WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined geographic subareas

  1. A geographic information system-based method for estimating cancer rates in non-census defined geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Vincent L; Boylan, Emma E; Pugach, Oksana; Mclafferty, Sara L; Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Watson, Karriem S; Winn, Robert A

    2017-08-20

    To address locally relevant cancer-related health issues, health departments frequently need data beyond that contained in standard census area-based statistics. We describe a geographic information system-based method for calculating age-standardized cancer incidence rates in non-census defined geographical areas using publically available data. Aggregated records of cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 through 2013 in each of Chicago's 77 census-defined community areas were obtained from the Illinois State Cancer Registry. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping of census blocks was used to redistribute populations and case counts from community areas to Chicago's 50 politically defined aldermanic wards, and ward-level age-standardized 5-year cumulative incidence rates were calculated. Potential errors in redistributing populations between geographies were limited to r = 0.99, mean difference = -4 persons). A map overlay of safety-net primary care clinic locations and ward-level incidence rates for advanced-staged cancers revealed potential pathways for prevention. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping can estimate cancer rates in non-census defined geographies. This can address gaps in local cancer-related health data, inform health resource advocacy, and guide community-centered cancer prevention and control.

  2. Examining an important urban transportation management tool: subarea modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming CHEN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, customized subarea models have been widely used in local transportation planning throughout the United States. The biggest strengths of a subarea model lie in its more detailed and accurate modeling outputs which better meet local planning requirements. In addition, a subarea model can substantially reduce database size and model running time. In spite of these advantages, subarea models remain quite weak in maintaining consistency with a regional model, modeling transit projects, smart growth measures, air quality conformity, and other areas. Both opportunities and threats exist for subarea modeling. In addition to examining subarea models, this paper introduces the decision-making process in choosing a proper subarea modeling approach (windowing versus focusing and software package. This study concludes that subarea modeling will become more popular in the future. More GIS applications, travel surveys, transit modeling, microsimulation software utilization, and other modeling improvements are expected to be incorporated into the subarea modeling process.

  3. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommunityCouncilSubarea

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Community Council Subareas. Subareas are nested within the Community Councils. They represent the areas where voters...

  4. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  5. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  6. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HABITATS (Habitats Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal...

  7. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  8. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.)

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling (SDM) of the Simpevarp subarea are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations on a continuous basis. The modelling work is based on primary data available at the time of the data freeze for Simpevarp 1.2, April 1, 2004. The local scale model area (24 km{sup 2}) for the Simpevarp 1.2 modelling encompasses both the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. The local model area is located in the centre of a regional scale model area (273 km{sup 2}). Surface ecosystem models in terms of pools and fluxes of carbon have been developed for the terrestrial (e.g. plants and animals) and limnic (e.g. algae and fish) systems using the Lake Frisksjoen drainage area. Furthermore, a first marine ecosystem model has been developed for the Basin Borholmsfjaerden. Three principal lithological domains have been defined in the subarea, an A domain that is dominated by the Aevroe granite, a domain B that is dominated by the fine-grained dioritoid, a C domain that is characterised by a mixture of of Aevroe granite and quartz monzodiorite. A fourth domain is made up a few scattered domains of diorite to gabbro. In total, 22 deformation zones with high confidence of occurrence have been interpreted in the local scale model area. The understanding of the interpreted deformation zones of the Simpevarp subarea is considered adequate to make a preliminary assessment of available storage volumes for a deep repository. High rock stresses do not appear to be a major concern for the Simpevarp subarea. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress at 500 m in the Simpevarp subarea is estimated at 10-22 MPa. The analysis of the thermal conductivity has developed considerably since Simpevarp 1.1. In terms of interpreted mean values for the identified lithological

  9. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.)

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling (SDM) of the Simpevarp subarea are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations on a continuous basis. The modelling work is based on primary data available at the time of the data freeze for Simpevarp 1.2, April 1, 2004. The local scale model area (24 km{sup 2}) for the Simpevarp 1.2 modelling encompasses both the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. The local model area is located in the centre of a regional scale model area (273 km{sup 2}). Surface ecosystem models in terms of pools and fluxes of carbon have been developed for the terrestrial (e.g. plants and animals) and limnic (e.g. algae and fish) systems using the Lake Frisksjoen drainage area. Furthermore, a first marine ecosystem model has been developed for the Basin Borholmsfjaerden. Three principal lithological domains have been defined in the subarea, an A domain that is dominated by the Aevroe granite, a domain B that is dominated by the fine-grained dioritoid, a C domain that is characterised by a mixture of of Aevroe granite and quartz monzodiorite. A fourth domain is made up a few scattered domains of diorite to gabbro. In total, 22 deformation zones with high confidence of occurrence have been interpreted in the local scale model area. The understanding of the interpreted deformation zones of the Simpevarp subarea is considered adequate to make a preliminary assessment of available storage volumes for a deep repository. High rock stresses do not appear to be a major concern for the Simpevarp subarea. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress at 500 m in the Simpevarp subarea is estimated at 10-22 MPa. The analysis of the thermal conductivity has developed considerably since Simpevarp 1.1. In terms of interpreted mean values for the identified lithological

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  11. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and seals in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas...

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  13. Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Wen, Ke; Xu, Junjie; Bergman, Keren

    2016-05-30

    The emergence of cloud computing and big data has rapidly increased the deployment of small and mid-sized data centers. Enterprises and cloud providers require an agile network among these data centers to empower application reliability and flexible scalability. We present a software-defined inter data center network to enable on-demand scale out of data centers on a metro-scale optical network. The architecture consists of a combined space/wavelength switching platform and a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control plane equipped with a wavelength and routing assignment module. It enables establishing transparent and bandwidth-selective connections from L2/L3 switches, on-demand. The architecture is evaluated in a testbed consisting of 3 data centers, 5-25 km apart. We successfully demonstrated end-to-end bulk data transfer and Virtual Machine (VM) migrations across data centers with less than 100 ms connection setup time and close to full link capacity utilization.

  14. Global Benchmarking of Marketing Doctoral Program Faculty and Institutions by Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeck, Matt; Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study benchmarks marketing doctoral programs worldwide in five popular subareas by faculty and institutional scholarly impact. A multi-item approach identifies a collection of top-tier scholarly journals for each subarea, while citation data over the decade 2003 to 2012 identify high scholarly impact marketing faculty by subarea used to…

  15. Global Benchmarking of Marketing Doctoral Program Faculty and Institutions by Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeck, Matt; Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study benchmarks marketing doctoral programs worldwide in five popular subareas by faculty and institutional scholarly impact. A multi-item approach identifies a collection of top-tier scholarly journals for each subarea, while citation data over the decade 2003 to 2012 identify high scholarly impact marketing faculty by subarea used to…

  16. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama.

  17. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  18. GEOGRAPHICAL LANDMARKS FOR DELIMITATION OF SPORTCULTURAL SPACE DEFINED BY AMATEUR FOOTBALL IN CRIȘANA AND MARAMUREȘ (2011-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ILIEȘ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a cultural-sports space is based on a background determined by geographic elements as the basis for reporting peculiarities of quantitative and qualitative amateur football. Thus are analyzed on a series of five years, and which come synthesized on the map of amateur football of the analyzed administrative space. Study area overlaps historical provinces of Crișana and Maramureș, in the territory of Bihor, Satu Mare, Sălaj and Maramureș counties. The counties are notable through particularities in a level of internal organization of amateur football, physical-geographical specific conditions, number and type of localities, demographic potential, etc. Interacting factors mentioned are reflected in the extension or range reductions to practice the most popular sport and which in turn reflects the socio-economic status of the county, commune and village. Alongside the dynamic component determined by representation of the defining elements during the 5 years (number and type of locality, number of teams in conjunction with the type of Administrative Territorial Units, the number of inhabitants, representative is full "traditional" football amateur level counties determined by the index representation of the town/village by this sport.

  19. Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader A. Murad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and modeling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a “best-fit application”. This paper identifies and deals with the manner in which GIS can successfully be used for evaluating the demand and supply of health care facilities as well as be applied for defining health catchment areas. The study uses the essential achievements gained to analyze the advantages of GIS for health care planning and the location of health care centers. Some specific GIS tools, as well as single and multiple spatial search functions, are presented.

  20. Using geographical information systems for defining the accessibility to health care facilities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader A. Murad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data play an important role in the planning of health care facilities and their allocation. Today, geographical information systems (GIS provide useful techniques for capturing, maintaining and analysing health care spatial data; indeed health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how GIS can be used for assessing the level of accessibility to health care. The paper identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning and covers GIS-based international accessibility with a focus on GIS applications for health care facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A geodatabase that includes location of health services, road networks, health care demand and population districts was created using ArcGIS software. The geodatabase produced is based on collected data and covers issues, such as defining the spatial distribution of health care facilities, evaluating health demand types and modelling health service areas based on analysis of driving-time and straight-line distances.

  1. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, porpoises, walruses, sea otters, and Steller sea lions in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The...

  2. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Bristol Bay Subarea, classified according to the...

  3. New kind of subarea-parallel scanning mode for laser metal deposition shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Hongyou; LIU Weijun; ZHAO Jibin

    2007-01-01

    A scanning mode is the key technology in a laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) fabrication process. On the basis of the analysis of existing scanning modes and their influences on the fabrication efficiency and the quality of parts, some disadvantages of them are pointed out. A new kind of subarea-parallel scanning mode for LMDS based on a subdividing profiled outline into monotonous polygon subareas is presented. First, based on the principle of point visibility, inner loops are eliminated, and simple polygons are subdivided into monotonous polygons with the minimal zones. Second, the parallel scanning paths of all monotonous polygon subareas are finished, which diminishes the length of the scanning line. The practical application shows that the scanning mode can enhance the fabrication efficiency and quality.

  4. An Efficient MapReduce-Based Parallel Clustering Algorithm for Distributed Traffic Subarea Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic subarea division is vital for traffic system management and traffic network analysis in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. Since existing methods may not be suitable for big traffic data processing, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Three-Phase K-Means (Par3PKM algorithm for solving traffic subarea division problem on a widely adopted Hadoop distributed computing platform. Specifically, we first modify the distance metric and initialization strategy of K-Means and then employ a MapReduce paradigm to redesign the optimized K-Means algorithm for parallel clustering of large-scale taxi trajectories. Moreover, we propose a boundary identifying method to connect the borders of clustering results for each cluster. Finally, we divide traffic subarea of Beijing based on real-world trajectory data sets generated by 12,000 taxis in a period of one month using the proposed approach. Experimental evaluation results indicate that when compared with K-Means, Par2PK-Means, and ParCLARA, Par3PKM achieves higher efficiency, more accuracy, and better scalability and can effectively divide traffic subarea with big taxi trajectory data.

  5. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  6. Statistical model of fractures and deformation zones. Preliminary site description, Laxemar subarea, version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The goal of this summary report is to document the data sources, software tools, experimental methods, assumptions, and model parameters in the discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the local model volume in Laxemar, version 1.2. The model parameters presented herein are intended for use by other project modeling teams. Individual modeling teams may elect to simplify or use only a portion of the DFN model, depending on their needs. This model is not intended to be a flow model or a mechanical model; as such, only the geometrical characterization is presented. The derivations of the hydraulic or mechanical properties of the fractures or their subsurface connectivities are not within the scope of this report. This model represents analyses carried out on particular data sets. If additional data are obtained, or values for existing data are changed or excluded, the conclusions reached in this report, and the parameter values calculated, may change as well. The model volume is divided into two subareas; one located on the Simpevarp peninsula adjacent to the power plant (Simpevarp), and one further to the west (Laxemar). The DFN parameters described in this report were determined by analysis of data collected within the local model volume. As such, the final DFN model is only valid within this local model volume and the modeling subareas (Laxemar and Simpevarp) within.

  7. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  8. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  9. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  10. 77 FR 53231 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Odessa Subarea Special Study-Columbia Basin Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... received on the Draft EIS. Background Information The Grand Coulee Dam Project was authorized for... Reclamation to investigate this problem. Ecology has partnered with Reclamation by providing funding and... supplies used for irrigation in the Odessa Subarea Special Study Area (Study Area) within the...

  11. Assessment of the Greenland Halibut Stock Component in NAFO Subarea 0 + Division 1A offshore + Division 1D-1F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Treble, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the background and the input parameters from research surveys and the commercial fishery to the assessment of the Greenland halibut stock component in NAFO Subarea 0 + Div. 1A offshore + Div. 1B-1F. During 2006-2009 catches have been around 24,000 tons. Catches increased to 26 ...

  12. Geographic disparities in access to urban trauma care: defining the problem and identifying a solution for gunshot wound victims in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael; Behrens, Jess; Hsia, Renee; Crandall, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Timely transport to designated trauma centers impacts mortality following serious injury. We examined whether the distribution of trauma centers in Chicago has created disparities in access to trauma care. Using the Illinois State Trauma Registry, locations of Chicago-area gunshot wounds (GSWs) from 1999 to 2009 were geocoded and transport times were analyzed for pediatric (age ≤ 15) and adult (age ≥ 16) GSWs. A total of 11,744 included pediatric and adult GSWs were analyzed. Adults experienced longer mean transport times (11.3 vs 10.2 minutes, P < .001). Disproportionate numbers of adult GSW victims experienced over 30-minute transport times on Chicago's south side. Pediatric GSWs demonstrated no such disparity, likely attributable to the presence of a pediatric trauma center on the southeast side. Geographic disparities in access to trauma care exist even within urban trauma systems. The absence of an adult trauma center on Chicago's southeast side has contributed to these disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  14. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of North America: new host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in moose and caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verocai Guilherme G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca cervipedis is a filarioid nematode of cervids reported from Central America to boreal regions of North America. It is found primarily in subcutaneous tissues of the legs, and is more commonly known as ‘legworm’. Blackflies are intermediate hosts and transmit larvae to ungulates when they blood-feed. In this article we report the first records of O. cervipedis from high latitudes of North America and its occurrence in previously unrecognized host subspecies including the Yukon-Alaska moose (Alces americanus gigas and the Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti. Methods We examined the subcutaneous connective tissues of the metacarpi and/or metatarsi of 34 moose and one caribou for parasitic lesions. Samples were collected from animals killed by subsistence hunters or animals found dead in the Northwest Territories (NT, Canada and Alaska (AK, USA from 2005 to 2012. Genomic DNA lysate was prepared from nematode fragments collected from two moose. The nd5 region of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Subcutaneous nodules were found in 12 moose from the NT and AK, and one caribou from AK. Nematodes dissected from the lesions were identified as Onchocerca cervipedis based on morphology of female and male specimens. Histopathological findings in moose included cavitating lesions with multifocal granulomatous cellulitis containing intralesional microfilariae and adults, often necrotic and partially mineralized. Lesions in the caribou included periosteitis with chronic cellulitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and abundant granulation associated with intralesional adult nematodes and larvae. Sequences of the nd5 region (471bp, the first generated for this species, were deposited with Genbank (JN580791 and JN580792. Representative voucher specimens were deposited in the archives of the United States National Parasite Collection. Conclusions The geographic range of O

  15. Optimized LTE cell planning for multiple user density subareas using meta-heuristic algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-09-01

    Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the most fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation 4G-LTE cellular networks using meta heuristic algorithms. In this approach, we aim to satisfy both coverage and cell capacity constraints simultaneously by formulating a practical optimization problem. We start by performing a typical coverage and capacity dimensioning to identify the initial required number of base stations. Afterwards, we implement a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm or a recently-proposed Grey Wolf Optimizer to find the optimal base station locations that satisfy both problem constraints in the area of interest which can be divided into several subareas with different user densities. Subsequently, an iterative approach is executed to eliminate eventual redundant base stations. We have also performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the performance of the proposed scheme and computed the average number of users in outage. Results show that our proposed approach respects in all cases the desired network quality of services even for large-scale dimension problems.

