WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense youth poll

  1. Department of Defense Youth Poll Report and Crosstabulations Wave 8 - November 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emanuel, S; Marsh, S. M; Marsh, K; Boehmer, M; Zucker, A

    2005-01-01

    .... In addition, this Youth Poll measured youth's favorability and knowledge of the military, their sources of impressions of the military, effective communications strategies, opinions of recruiters...

  2. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first youth poll in a series that looked at propensity, employment status, education status, impressions of the military, attitudes toward teams, influencers...

  3. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    education. Accurate, timely information is required to adapt DoD’s advertising strategies to its target markets . This poll is the most recent in a...and military service, specifically, and (2) develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense...section contains a historical perspective on the Department of Defense’s recruitment advertising and market research programs. • The Research

  4. Department of Defense August 2003 Influencer Poll 1 Overview Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boehmer, Matt

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, Influencers, defined in this study as adults aged 22 to 85 who reported to directly influence youth, were polled about their perceptions of the military, the economy, the war in Iraq...

  5. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sattar, Khalid

    2002-01-01

    ...%) of youth would make the decision themselves. Youth ages 15 to 19 were more likely to make this decision with their parents or guardians, while, in general, youth ages 20 and 21 were more likely to make this decision themselves...

  6. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...%). Only 4 percent of youth volunteered that they might be joining the military. Overall, youth mentioned family, friends and acquaintances, and movies and television most often as influencing their impression of the military...

  7. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    of new approaches for reaching the target market , and to adapt DoD’s advertising strategies to the existing environment. Since 1975, the...defense drawdown and the decrease of the veteran population. Like the recruitment environment, advertising approaches and marketing strategies are...the target market , and to adapt DoD’s advertising strategies to the existing environment. Since 1975, the Department of Defense has collected

  8. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Advertising approaches and marketing strategies are constantly changing—creating a need for a constant flow of accurate information to track changes...over time, keep abreast of new approaches to reaching the target market , and adapt DoD’s advertising strategies to the existing environment. Since...2) develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) was responsible

  9. Department of Defense September 2003 Adult Poll 5 Overview Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boehmer, Matt

    2004-01-01

    .... This report details the findings from the September 2003 Adult Poll 5, focusing on adults' likelihood to recommend the military, their level of knowledge of the military, their overall impressions...

  10. Department of Defense October 2002 Youth Poll Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    motivated to join. Of those who felt that engaging in battle was likely in the next four years, 30% were more likely to join the military, essentially the...job? K. Do you expect to spend part of your career in a government job? PS4 . Now I am going to read you some activities people have suggested for

  11. Department of Defense Youth Poll Wave 10 - December 2005. Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    or should not perform the behavior in question. Confidence in performing the behavior is based on years of research on self-efficacy by Albert ... Bandura and his colleagues. The model at the bottom of this page is based on the idea that military enlistment, like any behavior, is most likely...New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. xi Bandura , A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. OVERVIEW REPORT

  12. Urban youth, fear of crime, and resulting defensive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J S; Singh, B K; Singh, B B

    1994-01-01

    One of the most neglected populations studied in victimology has been juveniles. The present study examines the impact of fear of crime among a sample of urban youth on their defensive actions. Studies of urban adult populations have found that a significant number of people fear to venture outside their homes at night. When they do go out, they often take defensive measures to insure their safety. Carrying "mace," whistles, guns, knives, and clubs, for example, is not uncommon. Some have indicated that they have undertaken training in a variety of self-defensive arts and/or keep dogs to protect themselves from the possibility of being victimized. Using data collected from a sample of 1,775 urban youth in 1986 it was found that this population has taken many of the same defensive actions. Only 11% of the sample indicated that they had not taken any defensive actions as a result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took the precaution of having an escort when they went out at night. Learning a technique of self-defense was reported by 19% of the sample; 10% indicated that they carried "mace" or some other type of repellant. Only 4% reported that they carried a whistle because of crime concerns. Significant predictors of personal defensive actions include gender, crime-witnessing status, victimization status and type of victimization (theft vs. witnessing Other defensive actions taken by members of the respondents' households included installing a burglar alarm (22%), keeping a "trained dog" (17%), keeping lights on a night (39%), and installing security locks (38%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Nondeterministic Polling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1991-01-01

    A nondeterministic polling system is considered in which a single server serves a number of stations. The service discipline at each station is, consistently, either nonexhaustive, semiexhaustive, gated, or exhaustive. If the server polls a station i which uses either the nonexhaustive or the semiexhaustive service discipline, then the next station polled is station j with probability p ij if there was service at station i. The service time at station i is a random variable which may depend o...

  14. Polling, production & priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Polling, Production & Priorities The present monograph focuses on the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP), which deals with the make-to-stock production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity under random demands, possibly random setup

  15. Exit Polls and Voter Turnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    After the 2009 referendum on a proposed change to the Danish Law of Succession, it was widely claimed that the early publication of exit poll results changed the rate of turnout and eventually the outcome. We investigate this claim and contribute to the wider debate on the implications of exit...... polls by setting up and analyzing a formal model. We find that the introduction of an exit poll influences the incentive to vote both before and after the poll is published, but the signs of the effects are generally ambiguous. The observation that exit polls influence the incentive to vote even before...

  16. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    military service, specifically, and (2) develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense Manpower...military, their recommendations to youth regarding post-high school options, and research-based message strategies that would resonate with each market ...of Defense’s recruitment advertising and market research programs. • The Research Methodology section provides details on the design of the

  17. Public opinion about nuclear energy 2001poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Istenic, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana we are polling our visitors on a yearly basis. The visitors, mainly elementary and high school students, are polled before they listen to the lecture and visit the permanent exhibition. The attitude towards nuclear power remains favorable: 83,3% of polled population agrees with NPP Krsko operation until the end of its life cycle and 9,8% accept construction of another nuclear power plant in Slovenia.(author)

  18. Scoring mode and age-related effects on youth soccer teams' defensive performance during small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos Humberto; Duarte, Ricardo; Volossovitch, Anna; Ferreira, António Paulo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the scoring mode (line goal, double goal or central goal) and age-related effects on the defensive performance of youth soccer players during 4v4 small-sided games (SSGs). Altogether, 16 male players from 2 age groups (U13, n = 8, mean age: 12.61 ± 0.65 years; U15, n = 8, 14.86 ± 0.47 years) were selected as participants. In six independent sessions, participants performed the three SSGs each during 10-min periods. Teams' defensive performance was analysed at every instant ball possession was regained through the variables: ball-recovery type, ball-recovery sector, configuration of play and defence state. Multinomial logistic regression analysis used in this study revealed the following significant main effects of scoring mode and age: (1) line goal (vs. central goal) increased the odds of regaining possession through tackle and in the defensive midfield sector, and decreased the odds of successful interceptions; (2) double goal (vs. central goal) decreased the odds of regaining possession through turnover won and with elongated playing shapes; (3) the probability of regaining possession through interception significantly decreased with age. Moreover, as youth players move forward in age groups, teams tend to structurally evolve from elongated playing shapes to flattened shapes and, at a behavioural level, from defending in depth to more risky flattened configurations. Overall, by manipulating the scoring mode in SSGs, coaches can promote functional and coadaptive behaviours between teams not only in terms of configurations of play, but also on the pitch locations that teams explore to regain possession.

  19. Polling models : from theory to traffic intersections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present monograph is the study of polling models, which are queueing models consisting of multiple queues, cyclically attended by one server. Polling models originated in the late 1950s, but did not receive much attention until the 1980s when an abundance of new applications arose

  20. Poll of radiation health scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A sampling of 210 university-employed radiation health scientists randomly selected from the membership lists of the Health Physics Society and the Radiation Research Society was polled in a secret ballot. The results support the positions that the public's fear of radiation is substantially greater than realistic, that TV, newspapers and magazines substantially exaggerate the dangers of radiation, that the amount of money now being spent on radiation protection is sufficient, and that the openness and honesty of U.S. government agencies about dangers of radiation were below average before 1972 but have been above average since then. Respondents give very high credibility ratings to BEIR, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and NCRP and to the individual scientists associated with their reports, and very low credibility ratings to those who have disputed them

  1. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  2. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (May 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  3. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  4. Public opinion polls on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    Future developments in the attitude towards nuclear energy can not be predicted on account of this public opinion survey. The survey shows just how many different factors influence the attitude towards issues of public and political interst. For this reason in particular, it would be desirable to include such aspects into future surveys. The survey shows that public opinion polls quite often investigate on the ordering party's opinion rather than the pollees opinion. The attempt at making public opinion polls a means of forming political opinions, implying a certain desired opinion to be the majority opinion has brought those polls into disrepute. If real results are not required and manipulation prevails, results are prevented, which must not be blamed on the principle of public opinion polls as such. (orig.) [de

  5. Public opinion about nuclear energy. 2000 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Istenic, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the Nuclear Training centre in Ljubljana we are polling our visitors on a yearly basis. The visitors are elementary and high school students. They are polled before they listen to the lecture and visit the permanent exhibition. This year the attitude towards nuclear power remained favourable. The percentage of people, that would accept a new nuclear power plant, has even increased from 7,65 % last year to 9,35 % this year. (author)

  6. Delay in polling systems in heavy traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, Robert D.

    1998-10-01

    We study the delay in asymmetric cyclic polling systems with general mixtures of gated and exhaustive service, with generally distributed service times and switch-over times, in heavy traffic. We obtain closed-form expressions for all moments of the delay incurred at each of the queues. The expressions are strikingly simple and can even be expressed as finite products of known factors. The results provide new insights into the heavy-traffic behavior of polling systems.

  7. Public opinion about nuclear energy - 1998 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Istenic, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the Nuclear Training center in Ljubljana we are polling our visitors on a yearly basis. The visitors are elementary and high school students. They are polled before they listen to the lecture and visit the permanent exhibition. This year we can observe some improved attitude towards nuclear energy. This could be influence of the absence of open attacks against the nuclear power plant Krsko in the media in last two years.(author)

  8. International energy workshop: overview of poll responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Minkoff, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop is an informally organized group. Its general aim is to compare the most up-to-date long-term energy projections available throughout the world, and to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for their differences. The current edition of the IEW poll supersedes all previous ones, and contains only those poll responses bearing publication dates of 1984-1986. Altogether, this edition of the poll contains 192 individual responses received from 71 participating organizations. The poll covers the period 1980-2010. Appendix I contains frequency distributions for each of the eight standard IEW regions: (1) USSR and Eastern Europe, (2) China, (3) Centrally Planned Economies, Subtotal, (4) OECD, (5) OPEC, (6) Non-OPEC Developing Countries, (7) Market Economies, Subtotal, and (8) World, Total. In addition, frequency distributions are provided for four individual countries/regions: Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, and USA. Poll items 3-16 refer to individual fuel types: oil, gas, coal, hydroelectric, nuclear, solar and other renewables. To ensure international comparability, these are expressed in terms of commercial primary energy consumption, production and net trade (exports minus imports). (Author)

  9. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.

  10. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  11. Public opinion about nuclear energy - 1999 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Istenic, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the Nuclear Training centre in Ljubljana we are polling our visitors on a yearly basis. The visitors are elementary and high school students. They are polled before they listen to the lecture and visit the permanent exhibition. This year the attitude towards nuclear power remained favorable. For the first time we have asked also about the preparedness to accept a new nuclear power plant. About 7 % were in favour. In addition we have studied the influence of the social background to the acceptance of the nuclear power.(author)

  12. A polling model with an autonomous server

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers polling systems with an autonomous server that remain at a queue for an exponential amount of time before moving to a next queue incurring a generally distributed switch-over time. The server remains at a queue until the exponential visit time expires, also when the queue

  13. Vacation and polling models with retrials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Resing, J.A.C.; Horváth, A.; Wolter, K.

    2014-01-01

    We study a vacation-type queueing model, and a single-server multi-queue polling model, with the special feature of retrials. Just before the server arrives at a station there is some deterministic glue period. Customers (both new arrivals and retrials) arriving at the station during this glue

  14. Polling and public opinion: a Canadian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Peter Marshall

    2007-01-01

    ..., advertising, and government policy. Using such controversial issues such as free trade, health care, same-sex marriage, and national security, Butler argues that popular opinion on such hot-button topics as these can be guided and changed according to how polls are interpreted for and presented to the public. As well as analysing the impact of po...

  15. Opinion poll tests support for democratic initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A national opinion poll designed to test public support for a position paper on energy policy for the Clinton Administration and the new Congress, was released February 9 at a Capitol Hill press conference sponsored by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. The poll, conducted by the Democratic polling firm Greenberg/Lake and Republican pollster Lance Tarrance, found voters want energy efficiency, conservation, and renewable energy as top priorities for the nation's energy policy. It also found voters are willing to seek these policies with tough regulation, tax incentives, and their own behavior. Also, voters appear to support taxes on pollution and energy use, whether the income is used to decrease taxes on personal income, or to reduce the deficit. However, voters oppose gas taxes and are divided on taxes for fossil fuels. Support for energy taxes increases if revenues generated by them are dedicated to deficit reduction. The poll also revealed: the public's desire for less emphasis on polluting sources of energy such as oil and coal; low levels of support for nuclear power; support for government initiatives to increase the fuel efficiency of consumer goods such as appliances and automobiles; opposition to a substantial increase in the gasoline tax; and support for green taxes on polluting sources of energy use at the same time policy makers remove federal tax subsidies on fuels that pollute

  16. 1984 Books for Young Adults Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, John W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports the results of a poll of southeastern Iowa tenth through twelfth graders to find the most popular of 250 recently published books. Genres include fantasy, war stories, contemporary realism, romance, science fiction, horror, and supernatural. Reviews of the readers' choices are included. (RBW)

  17. A polling model with an autonomous server

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    Polling models are used as an analytical performance tool in several application areas. In these models, the focus often is on controlling the operation of the server as to optimize some performance measure. For several applications, controlling the server is not an issue as the server moves

  18. Mean value analysis for polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of calculating mean delays in polling systems with either exhaustive or gated service. We develop a mean value analysis (MVA) to compute these delay figures. The merits of MVA are in its intrinsic simplicity and its intuitively appealing derivation. As a

  19. Mean value analysis for polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of calculating mean delays in polling systems with either exhaustive or gated service. We develop a mean value analysis (MVA) to compute these delay figures. The merits of MVA are in its intrinsic simplicity and its intuitively appealing derivation. As a

  20. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  1. Unavowed Abstention Can Overturn Poll Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2018-03-01

    I revisit the 2017 French Presidential election which opposed the far right National Front candidate Marine Le Pen against the center candidate Emmanuel Macron. While voting intentions for Le Pen stuck below 50% and polls kept predicting her failure, I warned on the emergence of a novel phenomenon I defined as unavowed abstention, which could suddenly reverse the ranking at Le Pen benefit on the voting day. My warning got a massive media coverage. She eventually lost the runoff at a score worse than predicted by the polls. Using a quantitative mathematical framing, which reveals the existence of tipping points in respective turnouts, I show that the predicted phenomenon of unavowed abstention did happen. But instead of shattering the expected outcome, against all odds it occurred at Le Pen expense, therefore without impact on the final outcome. The results shed a new light on other national cases such as Obama and Trump victories in the US.

  2. Unavowed Abstention Can Overturn Poll Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Galam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available I revisit the 2017 French Presidential election which opposed the far right National Front candidate Marine Le Pen against the center candidate Emmanuel Macron. While voting intentions for Le Pen stuck below 50% and polls kept predicting her failure, I warned on the emergence of a novel phenomenon I defined as unavowed abstention, which could suddenly reverse the ranking at Le Pen benefit on the voting day. My warning got a massive media coverage. She eventually lost the runoff at a score worse than predicted by the polls. Using a quantitative mathematical framing, which reveals the existence of tipping points in respective turnouts, I show that the predicted phenomenon of unavowed abstention did happen. But instead of shattering the expected outcome, against all odds it occurred at Le Pen expense, therefore without impact on the final outcome. The results shed a new light on other national cases such as Obama and Trump victories in the US.

  3. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is fou...... that the effect of polls vary across sociodemographic groups, the results imply that bandwagon behaviour is based not on social or political contingencies, such as media or political institution, but on fundamentals of political cognition....... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party......This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...

  4. Public opinion about nuclear energy, year 2002 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Istenic, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana we are polling our visitors on a yearly basis. The visitors, mainly elementary and high school students, are polled before they listen to the lecture and visit the permanent exhibition. In the year 2002 the attitude towards nuclear power remains favorable: 84,7% of polled population agrees with NPP Krsko operation until the end of its life cycle and 9,1% accept construction of another nuclear power plant in Slovenia.(author)

  5. How are Voters Influenced by Opinion Polls? The Effect of Polls on Voting Behavior and Party Sympathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2016-01-01

    Similar to all other types of information, public opinion polls can influence public opinion. We present two hypotheses to understand how polls affect public opinion: the bandwagon and the underdog effect. The bandwagon effect claims that voters "jump on the bandwagon," which means that if a party...... hypotheses. We find evidence of the bandwagon effect, and the effect is strongest in the positive direction. When voters learn that a party is gaining in the polls, voters will be more likely to vote for it. There is also some evidence for the negative bandwagon effect. We find no evidence for the underdog...... is gaining in the polls, the party will gain additional support from the voters, and vice versa if the party is losing in the polls. The underdog effect suggests that if a party is losing in the polls, the party will gain some sympathy votes to offset this loss. We use a survey experiment to test the two...

  6. A pseudoconservation law for service systems with a polling table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Groenendijk, W.P.; Weststrate, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of waiting times in polling systems in which the stations are polled according to a general service-order table is discussed. Such systems can be used to represent token-bus local area networks in which the routing of the token is fixed. Stations are given higher priority by being

  7. Mean value analysis for polling systems in heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, van der R.D.; Winands, E.M.M.; Lenzini, L.; Cruz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to derive heavy-traffic asymptotics for polling models. We consider the classical cyclic polling model with exhaustive service at each queue, and with general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and study its behavior when the load tends to one.

  8. Heavy traffic analysis of polling models by mean value analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, van der R.D.; Winands, E.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to derive heavy-traffic asymptotics for polling models. We consider the classical cyclic polling model with exhaustive or gated service at each queue, and with general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and study its behavior when the load tends

  9. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  10. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  11. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party...... experiences increased support, more follows. Consistent effects are found across two different parties for a diverse national sample in a political context very different from earlier research on the bandwagon effects. Considering previous research and the fact that evidence is not found that suggests...

