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Sample records for deficit hyperactivity conduct

  1. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  2. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  3. Gender and Conduct Problems Predict Peer Functioning among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages…

  4. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder in Children of Drug Dependent Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Bayati, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are amongrelatively prevalent disorders during childhood and adolescence.Considering the negative impact of the parents' drug dependency andbipolar disorder, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence ofADHD and conduct disorder in children of drug-dependent and bipolar parents. Methods In this case-control study, the case group included two groups ofpatients with drug dependency and bipolar disorder hospitalize...

  6. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11â18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epide...

  7. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and/or conduct disorder (CD and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11–18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1 ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD, regardless of ODD; (2 ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD without CD; (3 ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only; and (4 typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. Results: All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Keywords: arousal, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mediator

  8. Prevention of serious conduct problems in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Villodas, Miguel T; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors began by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Next, the authors presented empirically based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detailed the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multimodal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed.

  9. Which Kindergarten Children Are at Greatest Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

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    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant…

  10. Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …

  11. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  12. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder in children of drug dependent parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Bayati, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are amongrelatively prevalent disorders during childhood and adolescence.Considering the negative impact of the parents' drug dependency andbipolar disorder, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence ofADHD and conduct disorder in children of drug-dependent and bipolar parents. In this case-control study, the case group included two groups ofpatients with drug dependency and bipolar disorder hospitalized inShahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman who had 7 to 11-year-old children.The control group included healthy individuals without any drugdependency or other psychiatric disorders. Data were collected usingRutter scale Form A (parents' form) and a demographic questionnaire.Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Chi-square and Tamhane's post-hoc test. Rutter's abnormal scores were generally 7.11% in children of drugdependent parents, 14% in children of bipolar parents and 1.6% in childrenof healthy parents demonstrating no significant difference. The frequencyof conduct disorder in the bipolar and drug dependent group was higherthan the healthy group, but the difference was not significant. Thefrequency of ADHD was 8.9% in the drug dependency group and 1% inthe control group which shows a significant difference. Drug dependency in parents may be a leading factor to mentaldisorders such as ADHD and conduct disorder in children.

  14. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder with early tobacco and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, William B; Epstein, Jeffery N; Auinger, Peggy; Tamm, Leanne; Froehlich, Tanya E

    2015-02-01

    The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) with tobacco and alcohol use has not been assessed in a young adolescent sample representative of the U.S. population. Data are from the 2000-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional sample representative of the U.S. population. Participants were age 12-15 years (N=2517). Exposure variables included diagnosis of ADHD and CD, and counts of ADHD and CD symptoms based on caregiver responses to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Primary outcomes were adolescent-report of any use of tobacco or alcohol and age of initiating use. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were conducted. Adolescents with ADHD+CD diagnoses had a 3- to 5-fold increased likelihood of using tobacco and alcohol and initiated use at a younger age compared to those with neither disorder. Having ADHD alone was associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use but not alcohol use. Hyperactive-impulsive symptom counts were not independently associated with any outcome, while every one symptom increase in inattention increased the likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use by 8-10%. Although participants with a diagnosis of CD alone (compared to those without ADHD or CD) did not have a higher likelihood of tobacco or alcohol use, for every one symptom increase in CD symptoms the odds of tobacco use increased by 31%. ADHD and CD diagnoses and symptomatology are linked to higher risk for a range of tobacco and alcohol use outcomes among young adolescents in the U.S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1) ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD), regardless of ODD; (2) ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD) without CD; (3) ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only); and (4) typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  17. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  18. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  19. The global burden of conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly E; Ferrari, Alize J; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Moffitt, Terrie E; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; Scott, James G

    2014-04-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) is the first to include conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for burden quantification. A previous systematic review pooled the available epidemiological data for CD and ADHD, and predicted prevalence by country, region, age and sex for each disorder. Prevalence was then multiplied by a disability weight to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs). As no evidence of deaths resulting directly from either CD or ADHD was found, no years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated. Therefore, the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was equal to that of YLDs. Globally, CD was responsible for 5.75 million YLDs/DALYs with ADHD responsible for a further 491,500. Collectively, CD and ADHD accounted for 0.80% of total global YLDs and 0.25% of total global DALYs. In terms of global DALYs, CD was the 72nd leading contributor and among the 15 leading causes in children aged 5-19 years. Between 1990 and 2010, global DALYs attributable to CD and ADHD remained stable after accounting for population growth and ageing. The global burden of CD and ADHD is significant, particularly in male children. Appropriate allocation of resources to address the high morbidity associated with CD and ADHD is necessary to reduce global burden. However, burden estimation was limited by data lacking for all four epidemiological parameters and by methodological challenges in quantifying disability. Future studies need to address these limitations in order to increase the accuracy of burden quantification. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Neurocognitive characteristics of youth with noncomorbid and comorbid forms of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Remmel, Rheanna J; Ong, Min Yee; Lim, Nikki S J; Ang, Rebecca P; Threadgill, A Hunter; Ryerson, Nicole; Raine, Adrian; Fung, Daniel; Ooi, Yoon Phaik

    2017-08-01

    Studies investigating neurocognitive deficits in youth with conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often confounded by the high rates of comorbidity between the two. Neurocognitive functioning was examined in three diagnostic groups (ADHD only, CD only, comorbid ADHD and CD) matched by age, sex, IQ, and medication status (n=28-32 per group). No significant differences emerged between the diagnostic groups on measures of risk-taking or response inhibition. Children with CD performed better on a measure of spatial planning than those with comorbid ADHD and CD, and dimensional analyses in the full sample (n=265) revealed a small association between ADHD symptoms and poorer spatial planning. These results suggest that deficits in spatial planning may be more pronounced in individuals with ADHD, but that the neurocognitive functioning of youth with noncomorbid and comorbid CD and ADHD are largely similar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroupAnemia Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  3. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  4. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  5. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  6. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  8. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

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    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  9. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  10. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  11. Prenatal unhealthy diet, insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) methylation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in youth with early-onset conduct problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); C.A.M. Cecil (Charlotte A.M.); E. Walton (Esther); Mesirow, M.S.C. (Maurissa S. C.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); Barker, E.D. (Edward D.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to 'unhealthy diet'. Early-life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural

  12. Influence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder on opioid dependence severity and psychiatric comorbidity in chronic methadone-maintained patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Knapen, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a history of conduct disorder (CD) are highly prevalent among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). We examined the influence of both diagnoses on problem severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in

  13. Influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder on Opioid Dependence Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Chronic Methadone-Maintained Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.B.; Gogh, M.T. van; Knapen, L.J.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Persistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a history of conduct disorder (CD) are highly prevalent among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). We examined the influence of both diagnoses on problem severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in

  14. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  15. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  17. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Which kindergarten children are at greatest risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity and conduct disorder symptomatology as adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-03-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade. Kindergarten children frequently engaging in ADHD-CD-type behaviors were more likely to later experience both moderate (covariate adjusted OR = 2.37) and severe (covariate adjusted OR = 3.63) ADHD-CD symptomatology. Low academic achievement uniquely increased the risk of both moderate and severe symptomatology (adjusted OR range = 1.7 to 2.24). The results should guide early screening and school-based intervention efforts for ADHD-CD. Reducing children's risk for adolescent ADHD-CD symptomatology may require remediating low behavioral and academic functioning by the end of kindergarten. When these 2 modifiable factors occur together they increase kindergarten children's odds of experiencing severe ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade by a multiplicative factor of 8.1. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayse; Akyol Ardic, Ulku; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases. A total of 118 ADHD + ODD/CD patients with a mean age of 9.0 ± 1.9 years were treated with MPH for 1 year. Also, parents of cases were recruited for a parent-training program, which initiated after first month of MPH treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at baseline and 12th month by Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parent Form, Children Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 years, and Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire-Mother Form. Emotional dysregulation (DESR + DP) was present in 85.6% of cases. Conduct disorder was significantly higher in patients with DP, whereas ODD was significantly higher in the DESR and non-ED groups (P disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

  20. Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hayashida, Ayako; Yamasue, Hidenori; Harada, Yuzuru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted to uncover the pathophysiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings are inconsistent, however, at least partially due to methodological differences. In the present study voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate brain morphology in ADHD subjects after taking into account the confounding effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) comorbidity. Eighteen children with ADHD and 17 age- and gender-matched typically developing subjects underwent high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. The regional gray matter volume differences between the children with ADHD and controls were examined with and without accounting for comorbid ODD and CD in a voxel-by-voxel manner throughout the entire brain. The VBM indicated significantly smaller regional gray matter volume in regions including the bilateral temporal polar and occipital cortices and the left amygdala in subjects with ADHD compared with controls. Significantly smaller regional gray matter volumes were demonstrated in more extensive regions including the bilateral temporal polar cortices, bilateral amygdala, right occipital cortex, right superior temporal sulcus, and left middle frontal gyrus after controlling for the confounding effect of comorbid ODD and CD. Morphological abnormalities in ADHD were seen not only in the regions associated with executive functioning but also in the regions associated with social cognition. When the effect of comorbid CD and ODD was taken into account, there were more extensive regions with significantly smaller volume in ADHD compared to controls.

  1. The role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the association between verbal ability and conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley K Smith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although there is clear evidence that low verbal ability is a risk factor for conduct disorder (CD, some researchers have questioned whether this association is due to the common comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and CD. The present study examined the association among verbal ability, ADHD, and CD in a genetically informative sample in order to examine the role of genes and/or environmental influences shared in common with ADHD on the covariation between verbal ability and CD. Participants were 2744 adolescents from the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD, and included 360 MZ female twin pairs, 221 DZ female twin pairs, 297 MZ male twin pairs, 220 DZ male twin pairs, and 274 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV was used to assess lifetime symptoms of ADHD and CD. Verbal ability was assessed via the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS for individuals over the age of 16 and the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC for individuals under the age of 16. There was a small but significant negative covariance between verbal ability and CD and between verbal ability and ADHD. Results also suggest that the covariation between verbal ability and CD is due to influences shared in common with ADHD.

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  3. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  4. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  5. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ...

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Ebejer

    Full Text Available The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP.Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms.Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP.The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

  7. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Z Mahomedy, D van der Westhuizen, MJ van der Linde, J Coetsee. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  9. On the link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity: do comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Neidhard, John; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and elevated body weight/obesity can be regarded as well established. Because oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) has also been found to be associated with these characteristics and ADHD and ODD/CD often occur comorbidly, we investigated whether ODD/CD and ADHD are independently linked with body weight and obesity. The clinical records of 360 children, 257 (6-12 years) with diagnoses of ADHD, ODD/CD, or comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD and 103 children with adjustment disorder (as a control group) constituted the database. All children were seen for the first time in two outpatient psychiatric clinics. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses (ADHD present vs. not present; ODD/CD present vs. not present) with the standard deviation scores (according to German reference data) of the child's body mass index (BMI-SDS) and presence of obesity were analyzed by ANCOVA and hierarchical logistic regression analysis, respectively. Children with ODD/CD showed higher BMI-SDS (F = 7.67, p < 0.006) and rate of obesity (Wald = 4.12, p < 0.05, OR = 2.43) while controlling for ADHD comorbidity. While adjusting for ODD/CD comorbidity, the links between ADHD and BMI-SDS or obesity did not reach statistical significance. Given a cross validation of these findings, future (preferably prospective longitudinal) research should analyze the mediating mechanism between the psychiatric conditions and obesity. This knowledge could be helpful for preventive interventions.

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Epidemiological modelling of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly E; Ferrari, Alize J; Nelson, Paul; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Flaxman, Abraham D; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; Scott, James G

    2013-12-01

    The most recent Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 2010) is the first to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) for burden quantification. We present the epidemiological profiles of ADHD and CD across three time periods for 21 world regions. A systematic review of global epidemiology was conducted for each disorder (based on a literature search of the Medline, PsycInfo and EMBASE databases). A Bayesian metaregression tool was used to derive prevalence estimates by age and sex in three time periods (1990, 2005 and 2010) for 21 world regions including those with little or no data. Prior expert knowledge and covariates were applied to each model to adjust suboptimal data. Final prevalence output for ADHD were adjusted to reflect an equivalent value if studies had measured point prevalence using multiple informants while final prevalence output for CD were adjusted to reflect a value equivalent to CD only. Prevalence was pooled for males and females aged 5-19 years with no difference found in global prevalence between the three time periods. Male prevalence of ADHD in 2010 was 2.2% (2.0-2.3) while female prevalence was 0.7% (0.6-0.7). Male prevalence of CD in 2010 was 3.6% (3.3-4.0) while female prevalence was 1.5% (1.4-1.7). ADHD and CD were estimated to be present worldwide with ADHD prevalence showing some regional variation while CD prevalence remained relatively consistent worldwide. We present the first prevalence estimates of both ADHD and CD globally and for all world regions. Data were sparse with large parts of the world having no estimates of either disorder. Epidemiological studies are urgently needed in certain parts of the world. Our findings directly informed burden quantification for GBD 2010. As mental disorders gained increased recognition after the first GBD study in 1990, the inclusion of ADHD and CD in GBD 2010 ensures their importance will be recognized alongside other childhood disorders. © 2013 The

  12. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  13. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  14. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  16. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosler, M.; Casas, M.; Konofal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. METHODS: An electronic literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using MEDLINE (without time limits) was undertaken. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD in adults exert a

  18. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us ... Power of Pets Sound Health Wise Choices Managing ADHD Help kids with ADHD stay on top of ...

  19. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of

  20. Problem of item overlap between the psychopathy screening device and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L

    2000-12-01

    Content validity requires a clear definition of the construct of interest and the delineation of the construct from similar constructs. Content validity also requires that the items be representative of the construct as well as specific to the construct. An examination of the items on the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD), a parent- and teacher-rating scale of childhood psychopathy, indicates significant overlap with the symptoms and associated features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The failure of the PSD to have unique items results in poor discriminant validity with ADHD, ODD, and CD rating scales. More careful attention to content validation guidelines is required to develop a more useful measure of childhood psychopathy.

  1. Differentiating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders by means of their motor behavior characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N=22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N=17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N=24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N=20). Physical education teachers used the MBC for children to rate their pupils based on their motor related behaviors. A multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups on different problem scales. The results indicated that the MBC for children may be effective in discriminating children with similar disruptive behaviors (e.g., ADHD, CD) and autistic disorders, based on their motor behavior characteristics, but not children with Learning Disabilities (LD), when used by physical education teachers in school settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and oxytocin in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined presentation with and without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, Ümit; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Kılınç, Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and oxytocin levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined presentation and those diagnosed with ADHD combined presentation and coexisting conduct disorder. A total of 74 drug-naive children with ADHD combined presentation alone, 32 children with ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder, and 42 healthy controls were included. The severities of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. The severity of aggression, anxiety, and depression symptoms of the children were assessed by the self-report inventories. Independent of potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, and severity of depression and anxiety, serum oxytocin levels of the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group were significantly lower than those of both the ADHD combined presentation alone and control groups. There was also a trend for the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group to show lower serum DHEA levels than that of the ADHD combined presentation alone group. However, serum cortisol levels did not show significant alterations among the groups. These findings suggest that oxytocin and DHEA may play a role in the pathophysiology of conduct disorder, at least in the presence of ADHD combined presentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  4. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  7. A Flow Chart of Behavior Management Strategies for Families of Children with Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Jeffrey S

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented. The flow chart may be used to help teach specific behavior management skills to parents. The flow chart depicts a chain of behavior management strategies taught with explanation, modeling, and role-play with parents. The chained steps in the flow chart are elements common to well-known evidence-based behavior management strategies, and perhaps, this depiction well serve as a setting event for other behavior analysts to create flow charts for their own parent training, Details of the flow chart steps, as well as examples of specific applications and program modifications conclude.