  16. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer: reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability: PET/CT improves esophageal target definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, L M A; Busz, D M; Paardekooper, G M R M; Beukema, J C; Jager, P L; Van der Jagt, E J; van Dam, G M; Groen, H; Plukker, J Th M; Langendijk, J A

    2010-08-01

    Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in patients with esophageal cancer in terms of geographic misses and inter-observer variability in volume definition. In 28 esophageal cancer patients, gross, clinical and planning tumor volumes (GTV; CTV; PTV) were defined on planning CT by three radiation oncologists. After software-based emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) fusion, tumor delineations were redefined by the same radiation-oncologists. Concordance indexes (CCI's) for CT and PET/CT based GTV, CTV and PTV were calculated for each pair of observers. Incorporation of PET/CT modified tumor delineation in 17/28 subjects (61%) in cranial and/or caudal direction. Mean concordance indexes for CT-based CTV and PTV were 72 (55-86)% and 77 (61-88)%, respectively, vs. 72 (47-99)% and 76 (54-87)% for PET/CT-based CTV and PTV. Paired analyses showed no significant difference in CCI between CT and PET/CT. Combining FDG-PET and CT may improve target volume definition with less geographic misses, but without significant effects on inter-observer variability in esophageal cancer.

  17. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  18. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  19. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  20. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  1. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  2. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  4. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  5. Study on Control Algorithm of Traffic Signals at Intersections Based on Optimizing Sub-area Traffic Flows%基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧利林; 朱文兴

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce average delay time of passing vehicles and improve urban area traffic efficiency, considering actual geographical characteristics of intersections and sub-area traffic data, a control model for traffic signals at intersections was built based on optimizing sub-area traffic flows, and genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimal solution of the model. With traffic signals coordination of neighboring intersections considered, vehicle minimal delay time was chosen as the optimization object in the model. HCM2000 was adopted to calculate vehicle delay time and Robertson model was embedded in the optimization procedure, which ensured the proposed model to be feasible and effective. VC+ 3- 6. 0 software was applied to programm and calculate an optimal control plan for traffic signals at intersections. Finally, simulation by CORSIM was implemented to verifythe validity of the control plan. The results show that the proposed model can obtain better traffic efficiency than the coordination control method based on existing common cycle, and provides a new signal control idea at intersections for urban traffic.%为了减少车辆平均延误时间,提高城市区域交通通行效率,结合实际交叉口地理特征和区域交通流数据,建立了一种基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制模型,并应用遗传算法获得模型的最优解。在模型中,考虑相邻交叉口信号之间的协调,以车辆平均延误时间最小为优化目标,采用HCM2000延误计算方法,并在优化过程中嵌入Robertson车队离散模型,保证提出模型的可行性和有效性。在VC++6.0中编写程序,获得交叉口信号最优控制方案,最后通过CORSIM仿真证明该控制方案的优劣。结果表明:与现有基于共同周期的协调控制方法相比,所提出的模型能够获得更优的交通效益,为区域交通信号控制提供了一种新的思路。

  6. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  7. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  8. Defining Geopoetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Italiano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Comme la notion de "Paysage", portion du monde coïncidant avec l’« Anschauungsraum » du sujet (l’« espace de l’intuition » phénoménologique, ne peut plus être appliquée de manière adéquate aux textes littéraires dotés d’une structure topologique complexe et de références géographiques hétérogènes, nous proposons d’introduire le concept de « Géopoétique ». En tant que catégorie opérative, la « Géopoétique » nous permet de comprendre et d’analyser la dimension territoriale, géographique et géo-écologique d’un texte littéraire. Par « Géopoétique », nous désignons la conscience géographique particulière, la connaissance territoriale, qui est une individualisation du rapport Homme-Terre, telle qu’elle ressort des textes littéraires, et qui transcende tous les cadres limitatifs de la perception, surpassant les frontières phénoménologiques de l’« Anschauungsraum ».The notion of “Landscape” —a represented portion of the world that coincides with the subject’s “Anschauungsraum” (the phenomenological “space of intuition” — cannot always be adequately applied to literary texts with a complex topological structure and heterogeneous geographical references. We therefore propose to introduce the concept of Geopoetics. As an operative category, ‘Geopoetics’ enables us to comprehend and to analyse the territorial, geographical and geo-ecological dimension of a literary text. By ‘Geopoetics’, we mean a particularly geographical consciousness, a territorial knowledge, which is an individualization of the nexus Man-Earth, as it emerges from a literary text, and which transcends every limiting frame of perception, surpassing the phenomenological borders of the “Anschauungsraum.”

  9. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  11. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  12. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  13. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  14. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  15. Finding Home: Challenges Faced by Geographically Mobile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dialectical dimensions of home as experienced by geographically mobile couples. Informants (N = 48) defined home as having multiple meanings and locations, with 4 dialectical tensions embedded within their experience. Home was situated between (a) geographic spaces that were here and there, (b) geographic spaces…

  16. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  17. Problems in the geographic source of historical and geographical regional studies (for example, Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trocenko O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined information potential source base of the territory of modern Dnipropetrovsk region, outlined the problems of using historical sources in historical and geographical studies at the regional level.

  18. Evaluation of more demanding geographical contents regarding all educational levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a didactical problem of transfer and understanding of more demanding geographical contents which are included into geographical educational vertical. Further improvement of geography teaching and assurance of high quality syllabus on every level of geographical education require a defining of more demanding geographical contents and reasons for their difficulty, argumentation of their incorporation into syllabuses and assessment of ways and methods for dealing with them and for their adoption. The analyses of scientifically demanding geographical contents offer the origins for better organisation of contents in the vertical of geographical education and the origins for better education of future geography teachers.

  19. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  20. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  1. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  2. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  3. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  4. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  5. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  6. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  7. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  8. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  9. A common sense geographic knowledge base for GIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As background knowledge of geographic information retrieval (GIR),the gazetteers have their limitations. In this paper we propose to develop and implement a com-mon sense geographic knowledge base (CSGKB) instead of the gazetteers. We define that CSGKB is concerned with the representation of geographic knowledge in human brain and the simulation of geographic reasoning in daily life. Traditional geographic information system (GIS) is based on the model of map with its data based on geographic coordinates and its computation based on geometry. However,CSGKB,which is made up of geographic features and relationships and is based on qualitative spatio-temporal reasoning,can be viewed as the direct model of geographic world. This paper also discusses the characters of CSGKB and pre-sents its structure which is composed of knowledge base,inference engine,geo-graphic ontology and learner. The applications using CSGKB include geographic information retrieval (GIR),natural language processing (NLP),named entity rec-ognition (NER),Semantic Web,etc. At present,our work focuses on the design of geographic ontology and the implementation of the CSGKB knowledge base. In this paper we describe the CSGKB ontology structure,top ontology,geographic loca-tion ontology,spatial relationship ontology,and domain ontologies. Finally,we in-troduce the current state of implementation of CSGKB and give an outlook on our future researches.

  10. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  11. Making Geographical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  12. Geographic profiling survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  13. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  14. Um modelo estatístico para definição de áreas geográficas prioritárias para o controle do tétano neonatal A statistical model for defining priority geographic areas for the control of neonatal tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um modelo estatístico para definir áreas geográficas potenciais de risco, visando ao controle do tétano neonatal. Utilizando-se a técnica estatística de componentes principais, selecionaram-se dois fatores: perfil de saúde na área rural e mortalidade proporcional por tétano neonatal respectivamente. O plot dos escores dos estados no plano cartesiano mostrou a formação de três aglomerados. No primeiro localizaram-se os estados da região Nordeste, bem como Pará e Amapá, na região Norte, as áreas geográficas potenciais de risco. No segundo concentraram-se os estados da região Sudeste, cuja notificação foi compatível com a situação apontada pelos indicadores considerados. O Estado do Espírito Santo aparece como área produtiva silenciosa e o Distrito Federal como a unidade com as melhores condições de saúde. Os estados da região Centro-Oeste e Roraima compõem o terceiro conglomerado caracterizado por uma situação de saúde intermediária entre o perfil urbano e rural e com elevada notificação do agravo. O modelo estatístico mostrou-se consistente com o perfil de saúde brasileiro, separando as regiões Norte e Nordeste das regiões Sudeste e Sul, e representando em situação intermediária a região Centro-Oeste.We applied factor analysis to indicators of health and living conditions from Brazilian states in order to define geographic areas at potential risk for neonatal tetanus. Two factors, namely "health profile in the rural area" and "proportional mortality on neonatal tetanus" were selected and plotted against each other. A cluster composed of states from the Northeast plus Pará and Amapá was found to include most neonatal tetanus risk areas and a low case-reporting rate. Another cluster included states from the Southeast and South and displayed a neonatal tetanus reporting rate that was compatible with that for other indicators. Espírito Santo, however, was found to be a silent productive area

  15. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  16. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    OpenAIRE

    PRAKAPIENĖ, Dalia; OLBERKYTĖ, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content analysis and the quantitative method of questionnaire survey. The authors of the research identified the educational excursion activities conducted i...

  17. Geographical orientation. An integral geoperspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cobo Arízaga

    2013-12-01

    This approach seeks to create a new line of discussion, to launch a proposal that is scientifically challenging to the hegemony of geographical thought and that provides new geographical rationality structures.

  18. Knowledge discovery for geographical cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; Anthony Gar-On Yeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for geographical simulation by applying data mining techniques to cellular automata. CA has strong capabilities in simulating complex systems. The core of CA is how to define transition rules. There are no good methods for defining these transition rules. They are usually defined by using heuristic methods and thus subject to uncertainties. Mathematical equations are used to represent transition rules implicitly and have limitations in capturing complex relationships. This paper demonstrates that the explicit transition rules of CA can be automatically reconstructed through the rule induction procedure of data mining. The proposed method can reduce the influences of individual knowledge and preferences in defining transition rules and generate more reliable simulation results. It can efficiently discover knowledge from a vast volume of spatial data.

  19. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  20. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  1. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  2. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  3. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  4. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  5. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  6. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  7. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  8. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  9. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  10. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  11. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  12. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;

    2016-01-01

    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  13. HIV care for geographically mobile populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara S; Garduño, L Sergio; Reyes, Emily V; Valiño, Raziel; Rojas, Rita; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between geographic mobility and risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection is well recognized, but what happens to those same individuals, once infected, as they transition to living with the infection? Does mobility affect their transition into medical care? If so, do mobile and nonmobile populations achieve similar success with antiretroviral treatment? The definition of mobility has changed over the centuries to encompass a complex phenotype including permanent migration, frequent travel, circular migration, and travel to and from treatment centers. The heterogeneity of these definitions leads to discordant findings. Investigations show that mobility has an impact on infection risk, but fewer data exist on the impact of geographic mobility on medical care and treatment outcomes. This review will examine existing data regarding the impact of geographic mobility on access to and maintenance in medical care and on adherence to antiretroviral therapy for those living with human immunodeficiency virus infection. It will also expand the concept of mobility to include data on the impact of the distance from residence to clinic on medical care and treatment adherence. Our conclusions are that the existing literature is limited by varying definitions of mobility and the inherent oversimplification necessary to apply a "mobility measure" in a statistical analysis. The impact of mobility on antiretroviral treatment outcomes deserves further exploration to both define the phenomenon and target interventions to these at-risk populations.

  14. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  15. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  16. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  17. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  18. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  19. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  20. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  1. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  2. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  3. Geographic literacy perception scale (GLPS validity and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Dikmenli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic literacy could be defined as the competence of turning understanding and comprehension of geographical knowledge into a skill because literacy consists of solving problems, reasoning, critical and creative thinking processes. Today, in order to impart literacy skills to individuals, teachers should first have these skills. It is important that teacher candidates should attain these skills before graduation. When these conditions are established, it will be easier for teacher candidates to be aware of their geographic literacy skills, bring these competences to a conscious level and contribute to students’ geographic literacy skills and processes in their professional lives. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude scale in order to specify teacher candidates’ geographic literacy perception levels. The study group of the research consisted of 473 teacher candidates. In order to detect the validity of the scale, exploratory factor analyses, item factor total correlations and item discriminations were conducted. In order to assess the reliability of the scale, the level of internal consistency and stability levels were calculated. The analyses provided evidence that the Geographic Literacy Perception Scale (GLPS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in order to determine geographic literacy levels

  4. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  5. Geographical Effects on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-Cai; YANG Lei; YANG Kong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate how the geographical structure of a complex network affects its network topology, synchronization and the average spatial length of edges. The geographical structure means that the connecting probability of two nodes is related to the spatial distance of the two nodes. Our simulation results show that the geographical structure changes the network topology. The synchronization tendency is enhanced and the average spatial length of edges is enlarged when the node can randomly connect to the further one. Analytic results support our understanding of the phenomena.

  6. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  7. Defining the fascial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-01-01

    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  9. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  10. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  11. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  12. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  13. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  14. Decidability of definability

    CERN Document Server

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor

    2010-01-01

    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  15. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar M, Guna

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which...

  16. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  17. Defining Z in Q

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsmann, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  18. Fuzzy surfaces in GIS and geographical analysis theory, analytical methods, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are a central to geographical analysis. Their generation and manipulation are a key component of geographical information systems (GISs). However, geographical surface data is often not precise. When surfaces are used to model geographical entities, the data inherently contains uncertainty in terms of both position and attribute. Fuzzy Surface in GIS and Geographical Analysis sets out a process to identify the uncertainty in geographic entities. It describes how to successfully obtain, model, analyze, and display data, as well as interpret results within the context of GIS. Focusing on uncertainty that arises from transitional boundaries, the book limits its study to three types of uncertainties: intervals, fuzzy sets, and possibility distributions. The book explains that uncertainty in geographical data typically stems from these three and it is only natural to incorporate them into the analysis and display of surface data. The book defines the mathematics associated with each method for analysis,...

  19. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  20. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  1. a Conceptual Framework for Virtual Geographic Environments Knowledge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lan; Lin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1) The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2) features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3) geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4) a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  2. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR VIRTUAL GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTS KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. You

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1 The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2 features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3 geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4 a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  3. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Ana L.; Real, Raimundo; Kin, Marta S.; Guerrero, José Carlos; Galván, Betina; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Olivero, Jesús; Palomo, L. Javier; Vargas, J. Mario; Justo, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR) in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables) and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM)) influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT) that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity. PMID:23028254

  4. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  5. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  6. An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), defined as wetlands surrounded by uplands, provide an array of ecosystem goods and services. Within the United States, federal regulatory protections for GIWs are contingent, in part, on the quantification of their singular or aggregate ef...

  7. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  8. Louisiana Territorial Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDOTD (1999) [state_boundary_la_LDOTD_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the state 'territorial' boundary of Louisiana. The state boundary extends 3 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline. This data set...

  9. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  10. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  11. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  12. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  13. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers indirectly survey and report on the values and preferences of communities involved in restoration and revitalization projects. We are using geotagged images from three social media platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Images are obtained for the neighborhoods to the St. Louis River in the Duluth, MN and analyzed along several dimensions including the spatial distribution of images from each platform and the types and frequencies of social values and ecosystem service depicted. This study will demonstrate a method for translating the values of ecosystem goods and services as captured in social media into spatially-explicit data. Study outcomes are the incorporation of social media-derived indicators of ecosystems services into City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development Sustainable and Healthy Community research. Not applicable

  14. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  15. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand......, and Vietnam, we measure the distances between firm pairs, that is, the distance to the main supplier and the distance to the main customer for the surveyed firms. The distances to suppliers and customers are shorter for indigenous firms in these Southeast Asian countries; but the arm’s length differs across...... countries. The distance between firm pairs differs widely across firms within narrowly defined industries and countries. We find that both firm-level transaction costs and capabilities affect the distances between customers and suppliers. The distance to suppliers is longer for firms that have accepted...

  16. The geographical distribution of Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAPLAN, M M; BERTAGNA, P

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants-the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined.

  17. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Andes: A Geographical Portrait. By Axel Borsdorf and Christoph Stadel. Translated by Brigitte Scott and Christoph Stadel. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xiv + 368 pp. US$ 139.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-319-03529-1.

  18. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  19. Geographical Concepts in Turkish Lullabys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a collection of lullabies which have an important place in Turkish culture and which form an important genre in folk literature are examined to find out distribution and presentation of geographical terms in the lullabies in this collection. In the study, 2480 lullabies in Turkish Lullabies which is one of the leading collections in…

  20. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  1. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  2. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...... this underlying model is extended to include a number of components, which each contribute to the model being able to form the basis of a strong and productive specification tool for the making and maintenance of specifications for geographic information. These components among others include description...