  12. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Department of Defense (DoD) uses market research to adapt advertising content and focus recruiting strategies . DoD market ... advertising as a major element in its recruitment marketing strategy . The primary objectives of advertising are: • Establish and sustain an...communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) was responsible for this research. A two

  13. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) was responsible for this...regarding post-high school options, and research-based message strategies that would resonate with each market ; and (2) quantitative research – short... advertising program– market research, creative approaches, media tactics, contract management and program oversight. The consultants recommended that the

  14. Are public opinion polls self-fulfilling prophecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rothschild

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists have long observed that people conform to majority opinion, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as the ‘bandwagon effect’. In the political domain people learn about prevailing public opinion via ubiquitous polls, which may produce a bandwagon effect. Newer types of information – published probabilities derived from prediction market contract prices and aggregated polling summaries – may have similar effects. Consequently, polls can become self-fulfilling prophecies whereby majorities, whether in support of candidates or policies, grow in a cascading manner. Despite increased attention to whether the measurement of public opinion can itself affect public opinion, the existing empirical literature is surprisingly limited on the bandwagon effects of polls. To address this gap, we conducted an experiment on a diverse national sample in which we randomly assigned people to receive information about different levels of support for three public policies. We find that public opinion as expressed through polls affects individual-level attitudes, although the size of the effect depends on issue characteristics.

  15. Public opinion about nuclear energy - year 2004 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, R.; Jencic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Public information is one of the permanent activities of the Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. It is focused on youngsters from elementary and high schools in Slovenia that visit the Centre as organized groups. Every year in the spring since 1993 some 800 youngsters are polled with basically the same set of questions inquiring about their knowledge and opinions on nuclear energy. Polling is performed at the beginning of the visit to obtain results based on information from everyday life. In the paper the results of this year's poll are presented and compared with the previous years. The attitude towards NPP Krsko is still favourable but the support has unexpectedly dropped from 83% to 73%. Misconceptions about dangers of nuclear energy and radioactive waste still remain high. (author)

  16. Public opinion about nuclear energy. Year 2005 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, R.; Jencic, I.

    2005-01-01

    Public information is one of the important permanent activities of the Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. It is focused on youngsters and about one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia is informed on nuclear energy. Every year since 1993 we poll youngsters using the same basic set of questions. For comparison we also polled professionals (our colleagues at the Jozef Stefan Institute) using the same questionnaire. Opinion of youngsters about nuclear energy in Slovenia can be considered favourable now (71 %), but the trend is negative. The support is dropping from initial 83% for two consecutive years. Opposition to NPP Krsko operation remains low. (author)

  17. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  18. Shaping ESO2020+ Together: Feedback from the Community Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, F.; Ivison, R.; Berger, J.-P.; Caselli, P.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Alonso Herrero, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Leibundgut, B.; Moitinho, A.; Saviane, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Testi, L.; Vennes, S.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough evaluation and prioritisation of the ESO science programme into the 2020+ timeframe took place under the auspices of a working group, comprising astronomers drawn from ESO’s advisory structure and from within ESO. This group reported to ESO’s Scientific Technical Committee, and to ESO Council, concluding the exercise with the publication of a report, “Science Priorities at ESO”. A community poll and a dedicated workshop, held in January 2015, formed part of the information gathering process. The community poll was designed to probe the demographics of the user community, its scientific interests, use of observing facilities and plans for use of future telescopes and instruments, its views on types of observing programmes and on the provision of data processing and archiving. A total of 1775 full responses to the poll were received and an analysis of the results is presented here. Foremost is the importance of regular observing programmes on all ESO observing facilities, in addition to Large Programmes and Public Surveys. There was also a strong community requirement for ESO to process and archive data obtained at ESO facilities. Other aspects, especially those related to future facilities, are more challenging to interpret because of biases related to the distribution of science expertise and favoured wavelength regime amongst the targeted audience. The results of the poll formed a fundamental component of the report and pro-vide useful data to guide the evolution of ESO’s science programme.

  19. Analysis and optimization of vacation and polling models with retrials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidini, M.A.; Boxma, O.J.; Resing, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    We study a vacation-type queueing model, and a single-server multi-queue polling model, with the special feature of retrials. Just before the server arrives at a station there is some deterministic glue period. Customers (both new arrivals and retrials) arriving at the station during this glue

  20. Analysis and optimization of vacation and polling models with retrials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidini, M.A.; Boxma, O.J.; Resing, J.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    We study a vacation-type queueing model, and a single-server multi-queue polling model, with the special feature of retrials. Just before the server arrives at a station there is some deterministic glue period. Customers (both new arrivals and retrials) arriving at the station during this glue

  1. Heavy-traffic analysis of k-limited polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Winands, E.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-queue polling model with zero switchover times and k-limited service (serve at most k_i customers during one visit period to queue i, i=1, 2) in each queue. The arrival processes at the two queues are Poisson, and the service times are exponentially distributed. By

  2. Heavy-traffic analysis of k-limited polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Winands, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study a two-queue polling model with zero switch-over times and k-limited service (serve at most k_i customers during one visit period to queue i, i = 1,2) in each queue. The arrival processes at the two queues are Poisson, and the service times are exponentially distributed. By

  3. High School Student Opinion Polling on Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of student learning polls as indicators of student perceptions and influences on career exploration. No Child Left Behind requires schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress for two consecutive years to develop continuous improvement plans. The concept of career preparation for students is included in these…

  4. How Comparable are the Gallup World Poll Life Satisfaction Data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the degree to which the new data on life satisfaction from the Gallup World Poll are comparable to those used in previous empirical studies, predominantly those from the World Values Survey. Differences might arise due to the timing and anchoring of questions in the Gallup data...

  5. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  6. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  7. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an~overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a~connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  8. Opinion Polls and Statistical Surveys: What They Really Tell Us

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from the Indian Statistical. Iastihte in 1986 and the ... any other statistical survey) is the estimation of some un- ... shares are then predicted based on a suitable mathematical model. ..... have some application in opinion polls as well. In the elec ...

  9. Digital Unbounding of the Polling Booth: Ethnography in Small Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen; Gad, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    recently occurred in Denmark when the government proposed to digitalise voting. Digitalisation here became a controversy because of the potential illicit influences that computer experts argued would enter the polling booth and challenge the secrecy and the privacy of the vote, the transparency...

  10. The International Energy Workshop: results of the 1997 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrattenholzer, L.

    1998-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop consists of a network of analysts from across the world concerned with international energy issues. Since 1981, the IEW has been organising an annual poll of projections of crude oil prices, economic growth, primary energy consumption and production, the energy trade and, beginning in the early 1990s, energy-related carbon emissions. Submitted projections are for 1990-2020 in ten-year steps; recently, 2050 and 2100 have been added, to cater for climate change scenarios. The IEW poll encourages the submission of responses for five world regions. This paper presents a summary of findings in the 1997 poll. Highlights include the following. The poll medians for 1997 suggest a crude oil price, in 1990 purchasing power, of $20/b in 2000, $27/b in 2010 and $28/b in 2020. Unlike for 2000 and 2010, the 2020 figure diverges considerably from that of the 1996 poll, which registered $39/b. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are not expected to be major global oil exporters until 2010 at least, while China will become a net importer in 2000. OPEC will meet about half global demand by 2020. World primary energy consumption is expected to increase from 8,500 mtoe in 1990 to 13,000 mtoe in 2020. In this period, oil will lose almost seven percentage points of market share, while natural gas will almost double its absolute contribution. OPEC's natural gas exports are projected to rise from 55 mtoe in 1990 to 300 mtoe in 2020. Finally, the paper compares different projections for decarbonisation, that is, the decline rates of the carbon intensity of GDP and of primary energy supply. It notes that, according to business-as-usual projections, the OECD is way off target in meeting the emissions-reductions goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  11. HOW MUCH CAN WE TRUST PUBLIC OPINION POLLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierasu Timotei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peoples trust numbers and likes to give them some significance. Every time we open a newspaper, listen to the radio, watch TV or browse the Internet we'll see some numbers and stats. These numbers can give a brief overview of the world surrounding ourselves and are often used by people or organizations to strengthen their message. Can we trust public opinion poll? Can these polls be manipulated? What method of manipulation can be used to alter the results of these polls? I designed two experiments to see how a person can misinterpret some data and how can a person manipulate a poll to obtain the desired numbers. Experiments are a qualitative market research tool designed to give us an empirical knowledge about the subject we are studying. The objective of this study was to determine whether we can influence subject’s voting choices by manipulating their perceptions and their questioners. “Yes Sir” experiment was based on a misleading questioner with a lot of questions that leads the respondent to the desired answer and with formulating the question in such a manner that the respondent feels compelled to give the desired answer. “Fake Poll” experiment is designed to see if previous polls have any influence on voter’s intentions and behaviour and is bases on bandwagon effect. The results of these experiments show us that this ways of manipulation works very well and we can influence the way people will vote with a percentage from 3% to 6%.

  12. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  13. The Youth and Political Ideology in Ghanaian Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... Abstract. The youth of Ghana have played an important role in both local and national politics since the inception of the Fourth Republic. Among other things, they have served as the foot-soldiers and channels through which party manifestoes have been transmitted to the electorate and polling agents ...

  14. The 1964 coup and dictatorship in opinion polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes opinion polls conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics (IBOPE in the context of 1964, with the objective of assessing the support to the coup and to dictatorship. The data, mostly new, indicate a contrast between the support to João Goulart, registered before the coup, and after the success of the coup, which points out to the good acceptance of authoritarian measures, including political purges. The empirical data obtained from the polls are used to consider the sources of legitimation of dictatorship that especially mobilized anticommunist representations. The analysis of the records suggests that the support to the authoritarian regime was marked by instability and oscillated throughout the initial years.

  15. Public opinion about nuclear energy - year 2003 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, R.; Jencic, I.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is performing extensive public information activities, focused mainly on elementary and high schools in Slovenia. There are over 7000 visitors yearly. Every year in the spring we ask several hundred of visitors the same set of questions about their knowledge and opinion about nuclear energy. They are polled before they listen to the lecture or visit the exhibition. In that way we are trying to obtain their opinion based on the knowledge they obtain in everyday life. In the paper the results of this year's poll are presented and compared with the previous years. No significant changes in public opinion were observed this year. Favourable attitude towards NPP Krsko, which could be observed in the last years, is maintained. On the other hand, misconceptions about radioactive waste repositories and danger of radioactive waste remain very high. (author)

  16. An Elementary Derivation of Mean Wait Time in Polling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, Field

    2012-01-01

    Polling systems are a well-established subject in queueing theory. However, their formal treatments generally rely heavily on relatively sophisticated theoretical tools, such as moment generating functions and Laplace transforms, and solutions often require the solution of large systems of equations. We show that, if you are willing to only have the average waiting of a system time rather than higher moments, it can found through an elementary derivation based only on algebra and some well-kn...

  17. Public opinion poll on safety and regulations of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. I.; Park, B. I.; Lee, S. M. [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The purpose of this poll is not only to research understanding on safety and regulations of nuclear energy and to compare the result by time series followed 2003 to 2002 years, also to establish the public relations strategies and to offer information for developing long-term policies. The contents of the study are on the general perception, safety, management of nuclear power station, regulations and surroundings about nuclear energy.

  18. Election Polls, Free Trade, and the Stock Market: Evidence from the Canadian General Election

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Brander

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) and election polls during the 1988 Canadian General Election campaign. Two hypotheses are investigated: first, did polls influence the TSE, and secondly, if so, did the nature of the influence suggest that investors were reacting to expectations concerning the effect of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA)? I find that the TSE was positively related to Conservative popularity as measured by polls, but that the...

  19. Opinion polls and the U.S. civil space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-11-01

    The conclusions that can be drawn from public opinion polls depend a great deal on what usually does not appear on the newspaper page or television screen. Subtle biases can result from the population interviewed, the time of day individuals were called, how a particular question was asked, or how the answer was interpreted. Examples are the 1961 Gallop Poll, the survey done for Rockwell International by the firm of Yankelovich, Skelly and White/Clancy Shulman, and the one done by Jon D. Miller of the International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy. There is more to learn from opinion polls than that a good proportion of adult Americans support the space program. We can learn that social and economic security are not competing goals with space, but interdependent goals. If we want to increase public support for space, we must increase the number of Americans who have the economic freedom to take an interest in something besides getting by, day after day. We can also learn that the majority of those who support the space program can distinguish between the bread and circuses of space travel. They are content to experience extraordinary adventures in the movie theaters; for their tax dollars they want real return in expended scientific knowledge and understanding. Finally, we can learn that we need to increase that return, not just for scientific careers, but for the ordinary people who pay our bills and for their children, our children. Ultimately, the space program is for them, as all investments in the future must be.

  20. Coal poll: industry looks to leaders for leadership - and more

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanda, A.P.

    1993-07-01

    As part of the Coal Poll 202 executives and managers in the US coal industry were asked which companies and coal associations they looked to for leadership within the industry. 66% of the respondents looked to national and local associations for leadership. The largest producers were seen as dominating the industry. However, it is domination in a positive sense with these producers seen as the most productive and innovative, as well as the most concerned with health and safety and employee relations. 4 figs.

  1. Public opinion about nuclear energy. Year 2007 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, R.; Jencic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic (Izobrazevalni center za jedrsko tehnologijo - ICJT) at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana incorporates the Information Centre for general public. Most of the visitors are youngsters and almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia is informed on nuclear energy by live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations. About 1000 visitors are polled every year since 1993 to measure the opinion about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities. Continued operation of NPP Krsko is supported by 69% of youngsters (negative trend from the last year's 76%), while opposition remains low. (author)

  2. Public opinion about nuclear energy. Year 2006 poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, R.; Jencic, I.; Tkavc, M.

    2006-01-01

    Public information, one of the important activities of the Nuclear Training Centre Milan Copic at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia is informed on nuclear energy by live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. Continued operation of the NPP Krsko is supported by 76% of youngsters in Slovenia (slightly positive trend from the last year's 71%). Opposition to NPP Krsko operation remains low. (author)

  3. Collective identity factors and the attitude toward violence in defense of ethnicity or religion among Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Feddes, A.F.; Doosje, B.; Pels, T.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Collective deprivation, connectedness to mainstream society (friendship and psychological closeness to majority individuals) and in-group identity factors (i.e. strength of in-group identity, and perceived in-group superiority) were investigated among Muslim Dutch youth of Turkish and Moroccan

  4. Collective identity factors and the attitude toward violence in defense of ethnicity or religion among Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Feddes, Allard F.; Doosje, Bertjan; Pels, Trees V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Collective deprivation, connectedness to mainstream society (friendship and psychological closeness to majority individuals) and in-group identity factors (i.e. strength of in-group identity, and perceived in-group superiority) were investigated among Muslim Dutch youth of Turkish and Moroccan

  5. Analyzing online sentiment to predict telephone poll results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, Chee-hon

    2013-09-01

    The telephone survey is a common social science research method for capturing public opinion, for example, an individual's values or attitudes, or the government's approval rating. However, reducing domestic landline usage, increasing nonresponse rate, and suffering from response bias of the interviewee's self-reported data pose methodological challenges to such an approach. Because of the labor cost of administration, a phone survey is often conducted on a biweekly or monthly basis, and therefore a daily reflection of public opinion is usually not available. Recently, online sentiment analysis of user-generated content has been deployed to predict public opinion and human behavior. However, its overall effectiveness remains uncertain. This study seeks to examine the temporal association between online sentiment reflected in social media content and phone survey poll results in Hong Kong. Specifically, it aims to find the extent to which online sentiment can predict phone survey results. Using autoregressive integrated moving average time-series analysis, this study suggested that online sentiment scores can lead phone survey results by about 8-15 days, and their correlation coefficients were about 0.16. The finding is significant to the study of social media in social science research, because it supports the conclusion that daily sentiment observed in social media content can serve as a leading predictor for phone survey results, keeping as much as 2 weeks ahead of the monthly announcement of opinion polls. We also discuss the practical and theoretical implications of this study.

  6. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  7. Exit Polling in an Emergent Democracy: The Complex Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Nikolaevna Kharchenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This report considers the methodological specifics of conducting exit polls to verify election returns, mainly using an example of election campaigns in Ukraine from 2002-2007. The deepest public resonance was aroused by exit polls conducted after the second round of Ukrainian presidential elections in 2004. These polls were one of the factors, which led to massive demonstrations (the so-called "Orange Revolution" and the revocation of election results. The authors show that in the environment of administrative pressure on voters, governmental control of mass media, and severe political struggle, inaccuracy increases. Thus, to acquire reliable and valid information, the polling methods used must be modified. The recommendations given for the methodology of conducting exit polls may be useful for emergent democratic countries.

  8. For two regional health foundations, returns from the Kentucky Health Issues Poll are worth the investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah E; Myers, Gail; Chubinski, Jennifer; Zepeda, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    With finite resources to advance their missions, regional health foundations should critically evaluate the investments they make. This article reviews the costs and associated benefits of large-scale public opinion polling--specifically, the annual Kentucky Health Issues Poll, which is sponsored by the Foundation for a Healthy Kentucky and Interact for Health, formerly the Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati. In addition to the information generated by the poll, the sponsoring foundations have benefited from increased name recognition and credibility with key stakeholders, including state policy makers and the media. Furthermore, jointly funding the poll has strengthened the relationship between the sponsoring foundations and has fostered other key collaborations. We find that the benefits from this poll more than justify its modest costs ($120,000 per year) and hope that this assessment may prove informative for other funders considering similar investments. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Spanish exit polls. Sampling error or nonresponse bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavía, Jose M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Countless examples of misleading forecasts on behalf of both pre-election and exit polls can be found all over the world. Non-representative samples due to differential nonresponse have been claimed as being the main reason for inaccurate exit-poll projections. In real inference problems, it is seldom possible to compare estimates and true values. Electoral forecasts are an exception. Comparisons between estimates and final outcomes can be carried out once votes have been tallied. In this paper, we examine the raw data collected in seven exit polls conducted in Spain and test the likelihood that the data collected in each sampled voting location can be considered as a random sample of actual results. Knowing the answer to this is relevant for both electoral analysts and forecasters as, if the hypothesis is rejected, the shortcomings of the collected data would need amending. Analysts could improve the quality of their computations by implementing local correction strategies. We find strong evidence of nonsampling error in Spanish exit polls and evidence that the political context matters. Nonresponse bias is larger in polarized elections and in a climate of fearExiste un gran número de ejemplos de predicciones inexactas obtenidas a partir tanto de encuestas pre-electorales como de encuestas a pie de urna a lo largo del mundo. La presencia de tasas de no-respuesta diferencial entre distintos tipos de electores ha sido la principal razón esgrimida para justificar las proyecciones erróneas en las encuestas a pie de urna. En problemas de inferencia rara vez es posible comparar estimaciones y valores reales. Las predicciones electorales son una excepción. La comparación entre estimaciones y resultados finales puede realizarse una vez los votos han sido contabilizados. En este trabajo, examinamos los datos brutos recogidos en siete encuestas a pie de urna realizadas en España y testamos la hipótesis de que los datos recolectados en cada punto

  10. Nonresponse Bias and Superpopulation Models in Electoral Polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Pavía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse bias (and, to a lesser extent, measurement error has become the main source of error for electoral forecasts in Spain. Although the post-stratifi cation techniques and ratio estimators currently used in the polling industry reduce deviations, they do not show enough capacity to mend the biases introduced when collecting data. This research reveals how a more effi cient use of the electoral information available outside the sample could help to signifi cantly improve the accuracy of predictions, and uses simulation techniques to show that this may be accompanied by less expensive sampling designs. The analysis, nevertheless, also concludes that the proposed specifi cation is not a panacea and affi rms that there is still scope for reducing nonresponse bias, pointing to several issues for future research.