  8. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  9. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  11. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and callous-unemotional traits as moderators of conduct problems when examining impairment in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E; Neely, Kristina A; Kunselman, Allen; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits as moderators of the association between conduct problems (CP) and young adult functioning. Young adults (n = 283; M age = 20.82 years; 53.4% female), oversampled for attention and behavior problems, provided self-ratings of ADHD, CP, and CU, and adaptive functioning and psychopathology. ADHD and CU simultaneously moderated relationships between CP and family functioning, tobacco use, and internalizing symptoms. In addition, ADHD moderated the relation between CP and job functioning, and main effects of ADHD in the expected direction were found for educational performance and drug use. CU was associated with poorer educational outcomes. Interestingly, no ADHD, CU, or CP effects were observed for reported alcohol use. Our results highlight the importance of considering ADHD and CU in understanding the impact of CP on young adult functioning and psychopathology, and point to the importance of continued work on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comorbidity as a predictor and moderator of treatment outcome in youth with anxiety, affective, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional/conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Jarrett, Matthew A; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Hovey, Laura D; Wolff, Jennifer C

    2008-12-01

    In the present review, we examine one of the critical issues that have been raised about evidence-based treatments and their portability to real-world clinical settings: namely, the presence of comorbidity in the participants who have been treated in these studies and whether the presence of comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. In doing so, we examine treatment outcomes for the four most commonly occurring childhood psychiatric disorders: Anxiety disorders, affective disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). For each of these disorders, we first review briefly the prevalence of comorbidity in epidemiological and clinical samples and then highlight the evidence-based treatments for these disorders. We next determine the effects of comorbidity on treatment outcomes for these disorders. For the most part, comorbidity in the treated samples is the rule, not the exception. However, the majority of studies have not explored whether comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. For the not insignificant number of studies that have examined this issue, comorbidity has not been found to affect treatment outcomes. Notable exceptions are highlighted and recommendations for future research are presented.

  14. Hiccup Due to Aripiprazole Plus Methylphenidate Treatment in an Adolescent with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Guler, Gulen; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kutuk, Ozgur

    2017-11-30

    Our case had hiccups arising in an adolescent with the attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) after adding aripiprazole treatment to extended-release methylphenidate. Actually, antipsychotics are also used in the treatment of hiccups, but studies suggest that they can cause hiccups as well. Within 12 hours of taking 2.5 mg aripiprazole added to extended-release methylphenidate at a dose of 54 mg/day, 16-year-old boy began having hiccups in the morning, which lasted after 3-4 hours. As a result, aripiprazole was discontinued and methylphenidate was continued alone because we could not convince the patient to use another additional drug due to this side effect. Subsequently, when his behavior got worsened day by day, his mother administered aripiprazole alone again at the dose of 2.5 mg/day at the weekend and continued treatment because hiccup did not occur again. But when it was administered with methylphenidate on Monday, hiccup started again next morning and lasted one hour at this time. In conclusion, we concluded that concurrent use of methylphenidate and aripiprazole in this adolescent led to hiccups.

  15. The impact of conduct disorder and stimulant medication on later substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Seth C; Ivanov, Iliyan; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2011-08-01

    To examine late adolescent substance use outcomes in relation to childhood conduct disorder (CD) and psychostimulant treatment in urban youth found to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Ninety-seven adolescents, evaluated during childhood, were seen for follow-up on average 9.30 (SD = 1.65) years later along with a well-matched never-ADHD control group. Stimulant treatment history was coded: Never (n = 28), up to 1 year (n = 19), 1 to 5 years (n = 28), and greater than 5 years (n = 22). Substance use at outcome was coded dimensionally for severity (frequency × intensity) and categorically for substance use disorders (SUDs). Individuals with ADHD+CD in childhood had significantly higher rates of SUD and substance use severity than those with childhood ADHD and controls. The ADHD and control groups did not differ significantly. Among those with childhood ADHD, there were no significant differences in SUD status or substance use severity as a function of medication history. Within an ethnically diverse urban sample, the increased rate of substance use associated with ADHD was fully accounted for by the presence of CD. These results extend previous findings indicating little impact of psychostimulant treatment on later substance use to an ethnically diverse urban sample and to individuals who received treatment for up to 12 years.

  16. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  17. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    to accomplish. 2. Self concerns which involve self esteem . This is the way one feels about oneself. One’s self esteem can often be related to...ADD group was described by teachers as less happy while ADHD boys were rated as more unpopular, self -destructive and aggressive. Many studies have...also have decreased self esteem , depression and poor peer acceptance (Pelham & Bender, 1982; Weiss, 1985). Children with hyperactivity have

  18. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  19. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD.

  20. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  1. Canadian guidelines on pharmacotherapy for disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-02-01

    To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone's major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use.

  2. Risperidone added to parent training and stimulant medication: effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar G; Brown, Nicole V; McNamara, Nora K; Rundberg-Rivera, E Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi L; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A; Baker, Jennifer L; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R; Bangalore, Srihari S; Butter, Eric M; Buchan-Page, Kristin A; Hurt, Elizabeth A; Austin, Adrienne B; Grondhuis, Sabrina N; Aman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo (Basic therapy) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented therapy) by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced impairment, and informant discrepancy. Children (6-12 years of age; N = 168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p = .002, Cohen's d = 0.27) and peer aggression (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.32) but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at week 9/endpoint (p = .008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated as impaired for at least 1 targeted disorder at week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Augmented therapy was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  4. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluat...

  6. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  7. A phase 2a randomized, parallel group, dose-ranging study of molindone in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and persistent, serious conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Jennifer Dugan; Taneja, Baldeo K; Baroldi, Paolo; Findling, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate safety and tolerability of four doses of immediate-release molindone hydrochloride in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and serious conduct problems. This open-label, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicenter trial randomized children, aged 6-12 years, with ADHD and persistent, serious conduct problems to receive oral molindone thrice daily for 9-12 weeks in four treatment groups: Group 1-10 mg (5 mg if weight conduct problems. Secondary outcome measures included change in Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form-Typical Intelligence Quotient (NCBRF-TIQ) Conduct Problem subscale scores, change in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I) subscale scores from baseline to end point, and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale-revised (SNAP-IV) ADHD-related subscale scores. The study randomized 78 children; 55 completed the study. Treatment with molindone was generally well tolerated, with no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory or physical examination findings. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included somnolence (n=9), weight increase (n=8), akathisia (n=4), sedation (n=4), and abdominal pain (n=4). Mean weight increased by 0.54 kg, and mean body mass index by 0.24 kg/m(2). The incidence of AEs and treatment-related AEs increased with increasing dose. NCBRF-TIQ subscale scores improved in all four treatment groups, with 34%, 34%, 32%, and 55% decreases from baseline in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CGI-S and SNAP-IV scores improved over time in all treatment groups, and CGI-I scores improved to the greatest degree in group 4. Molindone at doses of 5-20 mg/day (children weighing <30 kg) and 20-40 mg (≥ 30 kg) was well tolerated, and preliminary efficacy results suggest that molindone produces dose-related behavioral improvements over 9-12 weeks. Additional double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed to further investigate molindone in this pediatric population.

  8. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  10. Long-Term Outcomes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly E; Norman, Rosana E; Ferrari, Alize J; Chan, Gary C K; Copeland, William E; Whiteford, Harvey A; Scott, James G

    2016-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common externalizing disorders. Despite previous research demonstrating that both are longitudinally associated with adverse outcomes, there have been no systematic reviews examining all of the available evidence linking ADHD and CD with a range of health and psychosocial outcomes. Electronic databases (EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched for studies published from 1980 up to March 2015. Published cohort and case-control studies were included if they reported a longitudinal association between ADHD or CD and adverse outcomes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Outcomes with sufficient data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis to give overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs. Of the 278 studies assessed, 114 met inclusion criteria and 98 were used in subsequent meta-analyses. ADHD was associated with adverse outcomes including academic achievement (e.g. failure to complete high school; odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CIs 2.0-7.0), other mental and substance use disorders (e.g. depression; OR = 2.3, 1.5-3.7), criminality (e.g. arrest; OR = 2.4, 1.5-3.8), and employment (e.g., unemployment; OR = 2.0, 1.0-3.9). CD was associated with outcomes relating to academic achievement (e.g. failure to complete high school; OR = 2.7, 1.5-4.7), other mental and substance use disorders (e.g., illicit drug use; OR = 2.1, 1.7-2.6), and criminality (e.g. violence; OR = 3.5, 2.3-5.3). This study demonstrated that ADHD and CD are associated with disability beyond immediate health loss. Although the analyses could not determine the mechanisms behind these longitudinal associations, they demonstrate the importance of addressing ADHD and CD early in life so as to potentially avert a wide range of future adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Ineffective decision making is a major source of everyday functional impairment and reduced quality of life for young people with mental disorders. However, very little is known about what distinguishes decision making by individuals with different disorders or the neuropsychological processes or brain systems underlying these. This is the focus of the current review. We first propose a neuroeconomic model of the decision-making process with separate stages for the prechoice evaluation of expected utility of future options; choice execution and postchoice management; the appraisal of outcome against expectation; and the updating of value estimates to guide future decisions. According to the proposed model, decision making is mediated by neuropsychological processes operating within three domains: (a) self-referential processes involved in autobiographical reflection on past, and prospection about future, experiences; (b) executive functions, such as working memory, inhibition, and planning, that regulate the implementation of decisions; and (c) processes involved in value estimation and outcome appraisal and learning. These processes are underpinned by the interplay of multiple brain networks, especially medial and lateralized cortical components of the default mode network, dorsal corticostriatal circuits underpinning higher order cognitive and behavioral control, and ventral frontostriatal circuits, connecting to brain regions implicated in emotion processing, that control valuation and learning processes. Based on clinical insights and considering each of the decision-making stages in turn, we outline disorder-specific hypotheses about impaired decision making in four childhood disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), depression, and anxiety. We hypothesize that decision making in ADHD is deficient (i.e. inefficient, insufficiently reflective, and inconsistent) and impulsive (biased toward immediate over delayed

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  14. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  16. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  18. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality.

  19. Symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and callous-unemotional traits as unique predictors of psychosocial maladjustment in boys: advancing an evidence base for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J

    2010-11-01

    The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Several outcomes were assessed semiannually across a 2-year follow-up, including antisocial behavior, internalizing problems, peer conflict, and academic difficulties. Official criminal charges were also examined across adolescence. CD symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of future antisocial outcomes. However, ODD symptoms predicted later criminal charges and conduct problems, and CU traits were robustly associated with serious and persistent criminal behavior in boys. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted increases in oppositional defiant behavior and conduct problems over time and were uniquely related to future academic difficulties. Both ADHD and ODD symptoms predicted social and internalizing problems in boys, whereas CU traits were associated with decreased internalizing problems over time. The current findings have implications for revisions being considered as part of the DSM-V. Specifically, incorporating CU traits into the diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) may help to further delineate boys at risk for severe and persistent delinquency. Although currently prohibited, allowing a diagnosis of ODD when CD is present may provide unique prognostic information about boys who are at risk for future criminal behavior, social problems, and internalizing problems. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medication refusal in children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication history and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, Mark; Kolko, David J; Bukstein, Oscar G; Hart, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Objective: This study examines the characteristics of 96 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families who refused a recommendation for medication as part of their treatment for disruptive disorders. The ADHD cases were taken from a sample of 139 youth (age 6-11) who were recruited for a clinical trial that compared the administration of a modular psychosocial treatment in an outpatient clinic or community settings. Medication management was an optional treatment module for children with ADHD in both conditions. Children who were (vs. were not) taking medication at intake, and children who accepted (vs. refused) medication recommendations during the study were compared on diagnostic and clinical measures related to child, school, parent, and family domains of functioning. Parents of 30% of the children refused study medication for ADHD. Parental medication acceptability and intake correlated highly with both medication history and study refusal of medication. Increased parental self-efficacy and emotional support for their youth correlated with medication refusal. No demographics and few child or school factors were associated with medication refusal. Medication use was associated with reductions in some key ADHD symptoms, but did not affect disruptive behaviors as did the psychosocial interventions. Medication refusers remain poorly understood but certain correlates, such as parental self-efficacy, parental emotional support for their youth, and medication acceptability, warrant further evaluation.

  1. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, J R; Izaguerri-Gracia, A C

    2009-02-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exist in up to 60% of adults, whose first symptoms appeared before they were seven years old. Since it is a neurobiological condition, its basic symptoms -lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness- are similar at all ages, but in adults the clinical manifestations are specific to the subgroup with more frequent comorbidities than in childhood. Manifestations that characteristically appear in adults are difficulty in concentrating, poorer memory and short-term memory, disorganisation, difficulties with self-discipline, impulsiveness, low self-esteem, mental restlessness, frustration and limited social skills. Today, adult cases are underdiagnosed because for a long time ADHD was thought to be a condition that only affected children and teenagers; however, although its clinical manifestations in adults are essentially similar to those seen in children, they are different and have different forms of presentation. There are no biomedical tests that allow an objective diagnosis to be established, and thus care must be taken to draw up and evaluate a patient record that includes possible symptoms since childhood, typical signs and symptoms, and any relevant comorbidities. Self-evaluation scales are necessary as the preferred instrument for use as an aid to the patient record. The main pharmacological treatment is based on psychopharmaceuticals such as immediate-, controlled- or extended-release methylphenidate and on atomoxetine; cognitive-behavioural and psychosocial treatment should also be associated.

  2. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD......, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct...