  3. Annotation Bibliography for Geographical Science Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra Martha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This annotated bibliography is gathered specially for the field of geography obtained from various scientific articles (basic concept in geography of different geographical journals. This article aims to present information particulary for geographers who will undertake researches, and indeed need the geographical References with all spatial concepts. Other reason defeated by the rapid development of the branch of technical geography such as geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing. It hopes that this bibliography can contribute of remotivating geographers to learn and review their original geographical thought.

  4. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  5. Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Economic disparity is a huge global issue nowadays which threatens the economic justice and thus in some sense decides the fate of human be-ing,especially those from developing countries.This essay analyzes economic disparity by using Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory.None of the two theories could explain the economic disparity individually.China,Britain and Iran are used as three examples to support the thesis.

  6. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; hide

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  7. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  8. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  9. Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Kittles, R A; Argyropoulos, G; Pfaff, C L; Hiester, K; Bonilla, C; Sylvester, N; Parrish-Gause, D; Garvey, W T; Jin, L; McKeigue, P M; Kamboh, M I; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S; Shriver, M D

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed admixture in samples of six different African-American populations from South Carolina: Gullah-speaking Sea Islanders in coastal South Carolina, residents of four counties in the "Low Country" (Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester), and persons living in the city of Columbia, located in central South Carolina. We used a battery of highly informative autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers. Two of the autosomal markers (FY and AT3) are linked and lie 22 cM apart on chromosome 1. The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders (m = 3.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of European admixture is higher in the Low Country (m ranging between 9. 9 +/- 1.8% and 14.0 +/- 1.9%), and is highest in Columbia (m = 17.7 +/- 3.1%). A sex-biased European gene flow and a small Native American contribution to the African-American gene pool are also evident in these data. We studied the pattern of pairwise allelic associations between the FY locus and the nine other autosomal markers in our samples. In the combined sample from the Low Country (N = 548), a high level of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the linked markers, FY and AT3. Additionally, significant associations were also detected between FY and 4 of the 8 unlinked markers, suggesting the existence of significant genetic structure in this population. A continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure. A test conditioning on the overall admixture of each individual showed association of ancestry between the two linked markers (FY and AT3), but not between any of the unlinked markers, as theory predicts. Thus, even in the presence of genetic structure due to continuous gene flow or some other factor, it is possible to differentiate associations due to linkage from spurious associations due to genetic structure.

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. How a Geographer Looks at Globalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    Argues a global perspective is inherent to all geographic research and education. Quotes several influential geographers concerning their views on globalism and geography as a discipline. Examines geography's five fundamental themes and their applicability to a global perspective. Considers roles geographers can play in solving world environmental…

  2. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  3. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  4. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; McClelland, D E; Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; Clelland, David E Mc

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network naturally arise in this context. We propose a formalism to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method, and construct a model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  5. Object-based landslide detection in different geographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Barbara; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Landslides occur in almost all mountainous regions of the world and rank among the most severe natural hazards. In the last decade - according to the world disaster report 2014 published by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IRFC) - more than 9.000 people were killed by mass movements, more than 3.2 million people were affected and the total amount of disaster estimated damage accounts to more than 1.700 million US dollars. The application of remote sensing data for mapping landslides can contribute to post-disaster reconstruction or hazard mitigation, either by providing rapid information about the spatial distribution and location of landslides in the aftermath of triggering events or by creating and updating landslide inventories. This is especially valid for remote and inaccessible areas, where information on landslides is often lacking. However, reliable methods are needed for extracting timely and relevant information about landslides from remote sensing data. In recent years, novel methods such as object-based image analysis (OBIA) have been successfully employed for semi-automated landslide mapping. Several studies revealed that OBIA frequently outperforms pixel-based approaches, as a range of image object properties (spectral, spatial, morphometric, contextual) can be exploited during the analysis. However, object-based methods are often tailored to specific study areas, and thus, the transferability to regions with different geological settings, is often limited. The present case study evaluates the transferability and applicability of an OBIA approach for landslide detection in two distinct regions, i.e. the island of Taiwan and Austria. In Taiwan, sub-areas in the Baichi catchment in the North and in the Huaguoshan catchment in the southern-central part of the island are selected; in Austria, landslide-affected sites in the Upper Salzach catchment in the federal state of Salzburg are investigated. For both regions

  6. Research on Geographical Urban Conditions Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    by LUO A1inghai Abstract Geographical national conditions monitoring has become an important task of surveying and geographical information industry, and will make a profound influence on the development of surveying and ge- ographical information. This paper introduced the basic concept of ge- ographical national conditions monitoring, and discussed its main tasks including complete surveying, dynamic monitoring, statistical analysis and regular release, and expounded the main content of geographical urban conditions monitoring including urbanization monitoring, social- economic development monitoring, transportation foundation monitor- ing and natural ecological environment monitoring, and put forwards the framework system of geographical urban conditions monitoring. Key words surveying and mapping ,geographical national conditions, monitoring ( Page:l )

  7. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  8. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  9. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  10. Geographic Load Balanced Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Guleria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently the application domains of wireless sensor networks have grown exponentially. Traditional routing algorithm generates traffic related to route discovery to destination. Geographic routing algorithms exploit location information well but the problem of congestion and collision throttle its full employment for resource constrained wireless sensor networks. In this paper we present a Geographic Load Balanced Routing (GLBR, explores a technique Load balancing for WSNs which can be a viable solution to the challenges of geographic routing. Load balancing can be realized through two approaches. GLBR defines parameters based on communication overhead at sensor nodes and wireless link status through which load can be balanced across whole network. GLBR approach exploits the existing Geographic Routing approach i.e. Greedy forwarding by considering not only the distance between next hop and destination as single parameter for packet forwarding but also consider overhead at node. When load at a node is high GLBR looks for an alternate option for packet forwarding. Thus GLBR divert traffic to obviate congestion and hence avoid disconnections in the network.

  11. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  12. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  13. The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Houston T.

    The events of September 11 ushered us all into a world in which our security and sense of invulnerability were savagely replaced by vulnerability and irrational fear. To the delight of our adversaries who planned these attacks, we often responded in ways that furthered their agenda by weakening the cultural colossus that we call home. Normally terrorism is viewed as intense but localized violence. Seldom is terrorism viewed in its more expansive dimensions. It is burned into our collective memories as a collapsed building, a shattered bus, an incinerated nightclub, or facilities closed by a few anthrax-laced letters. However, terrorism must be studied in dimensions larger than the view from a news camera. This conclusion forms the intellectual basis for The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism.

  14. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; McClelland, David E [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2002-04-07

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network arise in this context. We have elsewhere proposed a formalism which is employed here to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method. We have constructed a network model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  15. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  16. Geodemography: Land cover, geographical information systems and population distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Goerlich Gisbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the recent application of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to the analysis of population distribution. We mention the efforts of the National Statistical Institutes in this direction boosted by the last census 2011.The stating point is a growing need to have available population figures for areas not related to administrative boundaries, either user defined zones or in grid format.This allows a convenient zonal system to combine demographic characteristics with environmental and pure geographic data, so the relation between the man and the environment can be analyzed in a unified way.Eventually, we offer a practical illustration of the interactions between GIS techniques and administrative population data in the study of spatial population distribution: We build a density grid for Spain by dasymetric methods from census tracts population data and Land Cover and Use Information System of Spain (SIOSE.The analysis is done within the spatial reference framework of the European Union.

  17. Geographic clustering of firms and urban form: a multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides an empirical framework that applies spatial statistics methods to assess the relation between the change in the geographical clustering of firms and the emergence of urban form. We contend that where firms locate and eventually cluster give rise to the way commercial and industrial land uses are organized over space, which in turn defines the shape of urban form. Accordingly, the objectives of our work are twofold: (1) to identify the extent and shape of firm clustering and co-location at the intra-metropolitan level, and (2) examine how the change in the geographic clustering of different industries contributes to decentralization and the evolution of urban form. Spatial statistics methods and tools were vital and helped to fulfill these objectives.

  18. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  19. Geographic versus industry diversification: constraints matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, Paul; Ramos, Sofia Brito

    2005-01-01

    This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is superior. With short-selling constraints, however, the geographic tangency portfolio is not attainable by industry portfolios. Results with upper and lower constraints on portfolio weights as well as an out-of-sample analysis show that geographic diversification almost c...

  20. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  1. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  2. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  3. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  4. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  5. Foreword to Journal of Geographical Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In order to strengthen academic exchange of geography between China and other countries,and to offer a publication for exchanging academic ideas of geog-raphers in the world,The Journal of AChinese Geog-raphyis changed to Journal of Geographical Sciences in 2001.

  6. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...

  10. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Henricus Theodorus Johannes Antonius

    2001-01-01

    Geographic data set integration is particularly important for update propagation, i.e. the reuse of updates from one data set in another data set. In this thesis geographic data set integration (also known as map integration) between two topographic data sets, GBKN and TOP10vector, is described. GBK

  11. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  12. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  13. Geographic constraints on social network groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Onnela

    Full Text Available Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints.

  14. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  15. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  16. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  17. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  18. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  19. Vrednotenje zahtevnejših geografskih učnih vsebin na vseh ravneh izobraževanja = Evaluation of more demanding geographical contents regarding all educational levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a didactical problem of transfer and understanding of moredemanding geographical contents which are included into geographical educationalvertical. Further improvement of geography teaching and assurance of highquality syllabus on every level of geographical education require a defining of moredemanding geographical contents and reasons for their difficulty, argumentation oftheir incorporation into syllabuses and assessment of ways and methods for dealingwith them and for their adoption. The analyses of scientifically demanding geographicalcontents offer the origins for better organisation of contents in the verticalof geographical education and the origins for better education of future geographyteachers.

  20. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  1. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  2. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...

  3. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  4. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  5. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  6. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe...

  7. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  8. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  9. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  10. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  11. Animal innovation defined and operationalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Grant; Bastian, Meredith L; van Schaik, Carel

    2007-08-01

    Innovation is a key component of most definitions of culture and intelligence. Additionally, innovations may affect a species' ecology and evolution. Nonetheless, conceptual and empirical work on innovation has only recently begun. In particular, largely because the existing operational definition (first occurrence in a population) requires long-term studies of populations, there has been no systematic study of innovation in wild animals. To facilitate such study, we have produced a new definition of innovation: Innovation is the process that generates in an individual a novel learned behavior that is not simply a consequence of social learning or environmental induction. Using this definition, we propose a new operational approach for distinguishing innovations in the field. The operational criteria employ information from the following sources: (1) the behavior's geographic and local prevalence and individual frequency; (2) properties of the behavior, such as the social role of the behavior, the context in which the behavior is exhibited, and its similarity to other behaviors; (3) changes in the occurrence of the behavior over time; and (4) knowledge of spontaneous or experimentally induced behavior in captivity. These criteria do not require long-term studies at a single site, but information from multiple populations of a species will generally be needed. These criteria are systematized into a dichotomous key that can be used to assess whether a behavior observed in the field is likely to be an innovation.

  12. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  13. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...... to terrain and rendering of the model. All this is done in something very close to real-time. GRIFINOR is at the moment working within a limited edition of the world. Only a few classes have been selected for representation in GRIFINOR. These are buildings, cadastre, trees, grass, roads. This paper...

  14. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  15. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...... become more internationally experienced, and the benefits of domestic geographical dispersions are limited by the degree of urbanization of sub-national states. We test our argument on a sample of 693 Indian BGs over the period 2001-2010....

  16. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  17. Recommendation Of A National Geographic Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to provide guidance relative to building capacity and geographically focusing efforts to implement landscape scale conservation...

  18. Progress and Prospects of Geographical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Du

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary geography includes physical geography, human geography and geographical information science. Advanced trends in geographical research are characterized by the following aspects:intersection and infiltration with various disciplines, the strengthening of integrated studies within geography, the deepening of micro-scale studies of geographical processes, the broadening of applied research fields, experimental geography and the introduction of new techniques and the transformation of theoretical concepts. In order to promote the development of earth system science and to coordinate the man-land relationship, geographers may make contributions in aspects such as the process and pattern of the terrestrial surface, global change and its regional response, natural resources security and eco-reconstruction, sustainable regional development, mechanism of the man-land relationship and its coordination, geo-information science and technology, digital earth research.

  19. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  20. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  1. Mapping Socio-Economic Status, Geographical Location and Matriculation Pass Rates in Gauteng, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Richelle; Morton McKay, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, prior to 1994, the racially defined geographical neighbourhood in which a child resided usually determined which school they could enrol in. Post 1994, this changed to legally allow enrolment in any public school. Unfortunately, due to the legacy of apartheid, in particular, resource allocation inequity, schools in African areas…

  2. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  3. Key solutions to geographical information synchronizing in GRID-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Fan, XiangTao; Du, XiaoPing

    2008-10-01

    Geographical GRID system is of great importance at fields as public security, military action, emergency response etc. The homogenizing distributed geographic environment system requires same geographical information for operations in each node. The bottle neck is how to reliably and accurately synchronize the great volume geographical data. This paper solves the problem in three ways. First, Message server queue is constructed for stable message delivery. In this way, the message server always has its alternative in preparation for breakdowns, and the whole GRID always has single working message server. Then the message server queue can be constructed and effectively woks. This mode has the advantages of the other two modes that the message delivery is more reliable and less time-costing. Second, both push and pull modes are adopted to send messages in time. Push mode means the node which has altered its data is responsible for the delivery of the changed part, like "push" the data to the message server. While pull mode means the demand node or the message server is responsible to check the data status in other nodes and "pull" the new data from the source. In push mode, if the network between the sponsor node and the message server breakdown, the message could be missing or the sponsor could be halted, when the network resumed, the update action could not be invoked again. And in pull mode, the message server needs to check the data and collect update parts in the whole grid, it is a time-costing operation that could not be executed frequently. So the combination mode is adopted. In combination mode, not only each node has its own update trigger to invoke the delivery of the new data, but also the message server also can recurrently check the data status after an assigned interval according to the network situation and the computation ability, then the duly update can be guaranteed. Three, extended GML is developed to wrap the geographical data. GML defines a lot

  4. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  5. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses...... on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...... definition of usability to develop the notion of user experience....

  6. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E.; Ross A Alford; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geo...

  7. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  8. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  11. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  12. Can Geographic Bridging Social Capital Improve the Health of People Who Live in Deprived Urban Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O; Cho, Byong-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The growing number of people living in deprived urban neighborhoods, which often have unhealthy environments, is of growing concern to inequality researchers. Social capital could be a resource to help such communities get ahead. In this study, we examined the differential effects of bonding and bridging social capital on self-rated health using two operational definitions, which we call personal and geographic social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital were operationally distinguished as respondents' perceived similarity to other members of a group with respect to personal characteristics (personal social capital) or as structural similarity with respect to geographical location (geographic social capital). The results showed that although both bonding and bridging social capital as defined by person-based criteria were associated with increased odds of self-rated health compared to those who reported zero participation, when defined by place-based criteria, only bridging social capital was associated with increased odds of self-rated health; no clear association was found between health and belonging to groups within the neighborhood, so-called geographic bonding social capital. The present study suggests that geographic bridging social capital can function as linking social capital that enables an upward approach depending on the political and economic contexts of urbanization.