  11. The Youth and Political Ideology in Ghanaian Politics: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The youth of Ghana have played an important role in both local and national politics since the inception of the Fourth Republic. Among other things, they have served as the foot-soldiers and channels through which party manifestoes have been transmitted to the electorate and polling agents during registration and voting ...

  12. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  13. Non-response Assessment of a Web-based Navy Quick Poll

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uriell, Zannette A; Whittam, Kimberly P; Newell, Carol E; Hargrove, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    Quick Polls were developed to obtain attitudes and opinions of U.S. Navy personnel in a shorter time period than traditional mailed surveys using a new contact method and a web-based survey available for only a...

  14. Is Group Polling Better? An Investigation of the Effect of Individual and Group Polling Strategies on Students' Academic Performance, Anxiety, and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ariel Yu-Zhen; Yeh, Katherine Pin-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polling technologies (clickers or tablets) integrated with strategies (individual or group) on students' academic performance, anxiety, and attention. The participants were 34 students enrolled in an educational research methodology course. The anxiety scale, pre- and in-class quizzes,…

  15. Some opinion polls of students concerning energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto; Koyanagi, Masae; Miura, Michiko

    1986-01-01

    Opinions of students of Tokyo Gakugei University concerning the energy problems are investigated. Comparison is made between the natural science group (231 students) and the nonnatural science group (162 students: about 1/4 mathematics, about 3/4 literature, art etc.). The majority choose nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and solar energy as future energy. About half of them are in favour of development of nuclear fission, but about 1/3 wants keeping nuclear fission at the present level or abolishing it. The science group is more favourable to nuclear fission. Oil depletion is the strongest reason for development of nuclear fission, while the problem of radioactive wastes is the strongest reason for opposition, major accidents being the second. Most of the students oppose construction of nuclear power plants in their neighbourhood, but the science group is more favourable to the construction than the non-science group. Knowledge about natural radiations is very poor, but about 1/4 ∼ 1/5 knows the release of radioactivities from thermal power plants. Knowledge about the greenhouse effect is unexpectedly high. Especially 81 % of male students in the science group knows it. The majority do not understand the energy balance of nuclear energy, but those who answer that the energy balance holds is more than those who answer that it does not. In general the science group and males answer more correctly and are more favourable to nuclear fission. Comparison with other opinion polls is made and it is found that their general tendencies are in agreement. (author)

  16. Non-linear behavior of public opinion on the issues regarding inhabitants' polls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki; Suganuma, Jyun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    The observed change of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll in Japan was compared with model calculation to investigate its non-linear behavior. Two inhabitants' polls regarding nuclear issues, the approval and disapproval of the construction of Maki nuclear station, and of the MOX fuel use at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear station, were considered together with the poll on the reconstruction of the tenth weir in Yoshino river carried out in Tokushima. By using a mathematical model such that the individual attitude is mainly subject to two factors of the information environment and the mutual communication between the public, it was found that the change and the unification of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll can be interpreted as a manifestation of self-organization resulted from the cooperative phenomenon of those two factors. Moreover, it was also found that the abrupt change of public attitude just before the poll can be interpreted as a result of positive feedback of the information environment formed by the various types of propaganda activities to the attitude change, though the extent of such non-linear effects differs from case to case. (author)

  17. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  18. Modeling the influence of polls on elections: a population dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Restrepo, Juan M [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Rael, Rosalyn C [UNIV OF ARIZONA

    2009-01-01

    We propose a population dynamics model for quantifying the effects of polling data on the outcome of multi-party elections decided by a majority-rule voting process. We divide the population into two groups: committed voters impervious to polling data, and susceptible voters whose decision to vote is influenced by data, depending on its reliability. This population-based approach to modeling the process sidesteps the problem of upscaling models based upon the choices made by individuals. We find releasing poll data is not advantageous to leading candidates, but it can be exploited by those closely trailing. The analysis identifies the particular type of voting impetus at play in different stages of an election and could help strategists optimize their influence on susceptible voters.

  19. On Two-Level State-Dependent Routing Polling Systems with Mixed Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on priority differentiation and efficiency of the system, we consider an N+1 queues’ single-server two-level polling system which consists of one key queue and N normal queues. The novel contribution of the present paper is that we consider that the server just polls active queues with customers waiting in the queue. Furthermore, key queue is served with exhaustive service and normal queues are served with 1-limited service in a parallel scheduling. For this model, we derive an expression for the probability generating function of the joint queue length distribution at polling epochs. Based on these results, we derive the explicit closed-form expressions for the mean waiting time. Numerical examples demonstrate that theoretical and simulation results are identical and the new system is efficient both at key queue and normal queues.

  20. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

    2014-12-01

    WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

  1. The Application of the Exhaustive Polling Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Meng Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new use of exhaustive service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Vehicles arrival rate is measured in the system. Through the relationship between arrival rate and mean waiting time ,mean queue length in exhaustive service polling system, achieved an technology that intelligent adjust the length of traffic light time according to the arrive rate.The more arrive rate the longer green light time. With the intelligent control, the road capacity is more.

  2. The Application of The Double Queue Asymmetric Gated Service Polling Control Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available paper presents a new use of double queues asymmetric gated service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Usually there are more vehicles in main road than minor road,so there are more green light time be needed in the main road.From the computer simulation and theory analysis,we can find that the application of double queues asymmetric gated service polling theory in intelligent traffic system can balance intersections load and set suitable passing time for vehicles to assure the roads open.

  3. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  4. QoS Support Polling Scheme for Multimedia Traffic in Wireless LAN MAC Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhijun; ZHAO Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) support is a key attribute for multimedia traffic including video, voice, and data in wireless local area networks (LANs) but is limited in 802.11-based wireless LANs. A polling-based scheme called the point coordination function (PCF) was developed for 802.11 LANs to support the trans-mission of multimedia traffic. However, the PCF is not able to meet the desired practical traffic differentiation requirements for real-time data. This paper describes a QoS support polling scheme based on the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol. The scheme uses a two-level polling mechanism with the QoS classes differentiated by two different access policies. Stations with higher priority traffic such as key or real-time data form the first level and can access the common channel through an exhaustive access policy. Other stations with lower priority traffic form the second level and can access the channel through a gated access policy. A system model based on imbedded Markov chain theory and a generation function were setup to explicitly analyze the mean information packet waiting time of the two-level polling scheme. Theo-retical and simulation results show that the new scheme efficiently differentiates services to guarantee better QoS and system stability.

  5. Two Currencies - One Model? Evidence from the Wall Street Journal forecast poll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Ruelke, Jan Christoph; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use the foreign exchange forecasts of the Wall Street Journal poll to compare forecasters' expectation formation process for the exchange rates of the euro and the yen against the U.S. dollar for the period 1999 - 2005. We also contrast the expectation formation process with the actual exchange...

  6. New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

  7. Down to the Wire: How Six Newspapers Reported Public Opinion Polls during the 1988 Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luther W.; And Others

    A study analyzed the quality of reporting of public opinion polls in six selected newspapers during the final 65 days of the 1988 presidential campaign. The eight disclosure standards used were based upon the latest version of the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) code of Professional Ethics and Practices. The newspapers…

  8. Mixed gated/exhaustive service in a polling model with priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider a single-server polling system with switch-over times. We introduce a new service discipline, mixed gated/exhaustive service, that can be used for queues with two types of customers: high and low priority customers. At the beginning of a visit of the server to such a queue,

  9. Polling on a Budget: Implementing Telephone Surveys in Introductory and Advanced American Politics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that student learning is enhanced when students are engaged through active learning strategies. In studying public opinion and polling, challenges include the provision of meaningful active learning environments when resources are limited. In this article, I discuss the design and implementation of telephone surveys as a teaching…

  10. Polling Systems with Two-Phase Gated Service: Heavy Traffic Results for the Waiting Time Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van der Mei (Rob); J.A.C. Resing

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study an asymmetric cyclic polling system with Poisson arrivals, general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and with so-called two-phase gated service at each queue, an interleaving scheme that aims to enforce some level of "fairness" among the different customer

  11. Heavy-traffic limits for polling models with exhaustive service and non-FCFS service orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vis (Petra); R. Bekker (Rene); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study cyclic polling models with exhaustive service at each queue under a variety of non-FCFS (first-come-first-served) local service orders, namely last-come-first-served with and without preemption, random-order-of-service, processor sharing, the multi-class priority scheduling with

  12. Two Currencies - One Model? Evidence from the Wall Street Journal forecast poll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Ruelke, Jan Christoph; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use the foreign exchange forecasts of the Wall Street Journal poll to compare forecasters' expectation formation process for the exchange rates of the euro and the yen against the U.S. dollar for the period 1999 - 2005. We also contrast the expectation formation process with the actual exchang...

  13. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  14. UK Public Opinion Review - Working Paper - An overview of public opinion polls since the Edward Snowden revelations in June 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cable, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This document charts public opinion of the Edward Snowden leaks and associated issues\\ud since June 2013. This includes people’s opinions on surveillance, the intelligence services\\ud and personal privacy. Since the Snowden leaks there have been 38 opinion polls on these\\ud topics concerning public opinion in the UK and conducted by large polling organisations,\\ud such as YouGov, ComRes and Ipsos MORI among others.

  15. Application of information and complexity theories to public opinion polls. The case of Greece (2004-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, C. P.; Chatzisavvas, K. Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A general methodology to study public opinion inspired from information and complexity theories is outlined. It is based on probabilistic data extracted from opinion polls. It gives a quantitative information-theoretic explanation of high job approval of Greek Prime Minister Mr. Constantinos Karamanlis (2004-2007), while the same time series of polls conducted by the company Metron Analysis showed that his party New Democracy (abbr. ND) was slightly higher than the opposition party of PASOK -...

  16. A role of the sires and dams in the hermaphrodite phenomenon linked with polled Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection for polled character as preferential in Damascus breed leads to spread homozygous individuals for the polled gene and polled intersexes and consequently further economic losses in this breed. It’s very important to study the genetic origin, the role of sirs and dams in the development of intersexuality linked with hornlessness, and evaluate some other effects in the excess of the intersexes in caprine herd. To perform this work data of 52 intersexes issues from mating 19 polled bucks with 12 horned and 37 polled goats in Humeimeh research station, belonging to General commission for agricultural scientific research, were collected and analyzed by mean of Chi-Square (SAS, 1998. The results showed the statistical effect of sires (P≤0.007 and the unstististical effect (P≥0.05 of dames on the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed. The number of kids intersexes were repeated 10, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for 1, 2, 2 and 1, five and eight sire number respectively. Whereas the number of kids intersexes were repeated only 2 and 1 for 3 and 46 goat number respectively. The sex of the kids, kidding type and horned goat character have all highly significant effect (P≤0.001 and this because intersex cases issues of single births and twin birth: twin to male, twin to female, and triple births: twin to male and female, and twin to tow males respectively were repeated 17, 18, 14, 2 and 1 respectively. Also, single births, twin births and triple births were repeated 17, 32 and 3 respectively. Cases of intersexuality issues from horned and polled goats were repeated 14 and 38 respectively. It was concluded the important role of hornlessness genetic and multiple births in the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed.

  17. Use of Twitter Polls to Determine Public Opinion Regarding Content Presented at a Major National Specialty Society Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Twitter polls to assess public opinion regarding session content at a national specialty society meeting. Twitter polls allow users to embed multiple-choice questions within tweets and automatically aggregate responses. Two radiologists attending the 2016 annual meeting of the ACR posted a Twitter poll containing the hashtag #ACR2016 during 10 meeting sessions addressing socioeconomics/advocacy, patient experience, and social media/informatics (20 polls total). Each poll contained a question asking for an opinion regarding the session's content. Polls were open for responses for 24 hours. The average number of responses per poll was significantly higher for the user with the larger number of Twitter followers (24.3 ± 14.4 versus 11.2 ± 9.8, P = .015). A total of 57% of respondents agreed that radiologists' payments should shift to value-based payments, and 86% agreed that radiologists should routinely survey their patients to monitor quality; however, 83% disagreed with basing physician payments on patient satisfaction scores. A total of 85% disagreed that the artificial intelligence supercomputer Watson will entirely replace radiologists. A total of 76% agreed that social media can drive business at less cost than standard marketing. A total of 56% agreed with the direction of the ACR's advocacy and regulatory efforts, whereas 74% considered the ACR's advocacy efforts to be moderately or very useful for their practice. A total of 50% planned to change their practice on the basis of keynote remarks by Dr Ezekiel Emanuel. Twitter polls provide a free and easy infrastructure to potentially capture global public sentiment during the course of a medical society meeting. Their use may enrich and promote discussions of key session content. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear power will stay - think Swedes in a SIFO opinion poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udikas, M.

    1984-01-01

    The author outlines the results of a Swedish SIFO opinion poll on nuclear power. He reports that most Swedes think that nuclear power will remain a source of energy. 16% believed in scrapping nuclear power. 49% didn't think there were plans for decommissioning, but 30% thought that such plans existed. 29% consider nuclear power not good for the country as against 28% in 1983. 49% consider it a good investment 'with experience we have today'. (H.J.P.)

  19. Large Deviation Bounds for a Polling System with Two Queues and Multiple Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Fen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present large deviation bounds for a discrete-time polling system consisting of two-par-allel queues and m servers. The arrival process in each queue is an arbitrary, and possibly correlated, stochastic process. Each server (serves) independently serves the two queues according to a Bernoulli service schedule. Using large deviation techniques, we analyze the tail behavior of the stationary distribution of the queue length processes, and derive upper and lower bounds of the b...

  20. Strategies for Improving the Quality of Polling Service in Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of service types are defined in IEEE 802.16. In order to provide the Quality of Service (Qos for different services, the system must use a reasonable resource allocation method and scheduling algorithm to efficiently and fairly allocate bandwidth resources. Although in the IEEE 802.16 MAC, for the uplink real-time polling service (rtPS and non-real-time polling service (nrtPS business type of data transmission are used to polling, but do not provide business-based services. In this paper, the distinction between priority service of rtPS and nrtPS is carried out, and the simulation experiment is used to analyze the performance characteristics of the protocol under the distinction of high and low priority. Wherein the theoretical values of the average delay and the information packets are compared with the experimental values. The average query cycle and throughput are also evaluated. Which proves the validity of the improved service strategy and improves the service characteristics of the system.

  1. Sistem Pemungutan Suara Elektronik Menggunakan Model Poll Site E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General elections is a regular agenda for a democtaric state, the applied paper based voting has several drawbacks, including spoiled ballots, inaccuracy in the counting of votes and reporting of election results which tends to be slow. Therefore , it needs to develop an electronic voting system that is user friendly for Indonesian people, which will reduce confusion from the previous system changes. Electronic voting aims at increasing participation, accuracy and efficiency of election results. Electrinoc voting has its own challenges to the implementation in Indonesia, ranging from the lack of legal protection, the heterogeneous level of education, culture, soceity and the digital gaps. The model developed in this thesis is the poll site e-voting, based on the rules of General Elections Commision (KPU as the organizer of the elections. In this model, people still go to the pools, using the ID number od ID card as a verification tool and voting at the voting booths provided. The system automatically stores the results in a database option, and after the spesified time will show both the results of the voting and other and other information required by the Commission. Voting system with a model of e-voting poll site is expected to have a good chance an a low level of risk to be applied in Indonesia.   Keywords : E-voting; Poll site; Rule based; Risk.

  2. Validation of Twitter opinion trends with national polling aggregates: Hillary Clinton vs Donald Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Alexandre; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2018-06-06

    Measuring and forecasting opinion trends from real-time social media is a long-standing goal of big-data analytics. Despite the large amount of work addressing this question, there has been no clear validation of online social media opinion trend with traditional surveys. Here we develop a method to infer the opinion of Twitter users by using a combination of statistical physics of complex networks and machine learning based on hashtags co-occurrence to build an in-domain training set of the order of a million tweets. We validate our method in the context of 2016 US Presidential Election by comparing the Twitter opinion trend with the New York Times National Polling Average, representing an aggregate of hundreds of independent traditional polls. The Twitter opinion trend follows the aggregated NYT polls with remarkable accuracy. We investigate the dynamics of the social network formed by the interactions among millions of Twitter supporters and infer the support of each user to the presidential candidates. Our analytics unleash the power of Twitter to uncover social trends from elections, brands to political movements, and at a fraction of the cost of traditional surveys.

  3. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  4. Youth Awareness on Youth Development Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...

  5. Prevalent practice patterns in glaucoma: Poll of Indian ophthalmologists at a national conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Shreeram Choudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and compare the prevailing practice patterns in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists in India. Materials and Methods: This is an interactive audience response system (ARS based poll of ophthalmologists attending the annual conference of the Glaucoma Society of India in 2013. Results: The information was obtained from 379 ophthalmologists (146 glaucoma specialists, 54 nonglaucoma subspecialists, and 179 general ophthalmologists. The majority of polled ophthalmologists (236; 62% had 10 or more years of experience in ophthalmology. The glaucoma specialists differed from nonglaucomatologists in their preference for Goldmann applanation tonometer (P < 0.01, four-mirror gonioscope (P < 0.01, Humphrey perimeter (P < 0.01, laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure disease (P = 0.03, postiridotomy gonioscopy (P < 0.01, and usage of antifibrotic agents during filtering surgery (P < 0.01. Optical coherence tomography was the most preferred imaging modality and was utilized more often by the subspecialists than general ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists also differed in their choice of antiglaucoma medications. More glaucoma specialists were performing surgery on children with congenital glaucoma (P < 0.01, implanting glaucoma drainage devices (P < 0.01, and using scientific journals to upgrade knowledge (P = 0.03 than the other ophthalmologists. Conclusions: This poll is the first of its kind in India, in its usage of the ARS, and in comparing the practice patterns of care for glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists. It has revealed substantial diversity in a few areas among those who did and did not receive specialty training in glaucoma.