  7. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  9. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  10. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers

  11. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  12. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  13. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mind Conduct disorders in children with poor oral hygiene habits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with excessive tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Fatih; Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Demirci, Tevfik; Yücel, Nermin; Ömezli, Mehmet Melih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and poor oral hygiene are among the major childhood public health problems. Although dental research frequently refers to the link between these conditions and behavioural issues, little attention has been paid to understanding the reason for oral health problems from a psychiatric point of view. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between poor oral health and hygiene and parental attitudes towards child rearing, parents’ and children’s oral hygiene behaviours, and childhood psychiatric disorders. Material and methods This study included 323 children aged 3–15 years. Decayed, missing, filled and decayed, extracted, filled indices, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Parent Attitude Research Instrument were used in the study. Results We found that the subjects’ hyperactivity/inattention scores were positively correlated with poor oral health (p = 0.001) and heavy cariogenic food consumption (p = 0.040). Tooth brushing frequency was found to be significantly lower in children who have a risk for conduct/oppositional disorders than in their non-problematic peers (p = 0.001). Conclusions Dental health and oral hygiene behaviours have close links with psychiatric disorders and psychosocial issues. Improving cooperation between child psychiatrists and dentists seems to be important in the prevention of paediatric dental problems. PMID:27904519

  16. Mind Conduct disorders in children with poor oral hygiene habits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with excessive tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Şengül, Fatih; Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Demirci, Tevfik; Yücel, Nermin; Ömezli, Mehmet Melih

    2016-12-01

    Dental caries and poor oral hygiene are among the major childhood public health problems. Although dental research frequently refers to the link between these conditions and behavioural issues, little attention has been paid to understanding the reason for oral health problems from a psychiatric point of view. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between poor oral health and hygiene and parental attitudes towards child rearing, parents' and children's oral hygiene behaviours, and childhood psychiatric disorders. This study included 323 children aged 3-15 years. Decayed, missing, filled and decayed, extracted, filled indices, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Parent Attitude Research Instrument were used in the study. We found that the subjects' hyperactivity/inattention scores were positively correlated with poor oral health ( p = 0.001) and heavy cariogenic food consumption ( p = 0.040). Tooth brushing frequency was found to be significantly lower in children who have a risk for conduct/oppositional disorders than in their non-problematic peers ( p = 0.001). Dental health and oral hygiene behaviours have close links with psychiatric disorders and psychosocial issues. Improving cooperation between child psychiatrists and dentists seems to be important in the prevention of paediatric dental problems.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  19. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  20. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  1. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  2. Mindfulness and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K; Hale, T Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. One hundred and five adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the "Acting in Awareness" dimension, perhaps because of shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  5. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  6. [Sleeping disorders can imitate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan Ib; Bilenberg, Niels

    2005-10-10

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and sleeping difficulties. Sleeping disorders are reported in more than 50% of children with ADHD. On the other hand, symptoms of sleep disorder, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness can imitate the symptoms of ADHD. We describe a 5(1/2)-year-old boy with symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal. His sleep was disturbed, with late sleep onset and frequent awakening during the night. After correction of his sleep pattern, the symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal disappeared.

  7. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Katie Campbell

    2004-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 3% to 10% of children in the United States. Children with ADHD can have academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. There is also a higher risk of both cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Given this, the importance of treatment for ADHD needs to be underscored. This article will briefly review the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of ADHD, with particular focus on nonstimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities. Recent evidence suggests that the overall rate of medication treatment for ADHD has been increasing, with over 2 million children being treated with stimulants in 1997. With this increase, controversy has arisen over the possible association of stimulants with growth suppression. In addition, estimates indicate that as many as 30% of children with ADHD either do not respond to stimulant treatment or cannot tolerate the treatment secondary to side effects. This has lead to the consideration of treatment with both nonstimulant medications as well as alternative therapies, including diet, iron supplementation, herbal medications, and neurofeedback. Considering the various treatment options now available for ADHD, along with the complexity of the condition, clinical practice guidelines are emerging for the treatment of ADHD and will be discussed. ADHD continues to be a serious health problem. Adequate treatment is needed to avoid academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. This treatment includes consideration of stimulant medication, nonstimulant medication, as well as alternative therapies. The child with ADHD is likely better served with a mutimodal treatment plan, including medication, parent/school counseling, and behavioral therapy. Implementing an evidenced based algorithm for the treatment of ADHD may prove to be most effective.

  8. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published evidence for a role of zinc nutrition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A computer literature search was supplemented by the authors' knowledge. Numerous controlled studies report cross-sectional evidence of lower zinc tissue levels (serum, red cells, hair, urine, nails) in children who have ADHD, compared to normal controls and population norms. A few studies show correlations of zinc level with either clinical severity or a change thereof in response to stimulant or chemical challenge. Two placebo-controlled trials--one of zinc monotherapy, the other of zinc supplementation of methylphenidate--reported significant benefit. However, diagnostic procedures and sample representativeness were often not clear, and most such reports have come from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities than are found in the United States (only one American sample in nine published reports). In particular, both positive clinical trials of zinc supplementation came from the Mid-East (Turkey and Iran), an area with suspected endemic zinc deficiency. The largest of these trials used zinc doses above the recommended upper tolerable limit and had a 2 in 3 dropout rate. It is not clear how well the accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD applies to middle-class American children. However, the evidence appears strong enough to warrant further controlled study in well-diagnosed samples representative of the socioeconomic spectrum. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed of this potential treatment that, if found effective, might become a relatively safe, cheap substitute for, or adjunct to, current treatments in some patients. At present, it should remain an investigational treatment.

  9. A boy with conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline intellectual disability, and 47,XXY syndrome in combination with a 7q11.23 duplication, 11p15.5 deletion, and 20q13.33 deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolaitis, G. (Gerasimos); C.G. Bouwkamp (Christian); A. Papakonstantinou (Alexia); I. Otheiti (Ioanna); M. Belivanaki (Maria); S. Haritaki (Styliani); T. Korpa (Terpsihori); Z. Albani (Zinovia); E. Terzioglou (Elena); P. Apostola (Polyxeni); A. Skamnaki (Aggeliki); A. Xaidara (Athena); K. Kosma (Konstantina); S. Kitsiou-Tzeli (Sophia); M. Tzetis (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. _Case presentation:_ We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the

  10. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  11. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhib...

  12. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete B; Pedersen, Preben U; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD....... Medication has proven to be very useful as it leads to less hyperactivity and enhances ability to stay focused and be more organized. Finally, insight into ADHD has a positive impact on the ability to manage the consequences of ADHD.Health professionals should, when advising adults with ADHD, fundamentally...

  13. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  14. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Ambivalent Attitudes about Teaching Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Sue E.; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on attitude theories from social psychology, we conducted a survey of Australian pre-service (n = 327) and in-service (n = 127) teachers' attitudes about teaching children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This paper reports a content analysis of beliefs, affect and behaviours towards teaching children with ADHD and…

  18. Cardiovascular Safety of Stimulants in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Kvist, Anette Primdal; Leckman, James F

    2014-01-01

    -deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also aim to examine a possible dose-response relationship in such an association. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark between 1990 and 1999. Within this cohort, children with ADHD were identified. Data from national health...

  19. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  20. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  2. Persistence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-14

    Feb 14, 2006 ... Introduction. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is marked by inattention, distractibility and impulsivity, has long been known as a childhood disorder. ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive and behavioural disorder treated in children affecting an estimated 4-12% of school aged ...

  3. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  4. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  5. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  6. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  7. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  8. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  9. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  10. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  12. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  14. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  17. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  18. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  20. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  1. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  2. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  3. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  4. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  5. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all medical students who gave consent to participate in the study. Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in ...

  8. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  9. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  10. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  11. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Abstract Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems. The most common psychiatric diagnosis among children with. Li is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conversely, Li is a frequent comorbidity found in children ...

  12. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V; Rohde, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as

  13. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  14. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  15. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  16. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  17. Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  19. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... were calculated for both girls and boys in three age-groups, for parent answers and teacher answers separately. CONCLUSION: There were significant variations in ratings of ADHD and behavioural symptoms as a function of gender and age. It is crucial, during an evaluation of a child, to compare his......, measure symptom-load and evaluate outcome of treatment of ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Apr-27...

  20. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  1. Genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Sally I; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2009-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome which is comorbid with childhood conduct disorder, alcoholism, substance abuse, dis-social personality disorder, and affective disorders. A small but consistent overlap with autistic symptoms has also been established. Twin and family studies of ADHD show a substantial genetic heritability with little or no family environmental effect. Linkage and association studies have conclusively implicated the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). DAT1 has also been confirmed as being associated with bipolar disorder. Remarkably, and for the first time in psychiatry, genetic markers at the DAT1 locus appear to be able to predict clinical heterogeneity because the non-conduct disordered subgroup of ADHD is associated with DAT1 whereas other subgroups do not appear to be associated. The second most well replicated susceptibility gene encodes the DRD4 dopamine receptor and many other dopamine related genes appear to be implicated. It is becoming increasingly clear that genes causing bipolar mania overlap with genes for a subtype of ADHD. The key to understanding the genetics of ADHD is to accept very considerable heterogeneity with different genes having effects in different families and in different individuals. It is too early to interpret the new wave of genome-wide association and copy number variant studies but preliminary data support the overlap with affective disorder genes and also with CNS connectivity genes likely to be involved in autism and affective disorders.

  2. Cortisol levels at baseline and under stress in adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with or without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2016-08-30

    Reported findings on cortisol reactivity to stress in young people with ADHD are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by high rates of comorbidity with Conduct Disorder (CD). The present study examined cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in a large sample of adolescent males with ADHD (n=202), with or without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD). Associations between stress reactivity and callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were also assessed. The ADHD only (n=95) and ADHD+CD (n=107) groups did not differ in baseline cortisol, but the ADHD+CD group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress reactivity relative to the ADHD only group. Regression analyses indicated that ADHD symptom severity predicted reduced baseline cortisol, whereas CD symptom severity predicted increased baseline cortisol (ADHD β=-0.24, CD β=0.16, R=0.26) and reduced cortisol stress reactivity (β=-0.17, R=0.17). Callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were not significantly related to baseline or stress-induced cortisol. Impaired cortisol reactivity is hypothesised to reflect fearlessness and is associated with deficient emotion regulation and inhibition of aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Consequently, it may partly explain the greater severity of problems seen in those with comorbid ADHD and CD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  4. Diagnostic Issues and Gender Differences of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Valdovinos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This literature review looks at different studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and the findings on gender differences. Many studies have analyzed male and femaleADHD behaviors, cognitive functioning, IQ, task performance, and parent/teacher and selfreportedratings. Most studies have found that the results for gender differences vary due to thevarying sample selection methods that they use, which include clinical and community samples,sample size, culture, and age. Results...

  5. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B.; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Oliveira, Jorge A. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial ...

  6. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm BM; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults...

  7. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. METHODS: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was devel...

  8. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Permatawati; Agung Triono; Mei Neni Sitaresmi

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral abnormality that commonly occurs among children. Sleep disorders are comorbid with ADHD. Sleep disorders in Indonesian children with ADHD have not been widely studied. Objective To understand the proportion and factors that influence sleep disorders in children with ADHD. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 54 children aged 3-14 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD by a pediatric growth and develo...

  9. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Juan Antonio; Aznar Casanova, José Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro Alves, Nelson; Moreno Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr...

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  12. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  13. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social s...

  14. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  15. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  17. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemosensory processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Anna; Scholz-Hehn, Deborah; Wiesner, Christian D; Wolff, Stephan; Bergmann, Til O; van Eimeren, Thilo; Lentfer, Luisa; Baving, Lioba; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    In attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only deficits in dopamine-related cognitive functioning have been found but also a lower dopamine-sensitive olfactory threshold. The aim of the present study was to proof that only olfactory but not trigeminal sensitivity is increased in ADHD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to show increased olfactory bulb (OB) volume- a structure which is strongly shaped by olfactory performance through the mechanism of neuroplasticity (e.g. synaptogenesis). To elucidate whether cortical mechanisms are involved in altered olfaction in ADHD, functional MRI (fMRI) was introduced. A total of 18 boys with ADHD and 17 healthy controls (aged 7-12) were included in the study. Olfactory as well as trigeminal detection thresholds were examined. OB sizes were measured by means of structural MRI and an analysis of effective functional (fMRI) coupling of primary olfactory cortex was conducted. The frontal piriform cortex (fPIR) was chosen as seed region because of its importance in processing both trigeminal and olfactory stimuli as well as having profound influence on inner OB-signaling. Increased olfactory sensitivity as well as an increase in OB volume was found in ADHD. There were no group differences in sensitivity towards a trigeminal stimulus. Compared to healthy controls, the fPIR in ADHD was more positively coupled with structures belonging to the salience network during olfactory and, to a lesser extent, during trigeminal stimulation. Olfactory functioning is superior in subjects with ADHD. The observed increase in OB volume may relate to higher olfactory sensitivity in terms of neuroplasticity. During the processing of chemosensory stimuli, the primary olfactory cortex in ADHD is differently coupled to higher cortical structures which might indicate an altered top-down influence on OB structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  20. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  1. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  2. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  3. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...... of immediate-release methylphenidate in adults with ADHD are of very low quality. We urgently need well-conducted long-term trials free of bias to assess the benefits and harms of central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD....

  4. Cognitive Training in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida

    Background: Many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to experience impaired cognitive functions despite medical treatment. Inadequate medical compliance and uncertain long-term effects of treatment make it necessary to explore supplementary treatments for ADHD....... Lately, several trials have shown that training with cognitive computer programs can reduce severity of symptoms and improve cognitive functions. Method: This dissertation investigates the effects of cognitive training conducted at home in children and adolescents with ADHD. The effect of cognitive...

  5. Spectrum of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) among Sudanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Elwaleed E; Mohamed, Inaam N

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is commonly encountered in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aims to determine the spectrum of ADHD among Sudanese children with epilepsy. The study was conducted at the Epilepsy and Neurodisabilities Outpatient Clinic for Children at Saad Abu Elila University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period January – July 2013. All patients with epilepsy who presented to the clinic during the study period were assessed for ADHD using psychometric q...

  6. Evaluating Sleep Disorders amongst Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Esmaeilpour; Leila Mehdizadeh Fanid; Azam Hosein nejad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most compromising mental disorders of childhood and adolescence. Subsequently, different studies in recent years were conducted on the relationship between sleep disturbances and ADHD in children. About 30% of children and 60% to 80% of adults with ADHD develop sleep disorders, which may result in cognitive and behavioral changes in the patients. The current study aimed at comparing sleep disorders in children with...

  7. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  8. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerkt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  9. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  10. MULTIVITAMINS AND POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE TREATMENT OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kuzenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effect of Multi-tabs Intello Kids with Omega-3 and Multi-tabs Teenager has been assessed in the open controlled study included 70 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, aged from 6 to 10 years . Group I and group II (20 +20 patients received Multi-tabs Intello Kids with Omega-3/or Multi-tabs Teenager as a mono therapy of cognitive dis functions (СF for 2 monthes. No pharmacological therapy was conducted in group of a control which included 30 patients with ADHD. Utilising the computer testing systems, basic of parameters CF were analyzed before and after the course of therapy. Statistically relevant positive effect of the vitaminis on cognitive functions was demonstrated.Key words: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, therapy, multivitamins.

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199-218, 2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge databases (search dates: from January 1st, 2012, to July 16th, 2016). We retained a total of 41 studies, providing information on the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD, focusing on the rates of ADHD in individuals with obesity, or reporting data useful to gain insight into possible mechanisms underlying the putative association between ADHD and obesity. Overall, over the past 4 years, an increasing number of studies have assessed the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD or the rates of ADHD in patients with obesity. Although findings are mixed across individual studies, meta-analytic evidence shows a significant association between ADHD and obesity, regardless of possible confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities. An increasing number of studies have also addressed possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity, highlighting the role, among others, of abnormal eating patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and possible common genetic alterations. Importantly, recent longitudinal studies support a causal role of ADHD in contributing to weight gain. The next generation of studies in the field should explore if and to which extent the treatment of comorbid ADHD in individuals with obesity may lead to long-term weight loss, ultimately improving their

  12. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, E.J.; Korten, N.C.M.; Comijs, H.; Michielsen, M.M.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older

  13. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of disturbances in the perception of time, temporal processing (eg, delay aversion), and stimulus seeking associated with ADHD. Disrupted connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to behavioral disinhibition. Our findings suggest involvement of the limbic system...

  14. Associations Between Autoimmune Diseases and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A cohort was formed of all singletons born in Denmark from 1990 to 2007, resulting in a study population of 983,680 individuals followed from 1995 to 2012. Information on autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that autoimmune diseases and immune activation play a part in the pathogenesis of different neurodevelopmental disorders. This study investigated the association between a personal history and a family history of autoimmune disease and the risk of developing...