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  14. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  15. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  16. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  17. Asymptomatic Alzheimer disease: Defining resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Timothy J; McLaren, Donald G; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Gifford, Katherine A; Libon, David J; Jefferson, Angela L

    2016-12-06

    To define robust resilience metrics by leveraging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology within a latent variable framework and to demonstrate the ability of such metrics to predict slower rates of cognitive decline and protection against diagnostic conversion. Participants with normal cognition (n = 297) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 432) were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Resilience metrics were defined at baseline by examining the residuals when regressing brain aging outcomes (hippocampal volume and cognition) on CSF biomarkers. A positive residual reflected better outcomes than expected for a given level of pathology (high resilience). Residuals were integrated into a latent variable model of resilience and validated by testing their ability to independently predict diagnostic conversion, cognitive decline, and the rate of ventricular dilation. Latent variables of resilience predicted a decreased risk of conversion (hazard ratio 0.02, p < 0.001), and slower rates of ventricular dilation (β < -4.7, p < 2 × 10(-15)). These results were significant even when analyses were restricted to clinically normal individuals. Furthermore, resilience metrics interacted with biomarker status such that biomarker-positive individuals with low resilience showed the greatest risk of subsequent decline. Robust phenotypes of resilience calculated by leveraging AD biomarkers and baseline brain aging outcomes provide insight into which individuals are at greatest risk of short-term decline. Such comprehensive definitions of resilience are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms that protect individuals from the clinical manifestation of AD dementia, especially among biomarker-positive individuals. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  19. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  20. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  1. Methodology for classification of geographical features with remote sensing images: Application to tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo Sarmiento, G. N.; Cipolletti, M. P.; Perillo, M. M.; Delrieux, C. A.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal flats generally exhibit ponds of diverse size, shape, orientation and origin. Studying the genesis, evolution, stability and erosive mechanisms of these geographic features is critical to understand the dynamics of coastal wetlands. However, monitoring these locations through direct access is hard and expensive, not always feasible, and environmentally damaging. Processing remote sensing images is a natural alternative for the extraction of qualitative and quantitative data due to their non-invasive nature. In this work, a robust methodology for automatic classification of ponds and tidal creeks in tidal flats using Google Earth images is proposed. The applicability of our method is tested in nine zones with different morphological settings. Each zone is processed by a segmentation stage, where ponds and tidal creeks are identified. Next, each geographical feature is measured and a set of shape descriptors is calculated. This dataset, together with a-priori classification of each geographical feature, is used to define a regression model, which allows an extensive automatic classification of large volumes of data discriminating ponds and tidal creeks against other various geographical features. In all cases, we identified and automatically classified different geographic features with an average accuracy over 90% (89.7% in the worst case, and 99.4% in the best case). These results show the feasibility of using freely available Google Earth imagery for the automatic identification and classification of complex geographical features. Also, the presented methodology may be easily applied in other wetlands of the world and perhaps employing other remote sensing imagery.

  2. Increased fundus autofluorescence and progression of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The GAIN study.

    OpenAIRE

    Biarnés Pérez, Marc, 1973-; Arias, Luis; Alonso Caballero, Jordi; García, Míriam; Hijano, Míriam; Rodríguez, Anabel; Serrano, Anna; Badal, Josep; Muhtaseb, Hussein; Verdaguer, Paula; Monés, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define the role of increased fundus autofluorescence (FAF), a surrogate for lipofuscin content, as a risk factor for progression of geographic atrophy (GA). DESIGN: Prospective natural history cohort study, the GAIN (Characterization of geographic atrophy progression in patients with age-related macular degeneration). METHODS: setting: Single-center study conducted in Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: After screening of 211 patients, 109 eyes of 82 patients with GA secondary to age-rela...

  3. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  4. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  5. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  6. MODELING FUZZY GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS WITHIN FUZZY FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To improve the current GIS functions in describing geographic objects w ith fuzziness,this paper begins with a discussion on the distance measure of sp atial objects based on the theory of sets and an introduction of dilation and er osion operators.Under the assumption that changes of attributes in a geographic region are gradual,the analytic expressions for the fuzzy objects of points,l ines and areas,and the description of their formal structures are presented.Th e analytic model of geographic objects by means of fuzzy fields is developed.We have shown that the 9-intersection model proposed by Egenhofer and Franzosa (19 91) is a special case of the model presented in the paper.

  7. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  8. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  9. Mapping the geographical diffusion of new words

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstein, Jacob; Smith, Noah A; Xing, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Language in social media is rich with linguistic innovations, most strikingly in the new words and spellings that constantly enter the lexicon. Despite assertions about the power of social media to connect people across the world, we find that many of these neologisms are restricted to geographically compact areas. Even for words that become ubiquituous, their growth in popularity is often geographical, spreading from city to city. Thus, social media text offers a unique opportunity to study the diffusion of lexical change. In this paper, we show how an autoregressive model of word frequencies in social media can be used to induce a network of linguistic influence between American cities. By comparing the induced network with the geographical and demographic characteristics of each city, we can measure the factors that drive the spread of lexical innovation.

  10. Differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of two periodontitis populations of different geographical origin. A comparison between Spain and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, M; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Herrera, D; Dellemijn-Kippuw, N; Simon, R; Winkel, E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the subgingival microbiota of two geographically distinct patient populations using identical clinical and bacteriological methods. Adult patients with a diagnosis of periodontitis were consecutively selected according to pre-defined clinical criteria.

  11. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Roumagnac, Philippe; Feldkamp, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    of mutational steps that define geographically associated clades. These clades are not concordant with previously described groupings based on staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing. By mapping the number of independent imports of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome methicillin-resistance island, we also...... show that import has occurred on at least 23 occasions within this single sequence type and that the progeny of such recombinant strains usually are distributed locally rather than globally. These results provide strong evidence that geographical spread of MRSA over long distances and across cultural...

  12. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  13. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E; Alford, Ross A; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N

    2006-12-22

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geographically rare species were diet generalists and widespread species were diet specialists. We argue that this pattern is a product of extinction filtering, whereby geographically rare and therefore extinction-prone species are more likely to persist if they are diet generalists.

  14. Property regimes and the commodification of geographic information: An examination of Google Street View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Alvarez León

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body of information on the Internet is becoming increasingly geographical. This is both due to the expansion of established categories of geographic information (e.g., digital maps and geospatial databases and to the simultaneous enrichment of other types of information through geographic identifiers (e.g., geotags, check-ins, and global positioning system coordinates. As this repository of geographic information expands, it is also a key site for multiple processes of commodification transforming informational resources into market goods. Understanding the dynamics driving the integration of geographic information into the digital economy requires a comprehensive political economic analysis. A key component of this analysis is to explain the logics of creation and allocation of economic value from geographic information on the Internet. Addressing this need, in the present article I deploy the property regimes schema developed by Schlager and Ostrom and expand it to elucidate the differentiated commodification processes of geographic information on the Internet. Property regimes are arrangements that define rules, distribute rights, and delineate roles with respect to particular goods. These arrangements are enabled by elements such as legal frameworks, jurisdictions, type of information, and technologies of access. In this article, I explore how the legal frameworks regulating traditional categories of geographic information (such as maps have been destabilized in the process of technological innovation, leading to the creation of new informational goods along with their respective property regimes, and rearticulating legal, economic, and sociotechnical relations. To illustrate this, I analyze the case of Google Street View images through their property regimes in various jurisdictions.

  15. Property regimes and the commodification of geographic information: An examination of Google Street View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Alvarez León

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body of information on the Internet is becoming increasingly geographical. This is both due to the expansion of established categories of geographic information (e.g., digital maps and geospatial databases and to the simultaneous enrichment of other types of information through geographic identifiers (e.g., geotags, check-ins, and global positioning system coordinates. As this repository of geographic information expands, it is also a key site for multiple processes of commodification transforming informational resources into market goods. Understanding the dynamics driving the integration of geographic information into the digital economy requires a comprehensive political economic analysis. A key component of this analysis is to explain the logics of creation and allocation of economic value from geographic information on the Internet. Addressing this need, in the present article I deploy the property regimes schema developed by Schlager and Ostrom and expand it to elucidate the differentiated commodification processes of geographic information on the Internet. Property regimes are arrangements that define rules, distribute rights, and delineate roles with respect to particular goods. These arrangements are enabled by elements such as legal frameworks, jurisdictions, type of information, and technologies of access. In this article, I explore how the legal frameworks regulating traditional categories of geographic information (such as maps have been destabilized in the process of technological innovation, leading to the creation of new informational goods along with their respective property regimes, and rearticulating legal, economic, and sociotechnical relations. To illustrate this, I analyze the case of Google Street View images through their property regimes in various jurisdictions.

  16. África en el National Geographic

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Por muchos años, el National Geographic Magazine sirvió como el único medio en el cual las personas leían sobre África. En mi trabajo propongo que la imagen que ha creado el National Geographic Magazine a través de sus artículos y fotos sobre el continente africano es una imagen exótica y en donde se exalta los valores imperialistas y los beneficios del colonialismo para África. Es una imagen en la que el continente es representado como un lugar a donde los estadounidenses pueden ir a hacer s...

  17. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  18. µ-shapes: Delineating urban neighborhoods using volunteered geographic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aadland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods are a unique form of geography in that their boundaries rely on a social definition rather than a well-defined physical or administrative boundary. Currently, geographic gazetteers capture little more than then the centroid of a neighborhood, limiting potential applications of the data. In this paper, we present µ-shapes, an algorithm that employs fuzzy-set theory to model neighborhood boundaries suitable for populating gazetteers using volunteered geographic information (VGI. The algorithm is evaluated using a reference dataset and VGI from the Map Kibera Project. A confusion matrix comparison between the reference dataset and µ-shape's output demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy. Analysis of variance indicated that the algorithm was able to distinguish between boundary and interior blocks. This suggests that, given the existing state of GIS technology, the µ-shapes algorithm can enable neighborhood-related queries that incorporate spatial uncertainty, e.g., find all restaurants within the core of a neighborhood.

  19. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the 'per-pixel paradigm' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  20. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Basic theory and key technologies for marine geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fenzhen; YANG Xiaomei; XU Jun; ZHANG Tianyu; LUO Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Marine geographic information system (MGIS) has great ability to deal with the spatio-temporal problems and has potential superiority when it is applied to oceanography. Using the feature extraction of oceanic phenomena as a case study, the functions of the MGIS are analyzed, and thus the position of MGIS in the oceanography is defined. Comparing the requirement of MGIS with that of the traditional GIS which has been developed in the terrestrial applications in the past four decades, the frame for the functions of MGIS is constructed. According to the established MGIS, some key technologies are discussed in detail with emphasis on the specialities which can distinguish the MGIS from the traditional GIS.

  2. Grinnellian and Eltonian niches and geographic distributions of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Jorge

    2007-12-01

    In the recent past, availability of large data sets of species presences has increased by orders of magnitude. This, together with developments in geographical information systems and statistical methods, has enabled scientists to calculate, for thousands of species, the environmental conditions of their distributional areas. The profiles thus obtained are obviously related to niche concepts in the Grinnell tradition, and separated from those in Elton's tradition. I argue that it is useful to define Grinnellian and Eltonian niches on the basis of the types of variables used to calculate them, the natural spatial scale at which they can be measured, and the dispersal of the individuals over the environment. I use set theory notation and analogies derived from population ecology theory to obtain formal definitions of areas of distribution and several types of niches. This brings clarity to several practical and fundamental questions in macroecology and biogeography.

  3. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  4. Enhancing Geographic Learning and Literacy through Filmmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.; Chadwick, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    In this media-saturated society, students need to think more critically about the media they encounter and that they are producing. Through filmmaking, students can link geographic theory and the real world, bridging the distance from readings/lectures/discussions to the geography on the ground, making the abstract concrete. But constructing films…

  5. Studying the making of geographical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... to separate the two roles, but in reality they coexist and are intertwined....

  6. Every document has a geographical scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, G.; Bouma, G.; Nerbonne, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is a useful premise to assume that every document in a collection and every query issued to an information retrieval (IR) system are geography-dependent. If one can determine what area an article is about (i.e., its geographical scope), this information can be used to improve the accuracy with wh

  7. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  8. An Overview to Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Allan B.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an introduction to geographic information systems (GIS); reviews the use of GIS in libraries; and presents some challenges, strengths, and opportunities for libraries and GIS. Discusses requirements and functions of a GIS and presents examples. Six figures illustrate the discussion. (JKP)

  9. Higher-dimensional modelling of geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Our world is three-dimensional and complex, continuously changing over time and appearing different at different scales. Yet, when we model it in a computer using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mostly use 2D representations, which essentially consist of linked points, lines and polygons. T

  10. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  11. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  12. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  13. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  14. General Geographical Economics Model with Congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe derive and discuss a general, but simple geographical economics model with congestion, allowing us to explain the economic viability of small and large locations. The model generalizes some previous work and lends itself to analyzing the impact of public policy in terms of

  15. Geographical dispersal of mobile communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Blondel, Vincent D.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Huens, Etienne; Prieur, Christophe; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Van Dooren, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of a communication network constructed from the records of a mobile phone company. The network consists of 2.5 million customers that have placed 810 million communications (phone calls and text messages) over a period of 6 months and for whom we have geographical home localization information. It is shown that the degree distribution in this network has a power-law degree distribution k-5 and that the probability that two customers are connected by a link follows a gravity model, i.e. decreases as d-2, where d is the distance between the customers. We also consider the geographical extension of communication triangles and we show that communication triangles are not only composed of geographically adjacent nodes but that they may extend over large distances. This last property is not captured by the existing models of geographical networks and in a last section we propose a new model that reproduces the observed property. Our model, which is based on the migration and on the local adaptation of agents, is then studied analytically and the resulting predictions are confirmed by computer simulations.

  16. Spatial data structures in geographic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1988-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Geographic Infomation Systems (GISs) with respect to the Data Model. We introduce a classification of the types of data that one encounters in GISs. The requirements for the GIS Data Model, that we are developing, are summarized in a short list. The known solutions

  17. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  18. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improv

  19. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  20. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are u

  1. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  2. ADAPTEITION STRATEGY OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRAGONFLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. A. Ketenchyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some of the adaptive strategy of geographical distribution ofdragonflies. The basis of adaptive traits considered temperature. Together with the humidity is a major abiotic factor. Analysis of the phenomen will determine the strategy of distribution of dragonflies in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  3. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas J.I.; Molenaar, Martien

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  4. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  5. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  6. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  7. Application of geographical information system for lymphatic filariasis and malaria control in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, P N

    2014-06-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system used to capture, store, edit, retrieve, analyze and visualize geographically referenced data. The use of GIS is one technology that is very useful in the prevention and control of Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria which cause high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This paper focuses on how the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) can be harnessed for surveillance, prevention and control of LF and malaria in Nigeria. GIS can be used as an operational tool to assist with resource allocation, as a monitoring and evaluation tool and as a tool to investigate various research projects on spatial aspects of LF and malaria epidemiology. This paper provides information on the benefits and potential of using GIS as a tool for the national malaria and LF control programmes with particular reference to Nigeria.

  8. 根系分区交替灌溉条件下水肥供应对番茄中番茄红素含量的影响%Effect of Water-fertilizer Supply on Tomato Lycopene Content under Alternate Subarea Root-zone Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振江; 牛晓丽; 陈思; 代顺冬; 胡田田

    2013-01-01

    This study is to find out the effects of irrigation amount and fertilizer applying quantity of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) lycopene content under alternate subarea root-zone irrigation. Regression model on water and fertilizer factors and tomato lycopene content was established with quadratic orthogonal regressive rotation design with 4 factors by pot experiment. The results showed that if other factors were zero codes, lycopene content in tomato decreased linearly with the increase of irrigation amount, while increased with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers applying quantity, but it would not change along with the change of potassium fertilizer applying quantity. The interaction between irrigation amount and potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applying quantity presented negative effect on the accumulation of tomato lycopene content. Under the condition of alternate subarea root-zone irrigation, over irrigation was not favorable for the increase of lycopene content in tomato. Rational increase of nitrogen, phosphorus fertilizers applying quantity could effectively increase lycopene content in tomato.%为了解根系分区交替灌溉条件下灌水量和氮、磷、钾肥用量对番茄果实中番茄红素含量的影响,通过盆栽试验,采用四元二次回归正交旋转组合设计,建立了番茄红素含量与水肥因子的数学模型,并对各单一因素的效应及两两因素的耦合效应进行了分析.结果表明,在其他因子为中间水平时,番茄果实中的番茄红素含量,随灌水量的增加呈线性降低趋势,随施氮量与施磷量增加呈开口向上抛物线变化,但不随施钾量而变化.灌水量与施钾量、施氮量与施磷量的交互作用表现为阻碍果实番茄红素的积累.根系分区交替灌溉条件下,灌水量过高不利于番茄红素含量的增加,合理增施氮、磷肥可有效提高果实中番茄红素含量.

  9. THE MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Based on the combination of Geographical information system(GIS)with the research ofToponymy,some foundational problems of the Geographical Name Information System(GINS)are discussed in this paper.The present situation of Toponymical research is anal-ysed and the necessity of introducing the GIS tools to the research of Toponymy is demon-strated.The conceptual model of the GNIS and the structure of Geographical name Database(GND)are discussed.The basic functions of the GNIS software for management and re-search of geographical name are suggested.Some issues are stated such as the applicationand potential of the combination of GIS with CAD in the management and research of To-ponymy,the combination of GNIS with other spatial information system and sharing the in-formation with each other,the research and development of GNIS, etc.