  6. SMOKING AS A FORM OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR OF A METROPOLIS’ RESIDENTS (according to a poll conducted among the students of MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes social consequences of smoking. Particular attention is paid to the preva-lence of smoking among urban youth. Smoking is rated as one of the forms of social deviance. The author traced economic, social and socio-cultural effects of tobacco use, discussed the connection of smoking with urban lifestyle. The author raises a question about the reasons for the wide dissemination of this type of deviation in modern society, especially among young people, and speaks with the assumption that this is due to the tolerance of smoking in the society in general. The work shows the current relationship of the cases of fires on construction sites with careless handling of fire while smoking. This may cause an extensive damage to the construction industry. Some statistics is offered on peaty and forest fires caused by carelessly discarded cigarette butts. The propaganda of smoking is taking place in media and advertising. Popular culture is also involved in the process of propaganda. The second problem solved in the article is finding new ways of agitation and propaganda in favor of a healthy lifestyle. The authors draw conclusions according to the poll of MGSU students based on incremental sample. Also the analysis of the media is made.

  7. Public perception on nuclear energy and radioactive waste - The second opinion poll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Stela; Covreag Ilinca

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 ANDRAD started the second national opinion poll which had the purpose to identify the support of Romanian citizen for energy production by nuclear power stations, which is perceived as a less expensive energy, that could reduces the oil dependence of our country. The questionnaire consisted in 22 questions aiming to assess: the level of information about radioactive waste, the actual knowledge about radioactive waste management, the support and the opinion on nuclear energy, the public attitude regarding radioactive waste disposal, the trust in information sources and the public involvement in the decision-making process. (authors)

  8. Self-match based on polling scheme for passive optical network monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Guo, Hao; Jia, Xinhong; Liao, Qinghua

    2018-06-01

    We propose a self-match based on polling scheme for passive optical network monitoring. Each end-user is equipped with an optical matcher that exploits only the specific length patchcord and two different fiber Bragg gratings with 100% reflectivity. The simple and low-cost scheme can greatly simplify the final recognition processing of the network link status and reduce the sensitivity of the photodetector. We analyze the time-domain relation between reflected pulses and establish the calculation model to evaluate the false alarm rate. The feasibility of the proposed scheme and the validity of the time-domain relation analysis are experimentally demonstrated.

  9. Effectiveness of flipped classroom with Poll Everywhere as a teaching-learning method for pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbiyappa, Kumar Shiva; Barua, Ankur; Das, Biswadeep; Vasudeva Murthy, C R; Baloch, Hasnain Zafar

    2016-10-01

    Flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical model to engage students in learning process by replacing the didactic lectures. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as means to provide interaction and collaboration. Poll Everywhere is an audience response system (ARS) which can be used in an FC to make the activities more interesting, engaging, and interactive. This study aims to study the perception of undergraduate pharmacy students on FC activity using Poll Everywhere ARS and to study the effectiveness of FC activity as a teaching-learning tool for delivering complementary medicine module in the undergraduate pharmacy program. In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done. Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach's alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers ( P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3-11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination ( P = 0.013). The multivariate

  10. “Turn Your Cell Phones on”: Mobile Phone Polling as a Tool for Teaching Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Burkhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While mobile technologies are ubiquitous among students and increasingly used in many aspects of libraries, they have yet to gain traction in information literacy instruction. Librarians at Champlain College piloted mobile phone polling in a first-year classroom as a less expensive and more versatile alternative to clickers. By utilizing a technology that virtually all students have in their pockets librarians found that it increased engagement from previous iterations of the session. In addition, by asking poll questions about students’ experiences, librarians were able to facilitate in-depth inquiry into information literacy topics. Ultimately, from direct experience in over 30 different classes, we found that mobile phone polling is a useful tool for any librarian to have in their pedagogical toolbox.

  11. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  12. Audience Response Made Easy: Using Personal Digital Assistants as a Classroom Polling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anil S.; Moffett, Shannon; Enriquez, Melissa; Martinez, Miriam M.; Dev, Parvati; Grappone, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Both teachers and students benefit from an interactive classroom. The teacher receives valuable input about effectiveness, student interest, and comprehension, whereas student participation, active learning, and enjoyment of the class are enhanced. Cost and deployment have limited the use of existing audience response systems, allowing anonymous linking of teachers and students in the classroom. These limitations can be circumvented, however, by use of personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are cheaper and widely used by students. In this study, the authors equipped a summer histology class of 12 students with PDAs and wireless Bluetooth cards to allow access to a central server. Teachers displayed questions in multiple-choice format as a Web page on the server and students responded with their PDAs, a process referred to as polling. Responses were immediately compiled, analyzed, and displayed. End-of-class survey results indicated that students were enthusiastic about the polling tool. The surveys also provided technical feedback that will be valuable in streamlining future trials. PMID:14764615

  13. Designing a Method for AN Automatic Earthquake Intensities Calculation System Based on Data Mining and On-Line Polls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo Sanchez, A. K.; Rojas, R.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic intensities can be calculated using the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale or the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98), among others, which are based on a serie of qualitative aspects related to a group of subjective factors that describe human perception, effects on nature or objects and structural damage due to the occurrence of an earthquake. On-line polls allow experts to get an overview of the consequences of an earthquake, without going to the locations affected. However, this could be a hard work if the polls are not properly automated. Taking into account that the answers given to these polls are subjective and there is a number of them that have already been classified for some past earthquakes, it is possible to use data mining techniques in order to automate this process and to obtain preliminary results based on the on-line polls. In order to achieve these goal, a predictive model has been used, using a classifier based on a supervised learning techniques such as decision tree algorithm and a group of polls based on the MMI and EMS-98 scales. It summarized the most important questions of the poll, and recursive divides the instance space corresponding to each question (nodes), while each node splits the space depending on the possible answers. Its implementation was done with Weka, a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks, using the J48 algorithm which is an implementation of the C4.5 algorithm for decision tree models. By doing this, it was possible to obtain a preliminary model able to identify up to 4 different seismic intensities with 73% correctly classified polls. The error obtained is rather high, therefore, we will update the on-line poll in order to improve the results, based on just one scale, for instance the MMI. Besides, the integration of automatic seismic intensities methodology with a low error probability and a basic georeferencing system, will allow to generate preliminary isoseismal maps

  14. A Time for Change: The 42nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup Organization. The results of this year's poll are presented along with past results, when applicable, to give both a snapshot of Americans' opinions about their schools and an indication of how those opinions are changing over time. [Commentaries by…

  15. Betting on Teachers: The 43rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup organization. Some important findings of this year's poll include: About half of us believe teacher unions are hurting public education, but we're more likely to support teacher union leaders than governors in disputes over teacher collective…

  16. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  17. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  18. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  19. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in schools without LGB support groups. 8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts ... factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the ... Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89‒112. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. ...

  20. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  1. What do Americans think about public transit? A review of U.S. public opinion polling survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This seed grant research project compiled a set of 56 US public opinion polls that asked respondents their opinions about public : transit. The first and primary goal of the project was to assemble a large set of transit-related survey question...

  2. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that…

  3. The 1991 international energy workshop: the poll results and a review of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Marchant, K.

    1992-06-01

    In the tenth year of its existence, the International Energy Workshop (IEW) held its annual meeting at IIASA. In addition to analyses of the IEW survey of expected crude oil prices, economic growth, primary energy consumption and production, and energy trade, the 1991 meeting featured sessions on the forthcoming establishment of the common energy market in the European Community, the prospects for the development of the energy systems in the economies of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and the global environment. This report is divided into three sections. The first section presents and analyzes the latest poll results. The next section reports on the papers presented at the IEW meeting. The final section briefly summarizes the proceedings of the special session held on the final morning of the event. (authors)

  4. A Scheme to Optimize Flow Routing and Polling Switch Selection of Software Defined Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    Full Text Available This paper aims at minimizing the communication cost for collecting flow information in Software Defined Networks (SDN. Since flow-based information collecting method requires too much communication cost, and switch-based method proposed recently cannot benefit from controlling flow routing, jointly optimize flow routing and polling switch selection is proposed to reduce the communication cost. To this end, joint optimization problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP model firstly. Since the ILP model is intractable in large size network, we also design an optimal algorithm for the multi-rooted tree topology and an efficient heuristic algorithm for general topology. According to extensive simulations, it is found that our method can save up to 55.76% communication cost compared with the state-of-the-art switch-based scheme.

  5. Forecasting daily political opinion polls using the fractionally cointegrated VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Shibaev, Sergei S.

    We examine forecasting performance of the recent fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive (FCVAR) model. We use daily polling data of political support in the United Kingdom for 2010-2015 and compare with popular competing models at several forecast horizons. Our findings show that the four...... trend from the model follows the vote share of the UKIP very closely, and we thus interpret it as a measure of Euro-skepticism in public opinion rather than an indicator of the more traditional left-right political spectrum. In terms of prediction of vote shares in the election, forecasts generated...... variants of the FCVAR model considered are generally ranked as the top four models in terms of forecast accuracy, and the FCVAR model significantly outperforms both univariate fractional models and the standard cointegrated VAR (CVAR) model at all forecast horizons. The relative forecast improvement...

  6. A Scheme to Optimize Flow Routing and Polling Switch Selection of Software Defined Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Li, Lemin; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Yangming; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at minimizing the communication cost for collecting flow information in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Since flow-based information collecting method requires too much communication cost, and switch-based method proposed recently cannot benefit from controlling flow routing, jointly optimize flow routing and polling switch selection is proposed to reduce the communication cost. To this end, joint optimization problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model firstly. Since the ILP model is intractable in large size network, we also design an optimal algorithm for the multi-rooted tree topology and an efficient heuristic algorithm for general topology. According to extensive simulations, it is found that our method can save up to 55.76% communication cost compared with the state-of-the-art switch-based scheme.

  7. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  8. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  9. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  10. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  11. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  13. Polling-Based High-Bit-Rate Packet Transfer in a Microcellular Network to Allow Fast Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Phan Thanh; Lambertsen, Gaute; Yamada, Takahiko

    A microcellular network will be a good candidate for the future broadband mobile network. It is expected to support high-bit-rate connection for many fast mobile users if the handover is processed fast enough to lessen its impact on QoS requirements. One of the promising techniques is believed to use for the wireless interface in such a microcellular network is the WLAN (Wireless LAN) technique due to its very high wireless channel rate. However, the less capability of mobility support of this technique must be improved to be able to expand its utilization for the microcellular environment. The reason of its less support mobility is large handover latency delay caused by contention-based handover to the new BS (base station) and delay of re-forwarding data from the old to new BS. This paper presents a proposal of multi-polling and dynamic LMC (Logical Macro Cell) to reduce mentioned above delays. Polling frame for an MT (Mobile Terminal) is sent from every BS belonging to the same LMC — a virtual single macro cell that is a multicast group of several adjacent micro-cells in which an MT is communicating. Instead of contending for the medium of a new BS during handover, the MT responds to the polling sent from that new BS to enable the transition. Because only one BS of the LMC receives the polling ACK (acknowledgement) directly from the MT, this ACK frame has to be multicast to all BSs of the same LMC through the terrestrial network to continue sending the next polling cycle at each BS. Moreover, when an MT hands over to a new cell, its current LMC is switched over to a newly corresponding LMC to prevent the future contending for a new LMC. By this way, an MT can do handover between micro-cells of an LMC smoothly because the redundant resource is reserved for it at neighboring cells, no need to contend with others. Our simulation results using the OMNeT++ simulator illustrate the performance achievements of the multi-polling and dynamic LMC scheme in eliminating

  14. Youth and the Cult of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...

  15. CURRENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTH TRAVEL IN RUSSIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Sidorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To consider tendencies and problems of development of youth travel in Russia in general and in Krasnodar region in particular, and also possible solutions of the revealed problems. Methods. The comparative and geographical method, statistical processing, population poll were applied. Results. Data on current trends of development of youth travel in Russia and in Krasnodar region are submitted and factors, constraining his full development are revealed. The description of the actions directed to promoting of this type of tourism in Krasnodar region is given. Recommendations about the solution of the problems existing in the sphere of youth travel of Krasnodar region are provided. Conclusions. In the modern world more and more popular is a youth travel. His popularity is caused by such qualities of youth as activity, aspiration to training and knowledge, the need for new feelings. Relevance of a research of this type of tourism is caused by the increasing youth share in tourist streams, and also insufficiency of methodical developments of a problem of complex development of system of youth travel. Krasnodar region is the most perspective from the point of view of development of all types of tourism, including youth. The region has a unique environment, modern infrastructure, the developed tourist and recreational complex. At the same time during the research a number of the problems constraining development of this type of tourism is revealed.

  16. [Polls and analysis of data presented by Risto Saenkiaho [Roundtable discussion on whether the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries are listening to each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenkiaho, Risto

    1989-01-01

    This discussion shows the results of polls and analysis of data related to: confidence toward different information sources in energy policy; advantages of nuclear power; disadvantages of nuclear power; factors of political goals; factors of attitudes in energy policy

  17. Institutional research on public opinion and participative devices. From polls to public debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mañas, Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the methods and techniques implemented in social research entail a certain definition of the concepts studied, it seems relevant to reflect on the possibilities of devices other than polls when studying “public opinion” as a sociological concept. Two arguments for such approach can be highlighted: the qualitative and discursive nature of public opinion, and polls’ difficulties for being collectively perceived as a reliable and interesting way to express points of view about public matters. The French CNDP (Commission Nationale du Débat Public is conceived for encouraging national, regional or local debates about political decisions which involve an important governmental investment. Taking into account that deliberative polling has probably been the most systematized among numerous research devices which have tried to implement the premises of deliberative/participative democracy, we will explore the possibilities of a different and wider representation of “public opinion” from the analysis of the dynamics generated by the institutional device of Public Debate.

    Sosteniendo la hipótesis de que los métodos y técnicas utilizadas para el estudio de los conceptos de interés sociológico tienen cierta influencia en la definición de los mismos, este artículo plantea una reflexión sobre las posibilidades e implicaciones de dispositivos diferentes a las encuestas para la investigación de la opinión pública. La aproximación a este enfoque se realizará desde dos argumentaciones: por un lado, sosteniendo la naturaleza cualitativa y discursiva de la opinión pública y, por otro, mostrando la dificultad de los sondeos para ser percibidos colectivamente como un medio confiable e interesante para expresar y registrar puntos de vista sobre los asuntos públicos. La CNDP (Comisión Nacional de Debate Público es una institución pública francesa creada para animar debates nacionales, regionales o locales

  18. BANK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES REGARDING THE ATTRACTION OF POPULATION SAVINGS BASED ON THE "FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS" POLL

    OpenAIRE

    NICULESCU-ARON Ileana Gabriela; MIHAESCU Constanta; CAPLESCU Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Financing economic recovery is mainly based on the household sector savings, thus anti-crisis governmental programmes should be based on rigorous knowledge regarding saving and consumption behaviours. Selective studies allow for obtaining quick and pertinent results regarding these behaviours. The present study is based on a poll designed for assessing the level of financial education and financial situation of the population, and their impact on savings and preference for various saving inst...

  19. A Priority-aware Frequency Domain Polling MAC Protocol for OFDMA-based Networks in Cyber-physical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zheng; Junru Lin; Wei Liang; Haibin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless networking in cyber-physical systems(CPSs) is characteristically different from traditional wireless systems due to the harsh radio frequency environment and applications that impose high real-time and reliability constraints.One of the fundamental considerations for enabling CPS networks is the medium access control protocol. To this end, this paper proposes a novel priority-aware frequency domain polling medium access control(MAC) protocol, which takes advantage of an orthogonal frequency-division multiple access(OFDMA)physical layer to achieve instantaneous priority-aware polling.Based on the polling result, the proposed work then optimizes the resource allocation of the OFDMA network to further improve the data reliability. Due to the non-polynomial-complete nature of the OFDMA resource allocation, we propose two heuristic rules,based on which an efficient solution algorithm to the OFDMA resource allocation problem is designed. Simulation results show that the reliability performance of CPS networks is significantly improved because of this work.

  20. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Joo Hyun; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors

  1. A Uniform Energy Consumption Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks Based on Dynamic Polling Point Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Peng, Jun; Liu, Weirong; Zhu, Zhengfa; Lin, Kuo-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that using the mobility of the actuator in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) to achieve mobile data collection can greatly increase the sensor network lifetime. However, mobile data collection may result in unacceptable collection delays in the network if the path of the actuator is too long. Because real-time network applications require meeting data collection delay constraints, planning the path of the actuator is a very important issue to balance the prolongation of the network lifetime and the reduction of the data collection delay. In this paper, a multi-hop routing mobile data collection algorithm is proposed based on dynamic polling point selection with delay constraints to address this issue. The algorithm can actively update the selection of the actuator's polling points according to the sensor nodes' residual energies and their locations while also considering the collection delay constraint. It also dynamically constructs the multi-hop routing trees rooted by these polling points to balance the sensor node energy consumption and the extension of the network lifetime. The effectiveness of the algorithm is validated by simulation. PMID:24451455

  2. 'The Great Fiasco' of the 1948 presidential election polls: status recognition and norms conflict in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusinchi, Dominic

    2018-05-14

    All three 'scientific' pollsters (Crossley, Gallup and Roper) wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman's defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This 'fiasco' occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) intervened quickly to prevent social science's adversaries from using this event to degrade further its status. After all, many social scientists considered the sample survey as the paramount tool of social research, and sampling as one of social science's greatest innovation. Concurrently, there was an ongoing conflict among polling practitioners themselves-between advocates of probability sampling and users of quotas, like the pollsters. The SSRC committee appointed to evaluate the polling debacle managed to keep this contentious issue of sampling from becoming the centre of attention. Given the inauspicious environment in which this event happened, the SSRC did not wish to advertise the fact that the house of social science was in turmoil.

  3. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Soo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: insrec1@freechal.com; Moon, Joo Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors.

  4. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Mimicry Is Presidential: Linguistic Style Matching in Presidential Debates and Improved Polling Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel M; Swaab, Roderick I; Uzzi, Brian; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-10-01

    The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose that language style matching (LSM) will improve subsequent third-party evaluations because matching an opponent's linguistic style reflects greater perspective taking and will make one's arguments easier to process. In contrast, research on status inferences predicts that LSM will negatively impact third-party evaluations because LSM implies followership. We conduct two studies to test these competing hypotheses. Study 1 analyzed transcripts of U.S. presidential debates between 1976 and 2012 and found that candidates who matched their opponent's linguistic style increased their standing in the polls. Study 2 demonstrated a causal relationship between LSM and third-party observer evaluations using negotiation transcripts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  7. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  8. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  9. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  10. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  12. Catholic Media and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Stephen A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the impact of media on youth and suggests some possible directions for the Catholic media, especially in the areas of textbooks, magazines, television, movies, and radio, in responding to the needs of youth. (Author/FM)

  13. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  14. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  15. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  16. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  17. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  18. Arab Youth: A Contained Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Gertel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.