  15. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  16. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.

  18. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD? For More Information Share Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Download PDF Download ePub ... organized? Have you wondered whether you might have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Our society has become ...

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  20. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  3. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  4. A review of the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Couture, Justin

    2014-02-01

    To review the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE using the terms attention deficit hyperactive disorder, ADHD, pathophysiology, etiology, and neurobiology. Limits applied were the following: published in the past 10 years (January 2003 to August 2013), humans, review, meta-analysis, and English language. These yielded 63 articles in PubMed and 74 in EMBASE. After removing duplicate/irrelevant articles, 86 articles and their relevant reference citations were reviewed. ADHD is a neurological disorder that affects children, but symptoms may persist into adulthood. Individuals suffering from this disorder exhibit hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and problems in social interaction and academic performance. Medications used to treat ADHD such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine indicate a dopamine/norepinephrine deficit as the neurochemical basis of ADHD, but the etiology is more complex. Moreover, these agents have poor adverse effect profiles and a multitude of drug interactions. Because these drugs are also dispensed to adults who may have concomitant conditions or medications, a pharmacist needs to be aware of these adverse events and drug interactions. This review, therefore, focuses on the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of ADHD and details the adverse effects and drug interaction profiles of the drugs used to treat it. Published research shows the benefit of drug therapy for ADHD in children, but given the poor adverse effect and drug interaction profiles, these must be dispensed with caution.

  5. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.

    2005-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de

  6. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  7. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  8. Utility of the electroencephalogram in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Millichap, John J; Stack, Cynthia V

    2011-07-01

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) has not been routinely utilized in the evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The utility of the EEG in ADHD is unclear. A recent study in our laboratory using sleep and sleep deprivation routinely found one in four non-epileptic children evaluated for attention deficit disorder has epileptiform discharges in the EEG, more than half focal. The majority of abnormalities (97.5%) occur in sleep and sleep-deprived records compared to 7% in prior wake only records. A review of eight publications showed that laboratories using awake only as routine EEG recordings report a relatively low prevalence of epileptiform discharges, whereas the higher prevalence of epileptiform discharges is seen in those with more prolonged sleep recordings. We have determined that sleep deprivation and sleep are essential to rule out an abnormal EEG in attention deficit disorder. In patients with attention deficit disorder complicated by epilepsy, stimulant therapy is generally safe, provided seizures are controlled by antiepileptic medication. Patients with epilepsy or subclinical electrographic abnormalities not treated with anticonvulsants are at increased risk of seizures when stimulant therapy is introduced, especially extended-release methylphenidate. Apart from an increase in risk of seizures and need for caution in use of stimulants, studies show that epileptiform discharges in the electroencephalogram are linked to a better response of attention deficit to methylphenidate and a higher cognitive performance. Transient cognitive impairment related to subclinical electrographic abnormalities responds to antiepileptic medication. An EEG is important in selected cases of attention deficit disorder and is useful in choice of medication, especially in children with lack of awareness and transient cognitive impairment.

  9. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  10. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, V; Banaschewski, T; Fillmer-Otte, A; Becker, A; Albrecht, B; Uebel, H; Sergeant, J; Tannock, R; Rothenberger, A

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the comorbidity of ADHD + CTD. Four groups (ADHD, CTD, ADHD + CTD, controls) of children with similar age, IQ and gender distribution were investigated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Color-Word Task using a factorial design. Color perception deficits, as indexed by the FMT, were found for both main factors (ADHD and CTD), but there were no interaction effects. A preponderance of deficits on the blue-yellow compared to the red-green axis was detected for ADHD. In the Stroop task only the 'pure' ADHD group showed impairments in interference control and other parameters of Stroop performance. No significant correlations between any FMT parameter and color naming in the Stroop task were found. Basic color perception deficits in both ADHD and CTD could be found. Beyond that, it could be shown that these deficits are additive in the case of comorbidity (ADHD + CTD). Performance deficits on the Stroop task were present only in the 'pure' ADHD group. Hence, the latter may be compensated in the comorbid group by good prefrontal capabilities of CTD. The influence of color perception deficits on Stroop task performance might be negligible.

  11. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  12. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  13. Reading Difficulties and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Behaviours: Evidence of an Early Association in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoni, Chiara; Balottin, Umberto; Zaccagnino, Maria; Brembilla, Laura; Livetti, Giulia; Termine, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with reading disability. A cross-sectional study in an Italian-speaking, nonclinical sample was conducted in an attempt to document the existence of an early association between reading difficulties (RD) and ADHD behaviours. We recruited a sample of 369 children in their first year at…

  14. Case Series: Evaluation of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Three Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyssomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Jennifer; Corkum, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of a behavioral sleep intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyssomnia delivered via distance treatment. Method: Three children (1 male, 2 females; aged 6-10 years) with ADHD and dyssomnia participated in a 5-week manualized intervention. Using a…

  15. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Interparental Discord among Parents of Adolescents with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is scarce regarding the prevalence of interparental discord in families of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using data collected from adolescents with childhood ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n = 46) or conduct disorder (CD; n = 23), with childhood ADHD only (n = 26), and without…

  16. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.; Franke, B.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine

  17. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.; Franke, B.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine

  18. Mothers' Reflections on the Role of the Educational Psychologist in Supporting Their Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohangi, K.; Archer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristically disruptive conduct exhibited both at school and home by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to be particularly emotionally difficult for the children's mothers, who often turn to educational professionals for guidance. With a view to improving best practice in assistance to mothers…

  19. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen-Boomsma, M. van; Vollebregt, M.A.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study started in August 2008 and ended in July 2012 and was conducted at

  20. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  1. Forethought in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An fMRI Study of Sex-Specific Differences

    OpenAIRE

    H. Poissant; L. Rapin; S. Chenail; A. Mendrek

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The majority of studies investigating neurocognitive processing in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been conducted on male participants. Few studies evaluated females or examined sex differences. Among various cognitive anomalies in ADHD, deficit in forethought seems particularly important as children with ADHD often fail to adequately use previous information in order to prepare for responses. The main goal of this study was to assess sex-specific differences i...

  2. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  3. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and

  4. [Electroencephalographic alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Nieto, José O; Borbolla-Sala, Manuel E; Gallegos-Dimas, Arturo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse and determine the electroencephalographic alterations presented in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between 4 and 14 years of age. The research consisted in a prospective observation-based analytical study, conducted between January and July 2010, to detect electroencephalographic abnormalities in the population of children diagnosed with ADHD who visited the Doctor Rodolfo Nieto Padron Children's Hospital. The Latin-American ADHD questionnaire and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were administered, together with a survey for detecting risk factors. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex, perinatal asphyxia, family history of seizures, medicine used to control ADHD, the presence of tics and itemised findings from the EEG. A note was made of whether the EEG trace was normal or abnormal and, in the case of the latter, the location of the EEG phenomenon was stated. A total of 50 patients with EEG findings were included, with an average of 7.3 years; there was a predominance of male patients, with 36 males (72%) versus 14 females (28%). We found 21 children with motor tics (42%) and four with a history of having had seizures (8%), two of whom had previously been diagnosed with epilepsy. The total number of EEG within normal limits was 31 (34.5%) and there were 19 that could be considered abnormal (15.5%). Although the presence of abnormal EEG patterns existed in a significant group, it was not related to the presence of tics in the patients. Moreover, a direct relationship was found between the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. No correlation was observed between poor educational achievement and an abnormal EEG. EEG is the best study for determining whether there are epileptogenic foci, although there is no clinical correlation. The most frequent location of the abnormalities

  5. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p perception of emotional information in adult ADHD.

  6. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluating executive function in schoolchildren with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Zamora, I P; Guzmán, G; Figueroa, B; López Cabra, C A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C

    2013-01-01

    To identify impairment of executive functions (EF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case-control study was performed on a sample of schoolchildren with low socioeconomic levels in Bogota, Colombia. ADHD was diagnosed using the DSM IV checklist and the Behavior Assessment System for Children scale. Children with cognitive deficits were excluded. We evaluated scores from six measurements of executive function (EF). We conducted a bivariate statistical analysis to compare the variables, a multivariate study controlled by sex and age, and a logistic regression analysis. The study sample included 119 children with ADHD and 85 controls, all aged between 6 and 12 years. Controlling by sex, age, and type of school showed that EF measurements in children with ADHD were significantly more impaired than in controls, especially for measurements of verbal and graphic fluency, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and cognitive flexibility. Comparison of ADHD subgroups showed that results in children with multiple deficits were similar to those in the global ADHD group. Graphic fluency impairment was the sole impairment in cases with only attention deficit or only hyperactivity-impulsivity manifestations. EF measures in children with ADHD revealed more problems, particularly those having to do within planning, inhibition, working memory and cognitive control. Age and sex may affect the degree of EF impairment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  10. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  11. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  12. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: COMORBIDITIES, EMPHASIS ON CONCURRENCE WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common cause of behavioral disorders and learning problems at preschool and school ages. Patients with ADHD are frequently found to have comorbidities that present additional diagnostic and therapeutic problems and result in an even greater decrease in quality of life in patients. Thus, ADHD is frequently concurrent with epilepsy; in this case, not only the manifestations of ADHD are more common in epilepsy, but the latter is more often encountered in patients with ADHD than in those as a whole. The authors consider the epidemiological factors and causes, which may lead to a concurrence of these two diseases in the same patient, the principles of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ADHD in epileptic patients, the specific features of treatment in this patient category. At the same time, the authors place emphasis on the fact that some antiepileptic drugs, such as barbiturates, may cause symptoms that mimic ADHD (in these cases, inattention and hyperactivity are adverse reactions of therapy and lessen or disappear after drug discontinuation or enhance the manifestations of ADHD in patients with a concurrence of these two diseases. On the other hand, care should be also taken to choose drugs for the treatment of ADHD due to the possible higher frequency of seizures. So preference should be given to the drugs having no negative effect on the course of comorbidities or those having a positive therapeutic effect against both diseases. 

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  14. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  15. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  16. Modafinil Dependence: A Case with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Huseyin; Basay, Omer; Tumkaya, Selim; Mart, Mehmet; Kar, Gokce

    2018-03-30

    Modafinil is generally known as a drug with low addiction potential. There are few case reports in the literature demonstrating that Modafinil, stated being capable of diminishing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), causes addiction. In the present article a Modafinil addicted ADHD case, consuming usurious doses (5,000 mg/per day) of Modafinil is presented. The case presented to our psychiatry outpatient clinic due to: requirement of in taking high dose Modafinil in order to achieve the initial effects, difficulty in obtaining the drug, irritability, anxiousness, sleep irregularities, fatigue and unpleasant vivid dreams when he did not use the drug. It was realized that the patient, himself increased doses of Modafinil incrementally, in order to keep its effects on attention symptoms at the same level. It has to be kept in mind that ADHD patients can develop Modafinil addiction. It is necessary to carry out systemic studies on this subject.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  19. Children's accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Judy; Hatton, Diane; Beckett, Ann; Leo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As a postmodern illness, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is embedded in controversy, reflective of the cultural times in which we live. Within this debate, 2 perspectives, ADHD as myth and ADHD as behavioral disorder, are most frequently voiced. This article describes these 2 differing perspectives and reports qualitative data from 39 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD regarding their perceptions, meanings,and experiences of living with this disorder. None of the participants in this study denied that they had difficulties and many of the difficulties they described corresponded to DSM-IV-R criteria and the scientific literature. Given these discoveries, the continual debate about the authenticity of ADHD only further victimizes families who are in desperate need of services.

  20. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  1. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  2. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy

    2004-03-01

    There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of multiple unrelated pharmacological agents in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) individuals throughout the life-cycle. The available literature indicates the important role of psychopharmacological agents in the reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairments. The literature documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviours of ADHD, but also improves self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function. However, response varied in different age groups and with certain comorbidities. In addition there is a large body of literature documenting the efficacy of atomoxetine which shows improvement in these same domains. More research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments and to further evaluate established therapeutics beyond school-aged Caucasian boys. Further, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment for comorbid ADHD, use of combined medications, and the combination of medication and psychosocial treatment.

  4. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  5. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  7. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  8. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  9. Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkoff, Joshua; Greenfield, Brian

    2006-06-01

    With increased awareness that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist beyond childhood, pharmacological treatment options for adults have expanded. Short-acting stimulants continue to be the first-line approach, demonstrating clinical efficacy and few adverse events in well-controlled trials, with long-acting stimulants also showing promise. Atomoxetine has also been reported to improve ADHD symptoms and associated dysfunction, although longer-term, head-to-head studies with stimulants are needed. Several antidepressants (e.g., desipramine and buproprion) appear to be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD, but to a lesser extent than stimulants. Data are limited in evaluating the impact of combining pharmacological treatments for ADHD and comorbid conditions. This paper describes the safety and efficacy of medications for treating the core symptoms, psychosocial features and cognitive dysfunctions associated with adult ADHD.

  10. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  11. Does Restless Legs Syndrome increase cardiovascular risk in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome with or without Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep. When comorbid, Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might aggravate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder may be associated, at least in some cases, with adverse cardiovascular events, including clinically significant elevation in heart rate and systemic blood pressure. However, the characteristics of patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at risk for cardiovascular events during pharmacological treatment are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that Restless Legs Syndrome and/or Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep comorbid with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder increase cardiovascular risk via imbalance in activity of the autonomic nervous system. Such an imbalance of the could be related to alterations of sleep microarchitecture also detected by cyclic alternating pattern analysis. If empirical studies confirm our hypothesis, the clinician would be advised to systematically screen for and effectively treat Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep even before starting treatment with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder drugs. The management of Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might reduce cardiovascular risk during pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yousefi-Nouraie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. Children with ADHD may experience significant functional problems. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in Iran. "nMethods: Pubmed, ISI web of science, psychinfo, Iranpsych, Iranmedex, Irandoc were searched. Irandoc, Iranmedex and Iranpsych are Iranian databases of which the last one is especially for psychiatry and psychology literature.Inclusion criteria were:  conducting studies by random sampling, using valid instruments to assess ADHD diagnosis or symptoms ,and presenting a prevalence of ADHD or attention deficit and / or hyperactivity symptoms. "nResults: after quality assessment, 16 studies were accepted. Their estimation of prevalence was different as different scales were used. Hyperactive type was more prevalent in boys, and inattentive type was more prevalent in girls. "nConclusion: Being aware of the epidemiology of ADHD in Iran helps us to make improvements in planning the allocation of funds for mental health services. Using one instrument in studying the prevalence of ADHD in a population may lead to more precise estimations.

  13. Does attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a dimensional latent structure? A taxometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K; Barry, Tammy D

    2011-05-01

    An understanding of the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is essential for developing causal models of this disorder. Although some researchers have presumed that ADHD is dimensional and others have assumed that it is taxonic, there has been relatively little research directly examining the latent structure of ADHD. The authors conducted a set of taxometric analyses using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (ns between 667 and 1,078). The results revealed a dimensional latent structure across a variety of different analyses and sets of indicators for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. Furthermore, analyses of correlations with associated features indicated that dimensional models demonstrated stronger validity coefficients with these criterion measures than dichotomous models. These findings jibe with recent research on the genetic basis of ADHD and with contemporary models of ADHD.

