which are Under Flooding Risk with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Musaoglu, N.; Gazioglu, C.

    2012-12-01

    great flexibility for the display and visualization of data to a wider audience. Today GIS, plays a key role in monitoring and management procedures and re-shaping the environment. The capability of GIS in handling spatial data, presented new opportunities for adaptation of more cost-effective and efficient procedures. By using remote sensing and GIS, coastal zone could be monitored and managed more easily. The map/chart of interested coastal areas could be done more accurately and rapidly. Maps/charts of areas before and after flooding could be done by using satellites or areal images and the effect of damage could be analyzed in a short time.

  2. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  3. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  5. GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

    2011-01-14

    Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the

  6. Seismic reflection-based evidence of a transfer zone between the Wagner and Consag basins: implications for defining the structural geometry of the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Hernández-Pérez, José Antonio; Martín-Barajas, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the structural characteristics of the northern Gulf of California by processing and interpreting ca. 415 km of two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection lines (data property of Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX) collected in the vicinity of the border between the Wagner and Consag basins. The two basins appear to be a link between the Delfín Superior Basin to the south, and the Cerro Prieto Basin to the north in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The seismic data are consistent with existing knowledge of four main structures (master faults) in the region, i.e., the Percebo, Santa María, Consag Sur, and Wagner Sur faults. The Wagner and Consag basins are delimited to the east by the Wagner Sur Fault, and to the west by the Consag Sur Fault. The Percebo Fault borders the western margin of the modern Wagner Basin depocenter, and is oriented N10°W, dipping (on average) ˜40° to the northeast. The trace of the Santa María Fault located in the Wagner Basin strikes N19°W, dipping ˜40° to the west. The Consag Sur Fault is oriented N14°W, and dips ˜42° to the east over a distance of 21 km. To the east of the study area, the Wagner Sur Fault almost parallels the Consag Sur Fault over a distance of ˜86 km, and is oriented N10°W with an average dip of 59° to the east. Moreover, the data provide new evidence that the Wagner Fault is discontinuous between the two basins, and that its structure is more complex than previously reported. A structural high separates the northern Consag Basin from the southern Wagner Basin, comprising several secondary faults oriented NE oblique to the main faults of N-S direction. These could represent a zone of accommodation, or transfer zone, where extension could be transferred from the Wagner to the Consag Basin, or vice versa. This area shows no acoustic basement and/or intrusive body, which is consistent with existing gravimetric and magnetic data for the region.

  7. Defining Best Practice Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Schlottmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide evidence-based recommendations and guidance for the management of diabetic retinopathy (DR and diabetic macular edema (DME based on recently published clinical evidence and clinical experience. Methods: A literature search using PubMed and the Cochrane Library was performed with the terms “diabetic macular edema” or “diabetic retinopathy” to identify studies published from January 2008 to November 2013. This was followed by a manual search of references cited in selected papers published in peer-reviewed journals. The references identified in these literature searches were reviewed and presented by members of the Latin America DME expert panel to the entire group during the 2-day consensus meeting. During this meeting,the experts formulated recommendations with consideration of the health benefits, risks, and adverse effects of interventions. References used to support recommendations were assigned a level of evidence based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT evidence rating system. Results: Thirty-one consensus recommendations were formulated. These include the recommendation for early glycemic control in diabetic patients in order to reduce the risk of progression of ocular disease. The expert panel also recommended the collection of epidemiological data to further define the prevalence of DR and DME in Latin America and to establish management and treatment algorithms for various stages of the disease. The need for early screening and development of infrastructure to ensure appropriate followup and treatment of those in need is further emphasized. Both fluorescein angiography (FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT are needed for proper assessment of disease progression and response to therapy. Based on available high-level evidence, we recommend ranibizumab as the gold standard for the treatment of DME and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP as the gold standard for proliferative DR. Vitrectomy should

  8. 23 CFR 630.1108 - Work zone safety management measures and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... highway project can affect driver behavior, helping to maintain appropriate speeds and improve driver... that may be mitigated by improved driver behavior and awareness of the work zone; (vi) Work zone... by improving road user behavior and awareness. (2) Costs associated with the provision of...

  9. Internal Flow Management in a Multi-Zone Climate Control Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior

  10. Management with the insufficient proximal landing zone for endovascular repair in aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; YANG Hong-yu; ZOU Jun-jie; ZHANG Xi-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Sufficient length of the proximal landing zone (PLZ) is the key for a successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of an aortic lesion. The aim of this research was to investigate the safety, feasibility, efficacy, and problems of endovascular repair for aortic dissection with insufficient PLZ.Methods The clinical data between August 2005 and February 2010 from patients with insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair of aortic dissection were retrospectively reviewed. According to the classification proposed by Ishimaru, aortic zone 0 was involved in 3 cases, zone 1 in 10 cases, and zone 2 in 11 cases. A hybrid surgical procedure of supraortic debranching and revascularization, directly coverage the orifice of left subclavian artery, or a left common carotid artery chimney graft technique were performed to obtain an adequate proximal aortic landing zone.Results There was no significant difference in risk factors and diameter of the PLZ between Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2. But the length of the PLZ was significantly different in the three groups (P <0.01). There was no significant difference in technical and clinical success rate between the groups.Conclusions The procedure for extending an insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is feasible and relatively safe. The applicability of TEVAR in such aortic disorders may be expanded.

  11. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  12. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  14. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  15. Optimal design of an internal monitoring program for personnel in the Chornobyl exclusion zone radwaste management industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, O O; Medvedev, S Yu; Novikov, O E; Andreyev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Modern state and approach regarding organisation of individual internal dose monitoring of the personnel of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the Chornobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) is presented. Sensitivity and adequacy of the acknowledged instrumental methods is considered taking into account the features of interpretation using indirect methods in the specific working conditions of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the CEZ. The performed analysis enables clear recommendations to be made with regard to optimum design of an internal monitoring program for personnel, including application of specific techniques.

  16. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas...

  17. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    zone, relevant to its physical, chemical, and biological regimes, as well as man's socioeconomic and political systems. The goals must be clearly specified and policies with necessary built-in legislative powers should be framed for implementation. Most...

  18. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  19. Ranking zones model – a multicriterial approach to the spatial management of urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban investment planning is highly complex and different views are provided by stakeholders and experts as to the scope, scale and potential solutions. The evaluation of such investments requires explicit consideration of multiple, conflicting and incommensurate criteria that have an important social, economic, and environmental influence on various stakeholders in different ways. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model is the Ranking Zones Model (RZM, based on PROMETHEE methods. The RZM comprises several steps providing a rank-list of all observed zones. It helps decision-makers come up with consistent decisions as to which zones to invest in and, at the same time, provides reassurance that the decision was based on a proper comparison of all relevant urban zone areas. The advantage of this approach is that even with a change in the decision-making structure, the actual procedure remains consistent.

  20. Science to Improve Management of the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    cooperative activities of several partnering networks. For example, the Gulf of Mexico Alliance ( GOMA ), a partnership developed by the states of Alabama...The GOMA was formed in 2005 in response to the U.S. Ocean Action Plan’s call for regional ocean governance, with the overarching goal to increase...Zone, as a priority need. GOMAs commitment to address the hypoxic zone was strengthened in the subsequent Governor’s Action Plan II (http

  1. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwyn eWilliams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimetre-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services; and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services. These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown. We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple

  2. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  3. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A.; Ewing, Patrick M.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C.; Hunter, Mitchell C.; Koide, Roger T.; Mortensen, David A.; Smith, Richard G.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services

  4. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue... County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise...

  5. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.camacho02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  6. Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian ANGHEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing several options concerning the economic policies Romania should adopt in the following years, in order to attenuate the long term vulnerabilities within the process of joining to the Euro zone, with the observation that, the economic policies proposed in the current work were selected mainly based on the decisive factors for the real equilibrium exchange rate in Romania. Fulfilling the nominal criteria for adhesion can prove itself to be more facile but not able to ensure, on a long term and in a sustainable manner, reaching an optimum for the economy that adheres irreversibly to the Euro zone. It is important to analyze how the competitiveness of other economies evolved prior and after joining the Euro zone, from the perspective of identifying some economic policies meant to ensure the accomplishment of the real convergence criteria to the Euro zone for Romania’s case, on a long term. The economic policies proposed by the authors try to help covering the greatest delays for Romania in comparison with other states in the Euro zone and which, unsolved, can create in time significant vulnerabilities on a long term, having a negative impact for many generations of Romanians from now on.

  7. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  8. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  9. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intrusion of motorized traffic into the work space and other potentially hazardous areas in the work zone... to work activities; Other Traffic Control Measures including uniformed law enforcement officers to... standards and/or guidance contained in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and the...

  10. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  11. Exploring the role of formal bodies of knowledge in defining a profession - The case of project management

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, P. W. G.; Crawford, L.; Hodgson, D; Shepherd, M M; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, project management associations around the world have made serious attempts to conduct themselves as professional associations. Traditional professions distinguished themselves by emphasising standards such as service to the public and competence in their field, and by ensuring that their membership meets these standards. An important element of a profession is ownership of a body of knowledge that is distinctive to the professional group. Project management associations ...

  12. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Agelet Fernández, J.; Arnó Satorra, Jaume; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor duri...

  13. Technical efficiency and management factors in plantain production in humid forest zone of Nigeria: A simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DO Awotide

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the effect of changing some management factors on technical efficiency in plantain production with a view to understanding the functional relationship between technical efficiency and agricultural productivity. Data were r collected from a cross-sectional survey of two local government areas and six villages in Ibadan area of Oyo State in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. Stochastic frontier and multiple regression models were fitted and a simulation analysis was carried out on the management levels of plantain farmers. The results revealed that educational level alone did not significantly influence technical efficiency but its combination with extension assistance significantly influenced technical efficiency in the study area. Periodic extension assistance received significantly influenced technical efficiency.

  14. Determination of soil erosion and sedimentation affected by buffer zones and biochar amendment as best management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah

    Sustainable management is one of the main challenges in modern agriculture. Soil erosion as one form of soil degradation is a threat against the soil sustainability. The main objective of my PhD study was to investigate the effectiveness of biochar as a non-structural best management practice (BMP......) to improve soil structural properties in order to lowering the erodibility of the soil. A second objective was to parameterize a spatially distributed erosion model (WaTEM, Water and Tillage Erosion Model) for planning of the placement of buffer zones (a structural BMP) to reduce sediment transport to water...... of rainfall-runoff simulations using round flumes in the laboratory indicated the positive effects of biochar amendment to mitigate runoff and soil erosion. Moreover laser scanning technique confirmed the positive effects of biochar lumps to enhance the soil surface roughness thereby reduce the runoff...

  15. Erroneous Zones in Human-centered Library Management%图书馆人性化管理的误区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁吉文

    2011-01-01

    Human-centered management stresses respect for human nature and fits in with modern library management.However,in practice there are erroneous zones.This paper explores them from the perspectives of readers,librarians and library.%人性化管理强调对人性的尊重,它符合现代图书馆的管理要求,但实践中,一些图书馆在运用人性化管理手段时,存在一些认识误区,给图书馆发展带来障碍。该文从读者、馆员、图书馆三个角度对人性化管理的一些认识误区进行探讨。

  16. Combining Expert and Stakeholder Knowledge to Define Water Management Priorities in the Mékrou River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to water management, and specifically to transboundary river management, have been widely applied over recent decades. Regarding transboundary rivers, the active involvement of key actors in policy planning is of great importance. In this context, a participatory approach has been used to identify sectors of interest and priorities related to water and development in the Mékrou transboundary River Basin involving three countries: Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We conducted a web-based survey to quantify expert opinion on sectors of water management policy and priorities for the Mékrou River Basin. The same set of questions was then put to a sample of local stakeholders living in this river basin. Our analysis reveals some points of convergence and some discrepancies between the opinions of experts and local stakeholders. Overall, it provides a comparative analysis of how experts and local stakeholders prioritize water policy measures, which could influence decision-making.

  17. Engineered Hyporheic Zones as Novel Water Quality Best Management Practice: Flow and Contaminant Attenuation in Constructed Stream Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, S.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a hotspot for biogeochemical processing that can attenuate a variety of nonpoint source contaminants in streamwater. However, hyporheic zones in urban and agricultural streams are often degraded and poorly connected with surface water. In order to increase hyporheic exchange and improve water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds as a stormwater and restoration best management practice. Modifications to streambed hydraulic conductivity and reactivity are termed Biohydrochemical Enhancement structures for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST are subsurface modules that utilize low- and high-permeability sediments to drive efficient hyporheic exchange, and reactive geomedia to increase reaction rates within the hyporheic zone. This work presents the first physical performance data of BEST modules at the pilot scale. BEST modules were installed in a constructed stream facility at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, CO. This facility features two 15m artificial streams, which included an all sand control condition alongside the BEST test condition. Streams were continuously operated at a discharge of 1 L/s using recycled water. Time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys demonstrated that BEST modules provided substantially greater hyporheic exchange than the control condition. Water quality samples at the hyporheic and reach scales also revealed greater attenuation of nitrogen, coliforms, and select metals and trace organics by BEST modules relative to the control condition. These experimental results were also compared to previous numerical model simulations to evaluate model accuracy. Together, these results show that BEST may be an effective best management practice for improving streamwater quality in urban and agricultural settings.

  18. NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System and the Purdue University Cost Study: A Comparison of Narrowly Defined Direct Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, F. L.; Gleason, W. M.

    One critical aspect of costing system methodologies is examined: the effects of average costing by course level on program unit cost. The direct costing methodologies used in two costing systems are compared. One is the internally developed Purdue University Cost Study; the other, the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. The comparison…

  19. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: A meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  20. bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, A. A.; Liebhold, A M

    1998-01-01

    Exotic pests are serious threats to North American ecosystems; thus, economic analysis of decisions about eradication, stopping, or slowing their spread may be critical to ecosystem management. We present a model to analyze costs and benefits of altering the spread rates of invading organisms. The target rate of population expansion (which may be positive or negative) is considered as a control function, and the present value of net benefits from managing population spread is the criterion th...