  10. Genetic Differentiation of Different Geographical Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Dong; LIU Guo-xia; FAN Zhong-xue; TAO Yun-li; ZHANG You-jun

    2007-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex, which includes different geographical populations with genetic differentiation. The recent progress on the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci complex was introduced. The genetic differentiation was further analyzed on the basis of the sequences of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITSl recorded in the world's GenBank. Five groups are defined on the basis of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITS1, including the Asia group, America group, Africa group, Australia group, and Biotype B/Mediterranean/Middle East/ Northern Africa/Biotype Ms group. There are several ungrouped geographical classifications, such as the Uganda population, Ivory Coast population, and Taiwan population. Geographical isolation may be the most important factor that contributed to the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci. Many populations with biological advantages invaded new regions and caused severe economic losses within human activity. It is necessary to strengthen the research of B. tabaci biotype to prevent the spread of invaded populations and the invasion of potentially dangerous populations.

  11. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  12. Modeling uncertainty in geographic information and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty modeling and data quality for spatial data and spatial analyses are im-portant topics in geographic information science together with space and time in geography,as well as spatial analysis. In the past two decades,a lot of efforts have been made to research the uncertainty modeling for spatial data and analyses. This paper presents our work in the research. In particular,four progresses in the re-search are given out: (a) from determinedness-to uncertainty-based representation of geographic objects in GIS; (b) from uncertainty modeling for static data to dy-namic spatial analyses; (c) from modeling uncertainty for spatial data to models; and (d) from error descriptions to quality control for spatial data.

  13. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  14. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

  15. Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgaš František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

  16. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  17. Geographic Versus Industry Diversification: Contraints Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, Paul; Sofia B. Ramos

    2004-01-01

    This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification in a sample of European country and industry indexes. The methodology allows performance comparisons with short-selling constraints, upper and lower bounds, and many benchmarks. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is a superior approach. In the case of realistic weights on portfolios such as short-selling, and...

  18. Challenges for quality in volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available in volunteered geographical information Antony K Cooper1,2, Serena Coetzee3, Iwona Kaczmarek4, Derrick G Kourie2, Adam Iwaniak5 and Tomasz Kubik5 1 Built Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, acooper@csir.co.za 2 Department... of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa, dkourie@cs.up.ac.za 3 Centre for Geoinformation Science, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa, serena...

  19. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  20. The Geographical Infomration System of CESIS Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pignone, M.

    2006-01-01

    CE.S.I.S. project, promoted by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology and funded by Ministry of Instruction, University, and Scientific Research (MIUR) foresees the realization of a permanent seismic, accelerometric and geodetic network in Southern Italy, and the consequent realization of a Research Centre for seismology and seismic engineering.The Geographical Information System (SIT) is a main part of the CESIS Project, because it proposes to collect and to integrate cartog...

  1. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  2. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense, westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth’s magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the...

  3. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  4. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  5. GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION MEDIATIZATION AND MEDIASECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of legal and moral development of media technologies in the context of geographical education. The article summarizes the experience of the theoretical analysis of mediatization in geographic education, the legal and moral aspects of the disorders and ways of their prevention and correction in the process of educational interaction between teacher and student, between student and teacher, mediated mediatechnologies. It is noted that geographical education in the modern world is education, which is closely associated with the use of media technologies. In other types of education the role of media technologies in improving the quality of education is less obvious, in the field of teaching and learning geography, it speaks very clearly. Therefore, the problems associated with its mediatization, are very important and their solution is particularly compelling. These issues are primarily associated with actively flowing social, economic, political and ideological crisis in many communities and countries of the Earth. Many of them as in the “mirror” are reflected in the sphere of high technologies, including media technologies. The article provides guidance and direction to the correction of violations at the individual and social levels.

  6. Geographical mobility in Wiltshire, 1754-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the birthplaces, rather than residences, of spouses married in two parishes in England and to consider the effect of local topography, religion and occupation on pre-marital geographic mobility. A wide array of primary documentary sources was used to construct a database of over 22,000 individuals who lived in south-west Wiltshire in the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Individuals were arranged in family groups and pedigrees traced for several generations. Data were included on birthplace, religious affiliation, occupation and many other variables. Geographical mobility calculated from birthplace was higher than estimates derived from residence prior to marriage. Brides had shorter marital distances than grooms. There were noticeable changes in the frequency of marital distance at 4 miles and 11 miles. Spouses born outside the parish of marriage were more likely to come from certain villages in ways which cannot be explained merely by distance and size. The Somerset-Wiltshire border formed a barrier, although a porous one, to the flow of marriage partners. Occupation influenced geographical mobility: grooms from higher-status occupational groups were more likely to be born further away than grooms from lower-status occupational groups. Catholic grooms were more likely to be born in the parish of marriage than Protestant grooms, but were also more likely to be born more than 11 miles away.

  7. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  8. Data Transformation Functions for Expanded Search Spaces in Geographic Sample Supervised Segment Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Christoff Fourie; Elisabeth Schoepfer

    2014-01-01

    Sample supervised image analysis, in particular sample supervised segment generation, shows promise as a methodological avenue applicable within Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). Segmentation is acknowledged as a constituent component within typically expansive image analysis processes. A general extension to the basic formulation of an empirical discrepancy measure directed segmentation algorithm parameter tuning approach is proposed. An expanded search landscape is defined, c...

  9. Geographic context scanning & analysis: il Modello Di Riferimento e le Operazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rosina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define a Reference Model and the operators which allow to perform the activities of Geographic ContextScanning & Analysis. The theory and methods exposed will contribute to the evolution of the framework GEOPOI 2.0, developed and delivered by Sogei and acc essed as a SaaS (Software as a Serv ice by a number of Public Administrations for your own institutional tasks.

  10. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  11. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  12. Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

  13. Measuring access to primary medical care: some examples of the use of geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E B; Campbell, J L

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the potential for geographical information system technology in defining some variables influencing the use of primary care medical services. Eighteen general practices in Scotland contributed to a study examining the accessibility of their services and their patients' use of the local Accident and Emergency Department. Geo-referencing of information was carried out through analysis of postcode data relating to practices and patients. This information was analyzed using ARC/INFO GIS software in conjunction with the ORACLE relational database and 1991 census information. The results demonstrate that GIS technology has an important role in defining and analyzing the use of health services by the population.

  14. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    Article Number: C32D5A757374 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Key words: Transfer, waste, landfill, station, geographical information system (GIS), geographical positioning ..... USEPA-United State Environmental Protection Agency (1995).

  15. Geographic Information Systems for assessment of climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographic Information Systems for assessment of climate change effects on teff in Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The value of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for assessing climate ... Article Metrics.

  16. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic polymorphism of P element in populations of Drosophila sturtevanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to detect full-sized P element sequences in eight strains of Drosophila sturtevanti populations from distant geographic regions and to assess the structural geographic variation among P element sequences. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of a putative complete P element in all strains. Southern blot analysis indicated bands shared by all strains, and bands restricted to geographically related strains. Parsimony analysis corroborated the hybridization pattern that reflected the geographic relationships.

  18. A Geographical and Historical Overview of the Transylvanian Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paucean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to describe the Transylvanian cuisine, based on its historical and geographical characteristics, but also, deeply connected to all the other elements that have a thing to say in its definition. Therefore, we will be able to better understand the gastronomic culture in this area and its potential. Geographically speaking, the region in the Carpathian garden is characterized by mountains, meadows and especially hills. The variety of nature’s forms, the moderate climate and the rich hydrographic network are defining elements to the vegetation and fauna of this place. The Transylvanian villages are filled with people who are deeply connected to the nature around them. Any visitor that connects with the daily life here can observe the big number of inland products obtained in personal farms or yards. A prosperous land reveals its numerous types of vegetable and fruit. A Christian nation for as long as it has existed, the Romanians use a variety of dishes at every Christian festal occasion. Therefore, the Orthodox Church has also influenced the culinary tradition in this area. Transylvania’s specific cuisine has its special traits, but it is also influenced by other cultures, whose route somehow intersected with ours, such as: Hungarians, Saxons, Jewish people, Ukrainians or Slovaks. Another trait that needs to be mentioned is the fact that our alimentary tradition is deeply connected to the season we are in. After the body gets a lot of meat and fats during winter, it gets purified during spring and summer when more fruits and vegetables are consumed. The most common gastronomic techniques in the Transylvanian cuisine are: marinating, maturation, fumigation, salting- procedures that use the natural potential and eliminate the use of the chemical additives. In conclusion, we can consider the Transylvanian cuisine one of the most important parts of the multicultural heritage.

  19. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, Michiel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; von der Heydt, Anna S.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Sluijs, Appy; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bijl, Peter K.

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models frequently use reconstructions in which the latest state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions, palaeotopography and -bathymetry, or vegetation have not yet been incorporated. In this paper, we therefore provide a new method to efficiently generate a global geographical reconstruction for the middle-late Eocene. The generalised procedure is also reusable to create reconstructions for other time slices within the Cenozoic, suitable for palaeoclimate modelling. We use a plate-tectonic model to make global masks containing the distribution of land, continental shelves, shallow basins and deep ocean. The use of depth-age relationships for oceanic crust together with adjusted present-day topography gives a first estimate of the global geography at a chosen time frame. This estimate subsequently needs manual editing of areas where existing geological data indicate that the altimetry has changed significantly over time. Certain generic changes (e.g. lowering mountain ranges) can be made relatively easily by defining a set of masks while other features may require a more specific treatment. Since the discussion regarding many of these regions is still ongoing, it is crucial to make it easy for changes to be incorporated without having to redo the entire procedure. In this manner, a complete reconstruction can be made that suffices as a boundary condition for numerical models with a limited effort. This facilitates the interaction between experts in geology and palaeoclimate modelling, keeping reconstructions up to date and improving the consistency between different studies. Moreover, it facilitates model inter-comparison studies and sensitivity tests regarding certain

  20. Geographical Mobility of Danish Dual-Earner Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    In this paper, we analyse the empirical relationship between geographical residence mobility and geographical job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. Based on register data from Statistics Denmark from 1999 and 2000, we estimate three probabilities, taking the interdependence between...... in determining geographical mobility....

  1. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS) journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  2. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  3. The Role of Geographic Information in News Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremeskel, G.G.; Vries, A.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of geographic proximity in news consumption. Using a month-long log of user interactions with news items of ten information portals, we study the relationship between users' geographic locations and the geographic foci of information portals and local news categories. We find

  4. The Role of Geographic Information in News Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Gebremeskel (Gebre); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate the role of geographic proximity in news consumption. Using a month-long log of user interactions with news items of ten information portals, we study the relationship between users' geographic locations and the geographic foci of information portals and local news

  5. Group Heterogeneity and Cooperation on the Geographical Indication Regulations: The Case of the 'Prosciutto di Parma Consortium'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Menozzi, D.; Capelli, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of individual group members’ heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies on their level of cooperation on defining the future regulation of Geographical Indications (GIs). By following a “grounded theory” approach, this study combines qualitative evidence f

  6. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  7. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  8. Geolinde - a geographical online learning platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmüller, Max

    2017-04-01

    Starting about ten years ago during a classroom project on Africa, two colleagues and me started developing an educational platform with geographic content: www.geolinde.musin.de The basic concept was to collect and present a wide range of free educational materials, which could be used by teachers, students and anyone who is interested in geography as well. Soon we found out that producing units for our students also means working on age-appropriate texts on each topic. We made our learning units matching the curriculum for Bavarian 'Gymnasium' and are still working on the improvement of each single unit, especially on the basis of suggestions by our students and our teaching experience. The main advantage in teaching with units from geolinde is that the students work at their own speed, repeat topics, use the glossary or have a look at the skill pages. Everyone uses the wide range of materials in his own way to achieve the curricular goals. Many topics contain short online tests, so that the students can control their basic understanding. The teacher is set free for giving helpful advice, discussing special questions and to monitor the learning progress. After a certain time a question and answer session follows and puts the focus on major curricular goals. Until now www.geolinde.musin.de consists of several blended learning units: Africa, Europe, Climate, Climate Change, Plate tectonics,… It also contains thematic pages on many geographical skills, a glossary of more than one thousand geographic terms and last but not least a collection of approximately 23.000 photos of places of interest all around the world. All the many thousand web pages can be used freely (CC-BY-SA 4.0). The only limitation is www.geolinde.musin.de is available in German only.

  9. Epidemiology of hip fracture: Worldwide geographic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem, especially in elderly populations, and is associated with fragility fractures at the hip, spine, and wrist. Hip fracture contributes to both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The demographics of world populations are set to change, with more elderly living in developing countries, and it has been estimated that by 2050 half of hip fractures will occur in Asia. This review conducted using the PubMed database describes the incidence of hip fracture in different regions of the world and discusses the possible causes of this wide geographic variation. The analysis of data from different studies show a wide geographic variation across the world, with higher hip fracture incidence reported from industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. The highest hip fracture rates are seen in North Europe and the US and lowest in Latin America and Africa. Asian countries such as Kuwait, Iran, China, and Hong Kong show intermediate hip fracture rates. There is also a north-south gradient seen in European studies, and more fractures are seen in the north of the US than in the south. The factors responsible of this variation are population demographics (with more elderly living in countries with higher incidence rates and the influence of ethnicity, latitude, and environmental factors. The understanding of this changing geographic variation will help policy makers to develop strategies to reduce the burden of hip fractures in developing countries such as India, which will face the brunt of this problem over the coming decades.

  10. Rapid GIS-based profiling of West Nile virus transmission: defining environmental factors associated with an urbansuburban outbreak in Northeast Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Desiree LaBeaud

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Human West Nile virus (WNV infection was first detected in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, USA, in 2002. During that year’s extensive epidemic/epizootic among non-immune human and bird populations, the county experienced 155 cases of severe human West Nile neurological disease (WNND, incidence = 11.1 cases/100,000, with 11 fatalities. Structured serosurveys indicated that 1.9%, or ~ 26,000 of county residents (population = 1,372,303 were infected that year. In early 2003, in order to better focus monitoring and control efforts, we used a geographical information system (GIS approach and spatial statistical analysis to identify the association of environmental factors and human population structure with the observed local risk for WNV transmission. Within the varied range of urban/suburban/ rural habitats across the 1186 km2 county, exploratory analysis indicated significant clustering of WNND risk in inner-ring suburbs. Subsequent discriminant factor analysis based on inputs of census and land-use/land cover data was found to effectively classify sub-areas of the county having low, medium and high WNV risk. On a 1036 ha quadrat scale of resolution, higher risk of human infection was significantly associated with higher-income areas, increased fractionation of habitat and older housing, while it was negatively associated with areas of agricultural land, wetland or forest. The areal classification of WNV transmission risk has been validated over time through detection of increased local Culex spp. mosquito density (2002-2006, and increased frequency of WNV positive mosquito pools within the medium- and high-risk quadrats. This timely working identification of the transmission scale effectively focused control interventions against newly invasive WNV in a complex North American habitat.

  11. A multidimensional representation model of geographic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Timson, George; Coletti, Mark

    2016-01-28

    A multidimensional model of geographic features has been developed and implemented with data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. The model, programmed in C++ and implemented as a feature library, was tested with data from the National Hydrography Dataset demonstrating the capability to handle changes in feature attributes, such as increases in chlorine concentration in a stream, and feature geometry, such as the changing shoreline of barrier islands over time. Data can be entered directly, from a comma separated file, or features with attributes and relationships can be automatically populated in the model from data in the Spatial Data Transfer Standard format.

  12. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  13. Virtual Globe Games for Geographic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ahlqvist

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual, online maps and globes allow for volunteered geographic information to capitalize on users as sensors and generate unprecedented access to information resources and services. These new "Web 2.0" applications will probably dominate development and use of virtual globes and maps in the near future. We present an experimental platform that integrates an existing virtual globe interface with added functionality as follows; an interactive layer on top of the existing map that support real time creation and manipulation of spatial interaction objects. These objects, together with the existing information delivered through the virtual globe, form a game board that can be used for educational purposes.