  14. Adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Scale in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tüba KÜÇÜK DOĞAROĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale (Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish. This study was done 343 mother whose children with DEHB and 7 – 9 years old. Gender of mothers’ children is 132 girls and 211 boys. Age of children is that 82 children are 7 years old, 141 children are 8 years old and 120 children are 9 years old. Datas are gathering by Vanderbilt ADHD PRS and data form. Validity and reliability of scale was examined exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha. Results reveal that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish included 45 items which had 4 factors (inattention / hyperactivity / oppositional and conduct disorder / depression – anxiety. Results indicated that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish is valid and reliable scale

  15. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.

  16. Fever and infections in pregnancy and risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hvolby, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fever and infections are common events during pregnancy, and have been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. The evidence in relation to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, however, nonexistent for fever and limited for infections....... The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the impact of these exposures on the occurrence of ADHD in the offspring, considering gestational timing as well as intensity of exposure. Methods: The study was conducted within the Danish National Birth Cohort, using data on 89,146 pregnancies enrolled...

  17. Early discontinuation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug treatment: a danish nationwide drug utilization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, B. K.; Kortegaard, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of patterns of treatment discontinuation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment is of importance, for both the clinical practice and the study of long-term treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe early discontinuation of ADHD drug treatment....... Using the Danish National Prescription Registry, all first-time users of the ADHD drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine were identified between 2000 and 2012. Early discontinuation was defined as failing to fill a second prescription for any ADHD drug within 6 months. Analyses were conducted stratified...

  18. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  19. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  20. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Oliveira, Jorge A de

    2015-01-01

    To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children. Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization. Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample. The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  1. [Executive function training in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Sirera-Conca, M Angeles; Cornesse, Marcel; Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2011-03-01

    A number of different treatments have been proposed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little material has been published in the literature to improve the performance of the mechanisms behind attention, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory in these children. We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding of the syndromes involved in this deficit. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive under-standing of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.

  2. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From parents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Zamora-Miramón, I; Guzmán-Ramírez, G M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recognised a heritability factor in that a higher frequency of the disorder is observed in children with an affected relative. Our aim was to determine the association between ADHD symptoms in young children enrolled in five schools in Bogota and a history of ADHD symptoms in their parents using the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Case-control study of participants selected according to DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) completed by parents and teachers; the WISC-IV scale was used to exclude children with cognitive deficit. Parents completed the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to retrospectively identify any ADHD symptoms in childhood. A score of 36 was used as a cutoff point. The study included 202 children: 117 cases and 85 controls. A positive history of ADHD symptoms in childhood was identified for 16% of 175 mothers and 20.6% of 141 fathers. The presence of symptoms in either parent, especially the mother, constitutes a significant risk factor for ADHD in children and this relationship persists after controlling for different variables. If both parents have the disorder, the risk tends to increase. Although ADHD has been linked to a genetic component, other environmental factors may be involved in the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  5. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  6. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  7. Sociocultural issues in african american and Hispanic minorities seeking care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Jaquez-Gutierrez, Marisela C; Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    To review the sociocultural factors that may affect the diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American and Hispanic minorities seen in the primary care setting in the United States. Searches on MEDLINE and PubMed were conducted in April and September 2012 on ADHD and its related problems and disabilities. A general search was conducted using the terms (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR AD/HD) AND (ethnicity OR cultural OR culture). Issues of particular relevance to racial and ethnic minorities utilizing health care services were researched using the string (black OR African OR Hispanic OR Latino OR minority OR racial) combined with terms relating to access, insurance, comorbidity, high-risk behavior, treatment compliance, and nonpharmacologic modalities. Searches were limited to English-language citations, and no date parameters were used. References identified as pertinent to this review were selected for citation. Information revealing contrasts between minorities and the US non-Hispanic white population was organized in distinct categories, such as access to medical care and insurance, cultural attitudes, and the effects of stigmatization. The authors also provide perspectives for the primary care physician from their own clinical experience. Rates of diagnosis of in the United States are higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minorities, yet true prevalence is probably similar across racial-ethnic groups. When the stigma of mental illness is added to the challenges faced by racial/ethnic minorities or immigrant status, patients may be especially sensitive. Underuse of clinical services may reflect economic limitations on access to care, cultural attitudes toward mental illness, and the effects of real or perceived prejudice and stigmatization. Primary care clinicians in the United States should seek to become more aware of cultural factors that could

  8. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  9. Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline F. Saad; Kristi R. Griffiths; Michael R. Kohn; Simon Clarke; Leanne M. Williams; Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I (n?=?16) or as ADH...

  10. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  11. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  12. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  13. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  15. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  16. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  17. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  18. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, S.D.; Luman, M.; Greven, C.U.; Veroude, K.; Faraone, S.V.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  19. Circadian rhythm disruption as a link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.W.; Bijlenga, D.; Tanke, M.; Bron, T.I.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Swaab, H.; Beekman, A.T.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether circadian rhythmdisruption is a mechanismlinking ADHD symptoms to obesity. Methods: ADHD symptoms and two manifestations of circadian

  20. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...... with professionals in diverse settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of health care and other services. INCLUSION...

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and personality characteristics in older adults in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Comijs, H.C.; Semeijn, E.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors wanted to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality characteristics and the potential mediating role of these characteristics in the relationship between ADHD and depression in older adults in the general Dutch population.

  2. Functional disconnection of frontal cortex and visual cortex in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazaheri, A.; Coffey-Corina, S.; Mangun, G.R.; Bekker, E.M.; Berry, A.S.; Corbett, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current pathophysiologic models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that impaired functional connectivity within brain attention networks may contribute to the disorder. In this electroencephalographic (EEG) study, we analyzed cross-frequency amplitude correlations

  3. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  4. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  5. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  6. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  7. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Carlier, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lubke, G.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  8. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  9. Oral and Dental Health Problems of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, and Solution Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan Çağıl Yetiş; Zuhal Kırzıoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood onset behavioral disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate attention deficit, hyperactivity-impulsivity or a combination of these. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology. Because of the behavioral problems sourced from the disease itself and side effects of the drugs used in therapy, children with ADHD take place in the risk group in terms of oral and dental health problems ...

  10. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; Moura, Luciana Monteiro de; Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Souza, Altay Alves Lino de; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  11. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CS; Chaim-Avancini TM; Silva MA; Louzã MR

    2015-01-01

    Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH), Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities o...

  12. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities wer...

  13. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  14. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine; Lykkedegn, Sine; Christesen, Henrik T; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L ( p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L ( p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D. An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in ancient Greece: The Obtuse Man of Theophrastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Marcelo M; S da Silva, Bruna; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bau, Claiton Hd; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2018-04-01

    We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sentences describing The Obtuse Man written by Theophrastus are similar to several symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and he would probably be currently diagnosed with this disorder as an adult. To our knowledge, this is the oldest description compatible with the current conception of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults in the Western literature. Differently than the moralistic view of ancient Greece regarding those symptoms, the medical attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder conception may be advantageous to patients since it might reduce prejudice and allow individuals to seek treatment.

  16. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  17. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sandra S; Kumar, Sajeesh; Williams, Nancy J

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects, if any, of specific medication used to manage the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for dental caries. A reported side-effect of the medication is a reduction in saliva. Healthy saliva has been shown to play many important functions in the prevention of dental caries. The focus of this review is to determine if any evidence exists to confirm that stimulant medication used to treat the symptoms of ADHD in children increases the risk of dental caries by virtue of its effect on the reduction of salivary flow. A MEDLINE search was conducted for relevant studies. Search terms used were dental caries, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, pharmacologic treatment of ADHD, stimulant medication, xerostomia, dry-mouth and saliva flow. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2012. Although dental caries prevalence has been found to be higher in children with ADHD, decreased salivary flow as a side-effect of pharmacological treatment does not appear to be responsible. Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease process. The most effective method of reducing dental caries in ADHD children is more frequent recare visits focusing on home plaque removal practices along with dietary counseling to reduce the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks. This can only be accomplished with inclusion of the parent/guardian in the process. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W.N.; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Kooij, J. J.Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. Methods N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. METHODS: N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  20. A feasibility study on the effectiveness of a full-body videogame intervention for decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdmeester, J.W.; Cima, M.; Granic, I.; Hashemian, Y.; Gotsis, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a full-body-driven intervention videogame targeted at decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, specifically inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and motor deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The

  1. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  2. Living in a family with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Øyfrid Larsen; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    To describe experiences of everyday life in families with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a highly prevalent, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by behavioural symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that creates impairments for the child and affects the family life. The impairments vary with age and context, and the same symptoms do not necessarily have the same effects in different contexts and persons. A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach. Family members, mothers, fathers, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17) were interviewed individually. The findings include two descriptive categories 'safeguarding a functioning family' and 'fighting for acceptance and inclusion'. To create a stable and structured family life to avoid conflicts within the family and manage their daily life were crucial. The child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents developed special skills and strategies to live with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the family sphere and the social context. To apply for help before the problems in the family become too severe and to share responsibility with professionals, who have competence, to meet the families in their worries were stressed. The striving in the family strengthened the companionship in the families, and they conceived growth. This study contributes to knowledge of the parents, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder experiences of everyday life with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. All family members need support before their problems become too severe. There is a need of family-focused approach with a dialogue with family members to share the view of their situation and identify their individual resources and needs. Nurses should help these families with family supervision.

  3. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju

    2008-08-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased. Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.

  5. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a prebariatric surgery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Barbara; Mueller, Astrid; Horbach, Thomas; Martin, Alexandra; de Zwaan, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that obese children, adolescents and adults frequently suffer from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD in a group of patients with grade 3 obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) prior to bariatric surgery. We assessed 116 patients for childhood and adult ADHD, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, severity of depression and daytime sleepiness. Fourteen participants (12.1%) screened positive for adult ADHD. Even though this rate is higher compared with prevalence rates in representative population samples, it was not elevated compared with a group of morbidly obese individuals in a German general population sample (14.3%). Adult ADHD was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and more psychotherapy contact in the past but not with binge eating disorder or daytime sleepiness. As ADHD appears to be a common condition in morbidly obese individuals, the impact of adult ADHD on postsurgical weight loss needs to be examined. Besides, the causal link between obesity and ADHD in adults should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity.A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants.Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  8. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a chronic care paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Larry; Fried, Ronna

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence and disease burden of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that primary care physicians (PCPs) have an opportunity to improve the functioning and quality of life of a significant number of adult patients. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines that recognize ADHD as a chronic condition, and a large proportion of children with ADHD continue to meet diagnostic criteria as adults. Therefore, the management of ADHD should incorporate principles common to the management of other chronic conditions, including proactive planning for continuity of treatment across the life span and integrated, multidisciplinary health care teams for optimal disease management. This article describes a clinical approach whereby adult ADHD is treated within a chronic care paradigm that prominently features the involvement of the PCP. If PCPs envision ADHD as a chronic illness, similar to asthma or diabetes, they may be less likely to refer individuals to be managed by specialists, and more likely to see their role in coordinating and monitoring adult ADHD care, knowing when and how to bring other resources into play, and when and how to educate patients.

  10. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Golmirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls. All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001. The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001, history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039, abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001, unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001, and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001. Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.

  11. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  12. School-based assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M S; Pelham, W E

    1991-04-01

    Schools are uniquely situated to provide information relevant to the assessment and treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across a variety of tasks, settings, and observers. The importance of the school setting to the assessment and treatment of ADHD has resulted in the development of numerous measures appropriate for such assessment, but few guidelines for their use. The purpose of this article is to describe school-based assessment procedures and their relationship to ADHD. These procedures include teacher rating measures, direct observations in classrooms and on playgrounds, peer rating and sociometric measures, and permanent product measures such as academic performance. It is recommended that school-based assessment of ADHD involve the concurrent use of multiple measures to assess adequately the wide variety of symptoms associated with this disorder. It is further recommended that assessment serve the purpose of determining treatment efficacy to avoid unwarranted preoccupation with diagnostic issues that are as yet unresolved. The components of a comprehensive school-based assessment of ADHD are described, and their relationship to school-based treatment is discussed.

  13. [Usefulness of the Stroop test in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Serrano-Pintado, Isabel; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Sánchez-Mateos, Juan Delgado; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2010-03-16

    The aim of this study is to analyse the differences in the Stroop effect between cases with attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and controls. It also seeks to find the best model based on the third task of the colours and words test (Stroop-CW) for predicting ADHD and to analyse the validity of the Stroop-CW test for diagnosing the disorder. The sample studied consisted of 100 cases of ADHD -according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria- and 100 controls, between 7 and 11 years of age, who were evaluated using the Stroop test. The controls were recruited at random and paired by age, sex and sociodemographic area with the cases. The cases present a mean cognitive style that is significantly less flexible (d = -1.06) and they also display a lower capacity to inhibit or control automatic responses than the controls at all ages (7 years: d = 1.67; 8 years: d = 1.02; 9 years: d = 1.32; 10 years: d = 2.04; 11 years: d = 0.89). The model of logistic regression analysis that best predicts ADHD is made up of age and Stroop-CW. The formulation derived from the model offers a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%, taking the criteria of the DSM-IV for ADHD as the reference test. The Stroop-CW test presents usefulness and complementary criteria validity for the diagnosis of ADHD.

  14. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jin Zhen; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  15. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  16. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  17. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  18. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Orthodontic treatment of children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessah, Stéphanie; Montluc, Nathalie; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Decosse, Michel-Henri

    2009-09-01

    Successful orthodontic treatment requires the child's cooperation. Yet how can this be achieved when this cooperation is compromised by a neurobehavioural disorder: the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This disorder, slightly tracked down, common in children, leads to hyperactivity, impulsiveness and a short attention span. The objective of this survey is to compare the challenges of conducting orthodontic treatment on children who have or have not been diagnosed and treated by a multi-disciplinary medical team. The data of this survey was collected from orthodontists in Paris and Strasbourg, and from graduate orthodontics students. The orthodontic treatment of 30 children (25 males and 5 females) between 8 and 15 years, affected by ADHD (half have been diagnosed and treated by a multi-disciplinary team) are compared to 30 control subjects. The results highlight the therapeutic difficulties (with behavior, attention span, cooperation, hygiene and dental trauma) encountered with children affected by ADHD (especially those who did not benefit from multidisciplinary follow up) compared to control population. In conclusion, hyperactive children present more challenges during an orthodontic treatment compared to a control population. Nevertheless, the treatment is easier when children are diagnosed and treated multimodally. Further studies are required on a wider population to confirm the differences in therapeutic difficulties.

  20. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  1. Does Severity of Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder impact Trauma in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. It is the most common childhood mental disorder. The key aspects of ADHD may put the affected children at risk for different traumatic experiences. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the severity of trauma and ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the target population included 90 children aged 6-12 years old, visiting Imam Reza, Children, Sina, and Shohada Hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. The severity of trauma was assessed, using placebo transdermal system (PTS, and the ADHD symptoms were evaluated, using Conners' Parent Rating Scale. To rule out other psychiatric disorders, the Child Symptoms Inventory-4 (CSI-4 was employed. Results: Results showed a significant positive correlation between the severity of trauma and ADHD, hyperactivity, oppositional/impulsivity, and attention-deficit scores (P < 0.01. In addition, results from the independent t-test suggested a significance difference between the ADHD and non-ADHD children in terms of the severity of trauma. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the symptoms of ADHD and the severity of trauma in children, in a way that the scores of the aforementioned variables improved with increasing the severity of trauma. Regarding the profound effects of trauma on human and financial resources, required measures should be taken for making house and school settings safe for such children.