  1. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I. A knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Thomsen, M.; Assmuth, T.

    2010-01-01

    and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again...... a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification...... and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk components in cumulative risk management....

  2. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen’s Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Wenxuan; Tong; De; Liu; Qing; Feng; Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  3. Ecological thresholds as a basis for defining management triggers for National Park Service vital signs: case studies for dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Miller, Mark E.; Belote, R. Travis; Garman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold concepts are used in research and management of ecological systems to describe and interpret abrupt and persistent reorganization of ecosystem properties (Walker and Meyers, 2004; Groffman and others, 2006). Abrupt change, referred to as a threshold crossing, and the progression of reorganization can be triggered by one or more interactive disturbances such as land-use activities and climatic events (Paine and others, 1998). Threshold crossings occur when feedback mechanisms that typically absorb forces of change are replaced with those that promote development of alternative equilibria or states (Suding and others, 2004; Walker and Meyers, 2004; Briske and others, 2008). The alternative states that emerge from a threshold crossing vary and often exhibit reduced ecological integrity and value in terms of management goals relative to the original or reference system. Alternative stable states with some limited residual properties of the original system may develop along the progression after a crossing; an eventual outcome may be the complete loss of pre-threshold properties of the original ecosystem. Reverting to the more desirable reference state through ecological restoration becomes increasingly difficult and expensive along the progression gradient and may eventually become impossible. Ecological threshold concepts have been applied as a heuristic framework and to aid in the management of rangelands (Bestelmeyer, 2006; Briske and others, 2006, 2008), aquatic (Scheffer and others, 1993; Rapport and Whitford 1999), riparian (Stringham and others, 2001; Scott and others, 2005), and forested ecosystems (Allen and others, 2002; Digiovinazzo and others, 2010). These concepts are also topical in ecological restoration (Hobbs and Norton 1996; Whisenant 1999; Suding and others, 2004; King and Hobbs, 2006) and ecosystem sustainability (Herrick, 2000; Chapin and others, 1996; Davenport and others, 1998). Achieving conservation management goals requires the

  4. Exploring the cost-utility of stratified primary care management for low back pain compared with current best practice within risk-defined subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, David G T; Bryan, Stirling; Lewis, Martyn; Hill, Jonathan; Hay, Elaine M

    2012-11-01

    Stratified management for low back pain according to patients' prognosis and matched care pathways has been shown to be an effective treatment approach in primary care. The aim of this within-trial study was to determine the economic implications of providing such an intervention, compared with non-stratified current best practice, within specific risk-defined subgroups (low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk). Within a cost-utility framework, the base-case analysis estimated the incremental healthcare cost per additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY), using the EQ-5D to generate QALYs, for each risk-defined subgroup. Uncertainty was explored with cost-utility planes and acceptability curves. Sensitivity analyses were performed to consider alternative costing methodologies, including the assessment of societal loss relating to work absence and the incorporation of generic (ie, non-back pain) healthcare utilisation. The stratified management approach was a cost-effective treatment strategy compared with current best practice within each risk-defined subgroup, exhibiting dominance (greater benefit and lower costs) for medium-risk patients and acceptable incremental cost to utility ratios for low-risk and high-risk patients. The likelihood that stratified care provides a cost-effective use of resources exceeds 90% at willingness-to-pay thresholds of £4000 (≈ 4500; $6500) per additional QALY for the medium-risk and high-risk groups. Patients receiving stratified care also reported fewer back pain-related days off work in all three subgroups. Compared with current best practice, stratified primary care management for low back pain provides a highly cost-effective use of resources across all risk-defined subgroups.

  5. [Consensus statement on the clinical management of non-AIDS defining malignancies. GeSIDA expert panel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jesús; Valencia, Eulalia

    2014-10-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel of experts appointed by GeSIDA. This paper reviews the recommendations on the most important non-AIDS defining malignancies that can affect patients living with AIDS. Lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, anal carcinoma and other less frequent malignancies such as breast, prostate, vagina or colon cancers are reviewed. The aim of the recommendations is to make clinicians who attend to this patients aware of how to prevent, diagnose and treat this diseases. The recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy when the patient develops a malignancy are also presented. In support of the recommendations we have used the modified criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Delineation of Management Zones in Precision Agriculture by Integration of Proximal Sensing with Multivariate Geostatistics. Examples of Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Castrignanò

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental to the philosophy of Precision Agriculture (PA is the concept of matching inputs to needs. Recent research in PA has focused on use of Management Zones (MZ that are field areas characterised by homogeneous attributes in landscape and soil conditions. Proximal sensing (such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and X-ray fluorescence can complement direct sampling and a multisensory platform can enable us to map soil features unambiguously. Several methods of multi-sensor data analysis have been developed to determine the location of subfield areas. Modern geostatistical techniques, treating variables as continua in a joint attribute and geographic space, offer the potential to analyse such data effectively. The objective of the paper is to show the potential of multivariate geostatistics to create MZ in the perspective of PA by integrating field data from different types of sensors, describing two study cases. In particular, in the first case study, cokriging and factorial cokriging were employed to produce thematic maps of soil trace elements and to delineate homogenous zones, respectively. In the second case, a multivariate geostatistical data-fusion technique (multi collocated cokriging was applied to different geophysical sensor data (GPR and EMI, for stationary estimation of soil water content and for delineating within-field zone with different wetting degree. The results have shown that linking sensors of different type improves the overall assessment of soil and sensor data fusion could be effectively applied to delineate MZs in Precision Agriculture. However, techniques of data integration are urgently required as a result of the proliferation of data from different sources.

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX-115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Gee, Glendon W.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Burke, Deborah S.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.15 and 4.19. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project is led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Their goals include defining risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, identifying and evaluating the efficacy of interim measures, and collecting geotechnical information and data. The purpose of these activities is to support future decisions made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas. To help in this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to analyze sediment samples collected from borehole 299-W23-19.

  8. Application of the device based on chirping of optical impulses for management of software-defined networks in dynamic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Irina L.; Khasansin, Vadim R.; Andrianova, Anna V.; Yantilina, Liliya Z.; Vinogradov, Sergey L.

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of the influence of the physical layer concepts in optical networks on the performance of the whole network. It is concluded that the relevance of the search for new means of transmitting information on a physical level. It is proposed to use an optical chirp overhead transmission between controllers SDN. This article is devoted to research of a creation opportunity of optical neural switchboards controlled in addition by submitted optical radiation. It is supposed, that the managing radiation changes a parameter of refraction of optical environment of the device, and with it and length of a wave of information radiation. For the control by last is used multibeam interferometer. The brief estimation of technical aspects of construction of the device is carried out. The principle of using the device to an extensive network. Simulation of network performance parameters.

  9. Software-Defined DCN Control Framework Supporting Efficient Network Management%支持高效管理的软件定义DCN控制架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛健彪; 韩彪; 孙志刚; 卢锡城

    2015-01-01

    提出了支持高效管理的软件定义数据中心网络控制架构( FRINGE) ,采用分布式和集中式相结合的控制,特点是在网络边缘构建软件定义的集中管理域,利用边缘网络设备的可编程配置能力提高网络管理效率. 通过分析发现, FRINGE具有较好的实现可行性,仅需对现有数据中心柜顶交换机进行OpenFlow软件升级. 以数据中心网络管理功能中的故障诊断为例,说明了FRINGE可提升网络管理的性能,诊断探测开销比原有方法可降低至少2个数量级.%The target of network control in datacenter is to satisfy the requirement of network resources of ten-ants and meet the demand of network management. A method of edge software-defined control framework sup-porting efficient management in data center network(DCN) was proposed named FRINGE. FRINGE builds up a software-defined networking(SDN) management domain at the edge of datacenter networks, exploiting con-figurable network devices to improve the efficiency of network management. The article analyzed the feasibility of implementation of FRINGE by updating the software of top-of-rack switches to support OpenFlow. It illus-trates the troubleshooting in network management to present the enhanced effectiveness of the framework. The probing overhead of FRINGE is two orders of magnitude less than the previous method.

  10. Interface Management between General Practitioners and Rheumatologists-Results of a Survey Defining a Concept for Future Joint Recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Puchner

    Full Text Available To measure the views of general practitioners (GPs and rheumatologists in a nationwide evaluation, so as to optimise their cooperation in managing patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.A questionnaire covering aspects of collaboration was sent, both by mail and/or by email, to all GPs and rheumatologists in Austria. Topics covered were (i examinations and interventions to be performed before referral, (ii the spectrum of diseases to be referred, and (iii the role of GPs in follow-up and continuous management of patients.1,229 GPs of the 4,016 GPs (31% and 110 of the 180 rheumatologists (61% responded to the questionnaire. In cases of suspected arthritis, 99% of the GPs and 92% of the rheumatologists recommended specific laboratory tests, and 92% and 70%, respectively, recommended X-rays of affected joints before referral. Rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis and connective tissue disease were unanimously seen as indications for referral to a rheumatologist. Only 12% of rheumatologists felt responsible for the treatment of hand osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia. 80% of GPs and 85% of rheumatologists were of the opinion that treatment with disease-modifying drugs should be initiated by a specialist. Subsequent drug prescription and administration by GPs was supported by a majority of GPs and rheumatologists, with a concomitant rheumatologist follow-up every three to six months.The considerable consensus between the two professional groups constitutes a solid base for future joint recommendations, with the aim to accelerate the diagnostic process and the initiation of adequate therapy.

  11. 关于煤矿火区封闭与管理的探讨%Investigate on Fire Zone Sealing and Management in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任振宇

    2013-01-01

    In our country every year because of fire accidents make many of the mining area are closed,and thus lead to a large number of resources are frozen.The author summarize site management experience for many years,discuss fire zone sealing,fire zone management and closed fire zone unsealed,emphasize the programmatic role of the "coal mine safety regulations"and "mine sealing fire preventing and extinguishing specification"in fire zone management and have a certain reference value for management personnel of the mine fire zone.%在我国每年都会因为火灾事故而使得许多采区被封闭,因而也导致大量资源被冻结。作者总结多年的现场管理经验,对火区封闭、火区管理及封闭火区的启封进行了论述,强调了在火区管理中《煤矿安全规程》及《矿井密闭防灭火规范》的纲领性作用,对矿井现场火区的管理人员均有一定的参考价值。

  12. Assessment of the spatial variability in tall wheatgrass forage using LANDSAT 8 satellite imagery to delineate potential management zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicore, Pablo; Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sousa, Adelia; Costa, José Luis; da Silva, José Rafael Marques

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on the degree of within-field variability of potential production of Tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) forage under unirrigated conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of the accumulated biomass (AB) without nutritional limitations through vegetation indexes, and then use this information to determine potential management zones. A 27-×-27-m grid cell size was chosen and 84 biomass sampling areas (BSA), each 2 m(2) in size, were georeferenced. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied after an initial cut at 3 cm height. At 500 °C day, the AB from each sampling area, was collected and evaluated. The spatial variability of AB was estimated more accurately using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from LANDSAT 8 images obtained on 24 November 2014 (NDVInov) and 10 December 2014 (NDVIdec) because the potential AB was highly associated with NDVInov and NDVIdec (r (2)  = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). These models between the potential AB data and NDVI were evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE) and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE). This last coefficient was 12 and 15 % for NDVInov and NDVIdec, respectively. Potential AB and NDVI spatial correlation were quantified with semivariograms. The spatial dependence of AB was low. Six classes of NDVI were analyzed for comparison, and two management zones (MZ) were established with them. In order to evaluate if the NDVI method allows us to delimit MZ with different attainable yields, the AB estimated for these MZ were compared through an ANOVA test. The potential AB had significant differences among MZ. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that NDVI obtained from LANDSAT 8 images can be reliably used for creating MZ in soils under permanent pastures dominated by Tall wheatgrass.

  13. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  14. Delineating management zones for precision agriculture applications: a case study on wheat in sub-tropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Melo Damian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In sub-tropical Brazil, the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop requires identification of pending constraints as premise for grain yield (GY increases. In this light, spatial variation of soil properties and their relationship with GY were investigated in a case study, where the delineation of homogeneous zones could lead to site-specific management in view of crop improvement. In 2012, twelve chemical and physical soil attributes, GY and the three yield components (spikes per square meters, grains per spike, grain weight were geo-referentially assessed in a 50×50 m grid in a 4.7 ha wheat field. GY exhibited a modest mean (2.61 Mg ha–1, associated with a noticeable variation (CV, 17.4%. A multiple stepwise regression of soil carbon (C and pH explained a high share of GY variation (R2, 0.83**. Maps of C, pH and GY obtained through inverse distance weighting showed the spatial trends of the three traits. C and pH clustering delineated three homogeneous zones at respective low, intermediate and high levels of C, pH, and also GY, setting the premise for a differential management of crop inputs. In particular, a significant part (21.8% of field surface featured very low GY (2.05 Mg ha–1; thus substantial yield increase could be envisaged through targeted supply of organic amendments (soil C, 14.1 g dm–3, and especially lime (soil pH, 4.92. A larger field portion (54% showed intermediate GY (2.65 Mg ha–1, C (15.3 g dm–3 and pH (5.23, deserving a lesser degree of amelioration. The remaining 24.2% of field surface exhibited the highest GY (3.16 Mg ha–1, C (17.2 g dm–3 and pH (5.46. Based on the difference between GY registered in the low vs. high zone, overcoming soil constraints could be credited with a remarkable (>50% yield increase, although further years of wheat cropping would be needed to prove the consistency of the two temporally stable soil traits, C and pH, as yield determinants. Nevertheless, this case study addressing a world

  15. Defining biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Robert; Watson, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The term "biobank" first appeared in the scientific literature in 1996 and for the next five years was used mainly to describe human population-based biobanks. In recent years, the term has been used in a more general sense and there are currently many different definitions to be found in reports, guidelines and regulatory documents. Some definitions are general, including all types of biological sample collection facilities. Others are specific and limited to collections of human samples, sometimes just to population-based collections. In order to help resolve the confusion on this matter, we conducted a survey of the opinions of people involved in managing sample collections of all types. This survey was conducted using an online questionnaire that attracted 303 responses. The results show that there is consensus that the term biobank may be applied to biological collections of human, animal, plant or microbial samples; and that the term biobank should only be applied to sample collections with associated sample data, and to collections that are managed according to professional standards. There was no consensus on whether a collection's purpose, size or level of access should determine whether it is called a biobank. Putting these findings into perspective, we argue that a general, broad definition of biobank is here to stay, and that attention should now focus on the need for a universally-accepted, systematic classification of the different biobank types.