  19. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  20. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  1. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  2. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  4. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  5. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  6. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  7. Broadening the Bounds of Youth Development: Youth as Engaged Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy

    This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…

  8. The "here and now" of youth: the meanings of smoking for sexual and gender minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antin, Tamar M J; Hunt, Geoffrey; Sanders, Emile

    2018-05-31

    The mainstream tobacco field in the USA tends to situate youth as passive, particularly in terms of their susceptibility to industry manipulation and peer pressure. However, failing to acknowledge youths' agency overlooks important meanings youth ascribe to their tobacco use and how those meanings are shaped by the circumstances and structures of their everyday lives. This article is based on analysis of 58 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with sexual and gender minority youth living in the San Francisco Bay area in California. Topics covered in interviews focused on meanings of tobacco in the lives of youth. Interviews lasted approximately 2.5 h and were transcribed verbatim and linked with ATLAS.ti, a qualitative data analysis software. Following qualitative coding, narrative segments were sorted into piles of similarity identified according to principles of pattern-level analysis to interpret to what extent meanings of smoking for young people may operate as forms of resistance, survival, and defense. Analysis of our participants' narratives highlights how smoking is connected to what Bucholtz calls the "'here-and-now' of young people's experience, the social and cultural practices through which they shape their worlds" as active agents (Bucholtz, Annu Rev Anthropol31:525-52, 2003.). Specifically, narratives illustrate how smoking signifies "control" in a multitude of ways, including taking control over an oppressor, controlling the effects of exposure to traumatic or day-to-day stress, and exerting control over the physical body in terms of protecting oneself from violence or defending one's mental health. These findings call into question the universal appropriateness of foundational elements that underlie tobacco control and prevention efforts directed at youth in the USA, specifically the focus on abstinence and future orientation. Implications of these findings for research, prevention, and policy are discussed, emphasizing the risk of furthering

  9. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  10. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture in tropical region using Bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando Brito; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Paulini, Fernanda; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Components of (co)variance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120), 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (co)variance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from -0.31 to -0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (co)variance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced.

  11. Posts, pics, or polls? Which post type generates the greatest engagement in a Facebook physical activity intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Sarah; Looyestyn, Jemma; Ryan, Jillian; Kernot, Jocelyn; Maher, Carol

    2018-04-05

    Social networking websites have attracted considerable attention as a delivery platform for physical activity interventions. Current evidence highlights a need to enhance user engagement with these interventions to actualize their potential. The purpose of this study was to determine which post type generates the most engagement from participants and whether engagement was related to change in physical activity in an intervention delivered via Facebook. Subgroup analysis of the intervention condition of a randomized controlled trial was conducted. The group moderator posted a new message to the private Facebook group each day of the program. The Facebook posts (n = 118) were categorized into the following types: moderator-initiated running program, multimedia, motivational, opinion polls, or discussion question and participant-initiated experience shares, or questions. Four metrics were used to measure volume of engagement with each post type, "likes," "comments," "poll votes," and "photo uploads." One-way ANOVA was used to determine whether engagement differed by post type and an independent samples t-test to determine differences in engagement between moderator and participant-initiated posts. Pearson correlation was used to examine associations between total engagement and change in physical activity. Engagement varied by post type. Polls elicited the greatest engagement (p ≤ .01). The most common form of engagement was "likes," and engagement was higher for moderator-initiated rather than participant-initiated posts (mean = 8.0 [SD 6.8] vs. 5.3 [SD 3.2]; p ≤ .01). Total engagement with the Facebook group was not directly associated with change in physical activity (r = -.13, p = .47). However, engagement was associated with compliance with the running program (r = .37, p = .04) and there was a nonsignificant positive association between compliance and change in physical activity (r = .32, p = .08). Posts requiring a simple response generated the most

  12. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  13. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  14. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  15. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  16. Off the fence, onto the bandwagon? A large-scale survey experiment on effect of real-life poll outcomes on subsequent vote intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.W.G.; Hakhverdian, A.; Aaldering, L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of scholarly inquiry, the debate on the existence of a bandwagon effect in politics remains undecided. This article aims to overcome the limitations of previous experimental and survey research. We test to what extent success in real-life polling outcomes of the previous weeks

  17. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  18. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in the…

  19. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  20. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  1. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  2. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  3. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  4. POLLING AND DUAL-LEVEL TRAFFIC ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED DOS DETECTION IN IEEE 802.21 NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygil Alex Vadakkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 standard was developed for communication of devices in a heterogeneous environment which included greater support for handoffs. This paper focuses on the denial of service (DoS vulnerabilities faced by such Media Independent Handover (MIH networks & various effective countermeasures that can be deployed to prevent their impact on such heterogeneous networks. The use of polling mechanism coupled with real time as well as offline traffic analysis can keep a good number of attacks at bay. The use of offline traffic analysis is to use the model and compare it with a lighter model and see if any of the excluded features in the lighter model have had suspicious variations which could be a varied form of DoS attack or an attack that is completely new. The countermeasures that have been developed also allows for the increase in efficiency of data transfer as well as higher rates of success in handoffs.

  5. Gallup poll: wind energy perception in France; Sondage perception de l'energie eolienne en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, C. [Institut Synovate, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    This gallup poll was carried out in January 2003 by the Synovate institute on request of the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). It was made on a representative sample of 2090 people from different French regions, and on two over-samples of people living in the vicinity of wind farms in operation or in construction: 300 people in the Aude region and 230 people in the Finistere region. The wind energy remains widely accepted by French people (87%) and even more in areas close to wind farms (Aude: 98%, Finistere: 99%). The ecological and economical aspect of wind energy is the main advantage put forward (92%) while the aesthetics remains the main drawback (45%). (J.S.)

  6. Sleepiness and health in midlife women: results of the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Twerski, Sarah R; Yang, Kyeongra; Umlauf, Mary Grace

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Sleep in America poll, a random-sample telephone survey, provided data for this study of sleep in community-dwelling women aged 40 to 60 years. The majority of the respondents were post- or perimenopausal, overweight, married or living with someone, and reported good health. A subsample (20%) reported sleepiness that consistently interfered with daily life; the sleepy subsample reported more symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, depression and anxiety, as well as more problems with health-promoting behaviors, drowsy driving, job performance, household duties, and personal relationships. Hierarchical regression showed that sleepiness along with depressive symptoms, medical comorbidities, obesity, and lower education were associated with poor self-rated health, whereas menopause status (pre-, peri- or post-) was not. These results suggest that sleep disruptions and daytime sleepiness negatively affect the daily life of midlife women.

  7. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  8. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  9. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  10. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  11. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  12. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  13. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  14. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  15. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  16. Youth Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…

  17. Participation of Youth

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides examples that investors, civil society, and governments can follow to engage youth in participating in agriculture. Young people can be the driving force for the inclusive rural transformation needed to address the many challenges posed by growing populations, urbanization, and youth unemployment. Yet, many young people are frustrated by the lifestylesand opportunities a...

  18. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  19. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  20. Alliance in Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Rothman; H. Pijnenburg; Rinie van Rijsingen

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task

  1. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  2. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  3. 'Youth' making us fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This article problematizes the construction of youth as a ‘driving force’ in the contemporary configuration of the European Union (EU) as an educational and political space. The study draws empirical nourishment out of documents that are central to the ongoing formation of the Union, be it White...... Papers, scripts or memos concerning political arenas such as youth and education policies and the Bologna process. Theoretically the article draws on insights from post-Foucauldian traditions with a focus on mentalities, subject constructions, technologies and practices operating within the ongoing...... governmentalization of Europe. Central questions are ‘who’ and ‘what’ the problematization of youth as political technology is about. Drawing on homologies in the coding of citizen, independent of age, the authors claim that problematization of youth is directed to all of us. We are all, in the name of youth...

  4. Exercises to improve the decision making of judokas youth of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Antonio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The weaknesses identified in the EIDE "Captain Orestes Acosta" in Santiago de Cuba in the process of tactical preparation in judo in female youth category motivated the author to develop an investigation with the following scientific problem: How to encourage perfect Offensive making decisions in combating youth team athletes Judo? The objective of this research is the refine of special exercises to promote the development of decision-making in combating youth team athletes Judo. Different theoretical and empirical methods were used to evidence the weaknesses identified. It further emphasizes the novelty of the proposal to use special exercises imbalance, defense, counterattack and combinations favoring decisions in combat.

  5. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  6. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  7. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  8. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  9. Youth in Dead End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  10. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  11. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  12. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  13. Education and employment as factors of social well-being of the young people of Tuva (based on a social poll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna M.-B. Harunova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises the results of an evaluation by young Tuvan people to their access to education, their job satisfaction, and prospects of succeeding in their professional career, as well as methods of improving material conditions that young Tuvans consider the most beneficial to themselves. The author gives an estimate of the social well-being of the young population based on the given results of the social poll.

  14. Los Estudios de Opinión y su Influencia en las Preferencias de las Personas The Influence of Opinion Polls on People's Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Uribe

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa la evidencia existente sobre la influencia que las encuestas tienen en la manifestación de preferencias tanto en términos de asumir una posición (de mayoría -bandwagon- o de minoría -underdog como de las variables que mediatizan este efecto. A continuación se presenta un estudio experimental que analiza este último punto en relación a dos variables de las encuestas (dirección y fuerza de los resultados y tres elementos individuales (personalidad, estilo cognitivo y género. Los resultados señalan que la fuerza de la encuesta así como un mayor puntaje en la escala de extroversion y neuroticismo (medido a través del EPI y el género (masculino efectivamente están asociados a la presencia del efecto bandwagon.This article develops a literature review of the evidence concerning the effects of opinion polls on people's preferences (in the direction of the majority - bandwagon- or minority of people -underdog as well as the variables that moderate the presence of this effect. Secondly, an experimental study is reported. It analyzes two variables related to the nature of opinion polls (direction and strength of poll results in terms of their effect on preferences change. Finally, it analizes the role of three individual factors (personality, cognitive style, and gender, which are correlated with the presence of this effect. Results show that strength of poll results, as well as gender (male and a higher score on extroversion and neuroticism (measured with tuhe EPI, are actually associated with the bandwagon effect

  15. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  16. Journal of Youth Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Solay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal was published by Turkey Ministry of Youth and Sports for young people in order to support academic studies which is semi annual and articles submitted for “blind referee” method.

  17. Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Menu Bullying What Is Bullying The Roles Kids Play Who Is at Risk Warning Signs for Bullying Effects of Bullying Diversity, Race & Religion LGBTQ Youth ...

  18. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  19. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  20. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  1. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  2. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  3. Marginalized Youth. An Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...

  4. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  5. Youth Education - Programs / Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Christine Bozak: 4-H Steers that Work. Rebecca Brooks: Relationship Skills Education. Travis Burke: Defining Competency in the 4-H Professional’s Job. Holly L. Hays Butler: 4-H at the Indiana School for the Deaf . Kevin D. Chilek: Quality Assurance Program for Youth Livestock Exhibitors. Graham Cochran: Lessons from an Innovative Urban Youth Education Center. Steve Cramer: Use Activities Fun and Humor to Teach Character Education. Annette Devitt: Life on the Farm Project. Janet Edwards: Emot...

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  7. Forecasting elections with mere recognition from small, lousy samples: A comparison of collective recognition, wisdom of crowds, and representative polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gaissmeier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the extent to which the human capacity for recognition helps to forecast political elections: We compared naive recognition-based election forecasts computed from convenience samples of citizens' recognition of party names to (i standard polling forecasts computed from representative samples of citizens' voting intentions, and to (ii simple---and typically very accurate---wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts computed from the same convenience samples of citizens' aggregated hunches about election results. Results from four major German elections show that mere recognition of party names forecast the parties' electoral success fairly well. Recognition-based forecasts were most competitive with the other models when forecasting the smaller parties' success and for small sample sizes. However, wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts outperformed recognition-based forecasts in most cases. It seems that wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts are able to draw on the benefits of recognition while at the same time avoiding its downsides, such as lack of discrimination among very famous parties or recognition caused by factors unrelated to electoral success. Yet it seems that a simple extension of the recognition-based forecasts---asking people what proportion of the population would recognize a party instead of whether they themselves recognize it---is also able to eliminate these downsides.

  8. Religion and psychological well-being and distress in Israeli Jews: findings from the Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates religious predictors of psychological well-being and psychological distress in a five-year national probability sample of Israeli Jews (N = 4,073). Data were taken from the 2006-2010 annual surveys of Israel as a part of the multinational Gallup World Poll. Analyses identified religious predictors of five-item scales of well-being and distress, adjusting for effects of several covariates, including health satisfaction. Additional analyses examined differences in religion, well-being and distress, and their interrelationships by categories of Jewish religious identity and observance (hiloni, masorti, dati, and haredi). Levels of religiousness and of well-being increase as one moves "rightward" across Jewish observance. Self-ratings of importance of religion and religious attendance are significantly associated with well-being, overall, and a religious harmony scale is associated with both wellbeing (positively) and distress (inversely), and with these measures' respective items, overall and across Jewish observance. Religious indicators are significant predictors of both psychological well-being and psychological distress in Israeli Jews, regardless of Jewish religious observance.

  9. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  10. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  11. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  12. Youth Agripreneurs: Expanding Opportunities for Youth in Agro ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify, develop, and field test creative and bold business models to help ... Research to improve young lives Much of the available evidence on youth ... youth entrepreneurs -develop and test practical business plans and pilot ...

  13. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  14. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  15. Student Youth: Dynamics of Political Interests (Regional Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozova Galina Viktorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the research of interests and political orientations of student youth which was carried out in 2014 at the Kazan federal university and its branches in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. The choice of student youth as a reference group is caused by a number of factors, among which we should name the status of intellectual elite, social and political mobility that allows to consider students as the potential actors of socio-political transformations in the country. The data obtained during poll compared with the results of last research allow defining the dynamics of development of student youth’s political sentiment in the region. The study of political attitudes, preferences of students was based on the identification of a number of indicators (degree of interest in politics, the level of personal involvement in political life and on the study of factors that determine the motivation of political behavior of students. Empirical studies make it possible to rank the problems that dominate the political consciousness of students in the region. These include a high level of corruption in the government, inflation, rising prices, the state of health and education systems and the growing income inequality. Particular attention is accented on the problems associated with the foreign policy aspects, threats, aggression from abroad. The study showed that most young people’s interest in politics is limited primarily by informational level, rarely they have desire to express their own position or judgments in political situations. The level of real political participation, socio-political activity of students is low. Obtained results let us notice the increasing trend of demonstration of protest behavior among certain part of the students.

  16. Cairo youth declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M

    1995-01-01

    More than 100 young people from 56 countries voiced their needs and concerns in a Youth Consultation held just before the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), August 31 to September 4, 1994. Many journalists from the international press followed the consultation and interviewed the youths, with a short film even produced on the proceedings. After discussing the main topics of the ICPD, participants produced a Youth Declaration with recommendations for action and conclusions for partnership. More than 20 participants remained in Cairo to present consultation conclusions in well-attended workshops and role play at the ICPD NGO Forum. One representative presented the Youth Declaration in ICPD plenary session. These young men and women from all regions of the world, from a diversity of cultural, religious, and political backgrounds found common ground on the need for population concerns to be explicitly and consistently integrated with development in the context of a just and equitable international economic system; a strong focus upon youth education and mobilization in the areas of adolescent health, sexual and reproductive health, the environment, human rights, and political and economic systems; and the sense that now is the time to act at the individual, organizational, national, and national levels. Education and safe sexual behavior do not encourage promiscuity. On the contrary, they promote and enhance healthy, responsible relationships, minimizing the incidence of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when sex does take place. Participants recommend promoting peer education; involving and educating peers through artistic activities such as music and drama; implementing peer counseling and raising awareness through one-on-one interaction, group discussions, printed media, and radio programs; organizing services for youths in a variety of settings; creating jobs for youths in cooperatives and businesses; educating

  17. Pathways to youth homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service

  18. Defense Reutilization and Marketing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    H -3 E Responsibilities of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions (D R M s...at Defense electronic products which produce radiation Reutilization and Marketing Offices, para- when energized. Among the principal radi- graph F... Sporting Equipment 7820 Games , Toys, and Wheeled Goods 7830 Recreational and Gymnastic Equipment 7910 Floor Polishers and Vacuum Cleaning Equipment

  19. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    DR Decision Review DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DRPM Direct Reporting Program Manager DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency...STE Special Test Equipment STEP Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process STLDD Software Top Level Design Document STP Software Test Plan STPR...established catalog or market prices for specific tasks under standard commercial terms and conditions; this does not include services sold based

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  1. Youth leadership at PPNC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, N; Smith, J

    2000-04-01

    Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.

  2. Marginal youth transititions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised and fragmen......A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised...... of the future (as grown ups). The longitudinal design furthermore makes it possible to get an insight into how the narratives– and not least the young people’s pathways – actually develop over time. Focusing on two of the young people’s narratives and actual pathways, I will illustrate some of the dilemmas...... and challenges that especially ‘youth a rick’ face as part of the life and educational pathways from primary school and onwards. Finally I will discuss to what extent the young people’s narratives can be said to support a movement towards choice biographies and yoyo transitions, or if alternative understandings...