  2. The effect of adding ferrous sulfate to methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Panahandeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children with several complications. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding ferrous sulfate to methylphenidate in decreasing ADHD symptoms. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. In this study, 42 nonanemic children with ADHD and serum ferritin below 30 mg/ml were enrolled according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups of 21 each, cases and controls. The two groups were matched for age and sex. The case group was administered with ferrous sulfate 5 mg/kg in addition to methylphenidate up to 1 mg/kg and the control group with methylphenidate alone. The scores on child symptoms inventory-4 (CSI-4 were recorded at baseline and after 2 months of treatment. Data were analyzed by t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS 16. The scores on CSI-4 decreased significantly at month 2 in both groups (P < 0.001. The scores on attention deficit and hyperactivity subscales of the CSI-4 were significantly lower in the case group than the control group (P < 0.05. The total score on CSI-4 decreased more markedly in the case group (P < 0.04. Use of ferrous sulfate plus methylphenidate can be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in nonanemic children with low serum ferritin.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  4. The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy on Reducing Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deilami, Mostafa; Jahandideh, Asghar; Kazemnejad, Yousef; Fakour, Yousef; Alipoor, Shiva; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Pournesaie, Ghazal Saadat; Heidari, Rosemarie Noot; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based...

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  6. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  7. Quality of Life of Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Tari D.; Edwards, Todd C.; Patrick, Donald L.; Varley, Patti; Way, Margaret E.; Buesching, Don P.

    2004-01-01

    Most psychosocial research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on deficits in school, family, or behavioral functioning without incorporating perceived quality of life (QoL) or the adolescents' perspective. The Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R), was used to assess self-perceived QoL in a…

  8. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  9. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...

  10. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, H. van; Weeda, W.D.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Luman, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in

  11. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  12. Associations between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation would be mediated by the level of depressive symptoms. Seven hundred and eighty-eight high school girls completed the Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form, Children's Depression Inventory, and Reynolds Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Path analyses were conducted using the statistical program, AMOS version 4.0, to determine the best fitting model. The conduct, cognitive, and hyperactivity problems of the ADHD symptoms in each domain were associated positively with the depressive symptoms, with the depressive symptoms being associated with suicidal ideation. This initially proposed model represented an acceptable fit to the data (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA=0.077; normed fit index, NFI=0.998; non-NFI, NNFI=0.990; comparative fit index, CFI=0.998). The inclusion of a direct path from the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms to suicidal ideation significantly improved the model fit (RMSEA=0, NFI=1, NNFI=1, CFI=1). The results of our study suggest that depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation, and that the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms are associated with suicidal ideation both directly and indirectly via the depressive symptoms in Korean female adolescents. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following neonatal aortic arch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistino, Joseph J; Atz, Andrew M; Simpson, Kit N; Ellis, Charles; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott M

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population of children who underwent neonatal heart surgery involving repair of the aortic arch for Norwood Stage I, interrupted aortic arch, and combined repair of aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 were surveyed using the ADHD-IV and the Child Heath Questionnaire-50. Classification as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was defined for this study as either a parent-reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD-IV inattention score of ⩾93 percentile. Of the 134 surveys, 57 (43%) were returned completed. A total of 25 (44%) children either had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or ADHD-IV inattention score ⩾93 percentile. Eleven of the 13 (85%) children with interrupted aortic arch, 3 of the 7 (42.9%) children with combined coarctation/ventricular septal defect repair, and 9 of the 33 (27.3%) children with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome were classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Only 7 of the 25 (28%) children received medical treatment for this condition. Quality of life indicators in the Child Heath Questionnaire-50 Questionnaire were highly correlated with the ADHD-IV scores. The risks for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are multifactorial but are significantly increased in this post-surgical population. This study revealed a low treatment rate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a significant impact on the quality of life in these children.

  14. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Interparental Discord among Parents of Adolescents with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is scarce regarding the prevalence of interparental discord in families of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using data collected from adolescents with childhood ADHD and comorbid oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD; n = 46) or conduct disorder (CD; n =23), with childhood ADHD-only (n = 26), and without ADHD (n = 88), and their mothers, maternal and adolescent reports of interparental discord were compared. Adolescents with ADHD+CD reported witnessing m...

  15. Mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and smoking/drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college stu...

  16. A serious game for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Who benefits the most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Maras, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. Method Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective. Primary outcome measures were parent-reported time management, planning/organizing and cooperation skills. Results Two subgroups were identified. Girls (n = 26) were identified as the subgroup that was most likely to show greater improvements in planning/organizing skills as compared to the estimated treatment effect of the total group of participants. Furthermore, among the boys, those (n = 47) with lower baseline levels of hyperactivity and higher levels of CD symptoms showed more improvements in their planning/organizing skills when they played the SG intervention as compared to the estimated treatment effect of the total group of participants. Conclusion Using a VT analysis two subgroups of children with ADHD, girls, and boys with both higher levels of CD and lower levels of hyperactivity, were identified. These subgroups mostly benefit from playing the SG intervention developed to improve ADHD related behavioral problems. Our results imply that these subgroups have a higher chance of treatment success. PMID:29543891

  17. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this NIH Consensus Statement is to inform the biomedical research and clinical practice communities of the results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The statement provides state-of-the-art information regarding effective treatments for ADHD and presents the conclusions and recommendations of the consensus panel regarding these issues. In addition, the statement identifies those areas of study that deserve further investigation. Upon completion of this educational activity, the reader should possess a clear working clinical knowledge of the state of the art regarding this topic. The target audience of clinicians for this statement includes, but is not limited to, psychiatrists, family practitioners, pediatricians, internists, neurologists psychologists, and behavioral medicine specialists. Participants were a non-Federal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of psychology, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, epidemiology, biostatistics, education and the public. In addition, 31 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1215. The literature was searched through Medline and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft

  19. Anxiety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Lycett, Kate; Efron, Daryl; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Although anxiety is common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is unclear how anxiety influences the lives of these children. This study examined the association between anxiety comorbidities and functioning by comparing children with ADHD and no, 1, or ≥2 anxiety comorbidities. Differential associations were examined by current ADHD presentation (subtype). Children with diagnostically confirmed ADHD (N = 392; 5-13 years) were recruited via 21 pediatrician practices across Victoria, Australia. Anxiety was assessed by using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Functional measures included parent-reported: quality of life (QoL; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0), behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), daily functioning (Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior), and school attendance. Teacher-reported behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were also examined. Linear and logistic regression controlled for ADHD severity, medication use, comorbidities, and demographic factors. Children with ≥2 anxiety comorbidities (n = 143; 39%) had poorer QoL (effect size: -0.8) and more difficulties with behavior (effect size: 0.4) and daily functioning (effect size: 0.3) than children without anxiety (n = 132; 36%). Poorer functioning was not observed for children with 1 anxiety comorbidity (n = 95; 26%). Two or more anxiety comorbidities were associated with poorer functioning for children with both ADHD-Inattentive and ADHD-Combined presentation. Children with ADHD demonstrate poorer QoL, daily functioning and behavior when ≥2 anxiety comorbidities are present. Future research should examine whether treating anxiety in children with ADHD improves functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel J; Mason, Oren; Clemow, David B; Day, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a CNS disorder that has its onset in childhood, but often persists into adulthood. There is growing recognition that adult ADHD can result in multiple negative consequences for individuals. ADHD is also often associated with a number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, was approved in the United States in 2002 for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, as well as adults. We review here the safety and efficacy of ATX in adults with ADHD, including data in special populations, functional outcomes, as well as provider and patient real-world perceptions. We searched the databases Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO using the terms 'ADHD' and 'adult' and 'ATX' capturing publications from January 1, 1998, to March 27, 2014. Only publications in English were considered. ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than placebo (PBO) on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator rated:Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) in all trials (N = 6; total score difference ranged from -3.5 to -5.5). For long-term trials using the CAARS-Inv:SV, ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than PBO in three of four trials (total score differences ranged from -0.1 to -6.0). In short-term studies, ATX showed significantly greater improvement than PBO on the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life scale total score in three of three studies, but results were mixed on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Three studies of ATX have reported statistically significant improvement (compared with PBO) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self Report scale. The most common adverse events (occurring in ≥ 10% of patients taking ATX) were nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, insomnia and fatigue. ATX is an important treatment option for the right patient. ATX can provide long-term, consistent symptom relief and functional improvement

  1. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  2. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm Bm; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-14

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults with ADHD, thereby focusing on the developmental trajectory of the condition. Furthermore, it was aimed to identify factors contributing to prevention and intervention of stigmatization in ADHD. Stigma responses of 170 teachers and 170 comparison participants were measured and compared with a recently developed tool for the assessment of stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the contribution of knowledge about ADHD and the frequency of contact with adults with ADHD to stigmatization were explored. Teachers showed significantly less stigmatizing attitudes than comparison participants in various dimensions, including Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication and the total scale. With regard to teachers, frequency of contact with adults with ADHD was not related to stigma. However, knowledge about the disorder was negatively correlated with stigma in teachers, indicating lower expressed stigma with increasing knowledge about adult ADHD. Teachers demonstrated more sensitized attitudes towards stigma in adults with ADHD than comparison participants. Since the present results indicate that knowledge about ADHD increase the sensitivity towards the disorder, special education programs for the community may have the potential to reduce stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Possibilities for intervention strategies of stigmatization in educational settings were discussed.

  3. [Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ji, Ning; Guan, Li-li; Chen, Yun; Qian, Qiu-jin; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    To study age distribution of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidities in a relatively large sample, and exam the hypothesis of bad prognosis for ADHD. Using semi-structured clinical diagnosis interview scale, we investigated comorbidities of 1,002 ADHD children and adolescents from psychiatric out-patient clinic, and compared comorbidity frequency in 4 age groups. The comorbidity frequencies of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), mood disorder, tics disorder and learning disorder (LD) in different age groups of ADHD patients differed significantly (Pdisorder in the age group of 12-14 years (124 cases,51.5%;18 cases,7.5%, respectively) were more than those in the 6-8 years group (160 cases,41.7%;9 cases,2.3%, respectively; PTics disorder in the 12-14 years group (50 cases,20.8%)was more than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years group (for the 6-8 years group, 51 cases,13.4%;for the 9-11 years group , 42 cases,12.5%; Pdisorder grew up with age. The comorbidity frequency of the 9-11 years group (106 cases,31.5%) was significantly higher than that of the 6-8 years group (80 cases,20.9%; PADHD patients without any comorbidities in the two age groups more than 12 years (for the 12-14 years group, 29 cases,12.0%;for the 15-17 years group, 4 cases,10.0%)were less than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years (for the 6-8 years group, 126 cases,32.8%;for the 9-11 years group, 110 cases,32.6%; Pdisorders increase as the ADHD children become adolescents. The situation is severer in late adolescence. Therefore, ADHD children should accept appropriate treatment as early as possible, and adopt the second degree prevention actively.

  4. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: nonstimulant medication approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2007-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common chronic health conditions and mental disorders affecting school-aged children. Prevalence with a conservative estimate is reported to be 3-5% of this population. Boys are approximately three-times more likely to be diagnosed than girls. The diagnosis refers to a family of related chronic neurobiological disorders that interfere with an individual's capacity to regulate activity level, inhibit behavior and attend to tasks in developmentally appropriate ways. Signs and symptoms of ADHD are typically present during the preschool period or in the early elementary school years, and the diagnosis requires that difficulties were present at or before age 7 years and create problems or impairment in at least two areas of the child's life (e.g., at school, on the playground, on the bus, at home or socially with peers). Stimulants are the first-line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of ADHD. Between 10 and 30% of those affected with ADHD may not respond to stimulants or may not be able to tolerate associated side effects, such as appetite suppression, sleep disturbance, mood difficulties or exacerbation of comorbid tic disorders. In such instances, or when families are unwilling to consider a stimulant, nonstimulant medications may be appealing. Several nonstimulant medications that affect noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic pathways have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ADHD, although effect sizes are comparable with methylphenidate, fewer data have accumulated regarding the safety profile of nonstimulants in general. This review focuses on etiology, assessment and treatment of ADHD, in particular alternative treatment approaches with various nonstimulant agents, especially atomoxetine.

  5. Progress and Promise of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; McGough, James J.; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D4 receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic α2A-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D5 receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  6. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubig, Paul A.; Aguiar, Andréa; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, yet its etiology is not well understood. In this review we present evidence that environmental chemicals, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead, are associated with deficits in many neurobehavioral functions that are also impaired in ADHD. Data sources Human and animal studies of developmental PCB or lead exposures that assessed specific functional domains shown to be impaired in ADHD children were identified via searches of PubMed using “lead” or “PCB exposure” in combination with key words, including “attention,” “working memory,” “response inhibition,” “executive function,” “cognitive function,” “behavior,” and “ADHD.” Data synthesis Children and laboratory animals exposed to lead or PCBs show deficits in many aspects of attention and executive function that have been shown to be impaired in children diagnosed with ADHD, including tests of working memory, response inhibition, vigilance, and alertness. Studies conducted to date suggest that lead may reduce both attention and response inhibition, whereas PCBs may impair response inhibition to a greater degree than attention. Low-level lead exposure has been associated with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in several recent studies. Similar studies of PCBs have not been conducted. Conclusions We speculate that exposures to environmental contaminants, including lead and PCBs, may increase the prevalence of ADHD. PMID:20829149

  8. Atypical neural responses to vocal anger in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Georgia; Benikos, Nicholas; Fairchild, Graeme; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-04-01

    Deficits in facial emotion processing, reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been linked to both early perceptual and later attentional components of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, the neural underpinnings of vocal emotion processing deficits in ADHD have yet to be characterised. Here, we report the first ERP study of vocal affective prosody processing in ADHD. Event-related potentials of 6-11-year-old children with ADHD (n = 25) and typically developing controls (n = 25) were recorded as they completed a task measuring recognition of vocal prosodic stimuli (angry, happy and neutral). Audiometric assessments were conducted to screen for hearing impairments. Children with ADHD were less accurate than controls at recognising vocal anger. Relative to controls, they displayed enhanced N100 and attenuated P300 components to vocal anger. The P300 effect was reduced, but remained significant, after controlling for N100 effects by rebaselining. Only the N100 effect was significant when children with ADHD and comorbid conduct disorder (n = 10) were excluded. This study provides the first evidence linking ADHD to atypical neural activity during the early perceptual stages of vocal anger processing. These effects may reflect preattentive hyper-vigilance to vocal anger in ADHD. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Use of complementary medicine in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Tsur, Varda; Lahad, Amnon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2003-07-01

    We retrospectively studied use of complementary medicine in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, epilepsy, and controls. Parents of patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 120; mean age 11.0 +/- 3.1 years), epilepsy (n = 115; 10.9 +/- 5.5), and healthy children seen in the emergency room during an acute illness (n = 115; 5.0 +/- 4.9) were individually interviewed regarding past and present use of complementary medicine. We found that 34 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 37 with epilepsy, and 24 controls had, at some time during their life, received complementary medicine: diet (n = 50), homeopathy (n = 46), acupuncture (n = 23), and biofeedback (n = 9). Current use was significantly less: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- 7.5%, epilepsy-14%, and controls-7%. No differences among groups were found for either past use or method of complementary medicine employed. However, the most significant predictor for current use of complementary medicine was past use (OR 3.2, P epilepsy (OR = 1.7) and children from religious families (OR = 1.51) to be currently receiving complementary medicine. In summary, only a small minority of patients with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or epilepsy used complementary medicine as part of their current medical regimen, although during their lifetime a third had received complementary medicine. Complementary medicine was more consistently used in children who had previously received complementary medicine, regardless of their medical diagnosis.