  16. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone

  17. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Buchholz-Sørensen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2, which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41 and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001 with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries

  18. Application of Education Information Management Support Tools in the Promotion of Teaching/Learning and Management of Students' Performance in Federal Universities in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwuo, S. O.; Enefaa, Bestman Briggs Anthonia

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the application of education information management support tools in the promotion of teaching/learning and management of students' performance in federal universities in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The…

  19. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  20. AN APPLICATION OF HYBRID CLUSTERING AND NEURAL BASED PREDICTION MODELLING FOR DELINEATION OF MANAGEMENT ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar S. Bansod

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from descriptive data on crop yield and various other properties, the aim of this study is to reveal the trends on soil behaviour, such as crop yield. This study has been carried out by developing web application that uses a well known technique- Cluster Analysis. The cluster analysis revealed linkages between soil classes for the same field as well as between different fields, which can be partly assigned to crops rotation and determination of variable soil input rates. A hybrid clustering algorithm has been developed taking into account the traits of two clustering technologies: i Hierarchical clustering, ii K-means clustering. This hybrid clustering algorithm is applied to sensor- gathered data about soil and analysed, resulting in the formation of well delineatedmanagement zones based on various properties of soil, such as, ECa , crop yield, etc. One of the purposes of the study was to identify the main factors affecting the crop yield and the results obtained were validated with existing techniques. To accomplish this purpose, geo-referenced soil information has been examined. Also, based on this data, statistical method has been used to classify and characterize the soil behaviour. This is done using a prediction model, developed to predict the unknown behaviour of clusters based on the known behaviour of other clusters. In predictive modeling, data has been collected for the relevant predictors, a statistical model has been formulated, predictions were made and the model can be validated (or revised as additional data becomes available. The model used in the web application has been formed taking into account neural network based minimum hamming distance criterion.

  1. Essential trauma management training: addressing service delivery needs in active conflict zones in eastern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Matthew G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Access to governmental and international nongovernmental sources of health care within eastern Myanmar's conflict regions is virtually nonexistent. Historically, under these circumstances effective care for the victims of trauma, particularly landmine injuries, has been severely deficient. Recognizing this, community-based organizations (CBOs providing health care in these regions sought to scale up the capacity of indigenous health workers to provide trauma care. Case description The Trauma Management Program (TMP was developed by CBOs in cooperation with a United States-based health care NGO. The goal of the TMP is to improve the capacity of local health workers to deliver effective trauma care. From 2000 to the present, international and local health care educators have conducted regular workshops to train indigenous health workers in the management of landmine injuries, penetrating and blunt trauma, shock, wound and infection care, and orthopedics. Health workers have been regularly resupplied with the surgical instruments, supplies and medications needed to provide the care learnt through TMP training workshops. Discussion and Evaluation Since 2000, approximately 300 health workers have received training through the TMP, as part of a CBO-run health system providing care for approximately 250 000 internally displaced persons (IDPs and war-affected residents. Based on interviews with health workers, trauma registry inputs and photo/video documentation, protocols and procedures taught during training workshops have been implemented effectively in the field. Between June 2005 and June 2007, more than 200 patients were recorded in the trauma patient registry. The majority were victims of weapons-related trauma. Conclusion This report illustrates a method to increase the capacity of indigenous health workers to manage traumatic injuries. These health workers are able to provide trauma care for otherwise inaccessible

  2. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  3. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  4. Integrative System of Management Categories and Function Zones of Protected Areas%保护地管理类别和功能分区结合体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏友照; 解焱; MACKINNON John

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of establishing management category system and function zonation system of protected areas. It proposed a new management category system (including four categories, strict protected category, habitat/species management category, nature park category, and multifunctional category, simplified from the system of six categories established by IUCN), a new function zonation system (including 5+1 zones, closed zone, control zone, tourist zone, resource use zone, high-intensity use zone, and external buffer zone, revised from the three zones represented by the Man and Biosphere Reserve System) for protected areas, and an innovative application of combining the two systems together. Combining the proposed management category system and function zonation system together will allow developing specific management objectives for each different management categories and different function zones, and therefore it would provide flexible options for management of protected areas with multiple functions. This system would also allow establishing a set of management standards to regulate protected areas' management practices, and provide evaluation criteria for supervision. In the end, the paper also described the advantages of the integrative system of management categories and the function zones compared with IUCN's management category system of protected areas, and how the system can address some key problems existing in the management of protected areas. Fig 1, Tab 4, Ref 24%讨论了对保护地进行管理分类和功能分区的必要性,提出了新的保护地管理分类方法(由IUCN制定的6类简化为4类:严格保护类、栖息地/物种管理类、自然公园类和多用途类)和功能分区方法(由人与生物圈保护区体系的三区法修改为5+1区:封闭区、控制区、旅游区、资源利用区、高强度使用区和外围缓冲区),并创新性地将管理类别和功能分区结合在一起运用,针对不同

  5. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  6. Using Nonlinear Dynamics for Environmental Management of the Vadose Zone and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2003-03-27

    The need to improve characterization and prediction methods for flow and transport in partially saturated and saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock has long been recognized. Such improvement would be specifically welcomed in the fields of environmental management, containment and remediation of contaminated sites. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous soils and fractured rock (with oscillating irregularities) were assumed to be random and were analyzed using conventional stochastic and deterministic methods. In this presentation, I will present the results of laboratory and field investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated soils and fractured rock, applying the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. I will discuss using these methods for the development of improved characterization and prediction methods as well as for the development of remediation technologies for contaminated soils and groundwater.

  7. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  8. Challenges and lessons learned in establishing a critical zone observatory in an intensively managed rural landscape of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Tripathi, S.; Harsha, K. S.; Adla, S.; Dash, S. K.; Chander, Y.; Mahajan, P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Sen, I. S.; Sinha, R.

    2016-12-01

    The study of critical earth system processes, particularly in densely populated regions in the developing world, entails the additional challenges of incorporating anthropogenic forcing and the economic constraints of low-cost technology. The criteria for site selection of Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) networks (crucial for the advancement of hydrological research in data scarce regions) generally give weightage to pristine, undisturbed regions to study isolated critical zone processes. This study details the factors involved and challenges faced in establishing a CZO in the Pandu River basin (Uttar Pradesh, India). This region is representative of the fertile Ganga River Basin which produces 50% of India's food grain annually and is critical for the food security of about 40% of the Indian population. Moreover, Uttar Pradesh has the highest absolute population and population density among all Indian states, amongst the lowest GDP/capita, an average landholding size of 0.76 ha with 92% of operational farm-holdings categorized as small or marginal. The significant proportion of Indians disgruntled with the state of public sector corruption may transform into scepticism towards government projects such as ours, thereby constraining our options for secure site selection. Within the framework of hypothesis-experiment-learning feedback loops, this paper chronicles iterative field trials and their outcomes in establishing an intensively managed rural landscape CZO. The work includes a conscious effort to combine the strengths of low-cost sensor, data logging and data-transfer technology and citizen science approaches through participatory data collection guided by scientific, socio-economic, cultural, political and administrative considerations.

  9. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  10. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  11. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  12. Fire occurrence zoning from local to global scale in the European Mediterranean basin: implications for multi-scale fire management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsias N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and evaluates a relatively new concept for fire occurrence zoning based on documented historical fire records. The proposed method creates continuous kernel density surfaces based on wildland fire ignition observations. Kernels have the advantage of directly producing density estimates that are not influenced by grid size or localization effects. Within this scheme, kernel density surfaces have been created and reclassified to construct fire occurrence zones at local to global scales in the Mediterranean Basin. Specifically, fire occurrence zones were created for the European scale (European Mediterranean Basin, national scale (Greece, regional scale (Peloponnese, Greece and local scale (Chalkidiki, Greece. To evaluate fire occurrence zones, we compared the observed with the expected distribution of the number of fires within these zones using a Monte Carlo randomization test, finding that these numbers were statistically different in all cases. The deviations observed from the expected distributions towards the high occurrence zone indicated their successful assessment and value. In this paper, we further discuss their potential role and use for multi-scale fire management and policy in a European context.

  13. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  14. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  15. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  16. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  17. Investigations into traditionally managed Djallonké-sheep production in the humid and subhumid zones of Asante, Ghana: II. Reproductive events and prolificacy(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, J C; Weniger, J H; Schwartz, H J

    1994-01-12

    Parturitions of 338 among humid-zone ewes and 690 among subhumid-zone ewes gave rise to 361 and 797 live-born lambs, respectively. Mean age and weight at first parity were 431.3 days and 15.6 kg for the humid-zone ewes while those for the subhumid-zone ewes were 429.4 days and 17.0 kg. Early age at first parity is related to physiological age and growth of body weight which is closely related to early sexual maturity. The monthly distribution of parturitions is discussed with considerably higher peaks in October, April and May in the humid zone while in the subhumid zone, high frequencies were recorded in July, August, February and March. Higher parities significantly shortened the successive parturition intervals within and between the climatic zones with general intervals of 234.2 and 208.7 days among the humid- and the subhumid-zone ewes, respectively, at the fifth parity. The shortest parturition intervals (242.6 days) were recorded during the dryspell-minor wet season (August-October) in the humid zone and the major-wet season (May-July; 223.9 days) in the subhumid zone. Higher annual reproduction rates of 1.95 (1st year) and 1.79 (2nd year) lambs among the free-range ewes while subnormal rates of 1.72 (1st year) and 1.68 (2nd year) lambs among the humid-zone ewes were recorded. These differences are related to the natural service, parturition intervals, litter size and the availability of fodder plants as influenced by management (semi-tethering as against free-range). ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Untersuchungen über traditionelle Schafproduktion in der humiden und sub-humiden Asante Region Ghanas II. Reproduktionsleistungen und Fruchtbarkeitsraten Gegenüber 690 Lebendgeburten bei 338 Mutterschafen in der humiden Zone (H) wurden in der semi-humiden Zone (SH) 797 Geburten bei 361 Mutterschafen erfaßt. Mit einem Erstlammalter zwischen 431,3 (H) und 429,4 (SH) Tagen und Körpergewichten von 15,6 kg (H) und 17,0 kg (SH) sind Mutterschafe zu diesem Zeitpunkt in der semi

  18. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez; Paula Cristina Sierra-Correa; Pilar Lozano-Rivera

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish), whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the co...

  19. In-Season Root-Zone Nitrogen Management Strategies for Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in High-Yielding Maize Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-Feng; CHEN Xin-Ping; ZHANG Fu-Suo; CAO Ming-Hui; CUI Zhen-Ling; BAI Jin-Shun; YUE Shan-Chao; CHEN Su-Yi; T.M(U)LLER

    2012-01-01

    Many recently developed N management strategies have been extremely successful in improving N use efficiency.However,attempts to further increase grain yields have had limited success.Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at four sites to evaluate the effect of an in-season root-zone N management strategy on maize (Zea mays L.).According to the in-season root-zone N management,the optimal N rate (ONR) was determined by subtracting measured soil mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) in the root zone from N target values.Other treatments included a control without N fertilization,70% of ONR,130% of ONR,and recommended N rate (RNR) by agronomists in China that have been shown to approach maize yield potentials.Although apparent N recovery for the ONR treatment was significantly higher than that under RNR in 2007,grain yield declined from 13.3 to 11.0 Mg ha-1 because of an underestimation of N uptake.In 2008,N target values were adjusted to match crop uptake,and N fertilization rates were reduced from 450 kg N ha- 1 for RNR to 225 to 265 kg N ha-1 for ONR.High maize yields were maintained at 12.6 to 13.5 Mg ha-1,which were twice the yield from typical farmers'practice.As a result,apparent N recovery increased from 29% to 66%,and estimated N losses decreased significantly for the ONR treatment compared to the RNR treatment.In conclusion,the in-season root-zone N management approach was able to achieve high yields,high NUE and low N losses.

  20. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  1. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  2. Estimating CH4 emission from paddy managed soils in southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria using an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpeokhai, Agatha; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank; Akinluyi, Francis

    2016-04-01

    ESTIMATING CH4 EMISSION FROM PADDY MANAGED SOILS IN SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Akpeokhai Agatha 1, Menz Gunter 1, Thonfeld Frank 1, Akinluyi Francis 2 1 Remote Sensing Research Group (RSRG), Geography Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. 2 Department Remote Sensing and Geo-Science Information System, School of Earth and Mineral Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria. Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases as it has the second greatest climate forcing potential. Paddy fields have been identified to be sources of methane and Nigerian paddies are not left out. In Nigeria, the guinea savanna region is regarded as the bread basket of the nation and this area is one of the major rice producing regions in Nigeria. Its location in the food basket region of the country makes this part a very important study site. However, since Nigerian paddies contribute to methane emission by how much do these paddies contribute to the emissions? Also, so far, there limited studies on methane from rice fields in West Africa thus making this study a very important start off point. To answer this huge question, methane emission will be estimated using an integrated approach in the North Central part of Nigeria. Land use change cultivated to rice was analysed using Remote sensing techniques to determine the changes in land cultivated to rice. Methane emission from these identified rice fields will be estimated using the IPCC Tier 1 set of equations. First relevant indices (Normalized Differential Moisture Index, Normalized Differential Wetness Index and Rice Growth Vegetation Index) were generated to aid classification of rice fields using LANDSAT data from the USGS. Next the LANDSAT datasets were analyzed for land use change cultivated to rice from 1990 to 2014 to generate rice field maps. ERDAS Imagine, ARCGIS and ENVI tools were used to meet these spatial needs. Methane emissions from this region will be

  3. Knowledge and Practice of Clinicians regarding Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Public Health Facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are the leading causes of morbidity among young adults. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone. The study included 250 clinicians and 12 health facilities, 26 mystery clients were hired, and 120 STI patient cards were reviewed. Data was entered in EPI info version 7.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results. Of the participated clinicians, 32 (12.8% were trained on syndromic management of STIs. Highest knowledge of clinicians was for urethral discharge (27.2%. Professional category of clinicians and type of health facility (AOR = 0.194; 95% CI = 0.092, 0.412 were determinants of urethral discharge knowledge. Of the cards reviewed, only in 8.3% of cards and 19.23% of mystery clients did the clinicians correctly follow the guideline. Conclusion. Knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in study area were poor. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of clinicians by providing training on syndromic management of STIs and supportive supervision should be regular.