  3. Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…

  4. Understanding threats to polio vaccine commitment among caregivers in high-priority areas of Afghanistan: a polling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Guirguis, Sherine; Lodge, William; Caporello, Hannah; Petit, Vincent; Coleman, Michael; Williams, Matthew R; Parwiz, Sardar Mohammad; Corkum, Melissa; Gardner, Scott; Ben-Porath, Eran N

    2017-11-01

    Eradication of poliovirus from endemic countries relies on vaccination of children with oral polio vaccine (OPV) many times a year until the age of 5 years. We aimed to determine caregivers' commitment to OPV in districts of Afghanistan at high risk for polio transmission and to examine what knowledge, attitudes, or experiences could threaten commitment. We designed and analysed a poll using face-to-face interviews among caregivers of children under 5 years of age. The sample was drawn via a stratified multistage cluster design with random route household selection. We calculated the percentage of committed and uncommitted caregivers. All percentages were weighted. We then compared percentages of uncommitted caregivers among those with varying knowledge, attitudes, and experiences, using logistic regression to control for possible demographic confounders. Between Dec 19, 2014, and Jan 5, 2015, we interviewed 1980 caregivers, 21% of whom were "uncommitted" to accepting OPV. Multiple measures of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences are associated with lack of commitment. For example, compared with their relevant counterparts, caregivers are more likely to be uncommitted if they did not trust vaccinators "a great deal" (54% vs 9%), if they do not know that polio spreads through contaminated water (41% vs 14%), or if they believe rumours that OPV is not halal (50% vs 21%). To enhance OPV commitment, it might be useful to consider a multifactorial approach that highlights building trust in vaccinators, providing facts about transmission, sharing positive messages to overcome key rumours, and strengthening community support for vaccination. Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health and UNICEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plaque Tissue Morphology-Based Stroke Risk Stratification Using Carotid Ultrasound: A Polling-Based PCA Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Jain, Pankaj K; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Araki, Tadashi; Singh, Bikesh K; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Gupta, Ajay; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-06-01

    Severe atherosclerosis disease in carotid arteries causes stenosis which in turn leads to stroke. Machine learning systems have been previously developed for plaque wall risk assessment using morphology-based characterization. The fundamental assumption in such systems is the extraction of the grayscale features of the plaque region. Even though these systems have the ability to perform risk stratification, they lack the ability to achieve higher performance due their inability to select and retain dominant features. This paper introduces a polling-based principal component analysis (PCA) strategy embedded in the machine learning framework to select and retain dominant features, resulting in superior performance. This leads to more stability and reliability. The automated system uses offline image data along with the ground truth labels to generate the parameters, which are then used to transform the online grayscale features to predict the risk of stroke. A set of sixteen grayscale plaque features is computed. Utilizing the cross-validation protocol (K = 10), and the PCA cutoff of 0.995, the machine learning system is able to achieve an accuracy of 98.55 and 98.83%corresponding to the carotidfar wall and near wall plaques, respectively. The corresponding reliability of the system was 94.56 and 95.63%, respectively. The automated system was validated against the manual risk assessment system and the precision of merit for same cross-validation settings and PCA cutoffs are 98.28 and 93.92%for the far and the near wall, respectively.PCA-embedded morphology-based plaque characterization shows a powerful strategy for risk assessment and can be adapted in clinical settings.

  6. LGBTQ Youth Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya

    2017-03-01

    In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group. This article is Part 1 of a two-article series designed to increase school nurses' abilities to advocate and care for LGBTQ youth in school settings. This first article provides information regarding proper terminology and current percentages of youth who identify as LGBTQ and concludes with implications for school nurses, including resources for nurses, school staff, and families.

  7. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  8. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  9. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  10. Parent-youth informant disagreement: Implications for youth anxiety treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Haimes, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2018-01-01

    Greater parent-youth disagreement on youth symptomatology is associated with a host of factors (e.g., parental psychopathology, family functioning) that might impede treatment. Parent-youth disagreement may represent an indicator of treatment prognosis. Using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, this study used polynomial regression and longitudinal growth modeling to examine whether parent-youth agreement prior to and throughout treatment predicted treatment outcomes (anxiety severity, youth functioning, responder status, and diagnostic remission, rated by an independent evaluator). When parents reported more symptoms than youth prior to treatment, youth were less likely to be diagnosis-free post-treatment; this was only true if the youth received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, not if youth received medication, combination, or placebo treatment. Increasing concordance between parents and youth over the course of treatment was associated with better treatment outcomes across all outcome measures ( ps < .001). How parents and youth "co-report" appears to be an indicator of CBT outcome. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. Typologies of Youth Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeter, T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.

  12. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  13. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  14. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  15. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  16. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  17. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  18. Motivating Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Television, advertising, the Internet, music, and the proliferation of chain stores have had a homogenizing effect on children. Regardless of what type of environment they live in, the style of youth's dress, the way they talk, and how they respond to a wide range of stimuli are surprisingly similar. In spite of these similarities, the challenges…

  19. Learning in Youth Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This response identifies several strengths of the article, "Pushing the Boundaries: What Youth Organizers at Boston's Hyde Square Task Force Have to Teach Us about Civic Engagement" and draws connections to recent developments in sibling fields, including social and emotional learning and internet activism. These developments offer ideas…

  20. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  1. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  2. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...

  3. Boundaries of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roosmalen, Erica; Krahn, Harvey

    1996-01-01

    Examines normative, everyday gendered youth culture among a sample of 2,074 high school seniors in 3 Canadian cities. Findings reveal adolescent males participate more in drinking activities, hobbies, sports, and television watching than adolescent females, but in fewer indoor nonpaid work activities or social activities. The research does not…

  4. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  5. Youth Suicide: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Velting, Drew M.; Shaffer, David

    2006-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review of the research literature on youth suicide, the authors discuss the rates and patterns of completed suicides and suicide attempts. The state of research on potential risk and protective factors is also reviewed, covering personal characteristics, family characteristics, adverse life circumstances, and…

  6. Youth behind bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, Tea

    , actively drawing on theories of youth and crime. By applying a relational approach founded in interactional sociology, the thesis explores how apparently senseless actions and situations are constructed socially by the young people when they bring together meanings in their everyday practices. Data...

  7. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Rwanda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For more information, please refer to Laterite Ltd. (2015) Youth employment in Rwanda: A scoping paper, commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. 13.5% of Rwandans with a university degree are unemployed– 7 times the national unemployment rate. Among the economically inactive, more than 1 in 5 ...

  8. Fine Mapping Suggests that the Goat Polled Intersex Syndrome and the Human Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus Syndrome Map to a 100-kb Homologous Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schibler, Laurent; Cribiu, Edmond P.; Oustry-Vaiman, Anne; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Vaiman, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    To clone the goat Polled Intersex Syndrome (PIS) gene(s), a chromosome walk was performed from six entry points at 1q43. This enabled 91 BACs to be recovered from a recently constructed goat BAC library. Six BAC contigs of goat chromosome 1q43 (ICC1–ICC6) were thus constructed covering altogether 4.5 Mb. A total of 37 microsatellite sequences were isolated from this 4.5-Mb region (16 in this study), of which 33 were genotyped and mapped. ICC3 (1500 kb) was shown by genetic analysis to encompa...

  9. Youth Services Participation of YouthYouth Policy in Hungary (2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANCSÁK, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary’s youth context changed in 2006, before the world crisis, and recession has spread since then. Youth institutions have gone through constant changes which are difficult to follow, after six years almost none of them are left. Youth resources have decreased both on the local and on the national level, due to mutually reinforcing economic and political effects. During the examined period, the proportion of youth tolerating more violent behaviour has increased, as well as those longing for strong leaders and those disillusioned with capitalism. Nowadays, apart from lobbying, demonstrations, elaborating independent political alternatives, a new, rational behaviour appears among youth, the phenomenon of leaving the country.

  10. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  11. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  12. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  13. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  14. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  15. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  16. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subjective Well-Being among Individuals from 138 Countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Hoa T; Smith, Michael D; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2017-04-01

    Background: Food insecurity is an aspect of living conditions that is particularly important for quality of life, health, and subjective well-being. The implementation of the 8-item Food Insecurity Experience Scale in 147 countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with subjective well-being. Objective: We examined how food insecurity relates with measures of living conditions and how food insecurity and other living conditions relate with physical health and, in turn, subjective well-being. Methods: Data were collected from individuals aged ≥15 y by telephone in 38 countries and via face-to-face interviews in 111 others. The available sample was 132,618 (138 countries) and 122,137 (137 countries) for the daily experience and life evaluation indexes of subjective well-being, respectively. Daily experience was a continuous measure and life evaluation was categorized into thriving, struggling, and suffering. We estimated 6 linear or logistic regression models for each index controlling for country as a fixed effect. Results: Food insecurity was associated with the other 3 measures of living conditions: household income, shelter and housing, and employment. Food insecurity explained poor physical health and lower subjective well-being beyond other measures of living conditions. Instrumental and emotional support was associated with higher subjective well-being. The associations of food insecurity with subjective well-being were larger than with other explanatory variables. Food insecurity was associated with subjective well-being within each of the 4 World Bank income classes of countries, with a larger magnitude of differences for the higher-income classes. Conclusions: Food insecurity was strongly and negatively associated with subjective well-being in a large global sample of individuals aged ≥15 y. These results demonstrate the consistency of goal 2 of the Sustainable

  17. Acquisition Planning at the Defense Communications Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    guidelines for interaction are developed under the leadership of DCA agencywide integrators with the participation of personnel from DCA, the Services...Communications System DCSO - Defense Communications System Organizatin . DDN - Defense Data Network DEC - Decision Making DG - Defense Guidance DIA - Defense

  18. Report of the Defense Science Board/Defense Policy Board Task Force On Theater Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... also tackled the controversial subject of the ABM Treaty and its effect on theater missile defenses Subsequent to its interim report, which expressed strong concerns about the demarcation path the US...

  19. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  20. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  1. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of..., the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense... Director, Missile Defense Agency, independent advice and recommendations on all matters relating to missile...

  2. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  3. Poll reveals conflicting signals

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tööportaali CV Keskus poolt läbi viidud küsitlusest selgus, et 60% inimestest on nõus töötama 12 500-kroonise või väiksema palga eest. Eesti Tööandjate Keskliidu hinnangu järgi langeb Eesti majandus 2009. aastal 15%

  4. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was one of the three most important problems. The disadvantages of nuclear power mentioned by 28 percent of the population centre on the issue of pollution - without specifying the type of pollution - and 35 percent refer to the risk of radioactive releases. The information and communication work carried out by the nuclear industry since the country's first nuclear power plant went on line in 1968 has had obvious positive effects on public opinion in the areas surrounding the plants. Comparison of the replies provided by the general population and those from interviewees forming part of populations living close to nuclear power plants clearly demonstrates that opinions are directly related to the greater or lesser degree of ignorance of the subject. Knowledge of the location of Spain's nuclear power plants provides equally curious results. Seventy-five percent of the population claims to know that there are nuclear plants in Spain, but twenty-eight percent does not know or does not answer where these installations are. Evaluation of the data obtained allows the following conclusions to be drawn: Only 8 percent of the interviewees claims to be, pro-nuclear, i.e. in favour of new nuclear power plants being built if there were a need to extend the current generating capacity; 20 percent of the population respects the assumptions made in the Spanish nuclear moratorium: they consider that the plants currently in operation should not be closed down, and that no new plants should be built; 19 percent, thinks that the current plants should be closed, in spite of their recognizing that these installations are necessary and contribute to electricity generation; 24 percent is in favour of gradually replacing the nuclear power plants with other energy sources; 29 percent thinks that the currently operating plants should be shut down. This includes two percent of the population that openly claim to be actively antinuclear in their approach. The future of the Spanish nuclear industry requires that there be policies of communication and education aimed at providing objective information on nuclear energy in an accurate and responsible manner. We would like to see the next survey show more positive results, but this depends to a large extent on the efforts made by the nuclear sector itself

  5. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  6. THE STATE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT, ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE POLL AMONG PHYSICIANS OF VOLGOGRAD AND VOLGOGRAD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment and quality of diagnostics of treatment of patients with arterial hypertension (AH and their conformity with international and national recommendations on AH.Material and methods. The poll among physicians of Volgograd and Volgograd region, who took part in the regional conference, devoted to the problems of AH, was carried out in April 2004. The questionnaire included 13 questions about peculiarities of AH patients’ management 128 physicians took part in the poll, from them 90 thetapeutists (general physicians, 24 cardiologists, and 14 physicians of different therapeutic specializations.Results. Variability of conceptions of physicians on some principals of diagnostics and treatment of AH patients is revealed. Insufficient knowledge of criteria for division patients according to the risk category of cardiovascular complications. The same is observed for definition of AH grade according to the blood pressure level, and of the main approaches AH patients treatment. From all the questioned physicians only 25.2% correctly evaluated the risk level of cardiovascular diseases, 21% of physicians wrongly assessed the AH grade according to the blood pressure Level.Conclusion. Results, show that real practice of diagnostics and treatment of AH significantly deviates from international and national recommendations on AH.

  7. THE STATE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT, ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE POLL AMONG PHYSICIANS OF VOLGOGRAD AND VOLGOGRAD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment and quality of diagnostics of treatment of patients with arterial hypertension (AH and their conformity with international and national recommendations on AH.Material and methods. The poll among physicians of Volgograd and Volgograd region, who took part in the regional conference, devoted to the problems of AH, was carried out in April 2004. The questionnaire included 13 questions about peculiarities of AH patients’ management 128 physicians took part in the poll, from them 90 thetapeutists (general physicians, 24 cardiologists, and 14 physicians of different therapeutic specializations.Results. Variability of conceptions of physicians on some principals of diagnostics and treatment of AH patients is revealed. Insufficient knowledge of criteria for division patients according to the risk category of cardiovascular complications. The same is observed for definition of AH grade according to the blood pressure level, and of the main approaches AH patients treatment. From all the questioned physicians only 25.2% correctly evaluated the risk level of cardiovascular diseases, 21% of physicians wrongly assessed the AH grade according to the blood pressure Level.Conclusion. Results, show that real practice of diagnostics and treatment of AH significantly deviates from international and national recommendations on AH.

  8. Youth Motivations for Program Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer K. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.

  9. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  10. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.

  11. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  12. Transforming childhood and youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    social and geographic scales - the individual life world and face-to-face interaction, local city life including the station as venue of migration, the football ground as well as larger institutional, transnational, and state contexts - and ideally include the interplay between different scales....... Differently emerging conceptualizations of childhood and youth are made explicit as the papers cover various settings, disciplines and theoretical and methodological approaches. However, all the papers foreground children and youth primarily representing the future of the societies they are involved in....../SIFO, Norway), 'Minority boys in Lillehammer: the importance of participation in football' " "Emma Stinne Engstrøm and Weibke Sandermann (Roskilde University, Denmark), 'International students’ experiences and challenges in Denmark'...

  13. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  14. The level of youth activism

    OpenAIRE

    Borojević, Tatjana; Vuk, Drago; Petrović, Nataša; Slović, Dragoslav

    2017-01-01

    During the period from 2007 to 2014, and in addition to huge institutional changes, large steps were taken in the field of youth policy in the Republic of Serbia in order to create national resources which would have influence on the improvement of the youth status and life. On the other hand, the practice shows that the existence of the national framework for youth support, as a local service network intended for youths, is not a crucial prerequisite to change the current situation when it c...

  15. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  16. Suitable Enemies? Governmentality of Youth: Youth as a Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowicka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the discourse of politics towards (for) youth, which the author defines as the "cultural politics of risk". The article begins with scientific representations of youth as a threat, as a group inclined to engage in risky behaviours. It then focuses on theoretical approaches called the "risk…

  17. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  18. On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson’s, David Hume’s, and Adam Smith’s moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sent...

  19. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    individual policy activities. Subfunctions are assigned a numeric identifier (ending in a single digit ) related to the function to which they belong...operations, equipment repair, and maintenance of defense facilities, healthcare costs, and administration. 24% Military Personnel (MILPERS) Pay and

  20. Report on Defense Business Operations to the Congressional Defense Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Department’s strategic framework for planning and decision-making, and acknowledged the need to establish clear, actionable strategic goals and...Business Operations Department of Defense Business Transformation 5 2. Business Enterprise Priorities Six Business Enterprise Priorities ( BEPs ... framework products that facilitate the interoperability and integration of the operational activities, processes, data, information exchanges

  1. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  2. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  3. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed…

  4. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  5. Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David

    The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…

  6. Youth subculture and social exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this article a detailed description is given of the subculture of a group of socially-excluded boys in The Netherlands. The relevance of some classical theories on youth subculture is assessed for understanding the lifestyles of today’s disadvantaged youth, especially in a developed welfare

  7. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  8. Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p technical exchanges showed differences (p technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities.

  9. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  10. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  11. Managing Quadrennial Defense Review Integration: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrader, John

    2001-01-01

    ...). The lessons learned from the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR 1997) included the need for leadership guidance and integration of analytic activities to sort through the myriad issues that are always confronting the Department of Defense...

  12. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  13. YOUTH AND YOUTH POLICY IN THE POST-SOVIET STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Tsyunik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people as a special age category and social group are the object of studying the complex of humanities — political science, sociology, political philosophy, political psychology, cultural studies, conflict studies, etc. The need for youth research is conditioned by the formation of an actual strategy and tactics of the state youth policy, which can contribute to the increase Effectiveness of the activities of political institutions, authorities and government, to promote the dynamic development of the state Society and society. Youth policy is one of the most important factors in the modernization of the state, therefore it is important to develop tools for measuring the parameters of the systemic change of society under the influence, with the participation of emerging, developing youth organizations.The theme of the study of the problems of youth is important in connection with the activation of the use of technologies for the recruitment of youth into political organizations (party organizations, which strengthens the competitive struggle of various political forces for influencing the younger generation of citizens as potentially active citizens who are supporters or opponents of certain parties.The urgency of the study is also conditioned by the processes of building the rule of law and the development of civil society institutions. This process is impossible without overcoming the political passivity, the apolitical nature of the younger generation. Youth organizations can become an important element. The political participation of the youth of Russian society is non-systemic, moreover, a significant part of the youth is politically inactive, indifferent to political changes. Studying the mechanisms for overcoming this state, increasing the involvement of young people in the political life of society is an important not only research, but also a practical task.At the present stage of development, youth movements and organizations

  14. Public views of health insurance in Japan during the era of attaining universal health coverage: a secondary analysis of an opinion poll on health insurance in 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Nozaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While Japan’s success in achieving universal health insurance over a short period with controlled healthcare costs has been studied from various perspectives, that of beneficiaries have been overlooked. We conducted a secondary analysis of an opinion poll on health insurance in 1967, immediately after reaching universal coverage. We found that people continued to face a slight barrier to healthcare access (26.8% felt medical expenses were a heavy burden and had high expectations for health insurance (60.5% were satisfied with insured medical services and 82.4% were willing to pay a premium. In our study, younger age, having children before school age, lower living standards, and the health insurance scheme were factors that were associated with a willingness to pay premiums. Involving high-income groups in public insurance is considered to be the key to ensuring universal coverage of social insurance.

  15. The Art and Science of Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA - Logistics THE ART AND SCIENCE OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS...Government EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Art and Science of Defense Logistics Author: Major S. I. Schuler, USMC Research Questions: 1...00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  16. Missile defense in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  17. Development of neurosurgery in Germany: comparison of data collected by polls for 1997, 2003, and 2008 among providers of neurosurgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Hans J; Krämer, Michael; Reulen, Hans J

    2012-01-01

    To deduce structural trends in neurosurgery in Germany by comparison of data derived from polls conducted by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC) in 1997, 2003 and 2008. The questionnaires of the different polls probed a comparable set of issues. The data from the responding sample were extrapolated to the nationwide average or sum and compared between the different time periods. The number of identified neurosurgical departments increased from 146 to 201 during the years 1997-2008 largely as a result of the new foundation of numerous private groups. Nationwide total neurosurgical bed capacity and intensive care unit bed capacity increased modestly over the time period. The extrapolated total number of neurosurgical operations increased from 196,341 to 319,295. Although cranial and spinal neurosurgery remain the dominant subspecialties, the number of functional neurosurgical procedures and operations for pain increased more than proportionally. Outpatient procedures were established during the time period and corresponded in 2008 to a substantial proportion of the surgical volume. The total number of residents and board-certified neurosurgeons increased during the period 1997-2008 from 1513 to 1961. The proportion of residents decreased during 1997-2003 and then increased again. The number of neurosurgical operations increased in Germany proportionally to the economic growth of other service branches over the time period. Private organizations developed more than neurosurgical departments at university and other general hospitals. Work density measured as operations per physician increased during the period 1997-2008. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Manwel

    2010-01-01

    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  19. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  20. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  1. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  2. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  3. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to... requirements for the support of military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and...