  10. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  11. Information Processing Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Type, and Children with Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Michael David; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Bellinger, David; Waber, Deborah P.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=24), reading disability (RD) (n=33), both (n=9), or controls. Children with ADHD were characterized by difficulty with a visual search task whereas children with RD had difficulty with an auditory processing task. Specifically, children with ADHD…

  12. [Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax-Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Khaoula; Ayadi, Héla; Moalla, Yousr; Yaich, Sourour; Hadjkacem, Imen; Walha, Adel; Damak, Jamel; Ghribi, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Frequency, social impact, the negative effects of ADHD on personal development, make it a public health problem. Tunisian existing data confirm its frequency and severity in clinical population. The absence of data in student population has led us to develop this work.The objectives of our study were to study epidemiological profile of ADHD in school population. The analysis involved a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from April 2008 to October 2008 using a representative randomized multistage sample of schoolchildren between 6 and 12 years old. Measurement was performed in two stages first the parents and teachers of each children filled Conners questionnaire separately then students with the score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity with impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview. Psychiatric interview was intended to confirm or refute the diagnosis of ADHD. The diagnoses were made according to DSM IV-TR. To study the possible associated factors with the disorder they were compared in children with ADHD and children without the disorder taken as controls. A total of 51 students out of 513 had ADHD. Prevalence was found to be 9,94%. For the study of factors associated with ADHD were found in males, neonatal hospitalization, psychiatric and family history of ADHD and the existence of a family dysfunctionment. Our prevalence is similar to the majority of those reported by studies conducted through the same methodology as ours. The etiology of ADHD is not unequivocal. The disorder appears to be multifactorial.

  13. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent–teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire), which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ) test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Results: Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence (P intelligences in two groups (P > 0.05). The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence (P > 0.05). However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed (P interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles. PMID:29285478

  14. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6-13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent-teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire), which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ) test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence ( P multiple intelligences in two groups ( P > 0.05). The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence ( P > 0.05). However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed ( P < 0.05). Since the levels of IQ (Raven test) and MI in control group were more significant than ADHD group, ADHD is likely to be associated with logical-mathematical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles.

  15. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent–teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire, which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Results: Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence (P 0.05. The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence (P > 0.05. However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Since the levels of IQ (Raven test and MI in control group were more significant than ADHD group, ADHD is likely to be associated with logical-mathematical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles.

  16. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  17. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  18. Comorbidity of personality disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza Eguskiza, Luis Javier; Bellón, Jose M; Mora, María

    2016-03-08

    A high comorbidity has been observed among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and categorical personality disorders (PD). A study is conducted on the dimensional traits associated with ADHD and PD, in order to determine whether there are any differences. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 78 outpatients attending a Mental Health Clinic in Arganda (Madrid) from January 2013 to June 2015. ADHD diagnosis was evaluated with the CAARS, the CAADID, and the WURS scales, and the PD with the SCID-II-DSM-IV questionnaire. None of the patients were receiving any stimulant or atomoxetine before the study, and all patients signed the informed consent before the study. A high comorbidity was found with all PD clusters, especially with hyperactive and combined type ADHD. Depressive PD was associated with inattentive ADHD. In spite of using a questionnaire to evaluate PD, some differences can be observed between specific ADHD types and PD. More studies are needed to investigate dimensional personality traits in order to improve the diagnosis and therapeutics goals. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional Status of Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an elevated risk for obesity but this seems to be paradoxical to the fact that many youths with ADHD have symptoms of hyperactivity. People diagnosed with ADHD tend to have a high risk of developing undesirable diet habits and consequently have health related problems. However, less attention has been paid to obesity in ADHD while many efforts have been devoted to the prevention of childhood obesity in mentally normal pe...

  20. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Takon, Inyang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the...

  1. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, ...

  2. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sörös; Peter Sörös; Katharina Bachmann; Alexandra P. Lam; Alexandra P. Lam; Manuela Kanat; Eliza Hoxhaj; Swantje Matthies; Bernd Feige; Helge H. O. Müller; Christiane Thiel; Christiane Thiel; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear...

  3. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H. O.; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Methods Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using Free...

  4. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  5. Predicting Substance Abuse from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Alizadeh G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder may cause hyperactivity and inattention, and some children may have both autism and ADHD. As listed above, there are a ...

  7. Neural correlates of response inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarotti, Alessandra M; Sweeney, John A; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2010-01-30

    Impulsivity, inattention and poor behavioral inhibition are common deficits in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to identify similarities and differences in the neural substrate of response inhibition deficits that are associated with these disorders. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted on 15 unmedicated PBD patients (Type I, manic/mixed), 11 unmedicated ADHD patients, and 15 healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 13.5 years; S.D. = 3.5). A response inhibition task examined the ability to inhibit a motor response to a target when a stop cue appeared shortly after. The PBD and ADHD groups did not differ on behavioral performance, although both groups were less accurate than the HC group. fMRI findings showed that for trials requiring response inhibition, the ADHD group, relative to the PBD and HC groups, demonstrated reduced activation in both ventrolateral (VLPFC) and dorsolateral (DLPFC) prefrontal cortex, and increased bilateral caudate activation compared with HC. The PBD group, relative to HC, showed decreased activation in the left VLPFC, at the junction of the inferior and middle frontal gyri, and in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Prefrontal dysfunction was observed in both the ADHD and PBD groups relative to HC, although it was more extensive and accompanied by subcortical overactivity in ADHD.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Kelsey K; Chang, Zheng; Quinn, Patrick D; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert; Dunn, David; Brikell, Isabell; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2018-02-23

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of seizures, but there is uncertainty about whether ADHD medication treatment increases risk among patients with and without preexisting seizures. We followed a sample of 801,838 patients with ADHD who had prescribed drug claims from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters databases to examine whether ADHD medication increases the likelihood of seizures among ADHD patients with and without a history of seizures. First, we assessed overall risk of seizures among patients with ADHD. Second, within-individual concurrent analyses assessed odds of seizure events during months when a patient with ADHD received ADHD medication compared with when the same individual did not, while adjusting for antiepileptic medications. Third, within-individual long-term analyses examined odds of seizure events in relation to the duration of months over the previous 2 years patients received medication. Patients with ADHD were at higher odds for any seizure compared with non-ADHD controls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.24-2.42 males; OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.22-2.42 females). In adjusted within-individual comparisons, ADHD medication was associated with lower odds of seizures among patients with (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.60-0.85) and without (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62-0.82) prior seizures. Long-term within-individual comparisons suggested no evidence of an association between medication use and seizures among individuals with (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.59-1.30) and without (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.80-1.28) a seizure history. Results reaffirm that patients with ADHD are at higher risk of seizures. However, ADHD medication was associated with lower risk of seizures within individuals while they were dispensed medication, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that ADHD medication increases risk of seizures. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Gender Differences in Associations Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Cæcilie; Petersen, Liselotte; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    estimates, no gender differences were found. Among individuals with ADHD without comorbidities, females had higher SUD risk than males, as did females with ADHD and conduct disorder (CD). Comorbid CD, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia further increased the risk of SUD in ADHD, compared to non......Objective To examine gender differences in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD), and to explore the impact of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Method This was a cohort study of all children born in Denmark in 1990-2003 (n=729......-ADHD. Autism spectrum disorder in males with ADHD lowered the SUD risk. Conclusion ADHD increased the risk of all SUD outcomes. Individuals with ADHD without comorbidities were also at increased risk and some comorbid disorders further increased the risk. Females and males with ADHD had comparable risks of SUD...

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central nervous system depressants dependence. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigre, Constanza; Terán, Antonio; García-Vicent, Vicente; Roncero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders is very common. A review of literature addressing prevalence, clinical features and treatment of the comorbidity between ADHD and CNS depressants was conducted. The prevalences found have a wide range (4.5% to 58%). ADHD has been associated with greater severity of addiction, early onset of consumption and addiction, more psychiatric comorbidity and more chronicity. In drug-dependent patients the diagnosis is a complex process because the frequent overlap of symptoms. The screening instruments should be used with caution. Drug therapy has shown efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms, but there is no consensus regarding their influence on substance use. However, results should be interpreted cautiously, because the samples are small. Psychoeducational interventions are relevant, but treatment outcomes have not been described or studied systematically.

  11. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS: The analyses included 38 parallel......) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate...

  12. [Atomoxetine and piracetam in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of atomoxetine and piracetam has been assessed in the open controlled study included 42 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aged from 6 to 13 years. Group 1 (16 patients) received atomoxetine (strattera) in daily dosage 0,8-1,2 mg/kg as a monotherapy for 6 weeks. Patients of group 2 (14 children) received piracetam as a monotherapy in daily dosage 50-70 mg/kg for 6 weeks. No pharmacological therapy was conducted in group 3 (a control one) which included 12 patients with ADHD. The high effectiveness of both atomoxetine and piracetam has been shown. However, comparing to piracetam, the therapeutic effect of atomoxetine was reached earlier (two weeks after the beginning of therapy) and was more pronounced for all components of syndromes.

  13. Review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a practitioner review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurring with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) encompassing aetiological factors, associated factors, assessment, treatment and prognosis. ADHD and ODD have both shared and unique genetic influences. Persistence of ADHD and ODD in adolescence is linked with an increased risk of delinquent behaviour, substance dependence, anxiety, depression, and possibly bipolar disorder. The diagnostic work up for ADHD must include screening for ODD, which may be achieved through targeted questioning or the use of standard symptom checklists. Treatment requires management of the core symptoms of ADHD plus, in many cases, augmentation with other treatment to address the ODD. Mild cases may respond to behaviour management alone, or monotherapy with stimulant medication or atomoxetine. Moderate to severe cases usually require a combination of pharmacotherapy, which may include clonidine, and behaviour management. Severe or refractory cases may require the introduction of an atypical antipsychotic such as risperidone.

  14. [Analysis of Applying Chinese Medical Clinical Pathway for Treating Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-qing; Han, Xin-min; Zhu, Xian-kang; Zhou, Zheng; Ma, Bing-xiang; Zhang, Bao-qing; Li, Yan-ning; Feng, Yu-lin; Xue, Zheng; Wang, Yong-hong; Li, Yi-min; Jiang, Zhi-mei; Xu, Jin-xing; Yue, Wei-zhen; Xiang, Xi-xiong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the application effect of Chinese medical clinical pathway for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to provide evidence for further improving clinical pathways. Totally 270 ADHD children patients were recruited and treated at pediatrics clinics of 9 cooperative hospitals from December 2011 to December 2012. The treatment course for all was 3 months. Scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of behavior, Conners index of hyperactivity (CIH), and Chinese medical syndrome scores were compared between before and after treatment. The efficacy difference in various sexes, ages, and disease courses were evaluated by judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome and ADHD. Fifteen children patients who entered clinical pathway dropped out, and the rest 255 completed this trial. Compared with before treatment, total scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, CIH, and Chinese medical syndrome scores obviously decreased (all P < 0.01). The total effective rate in disease efficacy was 87.8% (224/255 cases), and the total effective rate in Chinese medical syndrome curative effect was 87.5% (223/255 cases). The clinical curative effect was not influenced by age, gender, or course of disease when statistically analyzed from judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome or for disease efficacy. Intervention by Chinese medical clinical pathway could improve ADHD patients' symptoms, and its efficacy was not influenced by sex, age, or course of disease.

  15. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jadwiga Najib1–31Division of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Psychiatry, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995–2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, prodrug stimulant, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, safety, efficacy, children, adolescents

  16. Smell identification function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. This study was conducted to help elucidate some of this controversy. 50 participants (8-15 years, mean=10.70±1.77) with ADHD were compared to 50 controls. The two groups were well matched for age, gender and Mean School Scores (MSS). We assessed odor identification and threshold through a smell test composed of two tests of identification and detection threshold. Odor detection threshold was assessed with the odorant phenyl ethyl alcohol solved in propylene glycol using a single staircase method. Odor identification was assessed with chemical essences of five common odorants. The mean Sensory Identification Score for children with ADHD and the control groups were 3.76 (1.06) and 4.46 (0.76), respectively (pSensory Threshold Score for ADHD and control group was 6.4 (3.35) and 9.75 (2.16), respectively (p<0.001). This study replicated altered olfactory performance in ADHD. Substantial olfactory deficits across the two domains of identification and detection threshold are observed in children with ADHD. These deficits do not seem to be a result of olfactory task difficulty and are not influenced by age, gender and MSS. Further studies are required to investigate whether olfactory function can be used as a biological marker for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ADHD.

  17. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  18. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Brink, W. van den

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity among Children Attending Outpatient Clinic in Psychiatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lana Nabeel; Sulaiman, Karwan Hawez

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the common psychiatric disorder in childhood and it affects on children socially and academically. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among the studied population, describe its association with certain…

  20. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  1. Positive association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder medication use and academic achievement during elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T; Fulton, Brent D; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan

    2009-05-01

    Approximately 4.4 million (7.8%) children in the United States have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 56% of affected children take prescription medications to treat the disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is strongly linked with low academic achievement, but the association between medication use and academic achievement in school settings is largely unknown. Our objective was to determine if reported medication use for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is positively associated with academic achievement during elementary school. To estimate the association between reported medication use and standardized mathematics and reading achievement scores for a US sample of 594 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, we used 5 survey waves between kindergarten and fifth grade from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 to estimate a first-differenced regression model, which controlled for time-invariant confounding variables. Medicated children had a mean mathematics score that was 2.9 points higher than the mean score of unmedicated peers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Children who were medicated for a longer duration (at >2 waves) had a mean reading score that was 5.4 points higher than the mean score of unmedicated peers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The medication-reading association was lower for children who had an individualized education program than for those without such educational accommodation. The finding of a positive association between medication use and standardized mathematics and reading test scores is important, given the high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with low academic achievement. The 2.9-point mathematics and 5.4-point reading score differences are comparable with score gains of 0.19 and 0.29 school years, respectively, but these gains are

  2. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude of Parents of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children towards Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Dodangi, Nasrin; Vameghi, Roshanak; Habibi, Nastaran

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge and attitude of parents about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important factor in management of the disorder in children. This study investigates the parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.Method: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the subjects were 150 parents (120 mother and 30 father) of ADHD children who were referred to a child psychiatry clinic affiliated in university of social we...