  14. Geographical mobility of manpower in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossov, V V; Tatevosov, R V

    1984-01-01

    "The Soviet Union is experiencing a substantial reduction in the growth of its working-age population, accompanied by a shift in the distributional pattern of population growth, with the largest increases occurring in regions where geographical mobility is low. After describing the types and scales of manpower migration in the USSR, the [authors discuss] the means used to encourage workers to move to the sparsely populated developing regions and away from large cities. This is achieved primarily through incentives, with wage differentials decreasing in importance compared with incentives bearing on the quality of life; restrictive measures have a purely corrective function."

  15. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Huysmans, Martijn; Swinnen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we study the political process that governs the creation and size of new Geographical Indications (GIs). Producers can choose to apply for a GI and subsequently go through a bargaining process with the government. We derive the optimal GI area from the point of view of consumers, producers, social welfare, and the government; and we show how bargaining leads to a GI size in between the applicant's optimum and the government's optimum. Under the assumption that the non-GI good ...

  16. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  17. Geographical aspects of enterobiasis in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Kalle; Remm, Mare

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the geographical pattern of the prevalence of enterobiasis among children in Estonian counties, and methods for risk modelling. The methodological questions were as follows: Case-based predictions were more liable to result in over fitting in the case of small training samples than the classification tree models. The spatial autocorrelation of the prevalence was significant up to a distance of 20 km. The main reason for the differences in the predictions might simply be the regional differences in the prevalence.

  18. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREST FLORA OF THE CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia in General is a relict, geographically situated in the steppe zone. Composing flora elements have different types of habitats, concentrated in the natural physical-geographical unit where isolated from the main habitats. Comparative analysis of the geographic, ecological and systematic components of forest flora will provide data about the correlation of these parameters identify the leading group. Location. The Central CiscaucasiaMethods. We made the geographical and systematic ranges of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia and their comparative analysis is conducted.Results. Geographical analysis of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia revealed 16 geographical elements, grouped in 6 categories, among which is the predominant group of boreal geographical elements. It is established that the leading geographical elements are Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian, numbering 189 species, and are half of the flora. Comparison with ecological spectrum showed that the sequence geographical elements completely different, here leading positions are occupied Northern species as ecologically more conservative, and the Caucasian demonstrate ecological plasticity. In a systematic relation matched warheads geographical and systematic spectra. The scope of the results. The results may be used in comparative Floristics, in its theoretical part in adjusting themodels of the Genesis of the flora.Conclusions. Thus, half of the geographical elements of the forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia are linked in their distribution of Caucasian floristic province (Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian. These same geographical elements to predominate in the head part of the spectrum families. Most geographical elements have low ecological plasticity species, their components, do not go beyond the forest plant association, but geographical elements head part of the geographical range

  19. Parallel Study on Potential and Existing Geographical Distribution of Haloxylon Dominated Desert Vegetation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Quanshui; WANG Chunling; TAN Deyuan; MA Chao; WANG Xiangfu; HAO Jianxi; HE Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    By applying ARC/INFO(NT version)of the GIS software package,we extracted the existing geographical distribution of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation and produced a thematic map of geographical distribution of the existing Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation based on the newly published Vegetation Atlas of China;we defined the adaptive parameter range of geographical and climate of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation to generate the potential geographical distribution map of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation with the support of GREEN software.We then sliced and compared the existing and the potential distribution maps.The results show that the potential geographical distribution areas of Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum dominated desert vegetation accord with the existing distribution areas in the administration division,and the topographic types in both the distribution areas are similar.However,the borders of different directions of the potential H.ammodendron dominated desert vegetation distribution has surpassed 0.4°to 5.9°of the existing borders.The borders of different directions of the potential H. persicum dominated desert vegetation has surpassed 0.9°to 3.3°of the existing borders.In China,the existing geographical distributional area of H.ammodendron dominated desert vegetation accounts for 9.1% of the potential one in China and the proportion of the existing H.persicum dominated desert vegetation distribution area to the potential area is 34.1%.The result of comparison of the potential and the existing distribution area of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation can provide important scientific basis for the recovery,reconstruction and introduction of Haloxylon dominated desert vegetation.

  20. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Eugenio Pappalardo

    Full Text Available The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT. This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989, one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007 by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM, Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS. The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to

  1. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  2. Defining a typology of primary care practices: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Nicolas; Cohidon, Christine; Zuchuat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    To define a typology of primary care (PC) practices based on a mixed inductive/deductive approach that uses a large number of variables describing organizational and demographic characteristics of practices and a priori hierarchical structuring of the data. Secondary analysis of the Swiss part of the QUALICOPC study using a multiple factor analysis approach incorporating 74 variables hierarchically structured and including information on infrastructures, clinical care, workforces, accessibility and geographic location of PC practices. Switzerland. Two hundred randomly selected PC practices. Typology of PC practices based on axes identified through the multiple factorial approach. The factorial analysis extracted two uncorrelated axes summarizing 17% of the global variance. The first axis is mainly associated with two dimensions related to the comprehensiveness of services, namely 'clinical care provided' (Pearson's r = 0.73) and 'available infrastructures' (r = 0.78). The second axis is mainly associated with the workforce in the practice such as the number of general practitioners or other health workers (r = 0.69). Swiss PC practices were mapped using these two axes. This innovative approach allows defining a global typology of PC practices. Based upon Swiss data, two axes were identified to globally describe PC organization: comprehensiveness of services and workforces development. This exploratory study demonstrates a promising way, first to characterize globally one or several PC models that emerge from complex features, second to compare more accurately PC organization between countries and finally to assess how these models might be associated with patients' outcomes.

  3. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  4. Modern geographical reconnaissance of target populations in malaria elimination zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallely Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical Reconnaissance (GR operations using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs and Global Positioning Systems (GPS have been conducted in the elimination provinces of Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Republic of Vanuatu. These operations aimed to examine modern approaches to GR to define the spatial distribution of target populations to support contemporary malaria elimination interventions. Methods Three GR surveys were carried out covering the outer islands of Temotu Province (October - November, 2008; Santa Cruz Island, Temotu Province (February 2009 and Tanna Island, Tafea Province (July - September 2009. Integrated PDA/GPS handheld units were used in the field to rapidly map and enumerate households, and collect associated population and household structure data to support priority elimination interventions, including bed net distribution, indoor residual spraying (IRS and malaria case surveillance. Data were uploaded and analysed in customized Geographic Information System (GIS databases to produce household distribution maps and generate relevant summary information pertaining to the GR operations. Following completion of field operations, group discussions were also conducted to review GR approaches and technology implemented. Results 10,459 households were geo-referenced and mapped. A population of 43,497 and 30,663 household structures were recorded during the three GR surveys. The spatial distribution of the population was concentrated in coastal village clusters. Survey operations were completed over a combined total of 77 field days covering a total land mass area of approximately 1103.2 km2. An average of 45 households, 118 structures and a population of 184 people were recorded per handheld device per day. Geo-spatial household distribution maps were also produced immediately following the completion of GR fieldwork. An overall high acceptability of modern GR techniques and technology was observed by both

  5. Modern geographical reconnaissance of target populations in malaria elimination zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gerard C; Hii, Jeffrey; Batarii, William; Donald, Wesley; Hale, Erick; Nausien, Johnny; Pontifex, Scott; Vallely, Andrew; Tanner, Marcel; Clements, Archie

    2010-10-20

    Geographical Reconnaissance (GR) operations using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have been conducted in the elimination provinces of Temotu, Solomon Islands and Tafea, Republic of Vanuatu. These operations aimed to examine modern approaches to GR to define the spatial distribution of target populations to support contemporary malaria elimination interventions. Three GR surveys were carried out covering the outer islands of Temotu Province (October - November, 2008); Santa Cruz Island, Temotu Province (February 2009) and Tanna Island, Tafea Province (July - September 2009). Integrated PDA/GPS handheld units were used in the field to rapidly map and enumerate households, and collect associated population and household structure data to support priority elimination interventions, including bed net distribution, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case surveillance. Data were uploaded and analysed in customized Geographic Information System (GIS) databases to produce household distribution maps and generate relevant summary information pertaining to the GR operations. Following completion of field operations, group discussions were also conducted to review GR approaches and technology implemented. 10,459 households were geo-referenced and mapped. A population of 43,497 and 30,663 household structures were recorded during the three GR surveys. The spatial distribution of the population was concentrated in coastal village clusters. Survey operations were completed over a combined total of 77 field days covering a total land mass area of approximately 1103.2 km2. An average of 45 households, 118 structures and a population of 184 people were recorded per handheld device per day. Geo-spatial household distribution maps were also produced immediately following the completion of GR fieldwork. An overall high acceptability of modern GR techniques and technology was observed by both field operations staff and communities. GR

  6. The LOLITA User-Definable Template Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Košmelj, Katarina

    2001-01-01

    The development of user-definable templates interfaces which allow the user to design new templates definitions in a user-friendly way is a new issue in the field of information extraction. The LOLITA user-definable templates interface allows the user to define new templates using sentences in natural language text with a few restrictions and formal elements. This approach is rather different from previous approaches to information extraction which require developers to code the template defi...

  7. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  8. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigating the structure of externally definable sets in NIP theories and preservation of NIP after expanding by new predicates. Most importantly: types over finite sets are uniformly definable; over a model, a family of non-forking instances of a formula (with parameters ranging over a type-definable set) can be covered with finitely many invariant types; we give some criteria for the boundedness of an expansion by a new predicate in a distal theory; naming an arbitrary small indiscernible sequence preserves NIP, while naming a large one doesn't; there are models of NIP theories over which all 1-types are definable, but not all n-types.

  9. Acquiring geographical data with web harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Many websites contain very attractive and up to date geographical information. This information can be extracted, stored, analyzed and mapped using web harvesting techniques. Poorly organized data from websites are transformed with web harvesting into a more structured format, which can be stored in a database and analyzed. Almost 25% of web traffic is related to web harvesting, mostly while using search engines. This paper presents how to harvest geographic information from web documents using the free tool called the Beautiful Soup, one of the most commonly used Python libraries for pulling data from HTML and XML files. It is a relatively easy task to process one static HTML table. The more challenging task is to extract and save information from tables located in multiple and poorly organized websites. Legal and ethical aspects of web harvesting are discussed as well. The paper demonstrates two case studies. The first one shows how to extract various types of information about the Good Country Index from the multiple web pages, load it into one attribute table and map the results. The second case study shows how script tools and GIS can be used to extract information from one hundred thirty six websites about Nova Scotia wines. In a little more than three minutes a database containing one hundred and six liquor stores selling these wines is created. Then the availability and spatial distribution of various types of wines (by grape types, by wineries, and by liquor stores) are mapped and analyzed.

  10. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  11. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  12. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP. The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS, Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS, Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP, and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR in the geographic routing protocols.

  13. Mapping hydrologic connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Ali; Creed, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are characterized as depressional landscape features completely surrounded by uplands. These small and typically circular landscape features represent a vast majority of wetlands in various landscapes in North America (98% of all wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region). Geographical isolation, however, does not imply the hydrological isolation. Although geospatial data (e.g., aerial photos) suggested that GIWs lack a persistent surface water connection, the groundwater connection between GIWs and navigable downstream waters can be substantial with large fluxes at the regional scales. The surface/subsurface connections among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters are difficult to map and quantify. This is intimately tied to the fact that an efficient incorporation of these small geometric features and characterization of the mechanisms behind these connectivities are challenging within grid-based simulators. We used a physically-based grid-free groundwater-surface water interaction and surface flow routing schemes to map and assess the watershed-scale GIWs connectivity within an extensively studied watershed at the Canadian prairie pothole region with high density of GIWs. The results showed that there is a persistent subsurface connectivity among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters. Surface connection was rare and only occurred during extreme events. The results of this paper have significant implications for developing scientifically grounded environmental policy for protection of GIWs within North American Prairie.

  14. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  15. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  16. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  17. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  18. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  19. 7 CFR 29.12 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.12 Section 29.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.12 Terms defined. As used in this subpart and in all...

  20. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  1. Modeling a geographically distributed MEMS fabrication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, William L.; Huff, Michael A.

    2001-04-01

    Manufacturing is typically limited to fabrication of parts at a single location, with some sites assembling components from parts made elsewhere. The age of ubiquitous information transfer has made it conceivable to distribute manufacturing geographically, in order to provide access to unique manufacturing capabilities in a flexible manner. If the overhead of a distributed manufacturing network can be adequately reduced, it has the potential to make previously cost ineffective low volume and custom applications economically feasible. The MEMS-Exchange is an infrastructural service available to the domestic microelectromechanical systems community that provides an interface between MEMS designers and microfabrication facilities (academic, commercial, and government labs) which allows designers to develop and exercise custom process sequences in order to realize their devices.

  2. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  3. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    origin was the result of a crisis in French wine-production in the early 20th century. Labelling was intended to protect the reputation of a product in terms of quality and taste by referring to parcels of land where specific traditions are maintained and the resulting products embedded in collective....... In this respect, the place of origin becomes more than a point on a map. It becomes representations of the past and expectations of taste in the sense of re-tasting It is likely that the differences in consumer-perceptions reside in the interplay between origin and provenance. In France, geographical origin...... constitutes a meaningful reference to a link between food and place that represents expectations of taste and quality. In Denmark, this link is not attributed similar meaning and, hence, the difference between meaningful references and images formed through the language of marketing is less discernible...

  4. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... and sovereignty and quality within an efficient marketing system with the availability of government support, hence the need to identify key candidates for GI certification. Five Tanzanian origin products were selected from 14 candidate agricultural products through a scoping study. Rice from Kyela, Aloe vera...... area, product quality perceived by the consumer in terms of taste, flavour, texture, aroma, appearance (colour, size) and perceptions of links between geography related factors (soil, land weather characteristics) and product qualities. A qualitative case study analysis was done for each of the (five...

  5. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  6. Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

    2000-01-01

    As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

  7. ORNL and the geographic information systems revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.E.; Durfee, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Explorers from competing teams race to find a mysterious lost city in the heart of Africa. The American team is continuously in touch with its Houston home base through satellite communications. In flight, team leader Karen Ross displays a map of Africa on her computer screen and notes the multicolored lines suggesting different routes from city to city and into the rain forest. Each pathway is accompanied by a precise estimate of travel time to the final destination. Zooming in on the target area, she switches to satellite images and interprets them in shades of blue, purple, and green. At each checkpoint, the team reports its progress and gets a revised estimate of arrival time. Beset by difficulties, the explorers ask for a faster route, but the computer says the alternative is too dangerous. A simulation model with data representing geology, terrain, vegetation, weather, and many other geographic factors predicts local hazards, including the impending eruption of a nearby volcano. The Americans take the faster route anyway and beat the odds. This fictional account of emerging geographic information system (GIS) technologies comes from Michael Crichton`s 1980 novel Congo, which was made into a 1995 movie. The same technologies were highlighted in Clive Cussler`s 1988 techno-thriller Treasure. In reality, GIS technology began more than a quarter of a century ago at key universities and government laboratories in the United States and Canada. Since 1969, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been among the leading institutions in this diverse, now booming field. GIS has been evolving through new forms and applications ever since.

  8. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  9. The US EPA Geographic Information System for mapping environmental releases of toxic chemical release inventory (TRI) chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockwell, J.R.; Sorensen, J.W.; Eckert, J.W. Jr.; Carreras, E.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This study characterizes the environmental releases of toxic chemicals of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) in the southeastern United States by using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Geographic Information System (GIS) to map them. These maps show that the largest quantities of TRI releases in the Southeast are usually near densely populated areas. This GIS mapping approach takes the first steps in defining those areas in the region which may be potential exposure zones and which could be strategic targets for future risk screening efforts in this geographic area. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  11. Trajectory Networks and Their Topological Changes Induced by Geographical Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate the topological changes undergone by trajectory networks as a consequence of progressive geographical infiltration. Trajectory networks, a type of knitted network, are obtained by establishing paths between geographically distributed nodes while following an associated vector field. For instance, the nodes could correspond to neurons along the cortical surface and the vector field could correspond to the gradient of neurotrophic factors, or the nodes could represent towns while the vector fields would be given by economical and/or geographical gradients. Therefore trajectory networks are natural models of a large number of geographical structures. The geographical infiltrations correspond to the addition of new local connections between nearby existing nodes. As such, these infiltrations could be related to several real-world processes such as contaminations, diseases, attacks, parasites, etc. The way in which progressive geographical infiltrations affect trajectory networks is ...