  4. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Page 1 GAO-16-339R Ballistic Missile Defense 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 28, 2016 Congressional Committees Missile Defense... Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...funding efforts to develop a system to detect, track, and defeat enemy ballistic missiles. The current system—the Ballistic Missile Defense System

  5. Ethnographies of Youth and Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne

    As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... emotional unrest and violence but also creativity and hope are responses to troubling times. The chapters discuss notions of time and its “objectification” in diverse locales including the Georgian Republic, Brazil, Denmark, and Uganda. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork, the essays in Ethnographies...... of Youth and Temporality use youth as a prism to understand time and its subjective experience....

  6. Engaging youth and transferring knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantagaris, E.

    2011-01-01

    Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving

  7. Engaging youth and transferring knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantagaris, E. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving

  8. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  9. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and Mathematics at the Royal Institute of Tech- nology, Stockholm, Sweden; and Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg , Germany . viii ix SUMMARY...and analysis to influence policy debate and bridge the gap between military and academia. The Center for Strategic Leadership and Development...provide an overview of four different national approaches to cyber defense: those of Nor- way, Estonia, Germany , and Sweden. While provid- ing a

  10. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  11. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  12. Defense of a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  14. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  15. Introduction: youth, subjectivity and Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar; Bregnbæk, Susanne; Hirslund, Dan Vesalainen

    2018-01-01

    As a fluid age cohort and a social category between childhood and adulthood – and hence with tenuous links to the status quo – youth are variously described as ‘at risk’, as victims of precarious and unpredictable circumstances, or as agents of social change who embody the future. From this futur...... when political and religiously inspired Utopias motivate youth in the Global South to imagine, enact and embody what was missing in the past and present....

  16. Increased Materialistic Trends Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Shama Mazahir, Afsheen Masood, Rubab Musarrat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  17. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Afsheen Masood; Rubab Musarrat; Shama Mazahir

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  18. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  19. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  20. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  1. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  2. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  3. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  4. Student Papers on Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    895. 3. "Scientific Canvas" AWST, p. 19. 4. Halliday, p. 548. 5. William Shiner, Lasers (New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980), p. 21. - 30...and Design. New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1980. U.S. Department of Defense. The Strategic Defense Ini- tiative: Defensive Technologies Study. Washington...Armageddon," Armed Forces Journal, February 1983, p. 30. 7. David Baker, The Shape of Wars to Come (Cambridge: Patrick Stephens , Ltd, 1981), p. 109

  5. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  6. Status of DOE defense waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program

  7. Active Computer Network Defense: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    sufficient base of knowledge in information technology can be assumed to be working on some form of computer network warfare, even if only defensive in...the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) to attack. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks are inherently resistant to...aims to create this part of information superiority, and computer network defense is one of its fundamental components. Most of these efforts center

  8. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  9. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  10. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  11. Defense Business Operations Fund Inventory Record Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether inventory amounts on the FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements were presented fairly in accordance...

  12. Defense Agency Travel Payments at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center management controls over payments to Defense agency personnel for temporary duty and local travel...

  13. Report to the Congressional Defense Committees: Status of the Department of Defense's Business Transformation Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...). It directs the Secretary of Defense to provide the Congressional Defense Committees with an annual report on the Department's business transformation efforts and compliance with the requirements of the law...

  14. The Multiple Roles that Youth Development Program Leaders Adopt with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathrin C.

    2011-01-01

    The roles that program leaders establish in their relationships with youth structure how leaders are able to foster youth development. This article examines the complex roles program leaders create in youth programs and investigates how they balanced multiple roles to most effectively respond to the youth they serve. Analyses of qualitative data…

  15. Expanding the Reach of Youth Mentoring: Partnering with Youth for Personal Growth and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research…

  16. For a NATO defensive deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy

  17. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  18. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  19. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  20. Youth-Adult Partnership and Youth Civic Development: Cross-National Analyses for Scholars and Field Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Gauley, Josset; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kornbluh, Mariah; Collura, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Across the world, community-based youth organizations are engaging youth as partners with adults to promote youth civic development. A sample of 528 youth from the United States, Portugal, and Malaysia were surveyed to explore associations between youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision making; supportive adult relationships) and two key…

  1. Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective M A R C H 2 8 , 2 0 1 6...Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service Controls Over High-Risk Transactions Were Not Effective Visit us at www.dodig.mil... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE DIRECTOR, DEFENSE HEALTH AGENCY SUBJECT: Other Defense Organizations and Defense Finance and Accounting Service

  2. National Youth Service Day: A Youth Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blitzer Golombek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies show connections between youth participation in service and service-learning opportunities and positive behavior outcomes. Building on this data, the article presents National Youth Service Day (NYSD as a program that can be incorporated into ongoing activities to enhance youth development goals. The paper describes the program’s components– building a network of support organizations, offering project planning grants, providing service-learning materials, and developing a media and advocacy campaign. Examples of NYSD projects show how project planners are using the program to learn and practice academic and non-academic skills. A review of evaluations to date indicates the program is annually increasing its output measures. Participants’ responses show that the program is also contributing to positive behavioral changes, in particular related to young people’s increasing awareness about specific community issues and their own competency in addressing them.

  3. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  4. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  5. Concerning classification of the youth slang

    OpenAIRE

    КОРШУНОВА ИРИНА ГРИГОРЬЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the youth slang consideration. In most cases the youth slang comprises English borrowings, phonetic associations. Although not everything is suitable in slang, it makes the English speech more vivid flexible and witty.

  6. Accompanied Youth Livelihood Development : Assessment and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The members of the network have been working in the field of youth ... a Canadian youth capacity development organization - to develop and test two tools for ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  7. Strengthening Youth Friendly Health Services through Expanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    safety, LARC uptake among youth is low. We evaluated the effect on contraceptive uptake of training youth-friendly service providers to counsel and provide all .... approach - service delivery limited to LARCs training for the YFS providers and ...

  8. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  9. The US-Russia missile defense dialogue as a factor of the Russian defense policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Suslov

    2013-01-01

    To a big extent the Russian defense policy and, as a consequence, development of the Russian defense industrial complex, is determined by the prospects of the US missile defense policy and fate of the US-Russia negotiations in this area. As a cooperative solution seems improbable in the observable future, Russia plans to develop certain response measures of military nature, including creation of a new heavy ICBM, and to create its own missile defense by 2015. However, this policy does not see...

  10. Queer Youth in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Rebecca G; Stone Fish, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Trends in popular belief about same-sex relationships have undergone noteworthy change in the United States over the last decade. Yet this change has been marked by stark polarizations and has occurred at varying rates depending upon regional, community, racial, religious, and individual family context. For queer youth and their families, this cultural transformation has broadened opportunities and created a new set of risks and vulnerabilities. At the same time, youth's increasingly open and playful gender fluidity and sexual identity is complicated by unique intersections of class, race, religion, and immigration. Effective family therapy with queer youth requires practitioner's and treatment models that are sensitive to those who bear the burden of multiple oppressions and the hidden resilience embedded in their layered identities. We present case examples of our model of family therapy which addresses refuge, supports difficult dialogs, and nurtures queerness by looking for hidden resilience in the unique intersections of queer youths' lives. These intersections provide transformational potential for youth, their families and even for family therapists as we are all nurtured and challenged to think more complexly about intersectionality, sexuality, and gender. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  11. Youth in Community Decision-Making: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Murdock

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Involving youth in community and organizational decision-making is widely believed to lead to stronger communities. A promising strategy to foster decision-making is youth-adult partnerships in which youth and adults work collaboratively, sharing their strengths, collective knowledge, and decision-making power. A qualitative study of eight youth organizations showed that those organizations employing youth-adult partnership strategies were most effective in increasing youth's contributions to their communities. This article explores the elements of youth-adult partnership that were evident among successful organizations including: mutual respect, meaningful roles for youth, unique contributions of adults and youth, and shared decision-making and implications for youth development programs.

  12. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the…

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  14. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in yo...

  15. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? Côte d’Ivoire’s 2015 Presidential Polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Piccolino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 presidential election in Côte d’Ivoire was seen as an important test for the country given the 2010 post-election crisis. Although the 2015 polls were peaceful, they were affected by problems not new to Côte d’Ivoire: lack of competition due to non-participation of major political actors, low voter turnout, mistrust in electoral institutions. The unpreparedness of the Commission Electorale Indépendante (CEI was also problematic, especially with respect to the revision of the voter list. Due to the boycott of partisans of former president Laurent Gbagbo and because of the support of the Rassemblement des Houphouëtistes pour la Démocratie et la Paix (RHDP, President Alassane Ouattara’s re-election was essentially a given from the start. With the ruling coalition firmly in control, Côte d’Ivoire appears stable. However, the country’s democratic deficit might lead to renewed violence once the RHDP has to pick Ouattara’s successor.

  16. Does the way we read others' mind change over the lifespan? Insights from a massive web poll of cognitive skills from childhood to late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindt, David; Devaine, Marie; Daunizeau, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to recognize what people think or feel, is a crucial component of human social intelligence. It has been recently proposed that ToM can be decomposed into automatic and controlled neurocognitive components, where only the latter engage executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control and task switching). Critical here is the notion that such dual processes are expected to follow different developmental dynamics. In this work, we provide novel experimental evidence for this notion. We report data gathered from about thirty thousand participants of a massive web poll of people's cognitive skills, which included ToM and executive functions. We show that although the maturation of executive functions occurs in synchrony (around 20 years of age), this is not the case for different mentalizing competences, which either mature before (for elementary ToM constituents) or after (for higher-level ToM). In addition, we show that inter-individual differences in executive functions predict variability in higher-level ToM skills from the onset of adulthood onwards, i.e., after the complete maturation of executive functions. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative contribution of ToM's controlled component significantly changes with age. In particular, this implies that, over the lifespan, people may rely upon distinct cognitive architectures when reading others' minds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in women: findings from the 2007 National Sleep Foundation "Sleep in America Poll".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona C; Wolfson, Amy R; Lee, Kathryn A

    2009-06-01

    To investigate factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in women living in the United States. Data are presented from the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America Poll that included 959 women (18-64 years of age) surveyed by telephone about their sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Poor sleep quality was reported by 27% and daytime sleepiness was reported by 21% of respondents. Logistic multivariate regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were both independently associated with poor health, having a sleep disorder, and psychological distress. Also, multivariate analyses showed that women who consumed more caffeinated beverages and those who had more than one job were more likely to report poor sleep quality but not daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, was independently associated with being black/African American, younger, disabled, having less education, and daytime napping. Poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are common in American women and are associated with health-related, as well as sociodemographic, factors. Addressing sleep-related complaints in women is important to improve their daytime functioning and quality of life.

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL POLITICIANS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KHAKASSIA (BY RESULTS OF MONITORING EXPERT POLLS OF 1998–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Il’ich Zlotkovskij

    2017-02-01

    The following conclusions are drawn by results of the conducted researches. First, line items of heads of managerial and economic structures in the top ten of the most influential republican politicians during the researched period underwent to essential transformation. In 1998, there was a rare situation in the Russian practice heavily on the political elite of the economic elite in the name of the representatives of the leading industrial enterprises of Khakassia – Sayan Aluminum Plant. Over time, the situation has changed in 2009. was set up regional “party of power” in the face of the Republican government and the party “United Russia”, around which all the relevant actors of regional political process. Secondly, engaging the top positions in the power structures necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of the most influential Republican politicians. This number does not include bank and trade union officials, media executives and university leaders of political parties, with the exception of “United Russia”, public organizations and associations. Third, in recent years, as part of the 30 most influential politicians intensified the “political weight” of the leaders of the republican government and the law enforcement system and decreased – employees legislative authorities, media leaders and heads of local self-government. Fourthly, results of monitoring expert polls on determination of the leading republican politicians act as the effective tool for understanding and forecasting of regional political process.

  19. Impact of SAMMPRIS on the future of intracranial atherosclerotic disease management: polling results from the ICAD symposium at the International Stroke Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidat, Osama O; Castonguay, Alicia C; Nguyen, Thanh N; Becker, Kyra J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Nelson, Peter K; Amarenco, Pierre; Brott, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    There are few data regarding the effect of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial results on the management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). We sought to understand the impact of the SAMMPRIS trial on current ICAD clinical practices and future trial design. During the ICAD symposium at the 2012 International Stroke Conference, electronic data were collected regarding attendees' clinical management of ICAD and opinions on the feasibility of future trials post-SAMMPRIS. 217 attendees from different specialties, including neurologists (57%), neurointerventionalists (9%) and neurosurgeons (5%), participated in the session. The majority of respondents (77%) indicated that the results of SAMMPRIS have impacted their consideration for intracranial stenting. Post-SAMMPRIS, 84% selected 'SAMMPRIS-style' medical management for the treatment of ICAD. For patients with ICAD who failed aggressive medical therapy, 82% would consider an alternative approach to continuing medical therapy (30% considered clinical trial enrollment, 28% suggested angioplasty and stenting and 24% angioplasty). The majority of participants (85%) were willing to randomize patients with symptomatic ICAD in future trials. For the next ICAD trial, 29% indicated that angioplasty alone should be compared with aggressive medical therapy. Our polling results suggest that the SAMMPRIS trial has had an impact on the current treatment of ICAD. Treatment of patients who failed medical therapy varied widely from aggressive medical therapy to balloon angioplasty, stenting or enrollment in future clinical trials. The willingness to continue clinical trials and randomize patients supports the need for future ICAD studies.

  20. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating... Directory: Defense Logistics Agency Headquarters, Andrew T. McNamara Building, 8725 John J. Kingman Road...

  1. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  2. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...

  3. 75 FR 43156 - Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Missile Defense Agency (MDA), DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Under the... Defense announces that the Missile Defense Advisory Committee will meet on August 4 and 5, 2010, in...

  4. Cross-Cultural Understanding Through Youth Sports: Bridging the Tolerance Gap Through Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Ross

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The USPORT-Kyrgyzstan project was an ambitious initiative of public diplomacy, sports diplomacy, cross-cultural exchange, in-country grassroots projects, and international cooperation. The project consisted of three phrases which included youth recreational sport programming, youth leadership and development training, and youth tolerance training. Overall, it proved to be an extremely effective form of intervention that provided youth in this region of the Middle East with many positive and constructive youth sports and leadership development opportunities.

  5. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  6. Boosting youth employment prospects in Tanzania | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Return to main page, Addressing the youth employment challenge in Africa. Related links: Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian; Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1.74 MB); Watch the workshop video on YouTube ...

  7. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  8. 2005 Youth Sports National Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the first time ever, Citizen Through Sports Alliance (CTSA) convened a panel of youth sports experts from across the country to evaluate youth sports in the United States and articulate its successes and failures. The panel evaluated only community-based youth sports programs, focusing on those that serve children ages 6 to 14. The panel is…

  9. Addressing Youth Employment Through Micro- and Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Employment Through Micro- and Small-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia. Youth unemployment has emerged as a key challenge facing developing and ... to youth to start small businesses and to youth-led micro- and small-enterprises. ... the barriers and challenges young Ethiopian men and women face in the labour ...

  10. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  11. The Danish Youth Survey 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore ethical, legal and practical issues related to conducting a youth survey in Denmark on sexual experiences before the age of 15 and thereby achieve reliable data on child sexual abuse. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The relevant authorities were consulted on possible legal...... of the accompanying offer of counselling. CONCLUSION: An anonymous youth survey based on computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) would increase the validity of youth surveys on child sexual abuse to which no ethical or legal objections were found....... obtaining parental consent. The Central Scientific Ethical Committee had no objections. In a number of fields, Danish legislation accords 15-to-18-year-olds the competence to make independent decisions regarding their personal circumstances, and the UN Convention of Children's Rights states that a child...

  12. Youth Culture and Cell Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed zokaei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian youth’s leisure culture has been immediately affected by the digital media culture. As a communicative media, cell phone has crossed borders of youth norms and identity; and in addition to facilitating their communication, has changed its patterns. Applying Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, and relied on the qualitative and quantitative data gathered from the mobile youth users, the present study argues that mobile has produced a new field in which youth’s opportunities for leisure, entertainment, communication, and independence have extended. In addition, cell phone has facilitated and compensated for some defects in public sphere, and therefore empowered youth agency, individuality, and power. Despite this strengthening, cell phone does not cross borders of gender and class differences, or the levels of social capital.

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    youth.

  14. The Missing Elements of Change. A Response to "Youth Change Agents: Comparing the Sociopolitical Identities of Youth Organizers and Youth Commissioners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwasser, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a set of theoretical frameworks to view and compare the work of youth organizers and youth commissioners, and through personal interviews, the authors of the paper "Youth Change Agents: Comparing the Sociopolitical Identities of Youth Organizers and Youth Commissioners" presented their explanation of the development of…

  15. Involving youth in program decision-making: how common and what might it do for youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Thomas; Cortina, Kai S; Smith, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what activities are offered), using single-level and multilevel methods with a cross-sectional dataset of 979 youth attending 63 multipurpose after-school programs (average age of youth = 11.4, 53 % female). The prevalence of such practices was relatively high, particularly for forms that involved low power sharing such as involving youth in selecting the activities a program offers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed positive associations between youth program decision-making practices and youth motivation to attend programs. We also found positive correlations between decision-making practices and youth problem-solving efficacy, expression efficacy, and empathy. Significant interactions with age suggest that correlations with problem solving and empathy are more pronounced for older youth. Overall, the findings suggest that involving youth in program decision-making is a promising strategy for promoting youth motivation and skill building, and in some cases this is particularly the case for older (high school-age) youth.