  4. Association between symptoms and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems/disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Ni, Hsing-Chang; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Shang, Chi-Yung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lin, Liang-Ying; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes, and sleep schedules, daytime inadvertent napping, and sleep problems/disorders in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. The sample included 325 patients with ADHD, aged 10-17 years [male: 81.5%; combined type (ADHD-C): 174; predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I): 130; predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI): 21], and 257 children and adolescents without lifetime ADHD (non-ADHD). We conducted psychiatric interviews with the participants and their mothers before making the diagnoses of ADHD, other psychiatric disorders, and sleep problems or disorders. We also collected the medication treatment data and parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptoms. Multi-level models were used for data analyses controlling for sex, age, psychiatric comorbidities, and treatment with methylphenidate. The ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups had more daytime inadvertent napping. In general, the three subtypes were associated with increased rates of sleep problems/disorders. Specifically, ADHD-C rather than ADHD-I was associated with circadian rhythm problems, sleep-talking, nightmares (also ADHD-HI), and ADHD-I was associated with hypersomnia. The most-related sleep schedules and problems for inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were earlier bedtime, later rise time, longer nocturnal sleep, more frequent daytime napping, insomnia, sleep terrors, sleep-talking, snoring, and bruxism across informants. The findings imply that in addition to the dichotomous approach of ADHD and considering the psychiatric comorbid conditions, ADHD subtypes and symptom dimensions need to be considered in clinical practice and in the research regarding the association between ADHD and sleep problems/disorders. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Rasmussen, Philippa; Grønkjær, Mette

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. A meta-synthesis was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. Qualitative research articles were considered for inclusion in the review and the meta-aggregative approach to synthesizing qualitative evidence from JBI was followed. An extensive search for relevant literature was undertaken in scientific databases. Data were extracted from the included research articles, and qualitative research findings were pooled using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. This involved categorization of findings on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregation of these categories to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. A total of 21 research articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review process resulted in 129 study findings that were aggregated into 15 categories. The categories generated six synthesized findings: an emotional roller coaster between hope and hopelessness; mothers as advocates in a battlefield within the system and family; parental experiences in a crossfire of blame, self-blame, and stigmatization; shuttling between supportive and nonsupportive services and professionals; routines, structures and strategies within everyday life; and despite multiple challenges, it is not all bad. The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has on everyday family life, and how parents seem to adapt to their life situation in the process of accepting their child's disorder.

  7. [Psychometric properties of three rating scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chilean students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Domic, Marcos; Ramos, Mireya; Cerda, Andrea; Quiroz, Jael

    2010-03-01

    To assess, among Chilean students, the reliability and validity of three scales that measure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV); the scale for evaluating attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (EDAH); and Spain's version of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (Spa-ADHD-IV). A study of the instruments was conducted with the tutors (n = 612) and teachers (n = 82) of a controlled sample of 640 children 6-11 years of age, who were students attending public schools (n = 228, 35.6% of total), subsidized schools (n = 200, 31.3%), or private schools (n = 212, 33.1%) in Antofagasta, Chile. The convergent validity of the ADHD rating instruments was determined using Stroop and Wechsler tests. All three scales studied had satisfactory levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.97 for the scales; 0.76-0.97 for the items) and a factor structure that was theoretically-aligned for most of the assessment areas, although only the Spa-ADHD-IV with tutors and teachers and the ADHD-IV with teachers had comparative and relative fit indices greater than 0.90. Significant differences were found by age, gender, and type of evaluator (tutor or teacher). The ADHD-IV and Spa-ADHD-IV met all reliability and validity criteria; so both may be applied for screening and diagnosis in the Chilean population. The Spa-ADHD-IV scale offers the best psychometric properties based on its reliability and validity.

  8. S100 beta in heavy metal-related child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in an informal e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wei; Huo, Xia; Liu, Daichun; Zeng, Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xijin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to lead even at low levels correlates with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, lead-contaminated environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals that could exacerbate lead-induced ADHD. We conducted this study to evaluate the relationship between multiple

  9. Associations Between Core Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Both Binge and Restrictive Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Kaisari; Colin T. Dourish; Pia Rotshtein; Suzanne Higgs

    2018-01-01

    IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used...

  10. Methylphenidate Normalizes Frontocingulate Underactivation During Error Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Mohammad, Abdul-Majeed; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in performance monitoring often improved with the indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of single-dose MPH on activation of error processing brain areas in medication-naive boys with ADHD during a stop task that elicits 50% error rates. Methods Twelve medication-naive boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either a si...

  11. Psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - application of a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Merkt, Anne Christine Julia (Dr.)

    2014-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in every-day language, in psychological research, and also discussed in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have looked at psychological compensation in ADHD systematically and theory based. Compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent or the acquisition of new skills. Based o...

  12. THE EXPERIENCE OF HOPANTENIC ACID APPLICATION IN THE SYRUP FOR THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM EPILEPSY WITH COGNITIVE DISORDERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT AND HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Guzeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for nootropic medications, which don't aggravate the implications of the hyperactivity disorder and sleep disturbances, is an urgent issue in the children's neurology. For the purpose of pantohamium sirupus appraisal, the researchers examined 20 patient aged between 3 years old and 4 years 11 months old, suffering from epilepsy with cognitive disorders and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. All the patients underwent interviewing with the composite questionnaire, oddball tasks, mechanical memory tests (memorizing 3–4 words, dynamic memory tests (repeating 2 groups of words, colour test (for the children of 4 years old, as well as electroencephalography and by indications clinical and biochemical examination. After the course of panto hamium sirupus treatment the researchers discovered the general improvement of attention, mechanical and dynamic memory, anxiety reduction and compensation boost based on the colour test conducted among the children, suffering from epilepsy with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Most patients showed the improvement indices of the EEG background rhythm structure and normalization of background zone differences. The analysis of the obtained results allowed the researchers to conclude that pantohamium sirupus was safe and efficient in the complex therapy among the children, suffering from epilepsy with cognitive disorders and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.Key words: hopantenic acid, pantohamium, epilepsy, attention deficit, hyperactivity, cognitive disorders.

  13. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Permatawati

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.

  14. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of

  15. Early Childhood Assessments of Community Pediatric Professionals Predict Autism Spectrum and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the

  16. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  17. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  18. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  19. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  20. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  1. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  2. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  3. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  4. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  5. Determining Eligibility for Educational Services for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Twila Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to educate administrators, teachers and parents on educational services available to students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Schools are required by federal and state laws to provide a student with a disability a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive…

  6. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  7. Stimulants and Cardiovascular Events in Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Huang, Cecilia; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut G.; Crystal, Stephen; Allison, Paul D.; Marcus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between stimulant use and risk of cardiovascular events and symptoms in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and compared the risks associated with methylphenidate and amphetamines. Method: Claims were reviewed of privately insured young people 6 to 21 years old without known…

  8. Assessing Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, Julie; Patel, Bina; Gelman, Kathryn; Albucher, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To address the increasing demand for assessments of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the primary author developed a protocol for Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at Stanford University's Vaden Student Health Center to improve the efficiency of such evaluations. Participants: As part of quality…

  9. The Use of Trauma Counseling for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk for behavioral problems and so are frequently brought to the attention of counselors. The literature is limited, however, in examining specific counseling techniques for this population, and particularly in discussing counseling in a developing country where children do not…

  10. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  11. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  12. Developmental Differences in Structure of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between Childhood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a…

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Klaus W.; Hauser, Joachim; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Katharina M.; Makulska-Gertruda, Ewelina; Nakamura, Yukiko; Sontag, Thomas A.; Tucha, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) has been suggested to have an impact on the development of symptoms of ADHD in children.

  14. Knowledge and Misperceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among School Teachers in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Hemal P.; Hardikar-Sawant, Samindara; Prabhudesai, Anuradha D.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in the diagnosis and management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There are no published studies on Indian teachers' knowledge of ADHD. In the present study, the aim was to assess knowledge and misperceptions about ADHD among schoolteachers in Mumbai. A total of 106 teachers from 12 English-medium…

  15. No Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergwerff, C.E.; Luman, M.; Blom, H.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to explore the role of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in blood in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given their impact on the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, decreased concentrations of the AAAs tryptophan, tyrosine and

  16. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  17. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason, their…

  18. Teacher Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Middle School Students in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fred R., Jr.; Brown, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the knowledge levels middle school teachers in South Texas have in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study specifically compared teacher knowledge levels among three specific ADHD knowledge areas: (a) general knowledge of ADHD, (b) knowledge of symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, and (c)…

  19. The Readiness of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melissa Sue

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness for self-directed learning of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as their overall educational experiences. Using Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Adults (SDLRS-A), the researcher investigated whether the following factors were significantly related to…

  20. LPHN3 and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Interaction with Maternal Stress during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Eve; Thakur, Geeta A.; Bellingham, Johanne; Joober, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder, complex both in etiology and clinical expression. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated, and it has been suggested that gene-environment interactions may play a pivotal role in the disorder. Recently, a significant association…

  1. Assessment and etiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in boys and girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Hudziak, J.; Neale, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and

  2. Assessment and etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Eske M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Neale, Michael C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and

  3. Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Weeda, Wouter D.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with both ADHD and ODD (ADHD + ODD) show a considerably worse prognosis compared with individuals with either ADHD or ODD. Therefore, identification of risk factors for ADHD + ODD

  4. Promoting Social Competency in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disordered Elementary-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Linda Jo

    This practicum designed and implemented a program using art therapy to improve the social competency of elementary-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional/defiant disorder. Students were in a special class for children with severe emotional disturbances. The children met once a week in art therapy sessions…

  5. NEUROMYOPATHIES IN THE CORRECTION OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER AND HYPERACTIVITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed correction procedure in educational technology for children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The analysis of the correlation of the results of psychological testing of the properties of attention and the dynamics of EEG with the efficiency of the educational process.

  6. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  7. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  8. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, E.L.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina EM; Ehli, Erik A; de Geus, J.C.N.; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the

  10. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  11. Interventions for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Considerations for Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is now widely conceptualized as a life course-persistent disorder, present from early childhood, and it results in pronounced impairment in functioning within educational settings, including high school. Current intervention approaches are briefly reviewed, and an approach to framing interventions within a…

  12. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  13. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  14. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  15. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roy (Arunima); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan); C.A. Hartman (Catharina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing

  16. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  17. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom.

  18. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  19. Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Assessment and Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, John S.; Harper, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults is characterized by inattentiveness and impulsivity. This article provides counselors with information about the etiology, assessment, and treatment of adult ADHD. The identification of the genetic and neurological features of ADHD has led to improvements in evaluation and treatment.…

  20. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  1. Differences in maintenance of response upon discontinuation across medication treatments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Asherson, P.; Soutullo, C.; Colla, M.; Adams, D.H.; Tanaka, Y.; Haynes, V.S.; Escobar, R.; Upadhyaya, H.

    2015-01-01

    The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment literature has been focused on onset-of-effect and short-term effect size, with little exploration of ADHD symptoms upon medication discontinuation. The objective of this narrative review and analysis was to better understand the relapse

  2. Perceived Social Support by Children with Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of social support behaviors exhibited by significant adults and peers at school among a group of students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) characteristics. Data indicates that children with characteristics of ADHD perceived lower frequencies of overall support, and that both the ADHD and control groups…

  3. Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in older adults in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Semeijn, E.J.; Comijs, H.C.; van de Ven, P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the syndromatic and symptomatic DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis in older adults in The Netherlands. Method: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use in Adolescents: The Patient's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Richelle C; Bouvy, Marcel L; Philbert, Daphne; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Koster, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to gain more insight into the attitudes of adolescents using medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study among adolescents (aged 12-18 years) who filled at least two prescriptions for ADHD medication in the

  5. Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Adolescent Finnish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Loo, Sandra K.; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Kaakinen, Marika; Humphrey, Lorie A.; McCracken, James T.; Varilo, Teppo; Yang, May H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Peltonen, Leena; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that ADHD is common among Northern Finnish adolescents and is related with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.

  6. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  7. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6-13 at baseline and 11-18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood…

  8. Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhein, D.T. von; Oldehinkel, M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Cools, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mennes, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Task-based and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies report attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related alterations in brain regions implicated in cortico-striatal networks. We assessed whether ADHD is associated with changes in the brain's global

  9. Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Cools, Roshan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    Background: Task-based and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies report attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related alterations in brain regions implicated in cortico-striatal networks. We assessed whether ADHD is associated with changes in the brain's global

  10. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  11. Understanding the Comorbidity between Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Richard; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 of the most prevalent complex neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, each affecting approximately 5% of the population in the United States. These disorders are also each comorbid with speech sound disorder and language impairment. Understanding the nature of the comorbidity…

  12. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  13. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    Objective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than

  14. Consultation with Pediatricians in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shuvo; Rezazadeh, Shohreh M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a common pediatric diagnosis. The number of affected children increases with age, most particularly during the years of schooling and academic life, and can cause significant impairment. The nature of this disorder, the challenges of properly diagnosing it, and the…

  15. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  16. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  18. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  19. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  20. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options, educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and evidence-based hints on how to improve…

  1. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Stephanie; Jaquiery, Ben; Hatch, Burt; Healey, Matthew; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Healey, Dione

    2018-01-01

    An attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis requires symptoms to be present across two or more settings, thus requiring information from multiple informants. Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parents and teachers; however, the mechanisms underlying these discrepancies remain unclear. This study examined…

  2. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...

  3. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  4. Elimination diets' efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, Verena; Bottelier, Marco; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N.

    Nutrition plays an important role in neurodevelopment. This insight has led to increasing research into the efficacy of nutrition-related interventions for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses an elimination diet as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  5. Elimination diets' efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, V.; Bottelier, M.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in neurodevelopment. This insight has led to increasing research into the efficacy of nutrition-related interventions for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses an elimination diet as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  6. Fronto-striatal glutamate in children with Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaijen, J.; Forde, N.J.; Lythgoe, D.J.; Akkermans, S.E.A.; Openneer, T.J.; Dietrich, A.; Zwiers, M.P.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently

  7. Fronto-striatal glutamate in children with Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaijen, Jilly; Forde, Natalie J.; Lythgoe, David J.; Akkermans, Sophie E. A.; Openneer, Thaira J. C.; Dietrich, Andrea; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently

  8. An update on the safety of psychostimulants for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Introduction: Methylphenidate is the first-line pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although methylphenidate has a well-established evidence base for treating ADHD, its long-term benefits are unclear.Areas covered: Physical adverse effects, psychiatric

  9. Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Daniel; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Blank, Shulamit; Dagan, Yaron; Barak, Yoram; Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    A study evaluated 32 non-medicated male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, 35 male adolescents similarly diagnosed who were receiving methylphenidate (MPH), and 77 controls. Medicated participants demonstrated a significantly greater severe sleep disturbance compared with non-medicated participants and…

  10. Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…

  11. Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raanan; Gabis, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review…

  12. Characteristics of Placebo Responders in Pediatric Clinical Trials of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Sutton, Virginia K.; Zhang, Shuyu; Wilens, Timothy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham J.; D'Souza, Deborah N.; Schuh, Leslie M.; Allen, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Understanding placebo response is a prerequisite to improving clinical trial methodology. Data from placebo-controlled trials of atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were analyzed to identify demographic and clinical characteristics that might predict placebo…

  13. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  14. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  15. A Cueing Procedure To Control Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Heidi D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Posavac, Steven S.

    1999-01-01

    Tests the efficacy of a cueing procedure for improving the impulse regulation of four boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during social skills training. Behavioral data suggested that all subjects demonstrated positive changes in impulse regulation. Likewise, the treatment effects appeared to have produced positive effects on…

  16. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  17. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F; Nguyen, T Trang; Oades, Robert D; Ogdie, Matthew N; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J; Smalley, Susan L; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  19. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  20. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…