  4. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  5. 基于管理学的林地落界项目管理探讨%Discussing the project of defining forest land border from the angle of modern management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆钦锋

    2012-01-01

      Based on the background of defining forest land border, concerning utilization and supervision of local authorities’ forest land, this article carried out discussions, knowledge and analysis for the project of defining forest land border from the angle of management. According to four basic functions of management, this article also approached a subject from the feasibility of management for defining forest land border.%  从林地落界背景实际出发,考虑地方林地利用监管现状,从管理学角度重新对林地落界项目进行认识、分析、讨论,并从管理学的四种基本职能出发,对林地落界项目进行管理可行性探讨。

  6. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  7. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  8. A Review on the Behavior Management of Tourists in Domestic Scenic Zone%国内景区游客行为管理研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 谢朝武

    2012-01-01

    Scenic zone is the main occurring site of tourists behavior. The research on the tourists behavior in scenic zone is multi-perspective and multi-layered. From the point of view of the comprehensive quality of visitors, the research of tourists behavior in scenic zone mainly focused on the four aspects: bad behavior, environmental awareness and attitude and behavior, influence of behavior and behavior management.%景区是游客旅游行为发生的主要空间载体,有关景区游客行为的研究是多视角、多层次的。从游客综合素质的视角来看,我国学者对景区游客行为的研究主要集中在景区游客的不良行为、景区游客的环境意识和态度及行为、景区游客的行为影响和行为管理等四个方面。

  9. GIS modeling of introduction zones in Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annenkova Irina Vladimirovna

    2014-11-01

    Defined the mean monthly temperature and precipitation for each zone. The diagram shows the dependence of the probability distribution of the three groups resistance from the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. Describes the climatic conditions of the zones.

  10. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  11. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele; Toraldo, Massimiliano

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average.

  12. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. Results The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1–10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). Conclusion The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by

  13. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kunii

    Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To

  14. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  15. The state of art of the website of the IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    They are now almost two years that in the framework of IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network, it has been set up a website www.iah-cad-czm.net, where we have been collecting and uploading, information about studies aimed to know properties and state of exploitation about coastal aquifers and coastal zone management. The website would be a tool aimed to collect and share information and data referred this topic, available not only for researchers, for whom it might be a starting point for their studies, but also for stake holders, which needs few information about a coastal aquifer or a coastal zone. Until now they have been contacted several tens of researchers, which have contributed to the website implementation, by filling a questionnaire, we sent them, which was referred to coastal aquifers they have studied. Any questionnaire summarizes information referred to coastal aquifer location, its exstension, and some basic pieces of information, related to hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical properties of it, but also the most important scientific references, that can be consulted to have more and deeper information, about it. In the poster we are going to present, we are interested in showing the state of art of this collecting and uploading data, as until now the filled questionnaires, present in the website, are more than sixty and at the date of the EGU 2017, it may be they could be much more. On the other hand to present it at EGU is a way for trying to receive suggestions and contributions for make it better.

  16. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  17. Recognition and Survey the Productive Residues of the Curing Centers and Presenting the Management Methods. (The case study: the 7th zone of Karaj municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gohari Mokammel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The high risk of residues of curing centre and extensive use of them endangered all over the world. According to the reports of the world health organization (WHO 75-90% of productive residue of curing centre is usual kind and is out of danger and management of them is like the urban waste material. On the basis of this reports 10 to 25% (percent of the mentioned residues are placed in the group of dangerous residues, and it needs a precise and wise management program. The aim of this research in the first step is to recognize and survey the sources of productive hospital residues and in the next step physical analysis of them. Finally, by considering the taken results, the suitable management methods for the zone would be presentable. On the basis of the available statistics, the seventh zone of Karaj municipality has 174280 per population (89059 per men and 85221 per women.In this zone totally one hospital with 316 beds Approval and 278 beds are used, 14 clinic 35 Medical recognition laboratory 69 Drugstore and there are nine rehabilitate centre, the way of study is descriptive interruptive. In this research recognition of productive source of hospital residue taken and process, sampling, analyzing of the data and presenting appropriate management methods suitable with the zone. At last after the taken data analysis, the results are described as follows: The average of infectious and disinfections residue of Alborz hospital, clinics and medical recognition laboratory by order 55, 45 and 23 , 77 and 15.7, 84.3 percent are obtained. The average of plastic and paper in productive residues of Alborz hospital, drugstores and rehabilitate centre by order 43.8, 8.4 and17.2, 67.6 and 0.2, 20.3 percent are calculated. Daily economical benefit in the case of performing the recovery plan for the Alborz hospital, 69 drugstores and 9 health centre totally 1369355 Rials calculated, and of this rate plastic with 923211 Rials is placed on the first grade. The

  18. Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co-Management from a Governance Perspective and Defining a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Huitema

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-management based on a literature review of the (water governance literature. The adaptive (co-management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the (water governance literature. However, this literature also predicts various problems. In particular, attention is called to the complexities associated with participation and collaboration, the difficulty of experimenting in a real-world setting, and the politicized nature of discussion on governance at the bioregional scale. We conclude this article by outlining a common research agenda that invites the collaborative efforts of adaptive (co-management and governance scholars.

  19. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  20. Determination of management zones from normalized and standardized equivalent produtivity maps in the soybean culture Unidades de manejo a partir de mapas de produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Suszek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the site-specific management, the precision agriculture brings new techniques for the agricultural sector, as well as a larger detailing of the used methods and increase of the global efficiency of the system. The objective of this work was to analyze two techniques for definition of management zones using soybean yield maps, in a productive area handled with localized fertilization and other with conventional fertilization. The sampling area has 1.74 ha, with 128 plots with site-specific fertilization and 128 plots with conventional fertilization. The productivity data were normalized by two techniques (normalized and standardized equivalent productivity, being later classified in management zones. It can be concluded that the two methods of management zones definition had revealed to be efficient, presenting similarities in the data disposal. Due to the fact that the equivalent standardized productivity uses standard score, it contemplates a better statistics justification.Por meio do manejo diferenciado, a agricultura de precisão traz novas técnicas para o setor agrícola, bem como maior detalhamento dos métodos utilizados e aumento da eficiência global do sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar duas técnicas para definição de unidades de manejo com base em mapas de produtividade de soja, em uma área produtiva manejada com adubação química localizada e outra com adubação química convencional. A área experimental possui 1,74 ha, constituída de 128 amostras com adubação localizada e 128 com adubação convencional. Os dados de produtividade foram normalizados por duas técnicas (produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente e posteriormente definidas unidades de manejo. Pode-se concluir que os dois métodos de definição de unidades de manejo mostraram-se eficientes, apresentando semelhanças na disposição dos dados. Devido à produtividade padronizada equivalente utilizar escore-padrão, ela contempla

  1. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  2. 76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... requires suspension of directed pollock fishing when female spawning biomass is equal to or below 20...://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . The MSA defines bycatch as fish that are harvested in a fishery that are not sold or... Council recommended the split of 73 percent for the Central GOA and 27 percent for the Western GOA...

  3. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F; Serne, R JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N; Valenta, Michelle M; Lanigan, David C; Vickerman, Tanya S; Clayton, Ray E; Geiszler, Keith N; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T; Kutynakov, I V; Baum, Steven R; Lindberg, Michael J; Orr, Robert D

    2007-02-05

    A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of the

  4. The Effects of Ethical Behaviors of the Managers on Organizational Climate: an Application in 3rd Organizational Industrial Zone in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan CELIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various reasons such as professional advances in business life and increasing consciousness of the employees, and the emergence of various ethical values and principles have significant role in increase of ethical behaviors of the managers. One of the important domains that the ethical behaviors of the managers affect at most is the organizational climate. Ethics takes on a task at the point of organizing and advocating the true and false concepts, and recommending the best to people. And, the organizational climate is a phenomenon that represents the scope and quality of the relationships of all the individuals in an organization and identifies the organization from the psychological aspect. The ethical behaviors of the managers are the power that can change the perceptions of the employees about the organization, and then the balances of the organizational climate. This study that was carried out via the survey technique has been implemented to persons in organizations located in Industrial Zone of Konya. As a result of implementation work, it has been revealed that the occupational commitment, which is a dimension of the ethical behaviors of the managers have significant effects on recognition, organizational structure, standards, responsibility and commitment that are sub-dimensions of the organizational climate. The honesty among the sub-dimensions of the ethical behaviors of the managers have been determined to have significant effects on structure, standards and commitment which are sub-dimensions of organizational climate. Finally, the equality and objectivity sub-dimension of the ethical behaviors of the managers have been determined to have significant effects on standards and commitment dimensions among the sub-dimensions of the organizational climate.

  5. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe...

  6. Soil management practice in Croatian vineyard affect CO2 fluxes and soil degradation in trafficking zones. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Bilandzija, Darija; Andabaka, Zeljko; Stupic, Domagoj; Cacic, Marija; Brezinscak, Luka; Maletic, Edi; Pereira, Paulo; Kisic, Ivica

    2017-04-01

    Vineyards represent one of the most degradation prone types of intensively managed land on Earth. Steep slopes encourage grape producers to adopt environmental friendly soil management like mulching or continuous no-tillage. In this context, producers have concerns about efficient fertilisation practices and water competitions between vine and grasses in continuous no-tillage inter rows. Vineyards in semi-humid areas like Continental Croatia mostly not suffer from water deficit during growth. Nevertheless, lack of research of different soil management practices open dilemma about soil compaction concerns in intensively trafficked soils in vineyard of semi-humid areas. Soil compaction, determined by bulk density (BD), soil water content (SWC) and CO2 fluxes from trafficked inter row positions were recorded in 2016 in an experiment in which four different soil management systems were compared in a vineyard raised on a silty clay loam soil, near Zagreb, Croatia: No-tillage (NT) system, continuous tillage (CT) and yearly inversed grass covered (INV-GC) and tillage managed (INV-T) inter rows are subjected to intensive traffic. Grape yield and must quality of grape variety Chardonnay was also monitored. Tractor traffic increased the soil BD at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, but especially at the 0-10 cm depth. CT treatment record lowest compaction at 0-10 cm because of tillage. Soil water content showed better conservation possibilities of INV-GC in drier period. In wet period SWC possibilities are similar between treatments. The results of soil compaction under different management indicate that vineyard soil differently response to traffic intensity and impact on microfauna activity and CO2 emissions. INV-GC and NT managed soils record lower CO2 fluxes from vineyard soil compared to CT and INV-T treatments. Management treatments did not statistically influenced on grape yields. Several years of investigation is needed to confirm the overall impact of different management

  7. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  8. 77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... to manage the hard caps for Chinook salmon PSC. For the GOA, the data will be more variable and less... effects of the rule fall primarily on a distinct segment of the industry, or portion thereof (e.g., user group, gear type, geographic area), that segment would be considered the universe for purposes of...

  9. A methodology for validation of integrated systems models with an application to coastal-zone management in Southwest Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giang, N.T.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Models (ISMs) have been developed over decades to support the planning and management of natural resources and the environment. The development of these models is based on the concepts of systems approach and integrated approach. However, the lack of a generally accepted

  10. A methodology for validation of integrated systems models with an application to coastal-zone management in Southwest Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giang, N.T.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Models (ISMs) have been developed over decades to support the planning and management of natural resources and the environment. The development of these models is based on the concepts of systems approach and integrated approach. However, the lack of a generally accepted definitio

  11. Active management of third stage of labour, post–partum haemorrhage and maternal death rate in the Vanga Health Zone, Province of Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Fina Lubaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH is the single largest cause of maternal death worldwide and a particular burden for developing countries. In Africa, about 33.9 % of maternal deaths are due to PPH. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the prevalence of PPH is unknown. PPH can be prevented with active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL. Objectives: To describe the practice of AMTSL in Vanga Health Zone and to calculate the incidence of PPH in Vanga Health Zone.Method: An intervention study with post-test-only design was conducted among health maternity wards using a data collection sheet to obtain information. All pregnant women attending Vanga Health maternity wards constituted the study population. Frequencies were determined for variables of interest.Results: From April 2007 to March 2008, 6339 deliveries took place at Vanga Health maternity wards, representing 71% of the institutional delivery rate. The number of deliveries realised with the practice of (AMTSL were 5562; 366 cases of PPH were reported, making an incidence of 5.77%. Three cases of maternal deaths – two of which were related to PPH – were reported during the study period, which means there was a decline of 70% compared with the previous two years.Conclusion: The prevalence of PPH has been estimated to be 5.77%; PPH represents the cause of 67% of all maternal deaths. The extension of AMTSL practice, combined with the assurance of better supplies of oxytocin to enhance drug management, is strongly advised/suggested. As a number of births still take place outside the health maternity wards, the introduction of oral misoprostol could be considered a part of AMTSL for use by patients being treated by traditional midwives.