  12. Delineation of eco—geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShaohong; YANGOinye; ZHENGDu

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China's regionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographic zonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paper introduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, is delineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based on criteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to medium geomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicate temperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China's eco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  13. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  14. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  15. Convolutional Goppa codes defined on fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, J I Iglesias; Martín, F J Plaza; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2010-01-01

    We define a new class of Convolutional Codes in terms of fibrations of algebraic varieties generalizaing our previous constructions of Convolutional Goppa Codes. Using this general construction we can give several examples of Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Convolutional Codes.

  16. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  17. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In my experience, defining vocabularies compiled for English dictionaries for a British or .... Oxford 3000, which contains 3 540 entries, and is available on the Internet. ... One thing that became apparent was a lack of consistency within lexical.

  18. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  19. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  20. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  1. Geographic variation in Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Fonseca; Diego Astúa

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation...

  2. Optimizing Synchronizability of Scale-Free Networks in Geographical Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; TANG Huan-Wen; XIU Zhi-Long; GUO Chong-Hui

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the relationship between the structure and the synchronizability of scale-free networks in geographical space. With an optimization approach, the numerical results indicate that when the network synchronizability is improved, the geographical distance becomes larger while the maximal load decreases. Thus the maximal betweenness can be a candidate factor that affects the network synchronizability both in topological space and in geographical space.

  3. Visual representation of Latin Americans in National geographics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The National Geographic Magazine is one of the American media products recognizable and read by millions of people all over the world. The Magazine considers itself as an educational, quasi – scholarly publication for the ‘increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge’. With this authority and more than one century tradition, National Geographic disseminates knowledge about different topics, including people and their cultures. What makes the Magazine especially popular and influential is th...

  4. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  5. Crowdsourcing, citizen science or volunteered geographic information? The current state of crowdsourced geographic information

    OpenAIRE

    See, Linda; Mooney, Peter; Foody, Giles; Bastin, Lucy; COMBER Alexis; Estima, Jacinto; Fritz, Steffen; Kerle, Norman; Jiang, Bin; Laakso, Mari; Liu, Hai Ying; Milčinski, Grega; Nikšieč, Matej; Painho, Marco; Pődör, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe da...

  6. Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science or Volunteered Geographic Information? The Current State of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    L. See; P. Mooney; Foody, G; L. Bastin; Comber, A; Estima, J; Fritz, S; KERLE N.; Jiang, B; Laakso, M; Liu, HY; Milcinski, G.; Nikšieč, M; Painho, M.; Podör, A.

    2016-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe da...

  7. Landscape Analysis of Geographical Names in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hubei Province is the hub of communications in central China, which directly determines its strategic position in the country’s development. Additionally, Hubei Province is well-known for its diverse landforms, including mountains, hills, mounds and plains. This area is called “The Province of Thousand Lakes” due to the abundance of water resources. Geographical names are exclusive names given to physical or anthropogenic geographic entities at specific spatial locations and are important signs by which humans understand natural and human activities. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS technology is adopted to establish a geodatabase of geographical names with particular characteristics in Hubei Province and extract certain geomorphologic and environmental factors. We carry out landscape analysis of mountain-related geographical names and water-related geographical names respectively. In the end, we calculate the information entropy of geographical names of each county to describe the diversity and inhomogeneity of place names in Hubei province. Our study demonstrates that geographical names represent responses to the cultural landscape and physical environment. The geographical names are more interesting in specific landscapes, such as mountains and rivers.

  8. A Secured Framework for Geographical Information Applications on Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah H. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current geographical information applications increasingly require managing spatial data through the Web. Users of geographical information application need not only to display the spatial data but also to interactively modify them. As a result, the security risks that face geographical information applications are also increasing. In this paper, a secured framework is proposed. The proposed framework's goal is, providing a fine grained access control to web-based geographic information applications. A case study is finally applied to prove the proposed framework feasibility and effectiveness.

  9. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  10. Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science or Volunteered Geographic Information? The Current State of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda See

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe data arising from citizens. In this article, the expressions used to describe citizen sensing of geographic information are reviewed and their use over time explored, prior to categorizing them and highlighting key issues in the current state of the subject. The latter involved a review of ~100 Internet sites with particular focus on their thematic topic, the nature of the data and issues such as incentives for contributors. This review suggests that most sites involve active rather than passive contribution, with citizens typically motivated by the desire to aid a worthy cause, often receiving little training. As such, this article provides a snapshot of the role of citizens in crowdsourcing geographic information and a guide to the current status of this rapidly emerging and evolving subject.

  11. Analytical political economy: a geographical introduction

    OpenAIRE

    T J Barnes

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue on 'space and analytical political economy'. First, the term analytical political economy is defined by an examination of the historical rise of the political economy perspective within economics. Second, three leading variants within the analytical political economic tradition are distinguished and described— neo-Ricardianism, fundamental Marxism, and rational choice Marxism. Last, the consequences of inserting geography into the aspatial th...

  12. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the

  13. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  14. Genetic evidence of geographical groups among Neanderthals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    Full Text Available The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software. The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes.

  15. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  16. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Geographic Clusters of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Abu-Mouch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have been widely suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology leading to destruction of small bile ducts. Interestingly, epidemiologic data indicate a variable prevalence of the disease in different geographical areas. The study of clusters of PBC may provide clues as to possible triggers in the induction of immunopathology. We report herein four such unique PBC clusters that suggest the presence of both genetic and environmental factors in the induction of PBC. The first cluster is represented by a family of ten siblings of Palestinian origin that have an extraordinary frequency of PBC (with 5/8 sisters having the disease. Second, we describe the cases of a husband and wife, both having PBC. A family in which PBC was diagnosed in two genetically unrelated individuals, who lived in the same household, represents the third cluster. Fourth, we report a high prevalence of PBC cases in a very small area in Alaska. Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity.

  18. Worldwide geographical distribution of ophthalmology publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Marc B; Flynn, Thomas H; Brady, Janice; O'Brien, Colm J

    2009-12-01

    International peer-reviewed publications form the basis of evidence-based medicine and are one of the main indicators of ophthalmology research activity. This paper examines the origins of such articles in relation to geographical location, population demographics and economic research profiles. Publications from five ophthalmology journals over 5 years were analysed using the Medline/Pubmed search engine. Country of origin was ascertained based on the address of the corresponding author. Worldwide ophthalmology research output was analysed in relation to population demographics and research expenditure. In total, 7,754 articles from 67 countries from 2002 to 2006 were analysed. The overall number of articles published increased by over 29% during this period. The United States (US) produced the greatest number of articles. Singapore produced the most publications per 10(6) population. There was a relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) greater than $20,000 and population-adjusted output. The US followed by the United Kingdom and Japan were the greatest gross contributors. Population-adjusted figures revealed that Singapore, Iceland and Australia were the most prolific nations. There was a relationship between GDP and the top-ranked population-adjusted countries. The top 10 most productive population-adjusted countries spend relatively more on research and development than the top 10 gross contributors.

  19. CORRUPTION PATTERN IN INDONESIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Soseco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian Corruption Perception Index (CPI is one way to measure corruption practices in Indonesia. By using Geographic Information System (GIS,this paper divulged that high corruption inci-dence is existed in cities that has a play role as an economic growth pole. For instance,Jakarta and Surabaya as the bipolar economic growth centresin Java, and Medan, Pekanbaru and Palembang as the economic growth poles in Sumatera. Those findings drive us to think that economic growth centres theo¬ries are not pertinent with those conditions. Indeks Persepsi Korupsi (IPK Indonesia adalah salah satu cara untuk mengukur praktek korupsi di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG, penelitian ini berusaha meng¬ung-kap tingginya korupsi yang ada di kota-kota yang berperan sebagai tiang pertumbuhan ekonomi. Misalnya, Jakarta dan Surabaya sebagai pusat bipolar pertumbuhan ekonomi di Jawa; kemudian Medan, Pekanbaru dan Palembang sebagai pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi di Sumatera. Temuan-temuan tersebut mendorong kita untuk berpikir bahwa teori pusat-pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi tidak relevan dengan kondisi tersebut

  20. Geographic atrophy: Etiopathogenesis and current therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Ibáñez, M; Barreiro-González, A; Gallego-Pinazo, R; Dolz-Marco, R; García-Armendariz, B

    2017-09-05

    Geographic atrophy is characterized by severe visual deficit whose etiology and pathophysiology are yet to be elucidated. As a working hypothesis, oxidative damage could trigger a chronic inflammation in Bruch's membrane-RPE-choriocapillaris complex, mostly due to complement pathway overactivation. Some individuals with mutations in the complement system and other factors have diminished capacity in the modulation of the inflammatory response, which results in cell damage and waste accumulation. This accumulation of intracellular and extracellular waste products manifests as drusen and pigmentary changes that precede the atrophy of photoreceptors, RPE, choriocapillaris with an ischemic process with decreased choroid flow. All these processes can be detected as tomographic findings and autofluorescence signals that are useful in the evaluation of patients with atrophic AMD, which helps to establish an individualized prognosis. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and therapies that decrease the accumulation of toxins for the preservation of the RPE cells and photoreceptors are being investigated in order to slow down the progression of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Fundamental procedures of geographic information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical procedures common to most computer-oriented geographic information systems are composed of fundamental map processing operations. A conceptual framework for such procedures is developed and basic operations common to a broad range of applications are described. Among the major classes of primitive operations identified are those associated with: reclassifying map categories as a function of the initial classification, the shape, the position, or the size of the spatial configuration associated with each category; overlaying maps on a point-by-point, a category-wide, or a map-wide basis; measuring distance; establishing visual or optimal path connectivity; and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods based on the thematic or spatial attributes of the data values within each neighborhood. By organizing such operations in a coherent manner, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling structure can be developed which accommodates a variety of needs in a common, flexible and intuitive manner. The use of each is limited only by the general thematic and spatial nature of the data to which it is applied.

  2. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIOINDEX (Biological Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of the 1:250,000 map boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  4. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Bristol...

  5. Defining European Wholesale Electricity Markets. An 'And/Or' Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, E. [Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, M.C.W. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    An important question in the dynamic European wholesale markets for electricity is whether to define the geographical market at the level of an individual member state or more broadly. We show that if we currently take the traditional approach by considering for each member state whether there is one single other country that provides a substitute for domestic production, the market in each separate member state has still to be considered a separate market. However, if we allow for the possibility that at different moments in time there is another country that provides a substitute for domestic production, then the conclusion should be that certain member states do not constitute a separate geographical market. This is in particular true for Belgium, but also for The Netherlands, France, and to some extent also for Germany and Austria. We call this alternative approach the 'and/or' approach.

  6. Software-Defined Cellular Mobile Network Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiandong Li; Peng Liu; Hongyan Li

    2014-01-01

    The emergency relating to software-defined networking (SDN), especially in terms of the prototype associated with OpenFlow, pro-vides new possibilities for innovating on network design. Researchers have started to extend SDN to cellular networks. Such new programmable architecture is beneficial to the evolution of mobile networks and allows operators to provide better services. The typical cellular network comprises radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN); hence, the technique roadmap diverges in two ways. In this paper, we investigate SoftRAN, the latest SDN solution for RAN, and SoftCell and MobileFlow, the latest solu-tions for CN. We also define a series of control functions for CROWD. Unlike in the other literature, we emphasize only software-defined cellular network solutions and specifications in order to provide possible research directions.

  7. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nubel, U.; Roumagnac, P.; Feldkamp, M.;

    2008-01-01

    A small number of clonal lineages dominates the global population structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resulting in the concept that MRSA has emerged on a few occasions after penicillinase-stable beta-lactam antibiotics were introduced to clinical practice, followed...... of mutational steps that define geographically associated clades. These clades are not concordant with previously described groupings based on staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing. By mapping the number of independent imports of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome methicillin-resistance island, we also...

  8. A Geographic Approach to Modelling Human Exposure to Traffic Air Pollution using GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    at the address all the time, and an exposure estimate is also defined that takes into account the time the person spends at the address assuming standardised time-profiles depending on age groups. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue...... the exposure model. Input requirements are: digital maps including buildings, geocoded addresses, geocoded roads, geocoded cadastres; data from the Building and Dwelling Register (BBR); traffic data (ADT of passenger cars, van, lorries and busses) for linking to a segmented road network; population data...

  9. Connecting the Demographic Dots: Geographic Mobility and Birth Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Having a child is a major determinant of geographic mobility. Little is known, however, about the opposite process--whether geographic mobility is a determinant of fertility. Drawing on social and human capital theories and research on fertility and migration to develop competing hypotheses, the author examines the effects of mobility on changes…

  10. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  11. A geographic information system for local public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis book deals with the development and use of a geographic information system for local public health policy. Health differences between populations in different geographical areas, large (countries) or small (city-neighbourhoods) have always been a challenge to epidemiologists and pol

  12. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

    This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional…

  13. Geographic scope of proximity effects among small life sciences firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that proximity effects from knowledge spillovers, network externalities and other forms of knowledge transfers among like firms are geographically bounded. However, only a few studies have measured the strength and geographic scope of such externalities an

  14. The Guidelines for Geographic Education: A Ten-Year Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the background and history of the "Guidelines for Geographic Education: Elementary and Secondary Schools," which were 10 years old in 1994. Argues that, although it is too early to determine whether the reform efforts in geography are successful, the guidelines may be a basis for a renaissance in geographic education. (CFR)

  15. Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Eric Alan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

  16. Influence of the geographical curriculum on competences of geography teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the influence of geographical curriculum on competences of geography teacher. It is focused on complex and symbiotic relation between curriculum and achieved and recommended competences of geography teacher and their importance for geographical education. The competences should therefore be derived from the theories, concerning values, knowledge, curriculum and whole educational process, which underpin good pedagogical practice.

  17. BIOMARKERS TO DEFINE OPTIMAL PROTEIN REQUIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins are the source of the amino acids required by the body for tissue growth and maintenance. The Population Reference Intake (PRI) for proteins, as defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for healthy adults, including the elderly, is 0.83 g/kg body weight/day. This amount is defined on the net balance of body protein (or “nitrogen balance”, given by the difference between dietary nitrogen intake and losses) equivalent to 0.66 g/kg/day plus a safety factor for interp...

  18. GNU Based Security in Software Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Bhadka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various new technologies are explored for radio communication toward the 21st century. Among them the technology of "software defined radio" attracts large attention. Software Defined Radio (SDR technology implements some of the functional modules of a radio system in software enabling highly flexible handsets. SDR devices may be reconfigured dynamically via the download of new software modules. Malicious or malfunctioning downloaded software present serious security risks to SDR devices and networks in which they operate. Together with the use of software downloading, future terminals will become a platform to support the deployment of yet unspecified services and applications.

  19. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks...

  20. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

    1995-01-01

    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  1. Ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qin; Li, Deren; Zhang, Xia; Xia, Yu

    2009-10-01

    Metadata is important to facilitate data sharing among Geospatial Information Communities in distributed environment. For unanimous understanding and standard production of metadata annotations, metadata specifications are documented such as Geographic Information Metadata Standard (ISO19115-2003), the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and so on. Though these specifications provide frameworks for description of geographic data, there are two problems which embarrass sufficiently data sharing. One problem is that specifications are lack of domainspecific semantics. Another problem is that specifications can not always solve semantic heterogeneities. To solve the former problem, an ontology-based geographic information metadata extension framework is proposed which can incorporate domain-specific semantics. Besides, for solving the later problem, metadata integration mechanism based on the proposed extension is studied. In this paper, integration of metadata is realized through integration of ontologies. So integration of ontologies is also discussed. By ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration, sharing of geographic data is realized more efficiently.

  2. Development Trends of Cartography and Geographic Information Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problems of cartography and geographic information engineering and increasing demands of national and military infomationization construction, the paper proposes six hotspots on the research of cartography and geographic information engineering for the future on the foundation of analyzing the development track of cartology, which are heterogeneous geospatial data assimilation, transferring from emphasizing geography infor-mation gaining to user-oriented geographic information deep processing, web or grid geographic information service. intelligent spatial data generalization. integration of GIS and VGE. cartography and geographic information engineering theory system with multi-mode(Map,.GlS..VGE spatial-temporal integrated cognition as the core. And discusses the necessity ,existing groundwork and research contents on studying these hotspots.