  16. Contemporary Youth Identity in the Republic of Tuva, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Zeahan Leung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth of ethnic Tuvan heritage within the Tuvan Republic (part of the Russian Federation aged 6 to 24 represent a dynamic force which has been shaped by two factors. One is the ancient Turkic heritage of Tuvan culture. Contemporary Tuvans, including youth, display both Russian and Tuvan nationalist feelings, admire martial culture and explore their cultural uniqueness. They hold in high esteem contact sports, especially martial arts such as sambo or judo. Tuvan athletes successfully compete for Russia at international events, including the Olympics. The current Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation is half-Tuvan and extremely popular in the republic, where people see him as nothing short of a national hero. At the same time, young multi-lingual Tuvans, who also speak Russian, and, with access to foreign language education, Korean and English, are being influenced by mediums and through technologies that are international like never before. A special focus is made on the impact of East Asian pop-culture, specifically that of South Korea. Tuva is located in Asia’s geographical center, and is a place where for many centuries Tibetan Buddhism coexisted with Shamanism. Thus, Tuvans strongly identify themselves with Asian culture. They tend to believe in metempsychosis and often tell those who take interest in Tuvan culture that they were Tuvans in their past lives. In their view, Tuvan language has preserved the features of “original” Turkic. These and many other ideas and beliefs show that historical facts and myths are closely intertwined within Tuvan identity. Studying and speaking foreign languages helps prioritize the positive outlook in Tuvan youth, who eagerly study both English and Eastern languages.   In working with Tuvan youth, I was able to teach through games and informal conversation. I was able to meet community leaders who use language to foster lasting change in children’s perception of themselves, as an attempt to

  17. Website Fingerprinting Defenses at the Application Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubin Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Website Fingerprinting (WF allows a passive network adversary to learn the websites that a client visits by analyzing traffic patterns that are unique to each website. It has been recently shown that these attacks are particularly effective against .onion sites, anonymous web servers hosted within the Tor network. Given the sensitive nature of the content of these services, the implications of WF on the Tor network are alarming. Prior work has only considered defenses at the client-side arguing that web servers lack of incentives to adopt countermeasures. Furthermore, most of these defenses have been designed to operate on the stream of network packets, making practical deployment difficult. In this paper, we propose two application-level defenses including the first server-side defense against WF, as .onion services have incentives to support it. The other defense is a lightweight client-side defense implemented as a browser add-on, improving ease of deployment over previous approaches. In our evaluations, the server-side defense is able to reduce WF accuracy on Tor .onion sites from 69.6% to 10% and the client-side defense reduces accuracy from 64% to 31.5%.

  18. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  19. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  20. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  1. Defense program pushes microchip frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, K.

    1985-05-01

    The very-high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) program of the Department of Defense will have a significant effect on the expansion of integrated circuit technology. This program, which is to cost several hundred million dollars, is accelerating the trend toward higher-speed, denser circuitry for microchips through innovative design and fabrication techniques. Teams in six different American companies are to design and fabricate a military useful 'brassboard' system which would employ chips developed in the first phase of the VHSIC program. Military objectives envisaged include automatic monitoring of displays in tactical aircraft by means of an artificial intelligence system, a brassboard used in airborne electronic warfare system, and antisubmarine warfare applications. After a fivefold improvement in performance achieved in the first phase, the second phase is concerned with a further 20-fold increase. The entire VHSIC program is, therefore, to produce a 100-fold gain over the state of the art found when the program started.

  2. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, ''walk-away safe'' design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (OandM) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  3. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  4. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...

  5. Russian youth for nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiboulia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear industry has a half-century of history, but its development today depends on the young scientists and specialists, who have decided to devote themselves to work in this area. Unfavorable public opinion and insufficient support from state authorities in the last years have led to the fact that the professions of nuclear specialty have become less popular. Nuclear professionals leave their field in search of more lucrative jobs. Therefore, the real problem today is how to attract the youth to the industry and transfer the industry's years of accrued experience to the youth. (orig.)

  6. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  7. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross......-fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...

  8. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  9. Status of defense radioactive waste disposal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. As a byproduct to their activities, nuclear production facilities have generated, and will continue to generate, certain radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed and disposed of in a safe and cost-effective manner. Compliance with all applicable Federal and State regulations is required. This paper describes the principal elements that comprise Defense Programs' approach to waste management and disposal. The status of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste disposal is set forth. Defense Programs' activities in connection with the environmental restoration of inactive facilities and with the safe transport of waste materials are summarized. Finally, the principal challenges to realizing the goals set for the defense waste program are discussed in terms of regulatory, public acceptance, technical, and budget issues

  10. Educating Youthful Offenders in a Youth Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.

  11. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

  12. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  13. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: National Security Missions: Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Nuclear Weapons Defense Systems Global Security Energy Facebook

  15. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  16. HOMA: Israel's National Missile Defense Strategy (Abridged Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lailari, Guermantes

    2002-01-01

    ... (Hebrew for Fortress Wall), Chapter 1 discusses the fundamentals of missile defense and the reason why Israel's missile defense system affects US national security interests, Chapter 2 describes Israel's missile defense...

  17. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  18. Youth Online Media Use: Associations with Youth Demographics, Parental Monitoring, and Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Rudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As online media has become an increasingly important part of youths’ daily lives, it is critical for the field to explore questions related to youth online media use in order to support youth workers, youth development practice and programming. Using a national sample of youth age 13-22 (N = 585, the current study explored demographic differences in youth online media use, and examined associations between youth demographics, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, and likelihood of being a frequent user of online activities. Although youth reported being frequent users of online media, Internet use was not the same for all youth. Online media use differed significantly by youth age, gender, race, and family relationship quality. The findings remind the field to consider the young people we are working with and how they use online media in their daily lives.

  19. Assessing Rural Communities through Youth Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee A. Oscarson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite frequent concerns about youth and young adult migration from rural to urban areas, most measures used to assess youth in rural community research have been developed by adults. Accurate understanding of youth community perceptions necessitates youth input into the research process. The participatory research strategy described here, using photography to describe community, enables youth to define community and identify what they value about their communities. Photographs and explanations of the photographs indicated that youth value places (schools, churches, as well as locations unique to communities and people from those communities. Photovoice, photography-based participatory-action research, is a feasible and engaging method for obtaining youth perspectives on community issues. Further, Photovoice may be adapted to the needs of different age groups and situations.

  20. Intermediaries for youth: a vital target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Worldwide, youth are recognized as a key target audience for HIV/STD awareness and prevention campaigns. Rural young people, who often have less access to information and prevention tools than urban youth, may be particularly vulnerable to HIV/STD infection. Many initiatives have been organized by nongovernmental organizations, governments, churches, and other organizations to help youth. However, parents, relatives, guardians, teachers, church and youth leaders, social workers, and other adults in a position to influence youth must also be helped to undertake the role of an intermediary between youth and HIV/STD interventions and other youth-oriented programs. In training adults to openly address sexual and reproductive health issues with adolescents, adults must first be encouraged to feel comfortable about discussing such issues among themselves. Intermediaries and how to target them are discussed.

  1. Excel Initiative: Excellence in Youth Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M. Borden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Excellence in Youth Programming (Excel Initiative strives to support youth programs in delivering high quality programs. The backbone of Excel is the Youth Development Observational Tool (YDOT which allows for the virtual assessment of program staff who work with children and youth ages 9-18 years. The YDOT also allows Excel to provide structured feedback to programs. Excel has several unique features, including a virtual platform and a focus on the relationships between adults and youth participating in after-school programs. Offering structured assessment and interaction online eliminates expenses, provides convenient access for programs around the globe, and allows for unobtrusive assessment of worker-youth interactions. Excel is also integrated into a broader network of resources, tools, and research for those working with children and youth ages 9-18.

  2. Runaway Youths: Families in Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Margaret; And Others

    The Hamden Mental Health Service staff collaborated with the police on a joint research project concerning runaway youth. The data suggest that adolescents who run away come from broken homes where disruption during preadolescence has been associated with parental separation and remarriage. These adolescents often exhibit symptoms of depression…

  3. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  4. Reaching Resistant Youth through Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skramstad, Teresa

    1998-01-01

    A teacher recounts her experiences with students who were successful telling their stories through writing and using their writing as a vehicle for expressing their emotions. Explains how helping students "find their voices" through writing can crack tough exteriors and help youth reconnect to school and themselves. (Author/MKA)

  5. Nihilism: Belief Crisis of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The author identifies three distinct variations of youthful nihilism. Transitory nihilism refers to a temporary adolescent condition brought about by intellectual and moral growth. Reflective nihilism refers to the attempt to make nihilism a legitimate philosophy. Psychogenic nihilism refers to a condition of psychic instability brought about by…

  6. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...

  7. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Transition Planning for Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…

  9. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  10. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  11. Youth Alienation: Implications for Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    Charts modern phenomena (technology, urbanization, affluence, large institutions, mass media, and others) that affect human interactions and teach certain attitudes. Provides supporting statistics to show increases in youth suicide, illegitimate births, delinquency, substance abuse, and homicide. Outlines desirable school changes producing modest…

  12. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  13. Concussions in Collision Youth Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Linzmeier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Pittsburg, University of Arkansas, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical College researched the incidence of concussions in youth hockey in relation to age and activity setting.

  14. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  15. Family Structure and Youths' Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.

    2000-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…

  16. Youth Migration and Agricultural Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    The study investigated the causes and examined the effects of youth ... poverty and search for better education in the cities were the major causes of .... and women from farming (rural) communities engenders urban nuisance and .... Frequency Percentage Mean. St.Dev. Age. <30 years. 31-60 years. 61 years and above.

  17. London International Youth Science Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  18. Accounting for Unliquidated Obligations for the Defense Fuel Supply Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) Columbus Center, Columbus, Ohio, and the Defense Fuel Supply Center share responsibility for accurate accounting information and financial reporting...

  19. Selected General Controls Over the Defense Business Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Defense Business Management System performs appropriation accounting, cost accounting, personnel, payroll, manpower, and management information functions for the Navy, the Air Force, five Defense...

  20. Defense Contract Management Command Capitalization of Fixed Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service had implemented effective management control procedures and complied with laws...

  1. FY 1997 Financial Reporting by The Defense Automated Printing Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The accuracy of information in the financial systems and reported on financial statements is the joint responsibility of the Defense Automated Printing Service and the Defense Logistics Agency...

  2. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Commercial Activities Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... This report evaluated the Defense Finance and Accounting Service competitive sourcing process and reviewed the adequacy of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service management control program...

  3. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  4. Sitting and television viewing: novel risk factors for sleep disturbance and apnea risk? results from the 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Kline, Christopher E; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2015-03-01

    Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and "high risk" for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk.

  5. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  6. Why even good defenses may be bad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    The current debate over whether an effective ballistic missile defense (BMD) is technically feasible and whether it could be developed and deployed has left most of the advocacy up to those supporting a BMD program. The author emphasizes the issues beyond technical feasibility in his conclusion that assured destruction may still be preferable to perfect defense in terms of reducing the probability of nuclear war. After examining a number of possible scenarios involving the US and Soviet Union, the positions of allies, and the possibility of clandestine bombs, he sees no reason to expect that a defense system would be less vulnerable or have fewer uncertainties. 29 references

  7. Should the Department of Defense Transfer the Defense Logistics Agency's Map Functions to the Defense Working Capital Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... The functions cost about $25 million annually and are funded by operations and maintenance (O&M) dollars. This study analyzed if the functions should be transferred to the Defense Working Capital Fund...

  8. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  9. A brief introduction on enterprise youth culture construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Chunmei

    2010-01-01

    From the development tendency of modern enterprise in combination with practical experience, the paper discusses the importance of youth culture construction in modern enterprise and how to bring the Communist Youth League into full play i the enterprise youth culture construction and presents the initial in the enterprise youth culture construction by the Communist Youth League of Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation. (author)

  10. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  11. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk;...

  12. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  13. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The publication has been set up as abstracts of the meeting dealing with different nuclear problems. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated more than 200 young scientific works from 28 countries. The address discusses the following issues: Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Fuel Cycle Challenges.

  14. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The publication has been set up as abstracts of the meeting dealing with different nuclear problems. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated more than 200 young scientific works from 28 countries. The address discusses the following issues: Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Fuel Cycle Challenges

  15. Capitalization of Defense Technology Security Administration Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    ... $5.2 million in the Equipment in Use account on its trial balance. Starting with FY 1996, Defense Technology Security Administration financial data will be included in consolidated DoD financial statements...

  16. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 1630.2(r) defining direct threat.) (c) Other...) Conflict with other Federal laws. It may be a defense to a charge of discrimination under this part that a...

  17. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization: Corporate Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ... requires a flexible yet focused approach to attain its mission; namely, to research, develop, acquire, and deploy systems and technologies which provide ballistic missile defense to include Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (OPALS...

  18. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  19. Defensive Swarm: An Agent Based Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    32  1.  System Dynamics .........................................................................33  2.  Variables...CONSIDERATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................83  1.  Prolonged Time of Operations ....................................................83...LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  Unmanned Aircraft System ..........................................................................8  Figure 2.  Defensive

  20. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  1. Defense Science Board Task Force on Mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuttle, Jr, William G

    2005-01-01

    .... national security objectives as it is today. Both the 2001 and 2005 National Defense Strategy objectives place greater emphasis than in the past on the nation's worldwide commitments, increasing the demand for responsive forces capable...

  2. Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Public Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FUDS Public GIS dataset contains point location information for the 2,709 Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties where the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is...

  3. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  4. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense: An Administration Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert

    1995-01-01

    ...: "What is our strategy?" What the Clinton Administration is doing with regard to strategic offensive systems provides an instructive context for what we re now trying to do on the strategic defensive side...

  6. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2004-01-01

    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  7. Lease vs. Purchase in Defense Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hensley, Carlton L; Tinjum, Archie L

    2008-01-01

    With declining budgets and consolidation in the defense industry, should competition between prime and sub-prime contractors be fostered through innovative lease arrangements similar to the Navy's TAKX...

  8. Photovoltaics in the Department of Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the history of photovoltaic use within the Department of Defense leading up to the installation of 2.1 MW of photovoltaics underway today. This history describes the evolution of the Department of Defense's Tri-Service Photovoltaic Review Committee and the committee's strategic plan to realize photovoltaic's full potential through outreach, conditioning of the federal procurement system, and specific project development. The Photovoltaic Review Committee estimates photovoltaic's potential at nearly 4,000 MW, of which about 700 MW are considered to be cost-effective at today's prices. The paper describes photovoltaic's potential within the Department of Defense, the status and features of the 2.1-MW worth of photovoltaic systems under installation, and how these systems are selected and implemented. The paper also documents support provided to the Department of Defense by the Department of Energy dating back to the late 70s. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Youth and Families with Promise: A Multi-Component Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Higginbotham

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating mentoring into existing youth programs has been suggested as a promising approach to youth development. This article discusses a theoretical rationale underlying the integration of one-on-one mentoring into established youth development programs. From an ecological perspective, the addition of mentoring into traditional programs should theoretically enhance the youth development experience. Mentoring, in addition to programs like 4-H, enriches the context in which developing youth are supported and encouraged by non-parental adults to develop competencies, to take on leadership responsibilities, and to integrate into positive peer groups (i.e., 4-H clubs. A multi-component program that involves at-risk youth in both mentoring and 4-H activities is highlighted. Results from at-risk youth and their parents indicate that Utah’s 4-H/ Mentoring: Youth and Families with Promise program strengthens the protective factors of academic achievement, social competence, and family bonds.

  10. Convergence of a strengths perspective and youth development: Toward youth promotion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Woong Cheon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the development and application of the strengths perspective and positive youth development. This paper develops youth promotion practice as a convergence of a strengths perspective and youth development principles. Historical and contemporary contexts of a problem-focused perspective in social work with adolescents are reviewed and a critique developed with emphasis on the evolution of strengths-focused practices. The importance and possibility of combining the strengths perspective and youth development toward youth promotion practice are addressed. Youth promotion is defined as a process of enhancing youth strengths and resources to promote positive outcomes and help young people be healthy adults. Complementary aspects of the two perspectives are expected to support and supplement the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective in synergistic ways. Several advantages of youth promotion practice are discussed as well as its implications for improved social work practices with adolescents.

  11. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    deploying advanced air defense systems18, such as the Russian S-300 and S-500, and concealing them in hardened, camouflaged sites, such as extensive... Russian objections to the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and fund homeland defense priorities.39 Furthermore, the PTSS system was also... Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Capability Becomes Operational,” Jane’s Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2011. 55 Joseph W. Kirschbaum, REGIONAL MISSILE

  12. Carp erythrodermatitis : host defense-pathogen interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to ...

  13. Defense Acquisition Reform, 19602009: An Elusive Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    the seven largest economies of the world (United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, and Italy ).11 Major weapon systems...the Federal Acquisition Regulation.96 95 Ibid., pp. 20, 21. 96 Joseph Ferrara , “DoD’s 5000 Documents: Evolution and Change in Defense Acquisition...Wayne Smith. How Much Is Enough: Shaping the Defense Program, 1961–1969. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. Ferrara , Joseph. “DoD’s 5000 Documents

  14. Integrating the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Procedures , DoD Manual 4140.01, Volumes 1 through 11, draft as of March...this is summarized in R. Glenn Richey, Jr., Anthony S. Roath, Judith M. Whipple , and Stanley E. Fawcett, “Exploring a Governance Theory of Supply...of this report, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Procedures (Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logis- tics and Materiel Readiness, DoD Manual

  15. A New Department of Defense Framework for Efficient Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liberato, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ...) capabilities support to civilian authorities during emergencies. Hurricane Katrina added to this national attention on the role the Department of Defense should play in responding to emergencies...

  16. Acquisition: Allegations to the Defense Hotline on the Management of the Defense Travel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Defense Travel System was envisioned as a general support system designed to make business travel quicker, easier, and more efficient by providing automated commercial and Government travel...

  17. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  18. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  19. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cometary Defense with Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lubin, P. M.; Hughes, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary impacts pose a long-term hazard to humans on Earth. Due to their comparative rarity, most planetary defense schemes neglect the comet threat, choosing instead to focus exclusively on mitigating asteroid impacts. Methods like kinetic impactors may be suitable for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), both of which are characterized by low inclination orbits and short orbital periods which favor early detection—characteristics ideal for an interception mission. In contrast, Halley-type comets (HTCs) and long-period comets (LPCs) are often found in high inclination orbits rarely more than 2 yr prior to reaching Earth's orbit. Unless discovered and identified in a prior apparition—often centuries or millennia earlier, if ever—timely interception of a threatening HTC or LPC is improbable even with preparation, with missions demanding delta-v budgets often in excess of 30 km/s. Active comets, however, are already naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar-driven sublimation of volatiles. Further deflection may be achieved by supplementing the solar radiation with an artificial directed energy source such as by one or more laser arrays positioned on or near Earth. Simulations were developed with models derived from the known solar nongravitational perturbations of typical comets. Results suggest that a diffraction-limited 500 m array operating at 10 GW for 10 min/day may be sufficient to divert a typical active 500 m comet from an impact given 1 yr. A larger 1 km array operating at 100 GW for 100 s/day is similarly effective. Care must be taken to ensure the target remains intact throughout the deflection period due to comets' low compressive strength and resulting propensity for disintegration at high incident flux.