  12. Shallow groundwater nitrogen responses to different land use managements in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Haiming; YIN Chengqing

    2008-01-01

    This field study investigated the nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater from an ephemeral stream and four land uses:cropland,two-year restored (2yr) and five-years restored (5yr) woodlands,fishponds,and the nitrogen flux in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir.The groundwater nitrate-N concentrations in cropland were the highest among the four land uses.Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and nitrate-N concentrations in the 2yr woodland were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in 5yr woodland.The lowest nitrogen concentrations were detected in fishponds.Nitrate-N was the main form in cropland and 2yr woodland,whereas both nitrate-N and diSSolved organic nitrogen (DON) were the main species in 5yr woodland and fishponds.But,ammonium-N was the main form in the ephemeral stream.During the rainy season,the groundwater flow wim dissolved nitrogen drains from upland into the reservoir along the hydraulic gradient.The woodland between the cropland and reservoir could act as a buffer to retain shallow groundwater nitrogen.The dominant form of ammonium-N in the groundwater TDN pool in ephemeral stream indicated that nitrogen from the village and orchard in upland flowed into the reservoir via subsurface flow.The fishpond Was not an important pollution source for nitrogen transfer via shallow groundwater.

  13. Defining severe familial hypercholesterolaemia and the implications for clinical management: a consensus statement from the International Atherosclerosis Society Severe Familial Hypercholesterolemia Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raul D; Gidding, Samuel S; Hegele, Robert A; Cuchel, Marina A; Barter, Philip J; Watts, Gerald F; Baum, Seth J; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Defesche, Joep C; Folco, Emanuela; Freiberger, Tomas; Genest, Jacques; Hovingh, G Kees; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Humphries, Steve E; Jackson, Ann S; Mata, Pedro; Moriarty, Patrick M; Raal, Frederick J; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Ray, Kausik K; Reiner, Zelijko; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2016-10-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is common in individuals who had a myocardial infarction at a young age. As many as one in 200 people could have heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, and up to one in 300 000 individuals could be homozygous. The phenotypes of heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia overlap considerably; the response to treatment is also heterogeneous. In this Review, we aim to define a phenotype for severe familial hypercholesterolaemia and identify people at highest risk for cardiovascular disease, based on the concentration of LDL cholesterol in blood and individuals' responsiveness to conventional lipid-lowering treatment. We assess the importance of molecular characterisation and define the role of other cardiovascular risk factors and advanced subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in risk stratification. Individuals with severe familial hypercholesterolaemia might benefit in particular from early and more aggressive cholesterol-lowering treatment (eg, with PCSK9 inhibitors). In addition to better tailored therapy, more precise characterisation of individuals with severe familial hypercholesterolaemia could improve resource use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries

  15. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this

  16. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  17. Border free economic zones and the latest stage of their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Chisarik

    2013-06-01

    economic zones are created. They provide the stable, favorable environment for investment, possess well developed infrastructure and have a preferential mode of activity. Well functioning free economic zone is managed by responsible authority, which is efficient and flexible. Its tasks include planning, administration, coordinating and development of economic and public work within a zone in close cooperation with the authorities of this country.The industrial structure of free economic zone consists of the factors of key importance defining development of free economic zone. Its development is carried out both for all free economic zones as a whole, and for each separate free economic zone. Considering free economic zones from geographical position, it is possible to say that they are less limited: they can settle down in ports, coastal regions, in one country or in border territories where there are favorable communication data.Conclusions and directions of further researches. After passing the mentioned typological transformation purpose of free economic zones from the category of microeconomics to the macroeconomic category, and at the same time free economic zone began to receive more and more privileges and assistance. Summing up, it is possible to say that development of free economic zones can be divided into five periods of growth and six stages of development. Growth periods in each country differ on duration, depending on as analyzed country is developed.

  18. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  19. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guallpa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  20. Analysis of the cost and return to management of small scale cassava production in the humid zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobadia, E.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a major staple food in Nigeria. Available literature showed that not much work had been done on the return to management (RTM of this crop particularly in recent times. Crop production variables of capital, hired labour, family labour and fertilizer-use were studied. Costs and returns of cassava production in the study area were computed. The study showed that the average cost of producing an hectare of cassava irf N 10, 343.99. The total return was valued at N 45, 165.57 with an average RTM of N 34, 821.58. The study also revealed that labour and fertilizer are crucial variables to productivity of the farm-firm in terms of output per hectare. It was concluded that cassava production is a profitable venture and comparable to any Government Service which the unemployed and young school leavers should be encouraged to go into.

  1. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  2. Defining an Ecologically Ideal Shallow Groundwater Depth for Regional Sustainable Management: Conceptual Development and Case Study on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The depth and fluctuation of shallow groundwater influence water supply to land surface vegetation. Knowledge of an ecologically ideal depth range of shallow groundwater for a vegetation ecosystem can be crucial for sustainability of regional water resource management and ecological conservation. In this study, we developed a conceptual model that identifies an upper and a lower boundary of shallow groundwater for sustaining present vegetation ecosystems, termed ecologically ideal shallow groundwater depth (EISGD. We then applied the conceptual model to the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km2 in northeast China in order to gain insights into sustainable shallow groundwater usage in this intensively irrigated agricultural region. Using soil capillary rise, plant rooting depth, extinction depth, and the actual groundwater depth, we identified an upper boundary range of EISGD between 0.5 and 2.8 m and a lower boundary range of EISGD between 2.0 and 14.3 m for different vegetation covers in the Sanjiang Plain. Based on the ranges, we estimated allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal (i.e., without degrading the present vegetation ecosystem for the region and identified an area of 2.54 × 1010 m2 with a total of 9.14 × 108 m3 water deficit. Currently, the entire Sanjiang Plain has a total volume of 45.30 × 108 m3 EISGD allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal, thus the plain’s northeast region can be considered as having a high allowable pumping capacity. This study demonstrates that application of an EISGD concept can be useful for developing regional management strategies and plans for ecological protection and sustainable groundwater utilization.

  3. Optimizing Lighting Design for Hospital Wards by Defining User Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Niels; Stidsen, Lone; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Studying Standard and recommendations for lighting in hospital environment its often suggest a uniform light distribution to facilitate the needs of the staff. At the same time the standards recommend a lighting design supporting the patients feeling a homely and pleasant atmosphere, and point ou...

  4. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  5. Delineation of Precision Agriculture Management Zones in Oasis Field Based on K-means Algorithm%基于K-均值聚类的绿洲农田管理分区提取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安光辉; 马蓉; 陈伟; 芦帅

    2011-01-01

    根据产量数据的空间变异划分管理分区是确定精准农业变量作业单元的有效途径,可以为样区土壤管理提供科学的决策依据.本研究以新疆绿洲农田为研究对象,通过安装在John Deer 9970采棉机上的Insight产量监测系统获取棉花产量实时数据,并以之为数据源进行农田精准管理分区的研究.研究采用K-均值聚类算法提取管理分区,并以方差减少率的变化来评价管理分区划分的效果.结果表明:当过滤窗口尺度为18 m×18 m,管理分区数为4时,各分区内的棉花产量变异较小且分区间棉花产量变异较大,分区尺度适合变量作业.%Zoning based on spatial variability of yield on a field scale is a key to variable rate application in precision agriculture. The objective of this research was to delineate precision agriculture management zones of oasis cotton field. Firstly by means of the Insight yield monitor system installed on the JD 9970 cotton picker, the real time cotton yield data is obtained. Then K-means clustering algorithm was used to delineate management zones with the yield data as main data source. In order to determine the optimum management zones, the relative variance reduction was used to judge its reasonability. The results showed that when the size of the filter window is 18mX18m and the whole field is divided into four management zones the regional differences all decreased obviously and the difference between regions is very significant. Moreover,the region scale of the management zones delineated with this method is suitable for variable-rate application. The delineated management zones can be used for fertilizer recommendation to manage soil nutrient and salinity more efficiently in coastal saline field.

  6. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  7. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic: Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime S Davies

    Full Text Available In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse.

  8. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jaime S; Stewart, Heather A; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse.

  9. Pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets in a conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubber bullets and pellet guns are considered non-lethal low-velocity weapons. They are used to disperse a mob during street protests. The present study was undertaken to analyze the pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries caused by these weapons. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients with features of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets from June 2010 to November 2010. All patients with features of vascular injuries due to these non-lethal weapons were included in the study. Vascular injuries caused by other causes were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 35 patients who presented with features of vascular injury during this period were studied. All of them were males. The mean age was 22 years. Fifteen patients were revascularized primarily, 19 patients needed reverse saphenous vein graft and, in one, patient lateral repair was done. There were two mortalities in our series. Wound infection was the most common complication. The amputation rate was around 6%. Conclusion: Pellet and rubber bullets can cause serious life-threatening injuries. Vascular injury caused by these weapons need no different approach than other vascular injuries. Early revascularization and prompt resuscitation prevents the loss of limb or life.

  10. Definindo prioridades de gestão de ciência e tecnologia em saúde Defining priorities for the management of health science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A necessidade de gestão da produção científica e tecnológica em saúde está bem estabelecida no Brasil desde a realização da I Conferência Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (C&T em Saúde, em 1994. O presente estudo apresenta uma estratégia metodológica para identificação de prioridades institucionais no planejamento dessa gestão. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Questionário aplicado a uma amostra de pesquisadores dos Institutos de Pesquisa da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo recolheu impressões sobre dois cenários alternativos: situação atual e expectativa. Dezoito conceitos de gestão de C&T, compondo quatro temas distintos, foram medidos como percentagem média de aprovação ou reprovação em cada cenário. A contribuição de cada conceito nos quatro temas foi avaliada por exame de consistência interna através do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach e a composição final dos temas foi depurada de conceitos inconsistentes. As médias de aprovação/reprovação foram ainda calculadas como coordenadas de cada cenário tanto para os conceitos quanto para os institutos estudados, permitindo a construção de mapas de localização de prioridades de gestão por conceitos e por institutos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que a situação atual, ainda que não expressivamente, merece reprovação, enquanto identificam-se altos níveis de expectativa, com destaque significativo para a gestão de infra-estrutura para pesquisa. As principais prioridades de gestão de C&T são identificadas como: reconhecimento de mérito, apoio à divulgação, planejamento de recursos por projetos e assessoria metodológica. CONCLUSÃO: A estratégia metodológica adotada no estudo provê as informações necessárias ao planejamento podendo ser aplicada a outras instituições de pesquisa através de adaptação do conteúdo temático e conceitual.INTRODUCTION: An urgent need for the management of science and technology production in the health

  11. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  12. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  13. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship anchored or moored and 200-yard radius security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship underway that is being... navigable waters within the Southeastern New England COTP zone. We propose to define a ``cruise ship'' as...

  14. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  15. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  17. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  18. Spatial Prediction of Hydraulic Zones from Soil Properties and Secondary Data Using Factorial Kriging Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, James; Morari, Francesco; Scudiero, Elia; Teatini, Pietro; Vellidis, George

    2015-04-01

    The development of pedotransfer functions (PTF) is an important topic in soil science research because there is a critical need for incorporation of vadose zone phenomena into large scale climate models. Soil measurements are inherently spatially dependent and therefore application of geospatial statistics provides an avenue for estimating soil properties. The aim of this study is to define management zones based on soil hydraulic properties. Samples were collected from 50 locations at 4 depths in a 20.8ha field located in the Po River delta in Italy. Water retention curves (WRC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves (UHC) and were determined via inversion of measurements taken using the Wind (Dane and Topp, 1994) method. This region is in known to have paleo-channel structures and highly heterogeneous soils. Factorial kriging analysis (FKA) was applied to hydraulic parameters in one data set and soil physical properties in another data set at 4 depths. The mapped principal components (PCs) were used in a fuzzy-c means algorithm to define zones of like properties. To examine the physical significance of these zones, curve parameters and hydraulic curves were investigated. Zones were able to distinguish between θ_s(saturated water content), n (shape parameter) and α (inverse of air entry) while θr (residual water content) and Ks (saturated conductivity) were not statistically different between the groups. For curve comparisons, WRC were found to be significantly different between zones at all tensions while effective saturation curves (Se) differ for the majority of tensions (except at 28cm), but UHC did not differ. The spatial relevance of the zones was examined by overlaying hydraulic zones with zones defined using the FKA and fuzzy-c means approach from soil physical properties such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic zones overlaid with areal accuracy ranging from 46.66% to 92.41%. As there is much similarity between these sets of zones, there

  19. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  20. Management zones in agriculture acording to the soil and landscape variables Zonas de manejo agrícolas de acordo com variáveis de solo e paisagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevandro C. Delalibera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of spatial variability of soil and plants attributes, or precision agriculture, a technique that aims the rational use of natural resources, is expanding commercially in Brazil. Nevertheless, there is a lack of mathematical analysis that supports the correlation of these independent variables and their interactions with the productivity, identifying scientific standards technologically applicable. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of soil variability according to the eleven physical and seven chemical indicators in an agricultural area. It was used two multivariate techniques: the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and the principal component analysis (PCA. According to the HCA, the area was divided into five management zones: zone 1 with 2.87ha, zone 2 with 0.8ha, zone 3 with 1.84ha, zone 4 with 1.33ha and zone 5 with 2.76ha. By the PCA, it was identified the most important variables within each zone: V% for the zone 1, CTC in the zone 2, levels of H+Al in the zone 4 and sand content and altitude in the zone 5. The zone 3 was classified as an intermediate zone with characteristics of all others. According to the results it is concluded that it is possible to separate into groups (management zones samples with the same patterns of variability by the multivariate statistical techniques.O estudo da variabilidade espacial de atributos do solo e plantas ou agricultura de precisão, técnica que visa ao uso racional dos recursos naturais, está expandindo-se comercialmente no Brasil. Porém ainda ressente-se de análise que dê respaldo matemático a correlação de variáveis independentes e suas interações com a variável produtividade, identificando padrões científicos tecnologicamente aplicáveis. Objetivou-se identificar padrões de variabilidade do solo com base em onze indicadores químicos e sete físicos em área agrícola. Utilizaram-se duas técnicas de estatística multivariada: análise hierárquica de

  1. Coastal zone management of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  3. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  4. Defining gender disparities in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leresche, Linda

    2011-07-01

    Prevalence rates of most musculoskeletal pain conditions are higher among women than men. Reasons for these prevalence disparities likely include sex differences in basic pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors. The purposes of this review were to (1) identify reasons for differences in pain prevalence between men and women, (2) assess whether musculoskeletal pain conditions are differently treated in men and women, and (3) identify reasons for sex/gender disparities in pain treatment. A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms "pain" or "musculoskeletal pain" and "gender differences" or "sex differences" with "health care," "health services," and "physician, attitude." Articles judged relevant were selected for inclusion. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Higher pain prevalence in women is consistently observed but not well understood. The relative contributions of sex differences in pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors (eg, coping, social roles) to explaining differences in prevalence are not yet clear. Gender disparities in the amount of healthcare use for pain may be partially explained by the experience of higher-intensity pain in women. Pain intensity also seems to be a major factor influencing treatment, especially the prescription of medications for acute pain. However, clinicians' gender stereotypes, as well as the clinician's own gender, appear to influence diagnostic and treatment decisions for more persistent pain problems. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: The ultimate goal is optimal pain control for each individual, with gender being one difference between individuals. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Further research is needed to address all three major purposes, with particular attention to whether gender-specific pain treatment may sometimes be warranted.