  3. Geographical clustering of incident acute myocardial infarction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the geographical patterns in AMI and characterize individual and neighborhood sociodemographic factors for persons living inside versus outside AMI clusters. METHODS: The study population comprised 3,515,670 adults out of whom 74,126 persons experienced an incident AMI (200...... versus outside AMI clusters. CONCLUSIONS: AMI is geographically unequally distributed throughout Denmark and determinants of these geographical patterns might include individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors.......OBJECTIVES: To examine the geographical patterns in AMI and characterize individual and neighborhood sociodemographic factors for persons living inside versus outside AMI clusters. METHODS: The study population comprised 3,515,670 adults out of whom 74,126 persons experienced an incident AMI (2005......-2011). Kernel density estimation and global and local clustering methods were used to examine the geographical patterns in AMI. Median differences and frequency distributions of sociodemographic factors were calculated for persons living inside versus outside AMI clusters. RESULTS: Global clustering of AMI...

  4. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  5. Geographic atrophy phenotype identification by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monés, Jordi; Biarnés, Marc

    2017-07-20

    To identify ocular phenotypes in patients with geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration (GA) using a data-driven cluster analysis. This was a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, natural history study of patients with GA who were followed for ≥6 months. Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the population based on the presence of several phenotypic features: soft drusen, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), primary foveal atrophy, increased fundus autofluorescence (FAF), greyish FAF appearance and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). A comparison of features between the subgroups was conducted, and a qualitative description of the new phenotypes was proposed. The atrophy growth rate between phenotypes was then compared. Data were analysed from 77 eyes of 77 patients with GA. Cluster analysis identified three groups: phenotype 1 was characterised by high soft drusen load, foveal atrophy and slow growth; phenotype 3 showed high RPD load, extrafoveal and greyish FAF appearance and thin SFCT; the characteristics of phenotype 2 were midway between phenotypes 1 and 3. Phenotypes differed in all measured features (p≤0.013), with decreases in the presence of soft drusen, foveal atrophy and SFCT seen from phenotypes 1 to 3 and corresponding increases in high RPD load, high FAF and greyish FAF appearance. Atrophy growth rate differed between phenotypes 1, 2 and 3 (0.63, 1.91 and 1.73 mm(2)/year, respectively, p=0.0005). Cluster analysis identified three distinct phenotypes in GA. One of them showed a particularly slow growth pattern. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  7. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  8. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  9. Defining, constructing and assessing learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M

    2009-08-01

    Learning outcomes define the veterinary curriculum and inform students about what they must be able to demonstrate to succeed. Stakeholder consultation during their development ensures that programme learning outcomes equip graduates to contribute to the veterinary profession. Effective learning outcomes form a hierarchy linking the programme, its courses and tasks. Clear outcomes direct students towards higher quality learning by indicating the achievements intended, but leave scope for emergent learning outcomes. Defined technical competencies fit within this overarching framework, complementing higher order learning. Mapping is used to align learning outcomes horizontally and vertically so students are systematically guided towards entry-level competence and professional independence. Constructively aligned learning and assessment tasks ensure learners spend the focused time required to sequentially develop programme outcomes. Assessment by staff, peers and other stakeholders certifies achievement of intended outcomes. Effective assessment also empowers students to define and achieve their own learning outcomes, so they develop the habits of autonomous life-long learning. Evaluation of the quality and consistency of achieved outcomes informs ongoing programme improvement. If we are going to achieve the objectives of this set of papers, i.e. to improve public health education globally (Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz. 28 [2] 2009), then it is essential that they be well defined in the learning outcomes statement of all veterinary schools.

  10. Restandardisation defined as democratising language planning1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aims to define restandardisation as democratising language planning, i.e. a .... disintegration of the Soviet Union of Yugoslavia, the opening of borders in Europe, and the ..... descriptive framework for standardisation as a language planning process. .... belonging to the same language group in order to form one common ...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.2 Terms defined. Words in the regulations in this part in the singular form shall be deemed.... “Federal-State Inspection Agency” means any State agency, business association or trade organization... plant. “Packing plant” means the premises, buildings, structures, and equipment including but...

  12. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsen, S.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of conten

  13. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this... assistance. Eligible telecommunications carriers not subject to state commission jurisdiction also shall...

  14. THEORETICAL APPROACHES DEFINE SENSE OF INVESTMENT PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Burduzha

    2010-01-01

    The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  15. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  16. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2010-01-01

    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  17. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin

    2013-01-01

    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  18. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...

  19. 16 CFR 303.1 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that solicit ultimate consumers to purchase such textile products by mail, telephone, electronic mail... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.1 Terms defined. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The term Act means the Textile Fiber...

  20. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    prescribe appetite suppression and fiscal discipline . Still others diagnose inept management and excessive bureaucracy, and prescribe streamlined...complex the system, the higher this bound. • Software development consists of completing known work and discovering new work. There are fundamental ... taxonomy of acquisition risk categories, with corresponding development timelines. In that report, a low-risk acquisition is defined to be one that

  1. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  2. 16 CFR 502.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and customary and regular when used with the term price means the price at which a consumer commodity..., package, label, person, commerce, principal display panel, and random package have the same meaning as those terms are defined under part 500 of this chapter. (b) The term packager and labeler means any...

  3. Software-defined anything challenges status quo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Wayne; Borders, Tammie

    2015-01-01

    INL successfully developed a proof of concept for "Software Defined Anything" by emulating the laboratory's business applications that run on Virtual Machines. The work INL conducted demonstrates to industry on how this methodology can be used to improve security, automate and repeat processes, and improve consistency.

  4. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  5. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  6. THEORETICAL APPROACHES DEFINE SENSE OF INVESTMENT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Burduzha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  7. National Geographic Education. An Interview with Gilbert M. Grosvenor, President and Chairman of the Board, National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Sidney R.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Gilbert Grosvenor, president and chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society. Examines student and public ignorance about geography. Describes the Society's Geography Education Project, Geographic Alliance Project, and Education Foundation. Includes Grosvenor's call for greater emphasis on geography in…

  8. National Geographic Education. An Interview with Gilbert M. Grosvenor, President and Chairman of the Board, National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Sidney R.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Gilbert Grosvenor, president and chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society. Examines student and public ignorance about geography. Describes the Society's Geography Education Project, Geographic Alliance Project, and Education Foundation. Includes Grosvenor's call for greater emphasis on geography in…

  9. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  10. Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits.

  11. Transport link scanner: simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, C.; Koopmans, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographic expansion of transport networks by several decision-makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of links and presumably contains those investment options that best meet private operator's objectives by balancing the revenues of additional fare against construction costs. The investment options consist of geographically plausible routes with potential detours. These routes are generated using a fine-meshed regularly latticed network and shortest path finding methods. Additionally, two indicators of the geographic accuracy of the simulated networks are introduced. A historical case study is presented to demonstrate the model's first results. These results show that the modelled networks reproduce relevant results of the historically built network with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  13. A case study of the methodology implemented to develop the geographic information system of tourism offer in the Alentejo region

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Maria do Rosário; Serra, Jaime Manuel; Marujo, Maria Noémi

    2011-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool to make an integrated study of the overall spatial expression of tourism resources in the territory, as well as the facilities and the infrastructures required for its development. Tourism policies and strategies are becoming more complex to define due to the diversity of variables and constraints that underlie them. The availability of accurate and update information about tourism offer is thus crucial for the public sec...

  14. Evaluation of Geographic Indices Describing Health Care Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Agnus M; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Sungchan; Kim, Yoon

    2017-01-01

    The accurate measurement of geographic patterns of health care utilization is a prerequisite for the study of geographic variations in health care utilization. While several measures have been developed to measure how accurately geographic units reflect the health care utilization patterns of residents, they have been only applied to hospitalization and need further evaluation. This study aimed to evaluate geographic indices describing health care utilization. We measured the utilization rate and four health care utilization indices (localization index, outflow index, inflow index, and net patient flow) for eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee replacement surgery, caesarean sections, hysterectomy, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans) according to three levels of geographic units in Korea. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance database in Korea. We evaluated the associations among the health care utilization indices and the utilization rates. In higher-level geographic units, the localization index tended to be high, while the inflow index and outflow index were lower. The indices showed different patterns depending on the procedure. A strong negative correlation between the localization index and the outflow index was observed for all procedures. Net patient flow showed a moderate positive correlation with the localization index and the inflow index. Health care utilization indices can be used as a proxy to describe the utilization pattern of a procedure in a geographic unit.

  15. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  16. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  17. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  18. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  19. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  20. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  1. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2014-01-01

    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed.

  2. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air...Networking Defined Within a computer network, switching devices contain three abstractly organized services known as planes [9]. As shown in Figure 2.1, these...stations that exist within an exploitable network. The final threat vector is the lack of trusted resources for forensics and remediation for when an

  3. Research misconduct oversight: defining case costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a sequential mixed method study design to define cost elements of research misconduct among faculty at academic medical centers. Using time driven activity based costing, the model estimates a per case cost for 17 cases of research misconduct reported by the Office of Research Integrity for the period of 2000-2005. Per case cost of research misconduct was found to range from $116,160 to $2,192,620. Research misconduct cost drivers are identified.

  4. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    CERN Document Server

    McCartor, D

    2004-01-01

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  5. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of contents. From a total of 250 papers (published between 1988 and 1991) 51 provided 126 dependence-related definitions. Six studies referred to the DSM definitions and one to the WHO definition. The obsol...

  6. Defining viability in mammalian cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Susan M.; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A large number of assays are available to monitor viability in mammalian cell cultures with most defining loss of viability as a loss of plasma membrane integrity, a characteristic of necrotic cell death. However, the majority of cultured cells die by apoptosis and early apoptotic cells, although non-viable, maintain an intact plasma membrane and are thus ignored. Here we measure the viability of cultures of a number of common mammalian cell lines by assays that measure me...

  7. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  8. Maternal-child overweight/obesity and undernutrition in Kenya: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Curtin, Kevin M; Gewa, Constance; Attaway, David

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine geographic relationships of nutritional status (BMI), including underweight, overweight and obesity, among Kenyan mothers and children. Spatial relationships were examined concerning BMI of the mothers and BMI-for-age percentiles of their children. These included spatial statistical measures of the clustering of segments of the population, in addition to inspection of co-location of significant clusters. Rural and urban areas of Kenya, including the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa, and the Kisumu region. Mother-child pairs from Demographic and Health Survey data including 1541 observations in 2003 and 1592 observations in 2009. These mother-child pairs were organized into 399 locational clusters. There is extremely strong evidence that high BMI values exhibit strong spatial clustering. There were co-locations of overweight mothers and overweight children only in the Nairobi region, while both underweight mothers and children tended to cluster in rural areas. In Mombasa clusters of overweight mothers were associated with normal-weight children, while in the Kisumu region clusters of overweight children were associated with normal-weight mothers. These findings show there is geographic variability as well as some defined patterns concerning the distribution of malnutrition among mothers and children in Kenya, and suggest the need for further geographic analyses concerning the potential factors which influence nutritional status in this population. In addition, the methods used in this research may be easily applied to other Demographic and Health Survey data in order to begin to understand the geographic determinants of health in low-income countries.

  9. The Influence of Technology on Geographic Cognition and Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Tourists today have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about destinations while travelling as various context-aware geographic technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in the process of destination consumption to gain...... meaningful tourism experiences. This study found that people using different types of technologies for everyday routine perceive that these technologies help them with spatial inference to acquire geographic information; making sense of direction and orientation, and interacting with and within places......, and social dimensions of tourism experience....

  10. Change of Geographic Information Service Model in Mobile Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu; DU Qingyun

    2005-01-01

    A research on that how the topic of mobility, which is completely different but tightly relevant to space, provides new approaches and methods so as to promote the further development of geographic information services, will accumulate basic experience for different types of relative information systems in the wide fields of location based services. This paper analyzes the meaning of mobility and the change for geographic information service model, it describes the differences and correlation between M-GIS and traditional GIS. It sets a technical framework of geographic information services according to mobile context and provides a case study.

  11. A multi-agent system architecture for geographic information gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang-Yi; Wang, Shen-Kang

    2004-11-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent (MA) architecture. Then based on this model, we construct a prototype system with GML (Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client, Web Server and Data Resource. Finally, we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  12. A multi-Agent system architecture for geographic information gathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高刚毅; 王申康

    2004-01-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent (MA) architecture. Then based on this model, we construct a prototype system with GML (Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client, Web Server and Data Resource. Finally, we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  13. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  14. Speciation without Pre-Defined Fitness Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Robin; Golestani, Abbas; Hendry, Andrew P; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    The forces promoting and constraining speciation are often studied in theoretical models because the process is hard to observe, replicate, and manipulate in real organisms. Most models analyzed to date include pre-defined functions influencing fitness, leaving open the question of how speciation might proceed without these built-in determinants. To consider the process of speciation without pre-defined functions, we employ the individual-based ecosystem simulation platform EcoSim. The environment is initially uniform across space, and an evolving behavioural model then determines how prey consume resources and how predators consume prey. Simulations including natural selection (i.e., an evolving behavioural model that influences survival and reproduction) frequently led to strong and distinct phenotypic/genotypic clusters between which hybridization was low. This speciation was the result of divergence between spatially-localized clusters in the behavioural model, an emergent property of evolving ecological interactions. By contrast, simulations without natural selection (i.e., behavioural model turned off) but with spatial isolation (i.e., limited dispersal) produced weaker and overlapping clusters. Simulations without natural selection or spatial isolation (i.e., behaviour model turned off and high dispersal) did not generate clusters. These results confirm the role of natural selection in speciation by showing its importance even in the absence of pre-defined fitness functions.

  15. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Kirk, Ole; Law, Matthew; De Wit, Stephane; Friis-Møller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew N; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively f

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently r...

  18. 2001 Vectorized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface elevation map was produced cooperatively from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements collected by the U.S. Geological...

  19. 1950 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — 1950 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector shoreline data that were derived from a set of National Ocean Service...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Colfax County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roland

    Koppen's Aw classification, with double maxima (Ayoade, 1983). The rainy season lasts ..... B Ayeni ed. Workshop Proceedings on Geographic Information. Systems and ... (1999), Gard (2002) and Var (2010) Department (France). Geophy-.

  2. Eco-geographic Distribution and Microcenters of Genetic Diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-geographic Distribution and Microcenters of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean ... Ethiopia is considered an important center of secondary diversity for both ... the microcenter of genetic diversity for both crops may be located in the southern ...

  3. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  4. 1922 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — 1922 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector shoreline data that were derived from a set of National Ocean Service...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Function Analyses of Geographic Information System on Rural Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Junlong; FAN Yongcun; ZHANG Chunmei; GU Shumin

    2006-01-01

    With the actuality and characteristic and requirement of rural power enterprise distribution network management, this article introduced the function of geographic information system on the framework of distribution network, in order to develop rural distribution network.

  8. Geographically isolated wetlands and watershed hydrology: A modified

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for "An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic model". This dataset is associated with the following...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. 2010 Census Blocks with Geographic Codes Southwestern PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This file can be used as a tool to append geographic codes to geocoded point data. The file was developed by Pitt's Center for Social and Urban Research and...

  11. Soils - Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Data for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data sets are digital soil surveys and generally are the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Union County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. 2001 Vectorized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface elevation map was produced cooperatively from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements collected by the U.S. Geological...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lea County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Geographical information systems (GIS) and risk maps of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical information systems (GIS) and risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Parasitology ... occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis and population at risk in Ogun State, Nigeria ... Article Metrics.

  17. Implications of Geographic Information System in Mapping Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Geographic Information System in Mapping Solid Waste Collection Points in New Owerri, Imo State. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ...

  18. Geographical information system (GIS) application for planning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 20, No 4 (2016) > ... Geographical information system (GIS) technique is a useful tool for spatial analysis which ... the tool of GIS in the planning and improvement of water supply system in Ota, Ogun state. ... Article Metrics.

  19. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study area Hewane is situated in the southern zone of Tigray Regional State, ... Article Metrics.

  20. 1869 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — 1869 Digitized Shoreline for Breton Island, Louisiana (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector shoreline data that were derived from a set of National Ocean Service...