  5. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;

    2016-01-01

    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  6. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  7. Ecotype Zones for Minnesota and Iowa Prairie Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map of local ecotype seed harvest zones for Iowa and Minnesota. A local ecotype zone is defined as a geographic area with generally similar...

  8. Timing and causes of gully erosion in the riparian zone of the semi-arid tropical Victoria River, Australia: Management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, G. L.; Wasson, R. J.; Boggs, G. S.; Douglas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gully erosion in the seasonally wet tropics of Australia is a major source of sediment in rivers. Stabilization of gullies to reduce impacts on aquatic ecosystems and water storages is a focus for management. However, the cause of the gully erosion is poorly understood and so a critical context for soil conservation is missing. It is uncertain if they are the result of post-European cattle grazing or are they much older and related to non-human factors. The causes of riparian gully erosion along a reach of the Victoria River in the semi-arid tropics of Australia were investigated using several methods. Gully complexes were described and characterised by two major components: a Flood Drainage Channel (FDC) and upslope of this an Outer Erosion Feature (OEF) characterised by badlands set within an amphitheatre. The OEF is likely to be a major source of sediment that appears to be of recent origin. A review of historical records, combined with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, showed that the FDCs were well established prior to the introduction of domestic stock. It also showed that the badlands began to develop about 90 years ago; that is, about 40 years after the arrival of domestic stock. In addition, an analysis of aerial photos coupled with an on-ground survey and analysis of fallout radionuclides revealed that erosion processes are still active within the gully complexes. While the FDCs are natural drainage channels, cattle grazing probably triggered the badland formation, with the expansion aided by increased rainfall in the past 40 years. Therefore, the OEFs are of human origin and protection from grazing of the riparian zone should slow badland erosion and reduce sediment input to the river.

  9. Defining Medically Necessary Services To Protect Children. Protecting Consumer Rights in Public Systems: Managed Mental Health Care Policy. A Series of Issue Papers on Contracting for Managed Behavioral Health Care, #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Washington, DC.

    This issue paper is designed to help families, advocates and policymakers ensure that "medically necessary" standards in public-sector contracts for managed mental health care protect children's rights, particularly the rights of children who have serious emotional disturbance. Fundamental principles for developing sound contracts for…

  10. Between and within-field variation in physico-chemical soil properties of vineyards: implications for terroir zoning and management in Heuvelland, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Emma; Verdoodt, Ann; Cornelis, Wim; Delbecque, Nele; Tiebergijn, Lynn; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Gabriels, Donald

    2015-04-01

    The 'Heuvelland' region with a surface area of 94 km² is situated in the Province of West Flanders, Belgium, bordering with France. The region comprises a number of hills ("heuvel") on which a fast growing 'wine culture' is developing. Both professional as well as non-professional wine makers together cultivate about 19 ha of vineyards, and are still expanding. Grapes cultivated include Chardonnay, Pinot gris and Pinot noir among others. The small-scale, strongly dispersed vineyards are located in different landscape positions of variable aspect. The objective of our preliminary study was to assess the between-field and within-field variation in physico-chemical soil properties of these vineyards with the aim to better characterise the terroir(s) in Heuvelland and provide guidelines for soil management. Fourteen vineyards from five different wineries were selected for detailed soil sampling. Twenty-five sampling sites were chosen according to the topography, soil map units and observed variability in grape growth. The soil was sampled using 15 cm depth increments up to a depth of 60 cm or a shallower lithic contact. Composite samples of 5 sampling locations along the contour lines were taken per within-field zone. Besides the texture, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg, K), also some micronutrients (Fe, B, Cu, Mn) were determined using standard laboratory procedures. The soils developed on Quaternary niveo-eolian sandy loam and loamy sediments of variable thickness covering marine sandy and clayey sediments of the Tertiary. Where the Tertiary clayey sediments occur at shallow depth, they can strongly influence the internal drainage. At higher positions in the landscape, iron-rich sandstone layers are found at shallow depth. Fragments of this iron-rich sandstone can also be found at lower positions (colluvial material). This iron sandstone is claimed to contribute to the unique character of this wine

  11. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  12. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  13. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  14. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  15. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  16. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  17. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  18. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  19. Defining the fascial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-01-01

    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  1. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  2. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  3. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  4. Decidability of definability

    CERN Document Server

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor

    2010-01-01

    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  5. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  6. Geochemical Characterization Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-07

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank (SST) farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical information available for the vadose zone beneath the SST farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

  7. Estimation of effective soil hydraulic parameters for water management studies in semi-arid zones. Integral use of modelling, remote sensing and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: evapotranspiration, effective soil hydraulic parameters, remote sensing, regional water management, groundwater use, Bhakra Irrigation System, India.The meaningful application of water management simulation models at regional scale for the analysis of alternate water manage

  8. 基于 GIS的地铁保护区信息管理系统应用研究%Application research on information management system of metro safety protection zone based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧华

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of miscellaneous operation projects , many risk sources , long cycle and difficult manage-ment in metro safety protection zone , an information management system of metro safety protection zone was established by u -sing Baidu Map based on GIS technology .The data structure , overall framework and technical route of the system were illus-trated.The practical example showed that the system realized the functions of information storage , query, statistics, manage-ment and sharing in the whole process from land leasing to construction of project in the metro safety protection zone .It pro-vides informatization support for the safe operation and external risk sources retrospecting of metro .%针对地铁安全保护区内作业项目繁杂、风险源多、周期长、难以管理等问题,基于GIS技术,利用百度地图建立了地铁保护区信息管理系统,论述了系统的数据结构、总体框架和技术路线。实例表明,该系统实现了地铁保护区内项目从土地出让到施工全过程信息的存储、查询、统计、管理以及信息共享等功能,为地铁的安全运营和外部风险源追溯等提供了信息化支持。

  9. Defining Z in Q

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsmann, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  10. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  11. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  12. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  13. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes...... 85% across all zones-differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  14. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  15. 内陆开放型经济实验区食品供应链管理研究%Study on Food Supply Chain Management in Inland Open Economic Experimental Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建功

    2015-01-01

    分析了内陆开放型经济实验区食品供应链的特点,从整合供应链、降低国际化食品供应链中的不确定性两方面提出了加快内陆开放型经济实验品食品供应链管理的建议。%In this paper, we analyzed the characteristics of the food supply chains in inland open economic experimental zones and then from the aspects of supply chain integration and reducing the uncertainty in the international food supply chain, proposed the suggestions to improve the management level of the food supply chains in inland open economic experimental zones.

  16. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  17. Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of Registered Oil and Gas ... operational challenges and add to the cost of doing business in the zone. ... of experienced supply chain, logistics or operations managers of sampled oil ...

  18. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  19. Farmers' perceptions of the impacts of human- wildlife conflict on their livelihood and natural resource management efforts in Cheha Woreda of Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne Mojo; Jessica Rothschuh; Mehari Alebachew

    2014-01-01

    ... sustainable land management practices among resident agrarian families. In 2011, a household survey was conducted to assess farmers' perceptions of human-wildlife conflicts and the effects of these conflicts on land management in Cheha Woreda...

  20. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  1. Engaging local communities in the process of participatory management in the coastal zone - the experience of the Region of the Vistula Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Przedrzymirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Based on experience gained through the collaboration of two FP7 projects (ARCH and LAGOONS), a methodology used for stakeholders’ involvement in the management of lagoons under climate and anthropogenic pressures is discussed. The central objective of the ARCH project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) was to develop participative methodologies in collaboration with the involved managers, policy makers and stakeholders to manage the multiple problem...

  2. Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.

  3. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  5. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  6. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    prescribe appetite suppression and fiscal discipline . Still others diagnose inept management and excessive bureaucracy, and prescribe streamlined...complex the system, the higher this bound. • Software development consists of completing known work and discovering new work. There are fundamental ... taxonomy of acquisition risk categories, with corresponding development timelines. In that report, a low-risk acquisition is defined to be one that

  7. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  8. Starting Points for Planning Business Zones in Slovenia in the Post-independence Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čok Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, during the period of transition practically all mechanisms for steering economic and spatial development changed. The planning of business zones is part of this framework; business zones are competitive business environments for the placement of economic activities in the physical space. Over the past 25 years, their design was influenced by various factors: introduction of free market principles, privatisation of social property, and interests of the young state to establish, using proper strategies and financial initiatives, an efficient network of zones as drivers of economic development. Despite the ambitious plans and adopted strategic spatial planning acts at the national level we nowadays find that the zones, in their current spatial and administrative form, are not an efficient enough development mechanism. The focus of the study was to define the starting points as the basis for planning business zones and shaping policies to improve the existing situation. To improve the business competitiveness of the existing zones and their role in the planning and design system, we will have to set up a more efficient data updating system and form a broader approach to their management, promotion, and marketing.

  9. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Kathy

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+\\/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no \\'B\\' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  10. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kathy; Rangaswamy, Guhan; O'Sullivan, Siobhra; Coffey, Jerome

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no 'B' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  11. The tortoise shell Integrated Coastal Management in Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Polit Arguello, Victor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The current work aims to examine the legal framework for Integrated Coastal Management for Archipelago de Galapagos. It examines the content of ICM at the internal level in order to find if there is a standard for appropriate Integrated Management of Coastal Zones. Also it aims to define whether the ratification of UNCLOS by the government of Ecuador should affect the implementation of such framework.

  12. ArcGIS-based data management system of earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City%基于ArcGIS的西安市地震小区划数据管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田勤虎; 刘晨; 种瑾; 魏电信; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City is an important project in the eleventh five-year plan of earthquake disaster prevention and reduction in Shaanxi Province, and establishment of a data management system based on GIS platform is an important work of the project. According to analysis of multi-source result data of the project, a development platform based on ArcGIS software was determined,and a data management system of earthquake micro-zoning was established. Necessary fundamental functions to realize the system and a basic system frame were proposed and the key links of conceptual model design, logic model design, physical model design, etc. Were de-scri bed for the databases. At last,the technical links of data preparation, data generation, data loading, etc. Were described in detail. These works would be helpful to realization of organization and management of result dato on earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City.%建立基于GIS平台的数据管理系统是陕西省防震减灾“十一五”重点项目西安市地震小区划项目中的一项重要工作,通过对该项目多源成果数据的分析,确定以ArcGIS软件为开发平台,建立地震小区划数据管理系统.提出了实现该系统须具备的基本功能、系统的基本框架,并对概念模型设计、逻辑模型设计、物理模型设计等关键环节进行了数据库详细设计.最后,对入库数据的数据准备、数据生成、数据入库等技术环节做了详细论述,这些工作将有助于实现西安市地震小区划成果数据的有效组织与管理.

  13. A Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework applied to an interdisciplinary coastal zone management workshop along the eastern Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E.; Baldwin, C.; Jones, C.; Lewison, R. L.; Lieske, S.; Rudd, M.

    2016-02-01

    The flexibility of the Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework is demonstrated through application to the coastal zone of east Gulf of Thailand during an inter-disciplinary multi-cultural workshop comprised of participants (including practitioners) from south-east Asian coastal countries, North America and Australia in January 2015. The benefits of the framework as identified by participants included systematic and critical thinking, and identification of data gaps and other needs, such as capacity building. We use four case studies that highlight cross-border social-ecological challenges in Thailand and Cambodia to demonstrate: a) participant learning, b) individuality and flexibility of approaches (e.g. scales considered), c) participants' feedback on its application, and d) its potential use to identify both data-gaps and low-hanging-fruit type actions.

  14. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air...Networking Defined Within a computer network, switching devices contain three abstractly organized services known as planes [9]. As shown in Figure 2.1, these...stations that exist within an exploitable network. The final threat vector is the lack of trusted resources for forensics and remediation for when an

  15. Tillage and phosphorus management effects on enzyme-labile bioactive phosphorus availability in brazilian cerrado oxisols and temperature zone typic hapludults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage management practices have a direct effect on the behavior and availability of soil nutrients. Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in crop growth which can be growth-limiting or an environmental contaminant, if present in excess. Sorption and availability of various soil P forms were eva...

  16. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termite

  17. The Supervisory Role of the National Universities Commission and the Management of Universities in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroma, N. S.

    2007-01-01

    Issues such as financial autonomy, academic autonomy and administrative autonomy are crucial to the effective management of university education globally. For many years Nigerian universities have complained of being impeded in these areas because of the supervisory role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) which tend to encroach on their…

  18. Set the Special Zone of Mine Rights Management Reform for Integrated Exploration%建立矿业权管理综合改革“特区”实现整装勘查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱清; 余振国

    2012-01-01

    矿业权管理综合改革已经进入深水区.要在整装勘查区快速实现找矿突破,实现“三五八”宏伟目标,必须用新政策、新手段、新方法,走局部试验、总结经验、整体铺开的道路.提出了在整装勘查区建立矿业权管理综合改革“特区”,通过充分调动投资方、地勘单位、地质找矿科技人员、地方政府、矿区居民五方的积极性,建立五方共赢机制,实现特区“扩权、搞活、创新、公平”的目标.最后提出了特区建设的路径和建议.%Mine rights management reform has come to a critical stage. If we want to reach prospecting breakthrough in integrated exploration district to achieve the " 358" goal, new policy, new instrument and new method must be applied and the way of partial area trial, experience summary and overall promotion must be stick to. Proposes was made to set special zone for comprehensive management reform of mine rights in integrated exploration areas. The investors, exploration units, technicians, local governments and residents should all be fully motivated for a whole win ?win mechanism for the five sides to achieve the goal of dynamic, innovative and fair. Finally some suggestions were given for special zone construction.

  19. Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfletschinger, H. [Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Inst. (BAW), Karlsruhe (Germany); Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences; Prömmel, K. [Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Schüth, C. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences; Herbst, M. [Agrosphere (IBG-3), Julich (Germany); Engelhardt, I. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences; Agrosphere (IBG-3), Julich (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Vadose zone water fluxes in arid settings are investigated regarding their sensitivity to hydraulic soil parameters and meteorological data. The study is based on the inverse modeling of highly defined soil column experiments and subsequent scenario modeling comparing different climate projections for a defined arid region. In arid regions, groundwater resources are prone to depletion due to excessive water use and little recharge potential. Especially in sand dune areas, groundwater recharge is highly dependent on vadose zone properties and corresponding water fluxes. Nevertheless, vadose zone water fluxes under arid conditions are hard to determine owing to, among other reasons, deep vadose zones with generally low fluxes and only sporadic high infiltration events. In this study, we present an inverse model of infiltration experiments accounting for variable saturated nonisothermal water fluxes to estimate effective hydraulic and thermal parameters of dune sands. A subsequent scenario modeling links the results of the inverse model with projections of a global climate model until 2100. The scenario modeling clearly showed the high dependency of groundwater recharge on precipitation amounts and intensities, whereas temperature increases are only of minor importance for deep infiltration. However, simulated precipitation rates are still affected by high uncertainties in the response to the hydrological input data of the climate model. Thus, higher certainty in the prediction of precipitation pattern is a major future goal for climate modeling to constrain future groundwater management strategies in arid regions.

  20. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  1. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  2. CoZo+ - A Content Zoning Engine for textual documents

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Content zoning can be understood as a segmentation of textual documents into zones. This is inspired by [6] who initially proposed an approach for the argumentative zoning of textual documents. With the prototypical CoZo+ engine, we focus on content zoning towards an automatic processing of textual streams while considering only the actors as the zones. We gain information that can be used to realize an automatic recognition of content for pre-defined actors. We understand CoZo+ as a necessary pre-step towards an automatic generation of summaries and to make intellectual ownership of documents detectable.

  3. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  4. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  5. Plan de Negocios: Networking Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Cárdenas Sáenz, Daniel Alejandro; Seminario Benalcázar, Ivette Dennisse

    2016-01-01

    Networking Zone se define coma una empresa que alquila espacios de trabajo totalmente amoblados y equipados, necesarios para los profesionales / emprendedores, ubicado en la ciudad de Guayaquil en un área de unos 800 metros cuadrados. Esta propuesta atiende la ausencia de espacios físicos amoblados para profesionales independientes, emprendedores, FreeLancer quienes buscan un lugar cómodo, accesible, con tecnología adecuada para cumplir sus necesidades de trabajo a un bajo costo, evtándole...

  6. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  7. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council.

  8. Impacts of Different Management Practices on Physico-Chemical Properties of Soil in Mid-Hill, Sub-Humid Zone-II of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Kapoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Hill Agricultural Research and Extension centre Bajaura of CSK HP Krishi Vishvavidayalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh to investigate the Impacts of different management practices on physical as well as chemical properties of the soil. Sample analysis of three management practices i.e. organic, inorganic and integrated revealed that, water holding capacity was found to be highest in organic treatment (50.8%, followed by integrated (44.9% and least in inorganic (40.2% whereas field capacity of the three farming systems followed an order as integrated > organic> inorganic treatment. The bulk density of the soil was in the range of 1.36-1.58 Mg cm-2 in the three farming systems and the value was highest in inorganic treatment and lowest in organic treatment. The organic carbon content of soil was highest (1.8 Kg g-1 in organic treatment followed by integrated and lowest (0.75 Kg g-1 in inorganic treatment. The available nitrogen was found to be lowest in integrated treatment followed by organic and inorganic. Cation exchange capacity was found to be highest (16.58 c mol (+ kg‑1 in organic and lowest (10.82 c mol(+ kg‑1 in inorganic practice. Hence organic agriculture practice is best for the restoration of agricultural lands and an environmentally sound and inexpensive way to sustainably intensify crop production on marginal land as well as improving the ecology of the soil environment.

  9. Las unidades de planificación y gestión territorial como directriz para la zonificación urbana (planning units and land management as guidelines for urban zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Villegas Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo, derivado de investigación, presenta el marco conceptual y metodológico resultados del estudio de las Unidades de Planificación Territorial y de Gestión como Instrumento Operativo para la toma de Decisiones Urbano Rural, los POTs y PDM, instrumentos de planteamiento en el corto, mediano y largo plazo, en este orden la zonificación del territorio se convierte en la alternativa para plantear y fortalecer las Unidades de Gestión y Planificación Territorial donde se debe fortalecer la institucionalidad a partir de la incorporación de los actores y sectores público, privado y sociedad civil. ABSTRACT: This current article, derived from a piece of research, introduces in the theoretical and methodological frameworks, the results of a study of the Land Planning Units and of Management as an Operational Instrument for the Rural-Urban decisionmaking, the Territorial Ordering Plan –TOP– and Municipal Development Plan – MDP–, instruments of approach in the short, medium and long terms; in this order, the zoning of the territory becomes an alternative to raise and to strengthen the Management Units and the Territorial Planning, where the institutional framework must be consolidated from the incorporation of public, private actors and sectors, and the civil society.

  10. English Higher Education and Its Vocational Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Distinctions between academic, vocational and professional education inform but do not define the divisions of English higher education. Nevertheless, there are zones where courses, qualifications and institutions are specifically oriented to the world of work. These include most short-cycle higher education, large parts of undergraduate and…

  11. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  12. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  13. Urban planning as a trading zone

    CERN Document Server

    Mäntysalo, Raine

    2013-01-01

    'Trading zone' is a concept introduced by Peter Galison in his social scientific research on how scientists representing different sub-cultures and paradigms have been able to coordinate their interaction locally. In this book, Italian and Finnish planning researchers extend the use of the concept to different contexts of urban planning and management, where there is a need for new ideas and tools in managing the interaction of different stakeholders. The trading zone concept is approached as a tool in organizing local platforms and support systems for planning participation, knowledge production, decision making and local conflict management. In relation to the former theses of communicative planning theory that stress the ideals of consensus, mutual understanding and universal reason, the 'trading zone approach', outlined in this book, offers a different perspective. It focuses on the potentiality to coordinate locally the interaction of different stakeholders without requiring the deeper sharing of underst...

  14. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  15. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.

    2016-09-01

    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  16. ZONE package of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the model grid, active cells in model layers 2 and 3, and geologic province arrays of the ZONE package used in the transient hydrologic...

  17. Fatigue zones in metals identified by polarized light photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F. D.

    1967-01-01

    Polarized light technique clearly defines the fatigue zones in metal for measuring and photographing. White light is passed through a vertical polarizing filter and then is reflected onto the surface of the fracture specimen.

  18. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  19. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  20. The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m−2yr−1, CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha−1yr−1. NEE at the shallow drained site was −89 and −99 g C m−2yr−1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and −26 g C m−2yr−1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m−2yr−1 were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m−2yr−1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m−2yr−1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m−2yr−1. Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g

  1. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  2. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  3. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  4. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  5. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  6. An extended multi-zone combustion model for PCI simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Keum, SeungHwan; Babajimopoulos, Aristotelis

    2011-12-01

    Novel combustion modes are becoming an important area of research with emission regulations more stringent than ever before, and with fuel economy being assigned greater importance every day. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) modes in particular promise better fuel economy and lower emissions in internal combustion engines. Multi-zone combustion models have been popular in modelling HCCI combustion. In this work, an improved multi-zone model is suggested for PCI combustion modelling. A new zoning scheme is suggested based on incorporating the internal energy of formation into an earlier conventional HCCI multi-zone approach, which considers a two-dimensional reaction space defined by equivalence ratio and temperature. It is shown that the added dimension improves zoning by creating more representative zones, and thus reducing errors compared to the conventional zoning approach, when applied to PCI simulation.

  7. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  8. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  9. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  10. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  11. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  12. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  13. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the

  14. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  15. GEODESIC RECONSTRUCTION, SADDLE ZONES & HIERARCHICAL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Beucher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphological reconstruction based on geodesic operators, is a powerful tool in mathematical morphology. The general definition of this reconstruction supposes the use of a marker function f which is not necessarily related to the function g to be built. However, this paper deals with operations where the marker function is defined from given characteristic regions of the initial function f, as it is the case, for instance, for the extrema (maxima or minima but also for the saddle zones. Firstly, we show that the intuitive definition of a saddle zone is not easy to handle, especially when digitised images are involved. However, some of these saddle zones (regional ones also called overflow zones can be defined, this definition providing a simple algorithm to extract them. The second part of the paper is devoted to the use of these overflow zones as markers in image reconstruction. This reconstruction provides a new function which exhibits a new hierarchy of extrema. This hierarchy is equivalent to the hierarchy produced by the so-called waterfall algorithm. We explain why the waterfall algorithm can be achieved by performing a watershed transform of the function reconstructed by its initial watershed lines. Finally, some examples of use of this hierarchical segmentation are described.

  16. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  17. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  18. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...

  19. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  20. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  1. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  2. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  3. Software Defined Security Service Provisioning Framework for Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Faraz Idris Khan; Sufian Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Programmable management framework have paved the way for managing devices in the network. Lately, emerging paradigm of Software Defined Networking (SDN) have rev-olutionized programmable networks. Designers of networking applications i.e. Internet of things (IoT) have started investigating potentials of SDN paradigm in improving network management. IoT envision interconnecting various embedded devices surround-ing our environment with IP to enable internet connectivity. Unlike traditional net...

  4. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  5. Cancer nursing in Ontario: defining nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.

  6. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods...... of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management...

  7. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Morkill, Refuge Manager, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 28950 Watson Blvd., Big Pine Key, FL 33043... conservation strategies, expressed during and subsequent to management plan reviews; Periodic evaluation of..., zoning scheme, backcountry management agreement, environmental evaluation, and, if...

  8. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of "8(g) Zone" boundary in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The "8(g) Zone" lies between the Submerged Lands Act...

  9. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of '8(g) Zone' line in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The '8(g) Zone' lies between the Submerged Lands Act...

  10. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  11. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  12. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  13. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-07-27

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities.

  14. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...... status of the pilot services. The evaluation will be conducted on two pilot services, that are being implemented - the Lifestyle companion and the Icebreaker. The plan of the evaluation is to carry out combinations of different types of user evaluation methods. These are user panel workshops, situated...

  15. A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Els; Degraer, Steven; Schelfaut, Kristien; Willems, Wouter; Van Lancker, Vera

    2009-06-01

    Mapping ecologically relevant zones in the marine environment has become increasingly important. Biological data are however often scarce and alternatives are being sought in optimal classifications of abiotic variables. The concept of 'marine landscapes' is based on a hierarchical classification of geological, hydrographic and other physical data. This approach is however subject to many assumptions and subjective decisions. An objective protocol for zonation is being proposed here where abiotic variables are subjected to a statistical approach, using principal components analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis. The optimal number of clusters (or zones) is being defined using the Calinski-Harabasz criterion. The methodology has been applied on datasets of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS), a shallow sandy shelf environment with a sandbank-swale topography. The BPNS was classified into 8 zones that represent well the natural variability of the seafloor. The internal cluster consistency was validated with a split-run procedure, with more than 99% correspondence between the validation and the original dataset. The ecological relevance of 6 out of the 8 zones was demonstrated, using indicator species analysis. The proposed protocol, as exemplified for the BPNS, can easily be applied to other areas and provides a strong knowledge basis for environmental protection and management of the marine environment. A SWOT-analysis, showing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the protocol was performed.

  16. Determination of homogeneous zones for liming recommendations of black pepper using geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivoney Gontijo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies aimed at determining homogeneous zones and the spatial variability of soil characteristics may improve the efficiency of agricultural input applications. The purpose of this study was to determine homogeneous zones for liming applications and to characterize the spatial variability of characteristics related to soil acidity and productivity in an Oxisol cultivated with black pepper (Piper nigrum L.. This study was carried out in São Mateus, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The experimental site was 100 x 120 m. A grid with 126 sampling points was established. Three soil sub-samples were collected at each sampling point in the black pepper canopy areas, at a 0-0.20 m depth. Crop productivity was estimated by harvesting the three plants neighboring each sampling point. Descriptive statistics and geostatistical analyses were performed. Homogeneous management zones were defined based on map of liming needs. Mathematical models adjusted to semivariograms indicated that all of the studied variables exhibited spatial dependency. An analysis of the spatial variability together with the definition of homogeneous zones can be used to increase the efficiency of soil liming.

  17. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  18. Two decades of using the combination of tetracycline derivatives and niacinamide as steroid-sparing agents in the management of pemphigus: defining a niche for these low toxicity agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Morgan; Fivenson, David

    2014-09-01

    The twin goals of long-term disease control and minimizing toxicities related to immunosuppression necessitate efforts to find effective steroid-sparing agents in the management of patients with autoimmune bullous diseases. Pemphigus especially requires a long view, because the disease can persist throughout a patient's lifetime, yet few clinical trial reports exist to guide the practitioner. We review the response of pemphigus patients to tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline plus niacinamide (TCN/NAM) as steroid-sparing therapy and to determine the effects of TCN/NAM on autoantibody levels during the long-term treatment of pemphigus. This was a retrospective chart review in a private medical dermatology practice setting of all pemphigus patients treated between 1993 and 2013. Clinical responses to TCN/NAM therapy after initial high-dose steroid induction therapy and pemphigus antibody levels were recorded over the course of disease flares and treatment cycles along with any related side effects. Anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 titers were compared in a subset of patients over time, and a statistical analysis was performed to correlate the clinical response with antibody levels. Fifty-one pemphigus patients (43 with pemphigus vulgaris, 7 with pemphigus foliaceous, and 1 with pemphigus erythematosus) received at least 3 months of TCN/NAM, and 16 patients with pemphigus vulgaris had 1 set of pemphigus antibody titers correlating to a baseline/flare and clinical remission. TCN/NAM was associated with disease control in 43 of 51 patients, with a duration of response ranging from 1 to 13 years (mean, 3.14 ± 2.97 years). Thirteen of 51 patients needed no additional treatment for complete disease control, while 33 of 51 needed intermittent topical clobetasol or short courses of oral steroids for long-term management. There were 5 nonresponders. Antidesmoglein titers trended lower in TCN/NAM responders, but only desmoglein 3 approached statistical significance (anti

  19. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  20. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses...... on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...... definition of usability to develop the notion of user experience....

  1. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  2. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  3. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  4. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  5. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  6. Defining dysplasia in Barrett esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Marie E

    2003-01-01

    Histologic grading of esophageal biopsies remains the cornerstone of management in patients with Barrett esophagus. This remains true despite ongoing research into the genetic abnormalities that occur in the setting of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. As of this writing, there are no objective tests that can replace the pathologist's eyes in predicting prognosis in this setting. However, pathologists and clinicians are well aware that the histologic interpretation of biopsies is an inherently subjective practice. The validity of this exercise depends entirely on the experience of the pathologist. Having said that, two interobserver studies on the grading of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus suggest that, if published criteria are adhered to, the histologic grading of dysplasia is a useful tool in patient management. In this review, the updated pathologic criteria for each category of dysplasia are presented, and the results of two large interobserver variability studies are reviewed.

  7. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  8. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  9. Defining the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Paasche

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Little Ice Age" (LIA is possibly the best-documented climatic anomaly of the past. A wide range of datasets portrays a harsh climate that worsened living conditions, primarily in terms of cooler temperatures, for people across Europe sometime during the last millennium. Regardless of the vast amount of data covering the LIA, there is presently no consensus concerning its spatial manifestation (was it regional or global?, its temporal constraints (when did it start and end?, or the broad-scale dynamics associated with it (what mechanisms did it involve?, although there is no shortage of suggestions. Based on a new compilation of data reflecting atmospheric circulation at both high and low latitudes, we show that the LIA lasted for roughly 400 years (∼1400–1800 AD. During this period at least four major atmospheric circulation systems on Earth co-varied on decadal to centennial timescales: Northern Annular Mode (NAM, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and West African Monsoon (WAM. This pattern of convergence suggests that a strong coupling between these circulation systems was an important pre-condition for the realisation of the LIA.

  10. Multibeam mapping of the exclusive economic zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The seabed in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India is covered with a variety of minerals of economic interest. High resolution bathymetric maps are needed for effective utilisation and management of these resources. To assess the general...

  11. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and non-renewable resources, is one of the most vulnerable regions of ecological disturbances. A logical approach towards the development and monitoring of the coastal zone involves sustainable management of natural resources...

  12. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCES CHARACTERISTICS AND INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT OF THE YUEQING BAY IN ZHEJIANG PROVINCE%浙江乐清湾资源环境特征及其邻近海岸带综合管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵杰

    2000-01-01

    海湾是海水、水盆、邻近陆域及其空间共同组成的综合自然体,处于陆地和海洋之交的纽带部位,在整个海岸带的开发利用中占有特别重要的地位,也是多用户利益冲突和海岸带综合管理(ICZM)的焦点。本文以乐清湾形成的海洋地质地貌与动力沉积环境演变为背景,通过对生物多样性的评价,剖析了在海湾开发利用中存在的生态结构成分缺损、生态结构成分变化和生态功能失调等问题。在此基础上,提出实施ICZM是海湾实现可持续发展的有效途径,基本框架是:①建立综合协调的ICZM体制;②制定有权威的ICZM地方法规;③编制区域一体化的海岸带功能区划与开发规划;④建立资源环境和管理信息系统;⑤切实加强水污染防治;⑥调整修订影响海湾可持续发展的政策与制度;⑦推进公共参与ICZM的进程;⑧积极参与ICZM的国际合作等。%The bay is composed of seawater, the coastways and the space of the syntheses natural system where inbetween the ocean and the continent the bay occupies a key position for coastal zone exploitation and the focus of the conflict between the users' interest and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) as well. This paper studies geological, geomorphological and sedimentary environment of the Yueqing Bay in Zhejiang Province by biodiversity judgement and analyses the limiting factors by defective and change of composition of ecological structure and imbalance of eco function. According to the discussions, it raises that the effective way for sustainable development of the bay is the implementation of ICZM, including 1) to establish the ICZM system for coordination; 2) to formulate authoritative local legal system of ICZM; 3) to draw up a division of marine functional zonation and development planning; 4) to set up resources environment and management information system; 5) to strengthen water pollution control; 6

  14. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  15. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  16. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  17. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  19. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  20. Asymptomatic Alzheimer disease: Defining resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Timothy J; McLaren, Donald G; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Gifford, Katherine A; Libon, David J; Jefferson, Angela L

    2016-12-06

    To define robust resilience metrics by leveraging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology within a latent variable framework and to demonstrate the ability of such metrics to predict slower rates of cognitive decline and protection against diagnostic conversion. Participants with normal cognition (n = 297) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 432) were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Resilience metrics were defined at baseline by examining the residuals when regressing brain aging outcomes (hippocampal volume and cognition) on CSF biomarkers. A positive residual reflected better outcomes than expected for a given level of pathology (high resilience). Residuals were integrated into a latent variable model of resilience and validated by testing their ability to independently predict diagnostic conversion, cognitive decline, and the rate of ventricular dilation. Latent variables of resilience predicted a decreased risk of conversion (hazard ratio 0.02, p < 0.001), and slower rates of ventricular dilation (β < -4.7, p < 2 × 10(-15)). These results were significant even when analyses were restricted to clinically normal individuals. Furthermore, resilience metrics interacted with biomarker status such that biomarker-positive individuals with low resilience showed the greatest risk of subsequent decline. Robust phenotypes of resilience calculated by leveraging AD biomarkers and baseline brain aging outcomes provide insight into which individuals are at greatest risk of short-term decline. Such comprehensive definitions of resilience are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms that protect individuals from the clinical manifestation of AD dementia, especially among biomarker-positive individuals. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Strategies for the marine biodiversity conservation based on the integrated coastal zone management%以海岸带综合管理为工具开展海洋生物多样性保护管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建国; 陈彬; 周秋麟; 杨圣云; 温泉; 石洪华; 俞炜炜; 黄浩

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the most important issues in the world, and the major threat of the marine biodiversity in China is analyzed, and the root cause analysis of biodiversity loss is carried out. Based on ICZM, a set of strategies on marine biodiversity conservation are put forward, including marine biodiversity conservation guidelines, conservation committee establishing, boundary defining, marine biodiversity assessment techniques, marine biodiversity conservation planning and management techniques, information management system of marine biodiversity conservation based on GIS and so on.%生物多样性保护是当前全球面临的最重要问题之一,本文分析了我国海洋生物多样性面临的主要威胁,并对生物多样性丧失的原因进行了分析.在以上研究的基础上,基于海岸带综合管理( ICZM)的理念,提出了海洋生物多样性保护管理中急需解决的问题,主要包括海洋生物多样性保护管理的指导思想、管理机构机制、管理边界、海洋生物多样性评价技术、海洋生物多样性保护规划技术和基于GIS的管理决策支持系统等.

  2. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  3. Protection zones as a factor of the sustainability of immobile cultural properties in Kosovo and Metohija on the example of monasteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protections zones around immobile cultural properties in Serbia have been determined in compliance with the Law on Cultural Properties and for the purpose of establishing a status of a cultural monument. When reviewing the established status, the coverage of a protection zone was frequently corrected, which confirms that the areas of protected natural and cultural heritage are living organisms that need a change of borders in light of a contemporary urban and regional development. The protection zones around cultural monuments have a particular significance in the context of specific conditions for the survival of the Serbian cultural and spiritual heritage in Kosovo and Metohija. A cultural property is inseparable from the space in which it is located and its full life depends on the fullness of its function, which is also an imperative of a sustainable development. At the same time, integrative protection entails a thorough and multi-disciplinary approach in the process of studying and decision-making. The establishment of protection zones is also conditioned by the inviolable attitude of the owner and user - in this case the Serbian Orthodox Church, but also by the already established status of a cultural property by the Serbian Protection Service. It is also necessary to achieve the basic security conditions in the region with a high conflict risk. In addition, there is a significant expert participation of international institutions with regards to the defining of the criteria for the establishment of the zones, and there are also tendencies of the local community in Kosovo and Metohija. The practice has confirmed difficulties in harmonizing all positions related to the establishment of zones and particularly in defining the mechanisms for the management of the zones. In those terms, it is necessary to have an integration of legal regulations and cultural policy, establishment of the widest possible cooperation at all levels and the

  4. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  5. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-20

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas (WMAs). For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at WMA U are found in Crumpler (2003). To meet these goals, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses of vadose zone sediment collected within the U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specifically, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from ten direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with potential leaks within the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specific tanks targeted during this characterization campaign included tanks 241-U-104/241-U-105, 241-U-110, and 241-U-112. Additionally, this report compiles data from direct push samples collected north of tank 241-U-201, as well as sediment collected from the background borehole (C3393). After evaluating all the characterization and analytical data, there is no question that the vadose zone in the vicinity of tanks 241-U-104 and 241-U-105 has been contaminated by tank-related waste. This observation is not new, as gamma logging of drywells in the area has identified uranium contamination at the

  6. Landscape eco-environmental research on littoral zone in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-lin; Jing, Juan; Li, Wei-feng; Ding, Yan

    2004-01-01

    Littoral zone is a special land/landscape type. As an important kind of land resource in support, the use of littoral zone is vital to eastern coastal areas in China. And the research on littoral zone relates to the key theory of landscape ecology. Based on the theory of landscape ecology, the littoral zone was divided into four types: mud flat, sand beach, bench, and biological flat. The distribution of each type in China is pointed out. As a typical open system, littoral zone has six landscape ecological characteristics: (1) high sensitivity to disturbance; (2) distinct edge effect; (3) spatial aggregation of natural resources; (4) frequently spatial oscillation; (5) obviously spatial heterogeneity; and (6) noticeably spatial differentiation. Some proposals are also put forward on the land use and development of littoral zone for environmental protection and environmental management.

  7. A global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tracey T.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Dunn, Daniel C.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Rogers, Alex D.; Guinotte, John; Bograd, Steven J.; Angel, Martin V.; Perez, Jose Angel A.; Wishner, Karen; Haedrich, Richard L.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Vereshchaka, Alexander; Piatkowski, Uwe; Morato, Telmo; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Robison, Bruce H.; Gjerde, Kristina M.; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies; Bernal, Patricio; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Heino, Mikko

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone to reflect the regional scales over which the ocean interior varies in terms of biodiversity and function. An integrated approach was necessary, as global gaps in information and variable sampling methods preclude strictly statistical approaches. A panel combining expertise in oceanography, geospatial mapping, and deep-sea biology convened to collate expert opinion on the distributional patterns of pelagic fauna relative to environmental proxies (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen at mesopelagic depths). An iterative Delphi Method integrating additional biological and physical data was used to classify biogeographic ecoregions and to identify the location of ecoregion boundaries or inter-regions gradients. We define 33 global mesopelagic ecoregions. Of these, 20 are oceanic while 13 are 'distant neritic.' While each is driven by a complex of controlling factors, the putative primary driver of each ecoregion was identified. While work remains to be done to produce a comprehensive and robust mesopelagic biogeography (i.e., reflecting temporal variation), we believe that the classification set forth in this study will prove to be a useful and timely input to policy planning and management for conservation of deep-pelagic marine resources. In particular, it gives an indication of the spatial scale at which faunal communities are expected to be broadly similar in composition, and hence can inform application of ecosystem-based management approaches, marine spatial planning and the distribution and spacing of networks of representative protected areas.

  8. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  9. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  10. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast... cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited... or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone...

  12. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  13. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  14. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  15. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    The OpenFlow (OF) protocol is widely used in Software Defined Networking (SDN) to realize the communication between the controller and forwarding devices. OF allows great flexibility in managing traffic flows. However, OF alone is not enough to build more complex SDN services that require complet...

  16. Defining and Measuring the Success of Services Contracts in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    PMBOK Project Management Body of Knowledge PMI Project Management Institute R&D Research and Development SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare...Project Management Institute (PMI) Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK ; 2008) defines project life cycle as a collection of generally sequential...a systematic program management approach and are vital to project success. The PMI PMBOK (2008) identifies five project management process groups

  17. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  18. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  19. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  20. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails