WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense travel system

  1. Defense Travel System: An Analysis of the System’s Reservation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Weekly, 63(6), 20-20. Retrieved October 19, 2007, from EBSCOhost Research database . Margasak, Larry. (2006, November). Pentagon Travel System...was supposed to capture all flights information in the database . The problem with this process is that it is not reliable. The commercial product...arrival/departure times, flight routes, airports, connecting flights, etc.). 4 Travel database that contains applicable flight and airfare information

  2. DCHA Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DTRAMS is a travel data collection system for DCHA that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  3. PPL Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PTRAMS is a travel data collection system for PPL that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  4. GH Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HTRAMS is a travel data collection system for GH that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  6. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  7. Computer network defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias, Vincent; Stout, William M. S.; Loverro, Caleb

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus for protecting virtual machines. A computer system creates a copy of a group of the virtual machines in an operating network in a deception network to form a group of cloned virtual machines in the deception network when the group of the virtual machines is accessed by an adversary. The computer system creates an emulation of components from the operating network in the deception network. The components are accessible by the group of the cloned virtual machines as if the group of the cloned virtual machines was in the operating network. The computer system moves network connections for the group of the virtual machines in the operating network used by the adversary from the group of the virtual machines in the operating network to the group of the cloned virtual machines, enabling protecting the group of the virtual machines from actions performed by the adversary.

  8. E3 Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ETRAMS is a travel data collection system developed by the CKM team in E3 that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination,...

  9. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  10. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Tze

    2016-01-01

    .... In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning...

  11. Oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Lihe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system. The convective part of this system changes its type when crossing a parabola in the phase space. The oscillatory nature of the traveling wave comes from the fact that one far-field state is in the elliptic region and another in the hyperbolic region. Such traveling wave solutions are shown to be linearly unstable. Detailed construction of some traveling wave solutions is presented.

  12. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Tze

    2016-01-01

    Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning.

  13. Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Alan J.

    1991-01-01

    Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are uniquely accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals. They also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the ability to extract the desired momentum obtained. Momentum harvesting by momentum transfer from asteroid to spacecraft, and by using the momentum of the extraterrestrial material to help deliver itself to its destination is discussed. The purpose is neither to quantify nor justify the momentum exchange processes, but to stimulate collective imaginations with some intriguing possibilities which emerge when momentum as well as material is considered. A net and tether concept is the suggested means of asteroid capture, the basic momentum exchange process. The energy damping characteristics of the tether determines the velocity mismatch that can be tolerated, and hence the amount of momentum that can be harvested per capture. As the tether plays out of its reel, drag on the tether steadily accelerates the spacecraft and dilutes, in time, the would-be collision. A variety of concepts for riding and using asteroids after capture are introduced. The hitchhiker uses momentum transfer only. The beachcomber, the caveman, the swinger, the prospector, and the rock wrecker also take advantage of raw asteroid materials. The chemist and the hijacker go further, they process the asteroid into propellants. Or, an asteroid railway system could be constructed with each hijacked asteroid becoming a scheduled train. Travelers could board this space railway system assured that water, oxygen propellants, and shielding await them. Austere space travel could give way to comforts, with a speed and economy impossible without nature's gift of earth visiting asteroids.

  14. Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization (DHMSM) Defense...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...DSN Fax: Date Assigned: November 16, 2015 Program Information Program Name Department of Defense Healthcare Management System Modernization

  15. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    A fault or disturbance in a power system can be severe due to the sources of vulnerability such as human errors, protection and control system failures, a failure of communication networks to deliver critical control signals, and market and load uncertainties. There have been several catastrophic failures resulting from disturbances involving the sources of vulnerability while power systems are designed to withstand disturbances or faults. To avoid catastrophic failures or minimize the impact of a disturbance(s), the state of the power system has to be analyzed correctly and preventive or corrective self-healing control actions have to be deployed. This dissertation addresses two aspects of power systems: Defense system and diagnosis, both concerned with the power system analysis and operation during events involving faults or disturbances. This study is intended to develop a defense system that is able to assess power system vulnerability and to perform self-healing control actions based on the system-wide analysis. In order to meet the requirements of the system-wide analysis, the defense system is designed with multi-agent system technologies. Since power systems are dynamic and uncertain the self-healing control actions need to be adaptive. This study applies the reinforcement learning technique to provide a theoretical basis for adaptation. One of the important issues in adaptation is the convergence of the learning algorithm. An appropriate convergence criterion is derived and an application with a load-shedding scheme is demonstrated in this study. This dissertation also demonstrates the feasibility of the defense system and self-healing control actions through multi-agent system technologies. The other subject of this research is to investigate the methodology for on-line fault diagnosis using the information from Sequence-of-Events Recorders (SER). The proposed multiple-hypothesis analysis generates one or more hypothetical fault scenarios to interpret the

  16. 2013 Robotics Science & Systems Conference Travel Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 robotics conference, travel support REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Washington 4333 Brooklyn AVE NE Box 359472 Seattle, WA 98195 -9472 31-May-2014 ABSTRACT...travel of invited speakers and students from the U.S. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or

  17. Air Travel and Health A Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Seabridge, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed examination of the issues that affect the long term health of aircrew, cabin crew and passengers, Air Travel and Health offers guidance to engineers designing aircraft in the difficult field of legislation and product liability. Examining the facts, anecdotes and myths associated with health and travel, Seabridge and Morgan draw balanced conclusions on which the aircraft operations and design communities can act to provide cost-effective solutions. The authors present a useful reference for aircrew, regulatory authorities, engineers and managers within the aerospace indust

  18. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Tsung Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning.

  19. Bureau for Food Security Travel and Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — FTRAMS is a travel data collection system for BFS that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  20. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  1. Traveling wave solutions for reaction-diffusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Lin, Zhigui; Tian, Canrong

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of reaction–diffusion systems. The definition of coupled quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions is introduced for systems with mixed quasimonotone functions, and the definition of ordered quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions is also given for systems...... with quasimonotone nondecreasing functions. By the monotone iteration method, it is shown that if the system has a pair of coupled quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions, then there exists at least a traveling wave solution. Moreover, if the system has a pair of ordered quasi-upper and quasi-lower solutions......, then there exists at least a traveling wavefront. As an application we consider the delayed system of a mutualistic model....

  2. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  3. Bifurcations of travelling wave solutions for two generalized Boussinesq systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the methods of dynamical systems for two generalized Boussinesq systems, the existence of all possible solitary wave solutions and many uncountably infinite periodic wave solutions is obtained. Exact explicit parametric representations of the travelling solutions are given. To guarantee the existence of the above solutions, all parameter conditions are determined.

  4. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71... accounting system? To: (a) Pay authorized and allowable travel expenses of employees; (b) Provide...

  5. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  6. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  7. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  8. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  9. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    munitions and sub-systems to fit these U.S. platforms. One such case involved Rafael developing the Popeye missile to be used on the Israeli...version of the McDonnell Douglas F-4E. In the late 1980s, the USAF viewed the Popeye as a short- term solution to its requirement for smart munitions and...purchased the Popeye directly “off the shelf” from Rafael. The USAF then went on to partner with Rafael in modifying and marketing the munitions to

  10. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  11. Splitting Travel Time Based on AFC Data: Estimating Walking, Waiting, Transfer, and In-Vehicle Travel Times in Metro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The walking, waiting, transfer, and delayed in-vehicle travel times mainly contribute to route’s travel time reliability in the metro system. The automatic fare collection (AFC system provides huge amounts of smart card records which can be used to estimate all these times distributions. A new estimation model based on Bayesian inference formulation is proposed in this paper by integrating the probability measurement of the OD pair with only one effective route, in which all kinds of times follow the truncated normal distributions. Then, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is designed to estimate all parameters endogenously. Finally, based on AFC data in Guangzhou Metro, the estimations show that all parameters can be estimated endogenously and identifiably. Meanwhile, the truncated property of the travel time is significant and the threshold tested by the surveyed data is reliable. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed model over the existing model in estimation and forecasting accuracy is also demonstrated.

  12. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  13. 41 CFR 301-71.303 - What data must we capture in our travel advance accounting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capture in our travel advance accounting system? 301-71.303 Section 301-71.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY... must we capture in our travel advance accounting system? You must capture the following data: (a)...

  14. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  15. Information Management Principles Applied to the Ballistic Missile Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of a BMDS. From this, the Army produced the Nike- Zeus system comprised of four radars, the Zeus missile, and a computer fire control system (General...made the Nike- Zeus our first National Missile Defense (NMD) system named Sentinel. The architecture was to cover 14 locations, 10 of which were...fostered the database system and representation of data in a hierarchy (Galliers & Leidner, 2003). Soon the limits of hierarchies were identified and

  16. 75 FR 47701 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA): Travel Promotion Fee and Fee for Use of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... international leisure and long-haul international business trips available from the published travel literature... business and leisure travelers, we first identify the portion of travel to the United States from VWP... costs vary by purpose of travel, but range from an average $1,406 per flight for a leisure traveler...

  17. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  18. On the Origin of Traveling Pulses in Bistable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Elphick, C; Malomed, B A; Meron, E

    1997-01-01

    The interaction between a pair of Bloch fronts forming a traveling domain in a bistable medium is studied. A parameter range beyond the nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch bifurcation is found where traveling domains collapse. Only beyond a second threshold the repulsive front interactions become strong enough to balance attractive interactions and asymmetries in front speeds, and form stable traveling pulses. The analysis is carried out for the forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Similar qualitative behavior is found in the bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo model.

  19. Spontaneous Speech Parsing in Travel Information Inquiring and Booking Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕鹏举; 郑方; 孙辉; 徐明星

    2002-01-01

    Grammar-based parsing is a prevalent method for natural language under-standing (NLU) and has been introduced into dialogue systems for spoken language processing(SLP). A robust parsing scheme is proposed in this paper to overcome the notorious phenome-na, such as garbage, ellipsis, word disordering, fragment, and ill-form, which frequently occurin spoken utterances. Keyword categories are used as terminal symbols, and the definition ofgrammar is extended by introducing three new rule types, by-passing, up-messing and over-crossing, in addition to the general rules called up-tying in this paper, and the use of semanticitems simplifies the semantics extraction. The corresponding parser marionette, which is essen-tially a partial chart parser, is enhanced to parse the semantic grammar. The robust parsingscheme integrating the above methods has been adopted in an air traveling information ser-vice system called EasyFlight, and has achieved a high performance when used for parsingspontaneous speeches.

  20. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  1. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  2. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  3. Effects of Computer Reservation System in the Operations of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevillia S. Felicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In travel industry, the main tool used is the computerized booking systems and now known as Global Distribution Systems or GDS. This paper aimed to determine the effect of using Computer Reservation System among Travel Agencies in terms of technical, human and financial aspect. This will help the Internship office to include the identified travel agencies in their linkages where the students will be deployed for internship. The result of this study will also be helpful and can be utilized in the course travel and tour operations with computer reservation system. The descriptive method of research was used with managers and users/staff of 20 travel agencies as participants of the study. Questionnaire was used as main data gathering instrument utilizing percentage, frequency and weighted mean as statistical tool. Abacus System is the computer reservation system used by all travel agencies in Batangas. All travel agencies offered services such as domestic and international hotel reservation, domestic and international ticketing and package tour. The CRS can connect guest to all forms of travel; it has installed built in system security features that can improve agency’s efficiency and productivity.

  4. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System. 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    contractors to “win the franchise ” to become the sole-source producer of a system. Contractors are often willing to accept lower development...margins to win this production franchise . 86 Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2014 Figure 3-1. Final Margin on MDAP Development and...profits if the contractors determine the longer-term benefits from “winning the franchise ” form a good investment. Both types of sole-source contracts

  5. Dynamical System Approach to a Coupled Dispersionless System: Localized and Periodic Traveling Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gambo Betchewe; Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a coupled dispersionlees system describing a current-conducting string with infinite length within a magnetic field.Thus,following a dynamical system approach,we unwrap typical miscellaneous traveling waves including localized and periodic ones.Studying the relative stabilities of such structures through their energy densities,we find that under some boundary conditions,localized waves moving in positive directions are more stable than periodic waves which in contrast stand for the most stable traveling waves in another boundary condition situation.

  6. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  7. The Defense Systems Acquisition and Review Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-15

    competition; and (i) Validity of contractor proposals. (3) For systems proposed for initial produccion : (a) Feasibility of production, Including "evaluation...Industrial Preparedness ASD(I&L) DoD Instruction Production Planning 4005.3 Procedures Industrial Preparedness ASD(I&L) DoD �.3M Planning Manual ...Guidance Manual ," July 1, 1971 authorized by DoD Instruction 7110-.1, August 23, 1968 I, PURPOSE This Instruction establishes policy and instruction

  8. Design Skills and Prototyping for Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Abrams tank. New variants are being ordered to maintain the single production plant in Lima , Ohio, even though the Army has sufficient quantities to...References Arena, M. V., Leonard, R. S., Murray, S. E., & Younossi, O. (2006). Historical cost growth of completed weapon system programs. Santa Monica, CA...development (R- 4161-ACQ). Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Drezner, J. A., & Huang, M. (2009). On prototyping: Lessons from RAND research. Santa Monica

  9. Strategic Defense System; Integrated Logistics Support Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    WEAPONS SBI SBL GBL NPB iiiwiiiii BSTS SSTS AOS CC/SOIF NTB :-.’-’\\.;v::v-X’X:.’:^v::v:.-:vS...Validation of test methods C. Evaluate test results IV. Simulation and Modelling A. Methodology B. Requirements C. Validation D. National Test Bed n...equipment and the systems they support; - On-the-job training capabilities incorporated in the prime equipment design as a method of reducing the need

  10. System Earned Readiness Management for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Pugh  1991),  Kasser’s  ( Kasser  2004)  First  Requirements   Elucidator  Demonstration  (FRED),  Integrated  Design  Model...Council  on  Systems   Engineering  (NCOSE),  Seattle,  Washington.   Kasser ,  J.  E.  (2004).  "The  first  requirements

  11. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  12. Effects of System Characteristics on Adopting Web-Based Advanced Traveller Information System: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a behavioural intention model that integrates information quality, response time, and system accessibility into the original technology acceptance model (TAM to investigate whether system characteristics affect the adoption of Web-based advanced traveller information systems (ATIS. This study empirically tests the proposed model using data collected from an online survey of Web-based advanced traveller information system users. Con­firmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used to evaluate the structural model. The results indicate that three system characteristics had indirect effects on the intention to use through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using. Information quality was the most im­portant system characteristic factor, followed by response time and system accessibility. This study presents implica­tions for practitioners and researchers, and suggests direc­tions for future research.

  13. Travelling Wave Solutions in Delayed Reaction Diffusion Systems with Partial Monotonicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua Huang; Xing-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the existence of travelling wave fronts of delayed reaction diffusion systems with partial quasi-monotonicity. We propose a concept of "desirable pair of upper-lower solutions", through which a subset can be constructed. We then apply the Schauder's fixed point theorem to some appropriate operator in this subset to obtain the existence of the travelling wave fronts.

  14. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  15. Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System-Increment 1 (DEAMS Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System-Increment 1 (DEAMS Inc 1) Defense...Phone: 937-257-2714 Fax: DSN Phone: 787-2714 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: August 17, 2015 Program Information Program Name Defense Enterprise Accounting ...UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description The Defense Enterprise Accounting and Management System (DEAMS) is a key part of the United States Air Force (USAF

  16. Parameters for Optimizing a Traveling Charge Gun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    INTRODUCTION - b1 O’rigina11yproposed by Langwailer,1 ’’in the early 19401s, the L 7 t traveling charge concepto -..JU*%1s* gwdis a solid propellant propulsion...East Corporation US Army Tank Automotive Cmd ATTN: Christine P. Brandt, ATTN: AMSTA-CG Document Control Warren, MI 48090 3132 Market Street Philadelphia

  17. Reproduction and love: strategies of the organism's cellular defense system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, A; Huybrechts, R; Kotanen, S

    1998-08-01

    A novel view is presented which states that primordial germ cells and their descendants can be regarded as 'cancerous cells' which emit signals that activate a whole array of cellular defensive mechanisms by the somatoplasm. These cells have become unrestrained in response to the lack of typical cell adhesion properties of epithelial cells. From this point of view: (1) the encapsulation of oocytes by follicle cells, vitelline membrane and egg shell; (2) the suppression of gonadal development in larval life; (3) the production of sex steroid hormones and of vitellogenin; and (4) the expulsion of the gametes from the body fit into a general framework for a defense strategy of the somatoplasm against germ line cells. Accordingly, the origin of sexual reproduction appears to be a story of failure and intercellular hostility rather than a 'romantic' and altruistic event. Yet, it has resulted in evolutionary success for the system in which it has evolved; probably through realizing feelings of 'pleasure' associated with reproduction.

  18. Spreading speeds and traveling waves for non-cooperative reaction-diffusion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Much has been studied on the spreading speed and traveling wave solutions for cooperative reaction-diffusion systems. In this paper, we shall establish the spreading speed for a large class of non-cooperative reaction-diffusion systems and characterize the spreading speed as the slowest speed of a family of non-constant traveling wave solutions. As an application, our results are applied to a partially cooperative system describing interactions between ungulates and grass.

  19. Active infrared systems: possible roles in ballistic missile defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologue, A.

    2006-05-01

    Active Infra-Red (IR) systems developed in the past ten years are now available for missile defense applications. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the advantages an active IR system could offer to a ballistic missile defense (BMD). The active IR system considered in this paper is a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) system. Historically, the Lincoln Laboratory in the USA began using lasers in the early 1960's. The initial applications included the development of a LIDAR system enabling the measurement of the distance between the earth and the moon in 1962. Satellite tracking using LIDAR began early in 1973. Today, technological developments, with the miniaturization of systems and increased performance levels, have enabled new ambitious projects such as the Discrimination Interceptor Technology Program (DITP) program started in 1998 and the use of LIDAR to help in the discrimination of future exo-atmospheric interceptors within the framework of BMD. The first part of this paper presents the possible contribution of LIDAR to BMD: the main roles, objectives, and strategic advantages. The second part gives a brief overview of the technological features of a generic LIDAR instrument, rapidly addressing laser sources, detectors, optics and electronics. Finally, a modeling of an IR LIDAR system, limited solely to direct detection, and an estimation of performance levels will be presented. A list of possible IR active discriminators will be then presented on the basis of the previous analysis and proposed as new constraints in the design of discrete objects.

  20. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  1. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  2. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A TRAVEL AGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Virgil NICULA; POPSA Roxana Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present research refers to the major problems existing in the Romanian tourism, namely, "manufacturing" and commercialization of certain products non-compliant with the user’s requirements in terms of quality. In tourism and hospitality industry, quality can be judged on the extent to which the service received meets the customer’s expectations. So, the quality is important for both customers and managers of various travel agencies, as it can contribute to making better products at lower ...

  4. Smart travel guide: from internet image database to intelligent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareyron, Ga"l.; Da Rugna, Jérome; Cousin, Saskia

    2011-02-01

    To help the tourist to discover a city, a region or a park, many options are provided by public tourism travel centers, by free online guides or by dedicated book guides. Nonetheless, these guides provide only mainstream information which are not conform to a particular tourist behavior. On the other hand, we may find several online image databases allowing users to upload their images and to localize each image on a map. These websites are representative of tourism practices and constitute a proxy to analyze tourism flows. Then, this work intends to answer this question: knowing what I have visited and what other people have visited, where should I go now? This process needs to profile users, sites and photos. our paper presents the acquired data and relationship between photographers, sites and photos and introduces the model designed to correctly estimate the site interest of each tourism point. The third part shows an application of our schema: a smart travel guide on geolocated mobile devices. This android application is a travel guide truly matching the user wishes.

  5. Redesigning the Structure of Republic Indonesian Defense System; An Analysis of Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Shrinking Defense Capabilities is only the tip of the iceberg of Indonesian Defense System’s problem. The root of the problem that lies beneath and outside is keep untouched. This journal is the part of the efforts to reveal the phenomenon’s structure that binding as a system. The present structure is a cause of that phenomenon and the basis of the current organization responsible for Republic Indonesia Defense sector. With the Systems thinking analysis, the research has revealed the structure that become the problem cause and give a holistic solution trough redesigning new structure based on two theories namely the Strategic-Operational Management with Vision Dissemination of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Strohhecker and the Defense System Generic Dr. Ir. Muhammad Tasrif, M.Eng and Ir. Ade Muhammad, M.Han. The logical consequences would also changing of formation of Indonesian Defense Organization. Keywords : Design, Redesigning, Defense System, System, Defense, Holistic

  6. A Preliminary Study of Internet Based Ticketing System Impacts on Selected Travel Agencies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saleh Khuja; Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the Internet based ticketing systems has made information easily accessible to consumers and has therefore established a direct link between consumers and suppliers. This study focuses on the impact of the Internet based ticketing systems on the travel agency in Langkawi, Malaysia. The major method was included in-depth interviews with travel agents to explore and refine the major issues that faced by the industry. Interviews with consumers were also carried out to ascertain the...

  7. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  8. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  9. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  11. Red herring in returned traveler: drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) syndrome mimicking sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Yin; Huang, Gene Khai Lin; Torresi, Joseph; Johnson, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old Han Chinese recently returned traveler, who was admitted with a generalized maculopapular rash, fevers, shock, and multi-organ failure. Extensive investigations failed to reveal an infective cause. Skin biopsy findings together with the recent commencement of allopurinol raised a diagnosis of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome. High-dose prednisolone was commenced and the patient made a rapid recovery. This case highlights that not all sepsis-like presentations in returned travelers are due to infective causes and that severe drug reactions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models

    CERN Document Server

    López-Corona, Oliver; Escolero, Oscar; González, Tomás; Morales-Casique, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits a complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow.

  13. Application of Fault Location Mode Based on Travelling Waves for Neutral Non-effective Grounding Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Fault location for distribution feeders short circuit especially single-phase grounding fault is an important task in distribution system with non-effectively grounded neutral.Fault location mode for distribution feeders using fault generated current and voltage transient traveling waves was investigated.The characteristics of transient traveling waves resulted from each short circuit fault and their transmission disciplinarian in distribution feeders are analyzed.This paper proposed that double end travelling waves theory which measures arriving time of fault initiated surge at both ends of the monitored line is fit for distribution feeders but single end traveling waves theory not.According to different distribution feeders,on the basis of analyzing original traveling waves reflection rule in line terminal, Current-voltage mode,voltage-voltage mode and current-current mode for fault location based on traveling waves are proposed and aerial mode component of original traveling waves is used to realize fault location.Experimental test verify the feasibility and correctness of the proposed method.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Self-sustained Oscillation in a Traveling Wave Thermoacoustic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihao Wu; Qing Li; Fangzhong Guo

    2003-01-01

    A traveling wave thermoacoustic engine consisting of a loop tube with a resonator has been tested. The onset characteristic together with the transition of oscillation mode from traveling wave to standing wave and the periodic shifting between modes in this system are investigated experimentally. The process of self-sustained thermoacoustic oscillation in this heat engine is described and analyzed through phase space distribution reconstructed from the time series of acoustic signal.

  15. Plant mating system transitions drive the macroevolution of defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A; Kessler, André

    2013-03-05

    Understanding the factors that shape macroevolutionary patterns in functional traits is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Alternative strategies of sexual reproduction (inbreeding vs. outcrossing) have divergent effects on population genetic structure and could thereby broadly influence trait evolution. However, the broader evolutionary consequences of mating system transitions remain poorly understood, with the exception of traits related to reproduction itself (e.g., pollination). Across a phylogeny of 56 wild species of Solanaceae (nightshades), we show here that the repeated, unidirectional transition from ancestral self-incompatibility (obligate outcrossing) to self-compatibility (increased inbreeding) leads to the evolution of an inducible (vs. constitutive) strategy of plant resistance to herbivores. We demonstrate that inducible and constitutive defense strategies represent evolutionary alternatives and that the magnitude of the resulting macroevolutionary tradeoff is dependent on the mating system. Loss of self-incompatibility is also associated with the evolution of increased specificity in induced plant resistance. We conclude that the evolution of sexual reproductive variation may have profound effects on plant-herbivore interactions, suggesting a new hypothesis for the evolution of two primary strategies of plant defense.

  16. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  17. Missile Defense: DOD’s Report Provides Limited Insight on Testing Options for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Cochran Ranking Member Subcommittee on Defense Committee on Appropriations United States Senate The Honorable Howard P. " Buck " McKeon Chairman The...System Component Mission Location Ground Based Interceptor (GBI) The interceptor consists of a silo-based, three-stage booster stack and a “hit-to

  18. Depth perception and defensive system activation in a 3-D environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCombe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To survive, animals must be able to react appropriately (in temporal and behavioral terms when facing a threat. One of the essential parameters considered by the defensive system is the distance of the threat, the defensive distance. In this study, we investigate the visual depth cues that could be considered as an alarm cue for the activation of the defensive system. For this purpose, we performed an active-escape pain task in a virtual three-dimensional environment. In two experiments, we manipulated the nature and consistency of different depth cues: vergence, linear perspective, and angular size. By measuring skin conductance responses, we characterized the situations that activated the defensive system. We show that the angular size of the predator was sufficient information to trigger responses from the defensive system, but we also demonstrate that vergence, which can delay the emotional response in inconsistent situations, is also a highly reliable cue for the activation of the defensive system.

  19. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  20. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  1. Existence of traveling wave solutions for diffusive predator-prey type systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Chi-Ru; Yang, Ting-Hui; Yang, Tzi-Sheng

    In this work we investigate the existence of traveling wave solutions for a class of diffusive predator-prey type systems whose each nonlinear term can be separated as a product of suitable smooth functions satisfying some monotonic conditions. The profile equations for the above system can be reduced as a four-dimensional ODE system, and the traveling wave solutions which connect two different equilibria or the small amplitude traveling wave train solutions are equivalent to the heteroclinic orbits or small amplitude periodic solutions of the reduced system. Applying the methods of Wazewski Theorem, LaSalle's Invariance Principle and Hopf bifurcation theory, we obtain the existence results. Our results can apply to various kinds of ecological models.

  2. Hospital Rating Systems and Implications For Patient Travel to Better-rated Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arun; Adler, Joel T; Shah, Nilay D; Hyder, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Publicly reported hospital ratings aim to encourage transparency, spur quality improvement, and empower patient choice. Travel burdens may limit patient choice, particularly for older adults (aged 65 years and more) who receive most medical care. For 3 major hospital ratings systems, we estimated travel burden as the additional 1-way travel distance to receive care at a better-rated hospital.Distances were estimated from publicly available data from the US Census, US News Top Hospitals, Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite rating for coronary artery bypass grafting (STS-CABG), and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Services (HCAHPS).Hospitals were rated for HCAHPS (n = 4656), STS-CABG (n = 470), and US News Top Hospitals (n = 15). Older adults were commonly located within 25 miles of their closest HCAHPS hospital (89.6%), but less commonly for STS-CABG (62.9%). To receive care at a better-rated hospital, travel distances commonly exceeded 25 miles: HCAHPS (39.2%), STS-CABG (62.7%), and US News Top Hospital (85.2%). Additional 1-way travel distances exceeded 25 miles commonly: HCAHPS (23.7%), STS-CABG (36.7%), US News Top Hospitals (81.8%).Significant travel burden is common for older adults seeking "better" care and is an important limitation of current hospital ratings for empowering patient choice.

  3. 76 FR 44293 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... presented by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics in a memorandum dated... offered price. These provisions must also be used in acquisitions of commercial items conducted using part...--ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS 4. Add new section 212.205 to read as follows: 212.205 Offers. (c) When...

  4. System Identification of Mistuned Bladed Disks from Traveling Wave Response Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, D. M.; Griffin, J. H.; Jones, K. W.; Kenyon, J. A.; Mehmed, O.; Kurkov, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to modal analysis is presented. By applying this technique to bladed disk system identification methods, one can determine the mistuning in a rotor based on its response to a traveling wave excitation. This allows system identification to be performed under rotating conditions, and thus expands the applicability of existing mistuning identification techniques from integrally bladed rotors to conventional bladed disks.

  5. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL... the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? The...

  6. Traveling wavefronts in nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with Holling type II functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of traveling wavefronts for a nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with functional response of Holling type II. We first establish the existence principle for the system with a general functional response by using a fixed point theorem and upper-lower solution technique. We apply this result to a predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response. We deduce the existence of traveling wavefronts that connect the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium.

  7. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  8. 75 FR 65439 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...-602-0350. Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Ms. Cassandra R. Freeman, OUSD (AT&L... be posted to http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cassandra R. Freeman... procurement. Clare M. Zebrowski, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48 CFR parts 219...

  9. Defense Information Systems Agency Management of Trouble Tickets for Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    received, 15 were requests for quotes. The causes were break down of modems, and failure of computer equipment and software at the Columbus and Ogden...transaction identified on the trouble ticket? Yes 15 No 115 7. Do you have access to the trouble ticket resolution diary at Ogden NEP? Yes 10 No 120 8...Information Systems Agency, Arlington, VA Defense Megacenter Columbus , OH Defense Megacenter Mechanicsburg, PA Defense Megacenter Ogden, UT Non

  10. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Next-Generation Unmanned Undersea Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    STUDY ON Next-Generation Unmanned Undersea Systems October 2016 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics ...MEMORANDUM FOR THE UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY & LOGISTICS SUBJECT: Final Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on...numbers of low- cost assets. As the report explains, in the undersea domain, quantity has a quality all its own. Furthermore, this report recommends

  11. Traveling Wave Solutions for Lotka-Volterra System Re-Visited

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Anthony W; Feng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using a new method of monotone iteration of a pair of smooth lower- and upper-solutions, the traveling wave solutions of the classical Lotka-Volterra system are shown to exist for a family of wave speeds. Such constructed upper and lower solution pair enables us to derive the explicit value of the minimal (critical) wave speed as well as the asymptotic rates of the wave solutions at infinities. Furthermore, the traveling wave corresponding to each wave speed is unique modulo a translation of the origin. The stability of the traveling wave solutions with non-critical wave speed is also studied by spectral analysis of the linearized operator in exponentially weighted Banach spaces.

  12. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether...

  13. Improving the Defense Acquisition System and Reducing System Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-30

    DDTE NAVMATO 421 HQ U3AF/ LEYE PA&E DSB/OP-098R NAVAIR (Air-41) CSD/PA&E . ASA (R, D, A) CSD (MRA&L) DA/DSLOG CSD (Ccmpt) Proj 72...a layered and collateral management structure created by the need to control different " colors " of money. This can all result in total system cost

  14. Non-monotonic Travelling Wave Fronts in a System of Fractional Flow Equations from Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegeling, P.A.; Hönig, O.; Doster, F.; Hilfer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by observations of saturation overshoot, this article investigates generic classes of smooth travelling wave solutions of a system of two coupled nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations resulting from a flux function of high symmetry. All boundary resp. limit value problems of t

  15. 76 FR 79660 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS). Temporary Duty travel records are now covered by DHRA 08 DoD, Defense Travel System (March 24, 2010, 75 FR 14142). DISA Pacific does not maintain any records... and Temporary Travel Order File (February 22, 1993, 58 FR 10562). Reason: DISA Pacific no...

  16. THE PLANNING, PROGRAMING, BUDGETING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SERBIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa RADUSKI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of introducing the PPBES to the Serbian Ministry of Defense and the Serbian Armed Forces is to provide a rational management of resources and to maintain and build capacity of the Ministry and the Serbian Armed Forces in order to achieve their goals, objectives and missions.Expected results of implementation of the PPBES are reflected in increasing the efficiency and rationalization of the defense planning to a higher level, ensuring compatibility with defense planning and budgeting system of the state and developing a foundation for the effective management of defense resources.

  17. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c c(*).

  18. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-01-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c* such that for each wave speed c ≤ c*, there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c c*. PMID:21572575

  19. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.

    2009-05-01

    In Space & Defense fields, there is a trend for miniaturisation in active optics, fine instruments, robotic missions, microsatellites, UAVs, MAVs which directly impact on the design of actuators. A new generation of small and smart actuators such like piezoelectric (piezo) actuators, are responding to this trend, thanks to their capacity to offer high energy density and to support both extreme and various requirements. In Space vehicles, UAVs, missiles, military vehicles, etc., onboard place and available electric power can be very limited. For instance, a micro satellite often must operate all its instruments with less than 100W of power. As a result, allocated electric power per actuator is typically between 0.1 to 10W. This is also the case in small UAVs and in MAVs. Because of the high cost of embedded mass, space & military actuators need also to offer high output energy to mass ratio. One of the main difficulties is often the ability to withstand launching vibrations and shocks. Space environments add other constrains. A clear example is the vacuum conditions, which can induce difficulties to release the heat out off the actuator or for out gassing near optics. Other critical spacerelated environmental conditions include the thermal operation range required as well as the radiation-resistant requirements. In other situations, actuator strength to humidity is often an issue, especially for piezoelectric ceramics. Thus, the success of the application relies not only on design issues but also on material reliability. Specific actions at this level are needed to be undertaken to secure space projects. To cope with these issues and to illustrate the trend, the piezo actuators and mechanisms from Cedrat are presented. They have been initially developed and qualified to meet space requirements but logically found also applications in defense and micro aerial vehicle fields, for various micromechatronic functions. The paper presents typical applications and piezo

  20. DEPRESSION--A FELLOW TRAVELER WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Doina-Clementina; Costin, Melania; Bădeanu, Lucia Elena; Negru, R D; Aursulesei, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder that occurs primarily in women of childbearing age, immunologic abnormalities being a prominent feature of the disease. Psychiatric disorders frequently coexist, depression being the most common mood disorder in neuropsychiatric lupus. This literature review was performed through searching MEDLINE database for full-text English-language articles--original research, systematic review and updates published in the last five years (2010-2015), using the keywords "depression and systemic lupus erythematosus". The main outcomes identified were prevalence and predictors of depression in various cultural and ethnic groups, depression-related clinical issues (suicidal ideation, cognitive impairment, altered body image, sleep and sexual disturbances, influence of SLE treatment), and influence on quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach that takes into account the polymorphism and individual variability of the SLE clinical manifestations helps to improve early detection of depression, which is responsible for the increased risk of comorbidities, suicidal attempts, decreased treatment adherence, and impaired quality of life. Physicians across all specialties involved in the care for lupus patients should be aware of the major prevalence of this condition, while helping patients to cope with their disabling disease.

  1. A Traveller Information System: Minimisation of the Number of Graphs’ Nodes Involved When Processing Route Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendaoud Zakaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people using public transport is continuously increasing. Transport companies want to fulfil travellers’ expectations wherever possible. However, the great number of public transport companies operating in the same area can sometimes confuse travellers as to which route they should take and how to obtain the information relative to their journey. In this paper we suggest integrating several traveller information systems from different companies into the same multimodal information system, offering companies the choice not to share their data. This encourages them to join the system. Additionally, we have minimised the number of nodes involved when processing travellers’ requests in order to simplify the calculation process. To put our plan into action, we have opted for a multi-agent system coupled with the Voronoi decomposition for managing the network.

  2. 32 CFR 724.104 - NDRB Traveling Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NDRB Traveling Panel. 724.104 Section 724.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.104 NDRB Traveling Panel. An NDRB Panel that travels for the purpose...

  3. BIFURCATIONS OF TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A COUPLED NONLINEAR WAVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Employ theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems to a system of coupled nonlin-ear equations, the existence of solitary wave solutions, kink wave solutions, anti-kink wave solutions and periodic wave solutions is obtained. Under different parametric conditions, various suffcient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above so-lutions are given. Some exact explicit parametric representations of travelling wave solutions are derived.

  4. A monopolistic market for advanced traveller information systems and road use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a model for exploring the interactions between a transport market and a monopolistic market for advanced traveller information systems (ATIS). We examine the properties of the information market, and in particular, the relationship between monopoly information pricing and road system efficiency. From model experiments, we find that increasing information penetration will lead to negative external effects for the already informed drivers. Furthermore, monopoly information p...

  5. Elitist Ant System with 2-opt Local Search for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINOVIC, G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Traveling Salesman Problem is one of the most famous problems in combinatorial optimization. The paper presents an algorithm based upon the elitist ant system for solving the traveling salesman problem. 2-opt local search is incorporated in the elitist ant system, and it is used for improvement of a given number of solutions previously constructed by artificial ants. A simple mechanism for avoiding a too early stagnation of the search is also proposed. The aforementioned is based on depositing strong pheromones on solution edges of randomly selected ants called random elitist ants. The aim is to encourage exploration in a greater area of the solution space. Experimental analysis shows how high-quality solutions can be achieved by using the considered algorithm instead of the usual elitist ant system with incorporated 2-opt local search.

  6. Oxidative and antioxidative defense system in testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Elshaari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the early effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on the oxidants and anti-oxidant defense status in rat testicular tissue by measuring MDA, glucose-6-phosphte dehydrogenase activity and reduced glutathione levels in a designated time frame sequel to reperfusion. Animals were divided randomly into six groups (12 animals per group in the following order: Group I: Sham-operated control group (Cso without the application of the torsion. Group 2: Torsion-induced ischemia group (T30 m: Ischemia was induced through the torsion of spermatic cord for a period of 30 min. Group 3: One hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR1 h. Group 4: Twenty-four hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR24 h. Group 5: Forty-eight hours reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR48h. Group 6: One week reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR1wk. Results and Discussion: The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue is altered during torsion as well as detorsion which results in the altered activities involved in the key enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt pathway, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with a reduction of glutathione (G.SH content. The increase in G6PDH activity during torsion and followed by an increase in detorsion indicates the tissue′s response to counter the oxidant stress caused by reduced blood supply. Continued exposure to such oxidant stressed physiological state of a tissue may lead to decreased capacity of the tissue to perform its physiological function such as testicular steroidogenesis and spermiogenesis shown in the present study.

  7. Towards Smarter Urban Mobility: Willingness to Pay for an Advanced Traveller Information System in Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pronello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced traveller information systems (ATIS are meant to assist people in their daily travel decisions as well as to prompt a shift from cars to alternative and more environmentally-friendly transport strategies. Not many comprehensive studies have been undertaken so far in order to assess the willingness to pay (WTP for ATIS, despite a development of these tools during the last two decades. This paper aims at analysing the WTP for Optymod’Lyon, a smartphone application which plans your journey travels using real-time information about all available transport modes. To this end, a quali-quantitative approach was adopted, administering a questionnaire to participants and organising focus groups before and after the test of the application. A sample of 42 people living in the metropolitan area of Lyon was involved. Results showed four clusters of participants: idealists, pragmatics, the ambiguous and opportunists. A strong majority of idealists and pragmatics were unwilling to pay, mainly for economic reasons and the availability on the market of free information. They record a lower share of trips to work and a higher share for leisure, shopping and study purposes. Those willing to pay (of which 37.8% were opportunists report a low monthly charge level (0.2–3 €/month and are mainly highly-educated car users, travelling for work.

  8. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    evidenced in our other case studies. However, with the rapid production and deployment of the vehicles in 2007–2008, the operators began to experience...Background The Patriot system began because of the need to replace an aging and limited air defense system in the 1970s, the Nike -Hercules, and...The program sponsors of the Patriot also desired to take advantage of technological innovation and information superiority to enhance overall

  9. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Izadi; Arman Ishaqi; Mohammad Ali Ishaqi; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari; Fatemeh Rahamaty; Abdolali Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  10. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment,general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza; Izadi; Annan; Is’haqi; Mohammad; Ali; Is’haqi; Nematollah; Jonaidi; Jafari; Fatemeh; Rahamaty; Abdolali; Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers.Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system,which may require in-patient care.Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.An overview of the available evidence in the field is.therefore,Urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.In November 2013,data were collected from PubMed,Scopus,and Web of knowledge(1980 to2013) including books,reviews,and peer-reviewed literature,Works pertained to pre-travel care,interventions,vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved.Here we provide information on pre-travel care,vaccination,chronic nervous system disorders,and post-travel complications.Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps,and state-of-the-art research are made.Given an increasing number of international travellers,novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections.Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications,detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness.Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,further research is required for vaccine development,state-of-the-art laboratory tests,and genetic engineering of vectors.

  11. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people cha

  12. Strategic Planning and Management in Defense Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    between top and working levels, coupled with micromanagement and multilevel approvals in both defense and nondefense organizations. In both types of...national security, not profit- or market -driven considerations. In fact, respondents noted that sometimes performance must be achieved at all costs

  13. Shortest route finding by ant system algorithm in web geographical information system-based advanced traveller information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used in the development of advanced traveller information system (ATIS. This system is designed as a part of web geographical information system (GIS based advanced public transport systems. Web GIS-based ATIS system includes spatial data for the designed functionalities and provides GIS capabilities to the users through the internet. In addition to these functionalities, a route planning algorithm to plan the shortest route between the selected bus transit points is also designed using ant system algorithm and is integrated with web GIS. This study presents the ant system algorithm adopted for the shortest route finding with the methodology developed for the web GIS-based ATIS system for the study area of the city Chandigarh in India using open source software MapServer as web map server. This study also discusses the three-tier logical architecture used in the methodology for providing GIS capabilities to the user over the internet.

  14. Three dimensional visualization and animation of travelling waves in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrenosoglu, Cansin Y. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Abur, Ali [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Akleman, Ergun [Department of Architecture, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper is concerned about the animation of power system transients for educational purposes. The electromagnetic transients programs simulate voltage signals at the line terminals only. These may not be sufficient to observe and understand the travelling wave phenomenon, which is of primary interest in most relaying and fault location studies. One way to capture the travelling waves is by animating the voltage profile along the studied line. This is accomplished by a new animation software, which is described in detail in this paper. Various visualization and animation methods are employed in order to bring out different features of voltage transients. Examples involving single-phase and three-phase power systems are given to illustrate the use of the developed tool. (author)

  15. Traveling-wave maser closed-cycle refrigerator data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, L.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A data acquisition and display system that automatically monitors the performance of the 4.5-K closed-cycle refrigerators used to cryogenically cool traveling-wave masers is described. The system displays and stores operating parameters for the purpose of providing status information, failure prediction, and analysis. A prototype of this system will be installed at Deep Space Network 12 in the near future. The advantages of using commercial data acquisition hardware with installed operating systems and BASIC programs for this application are discussed.

  16. Traveling-wave maser closed-cycle refrigerator data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, L.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-11-01

    A data acquisition and display system that automatically monitors the performance of the 4.5-K closed-cycle refrigerators used to cryogenically cool traveling-wave masers is described. The system displays and stores operating parameters for the purpose of providing status information, failure prediction, and analysis. A prototype of this system will be installed at Deep Space Network 12 in the near future. The advantages of using commercial data acquisition hardware with installed operating systems and BASIC programs for this application are discussed.

  17. The c-axis charge traveling wave in coupled system of Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a manifestation of the charge traveling wave along the c-axis (TW) in current voltage characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions in high-$T_c$ superconductors. The branches related to the TW with different wavelengths are found for the stacks with different number of Josephson junctions at different values of system's parameters. Transitions between the TW branches and the outermost branch are observed. Time dependence of the electric charge in the superconducting layers an...

  18. Traveling Wave-Guide Channels of a New Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbagari Souleymanou; Victor K. Kuetche; Thomas B. Bouetou; Timoleon C. Kofane

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the recent investigation of new coupled integrable dispersionless equations by means of the Darboux transformation [Zhaqilao, et al., Chin. Phys; B 18 (2009) 1780], we carry out the initial value analysis of the previous system using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta's computational scheme. As a result, while depicting its phase portraits accordingly, we show that the above dispersionless system actually supports two kinds of solutions amongst which the localized traveling wave-guide channels. In addition, paying particular interests to such localized structures, we construct the bilinear transformation of the current system from which scattering amongst the above waves can be deeply studied.

  19. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2015 Annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-16

    performance measure has its strengths and weaknesses , so we use multiple measures (e.g., at both the program and contract level) and subsequent analysis to...could have led to program success or problems. Defense acquisition is complex, and each measure has its strengths and weaknesses , so attributing...Program Contract Costs Related to Targets Proportions of (Non-FFP) Contracts At or Below Cost Targets for Currently Active MDAPs (controlling for

  20. Defense Systems Management Review. Volume I, Number 4. Autumn 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-03

    LEAD SERVICE DETERMINATION AND JSOR GENERATION The Department of Defense has become increasingly involved with reducing prolifera- tion of...development of a joint requirement. • Required the generation of a joint serv- ice operational requirement ( JSOR ) within 60 working days. *Air Munitions...prepara- tion and coordination of the JSOR . • Authorized both service-advanced de- velopment efforts to continue through fiscal year 1974. The

  1. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP).

  2. Evaluating Defense Architecture Frameworks for C4I System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Alghamdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I Systems provided situational awareness about operational environment and supported in decision making and directed to operative environment. These systems had been used by various agencies like defense, police, investigation, road, rail, airports, oil and gas related department. However, the increase use of C4I system had made it more important and attractive. Consequently interest in design and development of C4I system had increased among the researchers. Many defense industry frameworks were available but the problem was a suitable selection of a framework in design and development of C4I system. Approach: This study described the concepts, tool and methodology being used for evaluation analysis of different frameworks by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results: We had compared different defense industry frameworks like Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF, Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework (MODAF and NATO Architecture Framework (NAF and found that AHP is fairly good tool in terms of analysis. Conclusion: Different defense industry frameworks such as DODAF, MODAF and NAF had been evaluated and compared using AHP.

  3. Making sense of ballistic missile defense: an assessment of concepts and systems for U.S. boost-phase missile defense in comparison to other alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; Naval Studies Board

    2012-01-01

    "The Committee on an Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives set forth to provide an assessment of the feasibility, practicality, and affordability of U.S...

  4. Linear systems analysis of activating processes of complement system as a defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, H; Yoshii, K; Ojima, H; Kawai, N; Gotoh, S; Fukuyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    The complement system is an important element of the host defense mechanism, although its kinetics and characteristics as a system are still unclear. We have investigated its temporal changes and system properties from the view point of system engineering. The temporal changes of sequential activating processes of the system were expressed by 26 non-linear differential equations using reported values of rate constants and serum concentration for each component. The intermediate products in the activating processes increased parabolically while the membrane attack component as the final product, increased linearly. The little change in inactive precursors afforded validity for system linearization. Linear systems analysis revealed that the system which was insensitive to the changes in rate constants was unstable. The system became stable when the feed-back input from the final product was set to operate on the first step of the activating processes. Seven uncontrollable variables were insensitive to changes in rate constants or system optimization that minimized the changes in concentrations of components in the complement system. The singular values of the complement system were reduced and the impulse responses of the system were improved when the system was optimized. When stronger minimization was imposed on the changes of concentration of the components in the complement system, the singular values were reduced more, the magnitude of the impulse responses was depressed further and the responses terminated earlier than those when the elements in the weighting matrix of concentration of the components were set to be unity. By this potent minimization, the influences of changes in rate constants on the singular values were diminished. The present theoretical analysis is presented to evaluate the ability of defense mechanism of complement system.

  5. Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT ...oversee and mange acquisition programs. At each milestone, a program must meet specific statutory and regulatory requirements before the program can...the FY2007 defense authorization bill stated Simply put, the Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition process is broken. The ability of the

  6. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 19. Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    years. Fayol , Henri . General and Industrial Seatl, Washin"tn. He isa 1989groduate The current effort-the Defense Management. Toronto, Canada: Sir of...Institute, noted and Acquisition Costs," (Abellera); General Charles Henry , USA; and there are many congressional "Exchange Rates and Product Cost," Major...has been a Defense Systems Management College tions. Each Service has professional deterioration since 1986. The crucial were Mr. Henry Alberts, Dr

  7. New insights of an old defense system: structure, function, and clinical relevance of the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnthaller, Christian; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The complement system was discovered a century ago as a potent defense cascade of innate immunity. After its first description, continuous experimental and clinical research was performed, and three canonical pathways of activation were established. Upon activation by traumatic or surgical tissue damage, complement reveals beneficial functions of pathogen and danger defense by sensing and clearing injured cells. However, the latest research efforts have provided a more distinct insight into the complement system and its clinical subsequences. Complement has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory processes such as sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction, ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular diseases and many others. The three well-known activation pathways of the complement system have been challenged by newer findings that demonstrate direct production of central complement effectors (for example, C5a) by serine proteases of the coagulation cascade. In particular, thrombin is capable of producing C5a, which not only plays a decisive role on pathogens and infected/damaged tissues, but also acts systemically. In the case of uncontrolled complement activation, "friendly fire" is generated, resulting in the destruction of healthy host tissue. Therefore, the traditional research that focuses on a mainly positive-acting cascade has now shifted to the negative effects and how tissue damage originated by the activation of the complement can be contained. In a translational approach including structure-function relations of this ancient defense system, this review provides new insights of complement-mediated clinical relevant diseases and the development of complement modulation strategies and current research aspects.

  8. A two-level formal specification of a defense communications system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Kemmerer, R.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Reliable Software Group

    1994-04-01

    Computer systems are being used in critical situations with sensitive data, which makes it very important to ensure that these systems perform as desired. The defense communications system contains particularly sensitive data. A two-level ASLAN formal specification of a defense communications system is presented. The ASLAN model is designed to enhance the understanding of critical requirements and demands of the defense communications system. For the top-level (high-level) specifications, the structural details of the actual network are actual network are abstracted to allow more time for examining the interactions between the sites and the network. At this level, DataGrams move through the network, although the actual routing decisions are not specified. More details are added in the second-level specification. At this level, structure is added to the network.

  9. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS... proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal... contractor business systems, DoD has clarified the definition and administration of contractor...

  10. 78 FR 28756 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... 0750-AH87 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes... System (EPLS) databases into the System for Award Management (SAM) database. DATES: Effective Date: May... effort to improve the management and promotion of electronic Government services and processes. The Act...

  11. Development of the Defense Documentation Center Remote On-Line Retrieval System - Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennertz, Richard K.

    The document highlights in nontechnical language the development of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) Remote On-Line Retrieval System from its inception in 1967 to what is planned. It describes in detail the current operating system, equipment configuration and associated costs, user training and system evaluation and may be of value to other…

  12. RESEARCH ON SOLVING TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM USING RANK BASED ANT SYSTEM ON GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Khatri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problems such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a parallel Rank Based Ant System algorithm to solve TSP by use of Pre Roulette Wheel Selection Method.

  13. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  14. The c-axis charge traveling wave in a coupled system of Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate a manifestation of the charge traveling wave along the c axis (TW) in current voltage characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions in high- T c superconductors. The branches related to the TW with different wavelengths are found for the stacks with different number of Josephson junctions at different values of system's parameters. Transitions between the TW branches and the outermost branch are observed. The electric charge in the superconducting layers and charge-charge correlation functions for TW and outermost branches show different behavior with bias current. We propose an experimental testing of the TW branching by microwave irradiation.

  15. The electromagnetic-trait imaging computation of traveling wave method in breast tumor microwave sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Han, Zhong-Ling; Yao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Using the difference of dielectric constant between malignant tumor tissue and normal breast tissue, breast tumor microwave sensor system (BRATUMASS) determines the detected target of imaging electromagnetic trait by analyzing the properties of target tissue back wave obtained after near-field microwave radicalization (conelrad). The key of obtained target properties relationship and reconstructed detected space is to analyze the characteristics of the whole process from microwave transmission to back wave reception. Using traveling wave method, we derive spatial transmission properties and the relationship of the relation detected points distances, and valuate the properties of each unit by statistical valuation theory. This chapter gives the experimental data analysis results.

  16. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN, two learning processes are proposed: (1 a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2 a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute relative error (MARE are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR, instantaneous model (IM, linear model (LM, neural network (NN, and cumulative plots (CP.

  17. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  18. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  19. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  20. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not accommodate the additional data... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS Case 2008-D027) AGENCY... Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and...

  1. Network attack detection and defense: securing industrial control systems for critical infrastructures (Dagstuhl Seminar 14292)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacer, Marc; Kargl, Frank; König, Hartmut; Valdes, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14292 “Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures”. The main objective of the seminar was to discuss new approaches and ideas for securing industrial control systems. It

  2. Defense Acquisitions: Update on DOD’s Efforts to Implement a Common Contractor Manpower Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    inventory, such as the funding source and contracting organization, the Army relied on the Army Contract Business Intelligence System (ACBIS) and...Generation (FPDS- NG), Army Contract Business Intelligence System (ACBIS) FPDS-NG ACBIS, FPDS-NG Funding activity Funding source Defense Finance and

  3. Travel Demand-Based Assignment Model for Multimodal and Multiuser Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfeng Si

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural characteristic of urban multimodal transport system is fully analyzed and then a two-tier network structure is proposed to describe such a system, in which the first-tier network is used to depict the traveller’s mode choice behaviour and the second-tier network is used to depict the vehicle routing when a certain mode has been selected. Subsequently, the generalized travel cost is formulated considering the properties of both traveller and transport mode. A new link impedance function is proposed, in which the interferences between different vehicle flows are taken into account. Simultaneously, the bi-equilibrium patterns for multimodal transport network are proposed by extending Wardrop principle. Correspondingly, a bi-level programming model is then presented to describe the bi-equilibrium based assignment for multi-class multimodal transport network. The solution algorithm is also given. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the model and algorithm.

  4. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  6. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  7. 41 CFR 301-72.100 - What must my travel accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting system do in relation to common carrier transportation? 301-72.100 Section 301-72.100 Public... for Common Carrier Transportation § 301-72.100 What must my travel accounting system do in relation to... claims accounting systems with common carrier transportation documents and data for audit purposes;...

  8. Quantum mechanical treatment of traveling light in an absorptive medium of two-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum mechanical treatment of a light wave that propagates through an absorptive medium is presented. Unlike a phenomenological beam-splitter model conventionally employed to describe a traveling light in a lossy medium, the time evolution of the field operator is derived using the Heisenberg equation with the Hamiltonian for a physical system, where the light wave interacts with an ensemble of two-level systems in a medium. Using the obtained time-evolved field operators, the mean values and variances of the light amplitude and the photon number are evaluated. The results are in agreement with those obtained in the beam-splitter model, giving a logical theoretical basis for the phenomenological beam-splitter model.

  9. A novel sandwich-type traveling wave piezoelectric tracked mobile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Zhang, Quan; Jin, Jiamei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel sandwich-type traveling wave piezoelectric tracked mobile system was proposed, designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The proposed system exhibits the advantages of simple structure, high mechanical integration, lack of electromagnetic interference, and lack of lubrication requirement, and hence shows potential application to robotic rovers for planetary exploration. The tracked mobile system is comprised of a sandwich actuating mechanism and a metal track. The actuating mechanism includes a sandwich piezoelectric transducer and two annular parts symmetrically placed at either end of the transducer, while the metal track is tensioned along the outer surfaces of the annular parts. Traveling waves with the same rotational direction are generated in the two annular parts, producing the microscopic elliptical motions of the surface particles on the annular parts. In this situation, if the pre-load is applied properly, the metal track can be driven by friction force to achieve bidirectional movement. At first, the finite element method was adopted to conduct the modal analysis and harmonic response analysis of the actuating mechanism, and the vibration characteristics were measured to confirm the operating principle. Then the optimal driving frequency of the system prototype, namely 35.1kHz, was measured by frequency sensitivity experiments. At last, the mechanical motion characteristics of the prototype were investigated experimentally. The results show that the average motion speeds of the prototype in dual directions were as 72mm/s and 61.5mm/s under the excitation voltage of 500VRMS, respectively. The optimal loading weights of the prototype in bi-directions were 0.32kg and 0.24kg with a maximum speed of 59.5mm/s and 61.67mm/s at the driving voltage of 300VRMS, respectively.

  10. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-06-06

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  11. Vulnerability And Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E; Spero, K K

    2005-01-03

    For over ten years, the Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a planning tool used by U.S. combatant commands for mission support planning against foreign programs engaged in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). CAPS is endorsed by the Secretary of Defense as the preferred counterproliferation tool to be used by the nation's armed services. A sister system, the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging CAPS expertise designed to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities is presented.

  12. Traveling Wave Solutions of An Ordinary-Parabolic System in R^2 and a 2D-Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a prey-predator model, which we describe by an ordinary-parabolic system. We obtain four types of wave solutions of this system, which are connecting different equilibria. To establish the existence of four types of traveling wave solutions with double wave speeds, we introduce a new approach to constructing monotonous iteration schemes. Moreover, by using spreading speeds, we establish the non-existence of traveling wave solutions. Our results provide insight into the dynamics of this model system.

  13. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  14. Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

  15. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... reporting requirements that are essential for the DoD to estimate the cost of current and future weapon... and not cost allocations. The description will also show how the data from the offeror's accounting... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  16. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-01-01

    The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC) of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to...

  17. Defense strategies for infrastructures with multiple systems of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Purdue University; Hausken, K. [University of Stavanger; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY); He, Fei [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Yao, David K. Y. [Purdue University

    2016-01-01

    In several critical infrastructures correlations between the constituent systems represent certain vulnerabilities: disruptions to one may propagate to others and possibly to the entire infrastructure. The correlations between the systems are characterized in two ways in this paper: (i) the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the conditional failure probability of the infrastructure given the failure of an individual system, and (ii) the pairwise correlation function between two systems specifies the failure probability of one system given the failure of the other. The survival probabilities of individual systems satisfy firstorder differential conditions that generalize the contest success functions and statistical independence conditions. We formulate a problem of ensuring the resilience of an infrastructure as a game between the provider and attacker; their utility functions are sums of infrastructure survival probability terms and cost terms, both expressed in terms of the numbers of system components attacked and reinforced. We derive Nash Equilibrium conditions and sensitivity functions that highlight the dependence of infrastructure resilience on the cost terms, correlation functions, and individual system survival probabilities. We apply these results to models of distributed cloud computing and energy grid infrastructures.

  18. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    criticism after bungled and untimely responses to Hurricane Hugo in 1988 and the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. However, a 1991 GAO study...1 A. EFFECTIVE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS ........................1 B. HISTORY OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS AND...assistance was invaluable. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. EFFECTIVE USE OF

  19. Reforming the Defense Acquisition System: This Time Must Be Different!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    acqusition processes and regulations  1981:Acquisition Improvement Plan: decentralized approach  Increased role for the Services in PPBS  Promoted...or development  Developing system-of-systems compounds the mangement challenges; but makes sense to plan for (vs. sole focus on individual

  20. Are buffers boring? Uniqueness and asymptotical stability of traveling wave fronts in the buffered bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James

    2007-04-01

    Traveling waves of calcium are widely observed under the condition that the free cytosolic calcium is buffered. Thus it is of physiological interest to determine how buffers affect the properties of calcium waves. Here we summarise and extend previous results on the existence, uniqueness and stability of traveling wave solutions of the buffered bistable equation, which is the simplest possible model of the upstroke of a calcium wave. Taken together, the results show that immobile buffers do not change the existence, uniqueness or stability of the traveling wave, while mobile buffers can eliminate a traveling wave. However, if a wave exists in the latter case, it remains unique and stable.

  1. Rural population travel time to health services, mapped on Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vicente Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance and travel time are important parameters in the evaluation of access to health services, especially for the population living in the countryside. In the present work, a GIS-based methodology is developed for the mapping of rural road networks and the determination of travel impedances in order to optimize the travel time of the rural population to health care facilities. Data on rural roads classes, slope, sinuosity, visibility and land use are considered in the composition of the impedances synthesis and its application on car travel time. The methodology was applied to the region of Registro (SP, and the results indicate an unequal distribution of health services.

  2. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  3. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  4. Bacteriophage exclusion, a new defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; van der Oost, John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to withstand viral predation is critical for survival of most microbes. Accordingly, a plethora of phage resistance systems has been identified in bacterial genomes (Labrie et al, 2010), including restriction-modification systems (R-M) (Tock & Dryden, 2005), abortive infection (Abi) (Chopin et al, 2005), Argonaute-based interference (Swarts et al, 2014), as well as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated protein (Cas) adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) (Barrangou & Marraffini, 2014; Van der Oost et al, 2014). Predictably, the dark matter of bacterial genomes contains a wealth of genetic gold. A study published in this issue of The EMBO Journal by Goldfarb et al (2015) unveils bacteriophage exclusion (BREX) as a novel, widespread bacteriophage resistance system that provides innate immunity against virulent and temperate phage in bacteria. PMID:25502457

  5. A Recommender System in the Cyber Defense Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Constraint-based recommender systems: technologies and research issues”. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Electronic commerce , ICEC... Electronic Commerce ”. In Knowledge-Based Electronic Markets, Papers from the AAAI Workshop, 78–83, 2000. [28] Walker-Brown, Andrew. “The art of the...systems have been studied for decades, but only in their original domain of retail customer suggestions. The same algorithms and techniques could have

  6. Department of Defense Air Traffic Control and Airspace Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-08

    Electronic Tabular Display System ( ETABS ) under development by the FAA. The FACTS-3200, an advanced 32 bit digital processor, is being added to the system... software compatible with FDIO. 2.1.1.4.2 Radar Facility Communications In general, military radar facilities employ or share the twenty-series family of...program is providing incremental changes to the existing radios by adding more frequencies, computer memory and software improvements, and equipment

  7. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  8. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    3 Contractual Spending by Product Service Code Portfolios ...were seen—but not everywhere. Outliers required further analysis given their distorting effects on the portfolio in certain metrics and on the...comparison) so that the effects solely from the acquisition system are revealed. Listen to feedback from the DoD’s professional acquisition leadership

  9. Department of Defense Systems Acquisition Management: Congressional Criticism and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-01

    preparation period. Finally I want to thank my wife, Dolores , for her tolerance of my aca- demic preoccupation in I96O-61, 1966-67, and throughout the...policy: man on firing line adjusts to actual situation Washington finds out only occasionally, acci- dentally ; need dependable system to insure

  10. Motivational cues predict the defensive system in team handball: A model based on regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debanne, T; Laffaye, G

    2015-08-01

    This study was based on the naturalistic decision-making paradigm and regulatory focus theory. Its aim was to model coaches' decision-making processes for handball teams' defensive systems based on relevant cues of the reward structure, and to determine the weight of each of these cues. We collected raw data by video-recording 41 games that were selected using a simple random method. We considered the defensive strategy (DEF: aligned or staged) to be the dependent variable, and the three independent variables were (a) numerical difference between the teams; (b) score difference between the teams; and (c) game periods. We used a logistic regression design (logit model) and a multivariate logistic model to explain the link between DEF and the three category independent variables. Each factor was weighted differently during the decision-making process to select the defensive system, and combining these variables increased the impact on this process; for instance, a staged defense is 43 times more likely to be chosen during the final period in an unfavorable situation and in a man advantage. Finally, this shows that the coach's decision-making process could be based on a simple match or could require a diagnosis of the situation based on the relevant cues.

  11. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  12. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The current State-of-the-Practice relies heavily in the deterministic characterization and assessment of performance of civil engineering infrastructure. In particular, flood defense systems, such as levees, have been evaluated within the context of Factor of Safety where the capacity of the system is compared with the expected demand. Uncertainty associated with the capacity and demand render deterministic modeling inaccurate. In particular, two structures with the same Factor of Safety can ...

  13. Department of Defense Gateway Information System (DGIS) Users’ Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    WELCOME TO T711 DoD QATEWAY INFO•MATION SYSTEM >~~»~1?W flXAIONTRANSFERn MODULES i directory D01S Directory of Resources 2 comunicate Connect to...Deuce ?hb-aom~ology. Economics , ilak Wedical Weseaerb,- , ducatlon Literature ’Consumer Realth) - ,istory Musaic, L ibrary ’Theater, * ~ Psychology ...for the selected database. Paitt" -t’ TOnact I Introduction to C~ona.Comand Langtuage West o INFO topics 𔃽 ,. IERS In National tecnical . Informaion

  14. 2014 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    and necessary training aids and devices are not currently available and are not scheduled to become available for several years. Analyses of data...and Evaluation ( IOT &E) flight tests for the Aegis BMD 4.0 system and SM-3 Block IB missile. Outcome. INTERCEPT. The ship detected, tracked...missiles in a raid scenario. FTX-18 was the last of the three IOT &E test missions. Outcome. THREE SIMULATED INTERCEPTS. The ship detected, tracked

  15. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    performance and test adequacy of the BMDS, its four autonomous BMDS systems, and its sensor/command and control architecture . The four autonomous BMDS...Patriot. The Command and Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC) element anchors the sensor/command and control architecture . This...distributed ground testing in USPACOM in support of the second AN/TPY-2 (FBM) radar fielding to Japan in 2014. Flight testing with C2BMC control

  16. Planning for a Department of Defense Mail Service Pharmacy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a NAME OF RESPONSrBE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (include Area Code) 22( OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Keebom Kant (408) 646-3106 AS/Kk DD Form...number of prescriptions to be filled by a MSP system shows an Increase of 6.8% over FY 1991 demand. 30 The de-and fo: ind- vidu phaarm a- etica ! Z...c

  17. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  18. Transportni sistem u funkciji odbrane zemlje / The transportation system in function of defense of country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jovanović

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportni sistem zemlje postoji i funkcioniše u miru, a od izuzetnog značaja je za odbranu zemlje. Uticaj ovog sistema na odbranu nije samo direktan, nego i indirektan, jer skoro svi sistemi uključeni u ovaj proces zavise od njega. U odnosu na mirnodopsko stanje, osnovna karakteristika funkcionisanja transportnog sistema u ratuje izvršavanje zadataka u uslovima razaranja infrastrukture, višestrukog povećanja transportnih zahteva i neprekidna izloženost udarima svih elemenata sistema. Zato su pripreme za funkcionisanje u takvim uslovima od izuzetnog značaja. / The transportation system of a country exists and functions in peace and it is very important for the defense of the country. The transportation system has not only direct but also indirect influence on defense, because almost all systems included in defense are dependent on it. When compared to peace, the basic characteristics of its functioning in war is carrying out the tasks in conditions of infrastructure destruction, multiplied transportation demands and continuous blow of all elements of the system. For all these reasons the preparations for transportation system functioning in those conditions are of exceptional importance.

  19. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems.Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  20. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  1. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Atsuki Urata, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic-period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  2. Use of the Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS) for Emergency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durling, Jr., R L; Price, D E

    2005-12-16

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  3. Risk Assessment Using The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D E; Durling, R L

    2005-10-10

    The Homeland-Defense Operational Planning System (HOPS), is a new operational planning tool leveraging Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's expertise in weapons systems and in sparse information analysis to support the defense of the U.S. homeland. HOPS provides planners with a basis to make decisions to protect against acts of terrorism, focusing on the defense of facilities critical to U.S. infrastructure. Criticality of facilities, structures, and systems is evaluated on a composite matrix of specific projected casualty, economic, and sociopolitical impact bins. Based on these criteria, significant unidentified vulnerabilities are identified and secured. To provide insight into potential successes by malevolent actors, HOPS analysts strive to base their efforts mainly on unclassified open-source data. However, more cooperation is needed between HOPS analysts and facility representatives to provide an advantage to those whose task is to defend these facilities. Evaluated facilities include: refineries, major ports, nuclear power plants and other nuclear licensees, dams, government installations, convention centers, sports stadiums, tourist venues, and public and freight transportation systems. A generalized summary of analyses of U.S. infrastructure facilities will be presented.

  4. Study Design to Test the Hypothesis That Long-Term Space Travel Harms the Human and Animal Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.; Lugg, Desmond J.; Ochs, H. D.; Pierson, Duane L.; Reuben, James M.; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Sams, Clarence; Smith, C. Wayne; Smith, E. Obrian; Smolen, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The potential threat of immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses in long-term space travel, leading to unusual predilection for opportunistic infections, malignancy, and death, is of ma or concern to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Program. This application has been devised to seek answers to questions of altered immunity in space travel raised by previous investigations spanning 30-plus years. We propose to do this with the help of knowledge gained by the discovery of the molecular basis of many primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases and by application of molecular and genetic technology not previously available. Two areas of immunity that previously received little attention in space travel research will be emphasized: specific antibody responses and non-specific inflammation and adhesion. Both of these areas of research will not only add to the growing body of information on the potential effects of space travel on the immune system, but be able to delineate any functional alterations in systems important for antigen presentation, specific immune memory, and cell:cell and cell:endothelium interactions. By more precisely defining molecular dysfunction of components of the immune system, it is hoped that targeted methods of prevention of immune damage in space could be devised.

  5. Study Design to Test the Hypothesis That Long-Term Space Travel Harms the Human and Animal Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.; Lugg, Desmond J.; Ochs, H. D.; Pierson, Duane L.; Reuben, James M.; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Sams, Clarence; Smith, C. Wayne; Smith, E. Obrian; Smolen, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The potential threat of immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses in long-term space travel, leading to unusual predilection for opportunistic infections, malignancy, and death, is of ma or concern to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Program. This application has been devised to seek answers to questions of altered immunity in space travel raised by previous investigations spanning 30-plus years. We propose to do this with the help of knowledge gained by the discovery of the molecular basis of many primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases and by application of molecular and genetic technology not previously available. Two areas of immunity that previously received little attention in space travel research will be emphasized: specific antibody responses and non-specific inflammation and adhesion. Both of these areas of research will not only add to the growing body of information on the potential effects of space travel on the immune system, but be able to delineate any functional alterations in systems important for antigen presentation, specific immune memory, and cell:cell and cell:endothelium interactions. By more precisely defining molecular dysfunction of components of the immune system, it is hoped that targeted methods of prevention of immune damage in space could be devised.

  6. The antioxidant defense system of Varroa destructor mites facilitates the infestation of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmochowska-Ślęzak Kamila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the Western honey bee. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes of V. destructor were analysed. Glutathione content and total antioxidant status was also evaluated. Our results suggest that antioxidant enzymes constitute the main line of defense against ROS in V. destructor, whereas low-molecular-weight antioxidants play a limited role in the antioxidant system of mites.

  7. Information-Entropic for Travelling Solitons in Lorentz and CPT Breaking Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, R A C; Dutra, A de Souza

    2015-01-01

    In this work we group three research topics apparently disconnected, namely solitons, Lorentz symmetry breaking and entropy. Following a recent work [Phys. Lett. B 713 (2012) 304], we show that it is possible to construct in the context of travelling wave solutions a configurational entropy measure in functional space, from the field configurations. Thus, we investigate the existence and properties of travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking scenarios for a class of models with two interacting scalar fields. Here, we obtain a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied which display both double and single-kink configurations. In fact, such models are very important in applications that include Bloch branes, Skyrmions, Yang-Mills, Q-balls, oscillons and various superstring-motivated theories. We find that the so-called Configurational Entropy (CE) for travelling solitons, which we name as travelling Configurational Entropy (TCE), shows that the best value of parameter responsible to break the ...

  8. 个性化的旅游推荐系统%Ontology-based travel recommendation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纳纳; 李琳琳; 武尚

    2013-01-01

    In order to retrieve the activities which are most interested by the tourist from a large amount of information, the paper designs a recommended system which is combined with the ontology and geographic information system. Through constructing the domain ontology, the interested activity of the user could correspond to one or more ontology concepts. In addition, by taking the factors of population data, travel motivations, interaction of the user with the system, user' s rating into account, applying many kinds of recommendation technologies and artificial intelligence algorithms, the system could retrieves the activities and achieves semantic query effectively.%为了从大量的信息中检索出符合旅游者感兴趣的活动,文中设计了一种本体和地理信息系统相结合的推荐系统.该系统通过构建领域本体,使用户感兴趣的活动与一个或多个本体的概念相对应并充分考虑到人口数据、旅游动机、用户与系统的交互作用、用户提供的评级等因素,综合利用各种推荐技术和人工智能算法,系统检索出用户喜欢的旅游活动,有效地实现了语义化查询.

  9. MLDS: Multi-Layer Defense System for Preventing Advanced Persistent Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the issue of Advanced Persistent Threats (APT, which use malware for the purpose of leaking the data of large corporations and government agencies. APT attacks target systems continuously by utilizing intelligent and complex technologies. To overthrow the elaborate security network of target systems, it conducts an attack after undergoing a pre-reconnaissance phase. An APT attack causes financial loss, information leakage, etc. They can easily bypass the antivirus system of a target system. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Defense System (MLDS that can defend against APT. This system applies a reinforced defense system by collecting and analyzing log information and various information from devices, by installing the agent on the network appliance, server and end-user. It also discusses how to detect an APT attack when one cannot block the initial intrusion while continuing to conduct other activities. Thus, this system is able to minimize the possibility of initial intrusion and damages of the system by promptly responding through rapid detection of an attack when the target system is attacked.

  10. Integrated Traffic Information Service System for Public Travel Based on Smart Phones Applications: A Case in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its outstanding performance and rich features, Smart phones have been the rapid development over the past decade, more and more people love to use its mobile Application to process the day-to-day affairs instead of PC, including the normal call and Short Messaging Service, Personal Information Management, send and receive e-mail, browse Web, multimedia Applications and online shopping. In April 2011, the Taipei people began to use the free smart phone Apps “Good Travel in Taipei” to check the real-time traffic information of Taipei City Department of Transportation and get the best route plans according to your location, the Apps software brings together road, bus, subway, bike, high-speed rail, airport, parking and other traffic information, can be easily, simple and fast delivery to the public. The papers will introduce the case of “Good Travel in Taipei” firstly, then Zhengzhou is as an example in China to illustrate the Application of integrated traffic information service system for public travel based on smart phones, we hope it can provide a reference for the future construction of the similar mobile App of traffic information service system in the other cities for public travel.

  11. Collective transport for active matter run-and-tumble disk systems on a traveling-wave substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Cs.; Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2017-01-01

    We examine numerically the transport of an assembly of active run-and-tumble disks interacting with a traveling-wave substrate. We show that as a function of substrate strength, wave speed, disk activity, and disk density, a variety of dynamical phases arise that are correlated with the structure and net flux of disks. We find that there is a sharp transition into a state in which the disks are only partially coupled to the substrate and form a phase-separated cluster state. This transition is associated with a drop in the net disk flux, and it can occur as a function of the substrate speed, maximum substrate force, disk run time, and disk density. Since variation of the disk activity parameters produces different disk drift rates for a fixed traveling-wave speed on the substrate, the system we consider could be used as an efficient method for active matter species separation. Within the cluster phase, we find that in some regimes the motion of the cluster center of mass is in the opposite direction to that of the traveling wave, while when the maximum substrate force is increased, the cluster drifts in the direction of the traveling wave. This suggests that swarming or clustering motion can serve as a method by which an active system can collectively move against an external drift.

  12. Traveling plateaus for a hyperbolic Keller-Segel system with attraction and repulsion: existence and branching instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Perthame, Benoit; Tang, Min; Vauchelet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    How can repulsive and attractive forces, acting on a conservative system, create stable traveling patterns or branching instabilities? We have proposed to study this question in the framework of the hyperbolic Keller-Segel system with logistic sensitivity. This is a model system motivated by experiments on cell communities auto-organization, a field which is also called socio-biology. We continue earlier modeling work, where we have shown numerically that branching patterns arise for this system and we have analyzed this instability by formal asymptotics for small diffusivity of the chemo-repellent. Here we are interested in the more general situation, where the diffusivities of both the chemo-attractant and the chemo-repellent are positive. To do so, we develop an appropriate functional analysis framework. We apply our method to two cases. Firstly we analyze steady states. Secondly we analyze traveling waves when neglecting the degradation coefficient of the chemo-repellent; the unique wave speed appears thr...

  13. TRAVELLING FRONT SOLUTION FOR A CLASS OF COMPETITION-DIFFUSION SYSTEM WITH HIGH-ORDER SINGULAR POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangShu; XieChunhong

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,the existence of travelling front solution for a class of competition-diffusion system with hlgh-order singular point w=d1wixx-waiifi(w),x∈R,t>0,i=1,2 (I)is studied,where d1 ai>0 (i=1,2) and ω=(w1(x,t)t),w2(x,t).Under the certain assumptions on f, it is showed that if a1<1 for some i,then (I) has no travelling front solution,if ai≥1 for i=1,2,then there is a c0,c1:c0≥cn >0,where cn is called the minimal wave speed of ( I ) ,such that if c≥c0 or c=n ,then (I)has a travelling front solution,if c<cn ,then (I)has no travelling front solution hy using the shooting method in combination with a compactness argument.

  14. Travelling diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  15. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  16. A role for the antioxidant defense system in preventing the transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Harold D

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five years of experience with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have established that it is relatively difficult to transmit. The chance of medical personnel acquiring this virus by needlestick injury is only 0.3%. Similarly, the odds of an HIV-positive male infecting a female partner during one unprotected sexual encounter is 9 in 10,000. Furthermore, the per-act risk of infection from penal-anal intercourse with an HIV-positive male partner is established at 82 in 10,000. Since those who are not infected by such exposures do not develop antibodies against HIV, there must be an earlier line of defense. The global diffusion pattern of HIV/AIDS is strongly suggestive of a protective role for the trace element selenium. It is hypothesized here that the body's antioxidant defense system, especially the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, acts as an initial defense against viral infection, preceding the formation of antibodies. For this reason, HIV is having its greatest difficulty in infecting those with diets elevated in amino acids and the trace element selenium which, when eaten together, stimulate the body's production of glutathione peroxidase.

  17. 76 FR 46757 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... execute U.S. defense strategy; (c) U.S. regional defense policies; and (d) any other research and analysis... travel, Board members shall serve without compensation. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy... travel and per diem for official travel, subcommittee members shall serve without compensation....

  18. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  19. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # ... search/groups ). Mothers who plan to use a breast pump while traveling may need an electrical current ... during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only breast milk, no other foods or drinks, which protects ...

  20. [Travel medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  1. Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: ATIS Function Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the first experiment reported below was to measure the cognitive demands associated with transitioning across Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) functions. This required the development of both objective and subjective indices of driver behavior and cognition. To accomplish this, a small number of pre-drive trip scenarios that invoke appropriate transitions across ATIS functions were developed. Driving performance under more representative conditions was investigated...

  2. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  3. TRAVEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mauritius Travel From August 31 to September 6, a high- level government delegation from Mauritius visited China. The delegation was headed by the President of Mauritius, Sir Anerood Jugnauth, and included the Minister of Tourism,

  4. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  5. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  6. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075354 Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: brin... the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-...immune system. PubmedID 15075354 Title Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens:

  8. A study on the Antarctic circumpolar wave mode-A coexistence system of standing and traveling wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic circumpolar wave (ACW) has become a focus of the air-sea coupled Southern Ocean study since 1996, when it was discovered as an air-sea coupled interannual signal propagating eastward in the region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). In order to analyze the mechanism of discontinuity along the latitudinal propagation, a new idea that ACW is a system with a traveling wave in the Southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and with a concurrent standing wave in the southern Indian Ocean is proposed in this paper. Based on the ideal wave principle, the average wave parameters of ACW is achieved using a non-linear approximation method, by which we find that the standing part and the traveling part possess similar radius frequency, proving their belonging to an integral system. We also give the latitudinal distribution of wave speed with which we could tell the reason for steady propagation during the same period. The spatial distribution of the propagation reveals complex process with variant spatial and temporal scales-The ENSO scale oscillation greatly impacts on the traveling process, while the result at the south of Australia indicates little connection between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, which may be blocked by the vibration at the west of the Pacific. The advective effect of ACC on the propagation process should be examined clearly through dynamical method.

  9. The Effects of the Planned High-Speed Rail System on Travel Times and Spatial Development in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ravazzoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the direct effects of introducing high-speed railway lines is a significant reduction in travel times between major cities. This is particularly relevant in mountain areas. It not only makes cities more easily reachable with more sustainable transport systems but can also encourage different travel behavior and reduce environmental pressures on sensitive areas. A comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal effects of the introduction of high-speed railways in the Alpine arc has not yet been developed. To help fill this gap, this study uses multidimensional scaling and the geographical information system to illustrate the time–space compression. This term indicates the erosion of spatial and temporal distances in the areas of the Alps directly affected by the new railway lines. Six trans-Alpine high-speed railway lines are analyzed, comparing current and projected travel times by train. A time-based map is created to show the time–space compression in every transversal direction, particularly on the French and the Austrian side of the Alps. Implications in terms of local accessibility are also analyzed, focusing on the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen-South Tyrol. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of time-based maps for the understanding of sociospatial dynamics and the possible implications for spatial development.

  10. Functional anatomy of the explosive defensive system of bombardier beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Brachininae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio; Romani, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first comparative anatomical study of the explosive pygidial defensive system of bombardier beetles in species classified in three brachinine subtribes: Brachinus (Brachinina), Pheropsophus (Pheropsophina) and Aptinus (Aptinina). We investigated the morphology and ultrastructure of this system using optical, fluorescence, and focused ion beam (FIB/SEM) microscopy. In doing so, we characterized and comparatively discussed: (1) the ultrastructure of the gland tissues producing hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide (secretory lobes), and those producing catalases and peroxidases (accessory glands); (2) the complex anatomy of the collecting duct; (3) the arrangement of the muscular bundles and the folding of the cuticle of the reservoir, suggesting a functional division of this chamber (dynamic part and storage part); (4) the great structural diversity of sculpticles inside the reaction chamber, where we could recognize six main types of microsculpture located in specific districts of the chamber. Additionally, using fluorescence microscopy, we highlighted the presence of resilin in two structures strongly subjected to mechanical stress during the discharge, the valve and the turrets of the reaction chamber. The results of this paper give a solid anatomic overview of the most popular beetle defensive system, contributing to the debate on its evolution within the Carabidae.

  11. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika are endemic. New diseases might ... environmental conditions, as well as unaccustomed changes in diet and physical activity. Foreign travel may increase the ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... cruise ships can vary widely depending on ship size, itinerary, length of cruise, and passenger demographics. Generally, ...

  13. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  14. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated

  15. New Radiation Input/Output Systems for Millimeter-Wave Gyrotron Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, G. G.; Bogdashov, A. A.; Gachev, I. G.; Mishakin, S. V.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider in detail the method allowing one to input and output the microwave radiation produced by an elecrovacuum amplifier through the same barrier window, which was proposed earlier, in the context of its application in a traveling-wave tube based on a waveguide with a helically corrugated surface. Special attention is given to the splitter of differently polarized radiation, and the results of studying this splitter at wavelengths of about 6 and 1 mm theoretically and experimentally are presented.

  16. Finite Travelling Waves for a Semilinear Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu WANG; Cheng Fu WANG; Dang LUO

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the existence and nonexistence of finite travelling waves (FTWs) for a semilinear degenerate reaction-diffusion systemis studied, where 0 <αi < 1, mij ≥ 0 and ∑nj=1mij > 0, i,j = 1,.. N. Necessary and sufficientconditions on existence and large time behaviours of FTWs of (I) are obtained by using the matrixtheory, Schauder's fixed point theorem, and upper and lower solutions method.

  17. 32 CFR 37.1025 - Must I report information to the Defense Assistance Awards Data System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Executing the Award Reporting Information About the Award § 37.1025 Must I report information to the Defense... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report information to the...

  18. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame...... of the proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  19. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  20. Nicotine impact on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in HEMn-DP melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine is a compound of tobacco plants and is responsible for addictive properties of tobacco which is used by about one billion of smokers all over the world. Recently, nicotine has drawn even more attention due to its presumed neuroprotective and antioxidant features as far as common use in various forms of smoking cessation therapies. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn influence biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMn-DP). Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be 2.52 mM. Nicotine modulated melanin biosynthesis in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in hydrogen peroxide content and cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx activities were stated in melanocytes exposed to nicotine, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long-term exposition to nicotine.

  1. Catalase prevents maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chen, Yun-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Sauvé, Alexandre; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether overexpression of catalase (CAT) in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) could prevent the programming of hypertension and kidney disease in the offspring of dams with maternal diabetes. Male offspring of nondiabetic and diabetic dams from two transgenic (Tg) lines (Hoxb7-green fluorescent protein [GFP]-Tg [controls] and Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg, which overexpress CAT in RPTCs) were studied from the prenatal period into adulthood. Nephrogenesis, systolic blood pressure, renal hyperfiltration, kidney injury, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed. Gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was tested in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Renal dysmorphogenesis was observed in offspring of Hoxb7-GFP-Tg dams with severe maternal diabetes; the affected male offspring displayed higher renal ROS generation and developed hypertension and renal hyperfiltration as well as renal injury with heightened TGF-β1 expression in adulthood. These changes were ameliorated in male offspring of diabetic Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg dams via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system. CAT promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 gene expression, seen in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In conclusion, CAT overexpression in the RPTCs ameliorated maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming, mediated, at least in part, by triggering the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

  2. A glutathione-based system for defense against carbonyl stress in Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidd Stephen P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background adhC from Haemophilus influenzae encodes a glutathione-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase that has previously been shown to be required for protection against killing by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO. This group of enzymes is known in other systems to be able to utilize substrates that form adducts with glutathione, such as aldehydes. Results Here, we show that expression of adhC is maximally induced under conditions of high oxygen tension as well as specifically with glucose as a carbon source. adhC could also be induced in response to formaldehyde but not GSNO. An adhC mutant was more susceptible than wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 to killing by various short chain aliphatic aldehydes, all of which can be generated endogenously during cell metabolism but are also produced by the host as part of the innate immune response. Conclusions These results indicate that AdhC plays a role in defense against endogenously generated reactive carbonyl electrophiles in Haemophilus influenzae and may also play a role in defense against the host innate immune system.

  3. Existence and numerical simulation of periodic traveling wave solutions to the Casimir equation for the Ito system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Van Gorder, R. A.; Hajiketabi, M.; Mesrizadeh, M.

    2015-10-01

    We consider traveling wave solutions to the Casimir equation for the Ito system (a two-field extension of the KdV equation). These traveling waves are governed by a nonlinear initial value problem with an interesting nonlinearity (which actually amplifies in magnitude as the size of the solution becomes small). The nonlinear problem is parameterized by two initial constant values, and we demonstrate that the existence of solutions is strongly tied to these parameter values. For our interests, we are concerned with positive, bounded, periodic wave solutions. We are able to classify parameter regimes which admit such solutions in full generality, thereby obtaining a nice existence result. Using the existence result, we are then able to numerically simulate the positive, bounded, periodic solutions. We elect to employ a group preserving scheme in order to numerically study these solutions, and an outline of this approach is provided. The numerical simulations serve to illustrate the properties of these solutions predicted analytically through the existence result. Physically, these results demonstrate the existence of a type of space-periodic structure in the Casimir equation for the Ito model, which propagates as a traveling wave.

  4. Host Active Defense Responses Occur within 24 Hours after Pathogen Inoculation in the Rice Blast System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; JIA Yu-lin; LIN Hui; Adair INTERN; Barbara VALENT; J. Neil RUTGER

    2007-01-01

    Phenotypical, cytological and molecular responses of rice to the fungus Magnaporthe grisea were studied using rice cultivars and lesion mimic plants. The cultivar Katy was susceptible to several virulent M. grisea isolates, and a Sekiguchi like-lesion mimic mutant of Katy (LmmKaty) showed enhanced resistance to these isolates. Lesion mimic phenotype of LmmKaty was rapidly induced by virulent M. grisea isolates or by avirulent ones only at high levels of inoculum.Autofluorescence (a sign of an active defense response) was visible under ultraviolet light 24 h after localized inoculation in the incompatible interaction, whereas, not evident in the compatible interaction. Autofluorescence was also observed in LmmKaty 20 h after pathogen inoculation, indicating that rapid cell death is a mechanism of LmmKaty to restrict pathogen invasion. Rapid accumulations of defense related (DR) gene transcripts, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and β-glucanase,were observed beginning at 6 h and were obvious at 16 h and 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction. Rapid transcript accumulations of PR-1 and chitinase had occurred by 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction.Accumulations of these transcripts were delayed in the compatible interaction. These results indicate that host active defense responses occur 24 h after pathogen inoculation and that LmmKaty exhibits enhanced resistance to M. grisea. It is suggested that the autofluorescence and expression of the DR genes after heavy inoculation are important cytological and molecular markers respectively for early determination of the host response to M. grisea in the rice blast system.

  5. Evolution of RNA- and DNA-guided antivirus defense systems in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common ancestry vs convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-02-10

    Complementarity between nucleic acid molecules is central to biological information transfer processes. Apart from the basal processes of replication, transcription and translation, complementarity is also employed by multiple defense and regulatory systems. All cellular life forms possess defense systems against viruses and mobile genetic elements, and in most of them some of the defense mechanisms involve small guide RNAs or DNAs that recognize parasite genomes and trigger their inactivation. The nucleic acid-guided defense systems include prokaryotic Argonaute (pAgo)-centered innate immunity and CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity as well as diverse branches of RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. The archaeal pAgo machinery is the direct ancestor of eukaryotic RNAi that, however, acquired additional components, such as Dicer, and enormously diversified through multiple duplications. In contrast, eukaryotes lack any heritage of the CRISPR-Cas systems, conceivably, due to the cellular toxicity of some Cas proteins that would get activated as a result of operon disruption in eukaryotes. The adaptive immunity function in eukaryotes is taken over partly by the PIWI RNA branch of RNAi and partly by protein-based immunity. In this review, I briefly discuss the interplay between homology and analogy in the evolution of RNA- and DNA-guided immunity, and attempt to formulate some general evolutionary principles for this ancient class of defense systems.

  6. Travel Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China to become the world’s No.1 tourist destination by 2015 May 19 is a special day in China’s history. On that day 400 years ago,Xu Xiake (1587-1641),wellknown geographer,traveler and explorer of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644),started a lifelong journey,leading to the publication of the monumental Xu Xiake’s Travel Notes,known for its detailed and accurate geographical information. The book also provided valuable insight into local customs and habits.

  7. The Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 Type 3 Secretion System Suppresses Early Defense Responses to Effectively Nodulate Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Monreal, José Antonio; Preston, Gail M; Fones, Helen; Vioque, Blanca; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    Plants that interact with pathogenic bacteria in their natural environments have developed barriers to block or contain the infection. Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses and promote infection. Thus, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) delivers bacterial effectors directly into the plant cells to alter host signaling and suppress defenses, providing an appropriate environment for bacterial multiplication. Some rhizobial strains possess a symbiotic T3SS that seems to be involved in the suppression of host defenses to promote nodulation and determine the host range. In this work, we show that the inactivation of the Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 T3SS negatively affects soybean nodulation in the early stages of the symbiotic process, which is associated with a reduction of the expression of early nodulation genes. This symbiotic phenotype could be the consequence of the bacterial triggering of soybean defense responses associated with the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the impairment of the T3SS mutant to suppress these responses. Interestingly, the early induction of the transcription of GmMPK4, which negatively regulates SA accumulation and defense responses in soybean via WRKY33, could be associated with the differential defense responses induced by the parental and the T3SS mutant strain.

  8. Traveling waves in a reaction-diffusion system: Diffusion with finite velocity and Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, Sergei

    1998-10-01

    An asymptotic method is presented for the analysis of the traveling waves in the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system with the diffusion with a finite velocity and Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov kinetics. The analysis makes use of the path-integral approach, scaling procedure, and the singular perturbation techniques involving the large deviations theory for the Poisson random walk. The exact formula for the position and speed of reaction front is derived. It is found that the reaction front dynamics is formally associated with the relativistic Hamiltonian/Lagrangian mechanics.

  9. Time travel?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Stanley D; Deser, Stanley; Jackiw, Roman

    1992-01-01

    To travel into the past, to observe it, perhaps to influence it and correct mistakes of one's youth, has been an abiding fantasy of mankind for as long as we have been aware of a past. Here are described some recent scientific investigations on this topic.

  10. Traveler's Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... probably safe to eat or drink the following:Soft drinks that are carbonated (such as cola).Hot drinks, ... for Staying HealthyInternational travel has its share of health and safety challenges. Talk to your doctor about the area ...

  11. Digital Array Radar for Ballistic Missile Defense and Counter-Stealth Systems Analysis and Parameter Tradeoff Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-14

    Missile BMD Ballistic Missile Defense CAS Computer Algebra System CDD Capability Development Document CONOPS Concept of Operations CONUS Continental...this section. Analysis and calculations described in this section were conducted using Waterloo Maple® 7 Computer Algebra System (CAS). Initially...When two or more electromagnetic waves combine, their electric fields are integrated vectorially at each point in space for any

  12. Impaired antioxidant defense system in the kidney tissues from rabbits treated with cyclosporine. Protective effects of vitamins E and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, I; Karabacak, H I; Büyükkoçak, S; Cimen, M Y; Kaçmaz, M; Omeroglu, E; Oztürk, H S

    1998-01-01

    Enzymatic antioxidant defense system and antioxidant defense potential (AOP) were studied in kidney tissue from rabbits treated with cyclosporine (CsA, 25 mg/kg/day), antioxidant vitamins (E, 100 mg/kg/day plus C, 200 mg/ kg/day), and CsA plus antioxidant vitamins, and in kidney tissue from control animals. Although no change was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were found decreased in kidney tissue exposed to CsA for 10 days compared with control tissue. The level of thiobarbituric acid-reagent substances (TBARS) was higher and antioxidant defense potential (AOP) lower in the CsA-treated group compared with the other groups. Histopathological examination reveals important subcellular damage in the renal tissue from the animals treated with CsA. Antioxidant vitamin therapy caused full improvement in the enzyme activities, TBARS levels and AOP, but the subcellular damage was partly ameliorated in the CsA plus vitamin group. Results suggest that CsA impairs the antioxidant defense system and reduces the antioxidant defense potential in the renal tissue. Antioxidant vitamin treatment protects the tissue in part against toxic effects of the drug.

  13. Long-distance travel and urban systems : Development of a theoretical and methodological framework and empirical evidence from Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.

    2006-01-01

    It is evident in many countries worldwide that both the frequency and the distance of personal travel have grown concurrently with the proliferation of telecommunications that might substitute for travel. While the understanding of the determinants of long-distance travel is still limited in the lit

  14. Drinking water treatment with ultraviolet light for travelers -- Evaluation of a mobile lightweight system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Lisa F; Ritter, Klaus; Hillebrandt, David; Küpper, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The SteriPEN(®) is a handheld device for disinfecting water with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The manufacturer claims a reduction of at least 99.9% of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The present study intends to verify the general effectiveness of the device. Furthermore, the influence of bottle geometry and water movement is examined and the issue of user safety with regard to UV-C radiation is addressed. The device was applied on water containing a known number of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and the spore of Geobacillusstearothermophilus) and the survival rate was examined. Three different types of bottles commonly used among travelers served as test containers. All tests were conducted with and without agitating the water during irradiation. Furthermore, a spectral analysis was performed on the light of the device. The SteriPEN(®) reached a mean reduction of more than 99.99% of bacteria and 99.57% of the spores when applied correctly. However, the results of the trials without agitating the water only yielded a 94.98% germ reduction. The device's maximal radiation intensity lies at 254 nm which is the wavelength most efficient in inactivating bacteria. The UV-C fraction is filtered out completely by common bottle materials. However, when applied in larger containers a portion of the UV-C rays exits the water surface. If applied according to the instructions the device manages a satisfactory inactivation of bacteria. However, it bears the danger of user errors relevant to health. Therefore, education on the risks of incorrect application should be included in the travel medical consultation. Also there are still aspects that need to be subject to further independent research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Plains Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater. Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  17. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to be established not only with the use of technological structure which is mainly referred to industrial society. The elements of new technological structures must be added to integral approach: knowledge economy and harmonization of society. The second, synergetic approach, is predominantly referred to post-industrial society. The third, geotrion approach, which is only being formed, is mainly referred to the society of sustainable harmonic development. Such objects were called geotrions by Russian scientist N. D. Matrusov [5], they consist of people, economy and environment (nature, territory, external opposed and interacting systems. The method of geotrion management is called integral approach. Knowledge economy can not be realized in Russia without harmonization of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-13

  18. Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army - Innovative or Dysfunctional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    initiating development of the nuclear-capable Nike Zeus ABM interceptor, intended to destroy an incoming enemy warhead with an airborne nuclear explosion. The...intercept an incoming warhead using the nuclear-tipped Nike Zeus missile. Although DoD cancelled the Nike Zeus system due to technical and operational...budgeting, and initiate issue resolution through the Army/MDA Board of Directors to ensure adequate representation of the Service’s interests

  19. Autophagy is redundant for the host defense against systemic Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Malireddi, R.K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Perfect, J.R.; Scott, W.K.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Xavier, R.J.; Vosse, E. van de; Kanneganti, T.D.; Johnson, M.D.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an important role in the immunity against intracellular pathogens, but very little is known about its role in the host defense against fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. Therefore, the role of autophagy for the host defense against C. albicans was asse

  20. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  1. 32 CFR 21.200 - What is the Defense Grant and Agreement Regulatory System (DGARS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Defense Grant and Agreement... Washington Headquarters Services Internet site http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives. Paper copies may be obtained, at cost, from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,...

  2. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  3. 75 FR 13262 - Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense-Related Items to Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense-Related Items to Foreign Countries or Foreign Firms for Calendar Year 2009 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and...

  4. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  5. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  6. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  7. Analysis of the NATO Fleet Air-Defense System%北约舰队防空体系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐强; 王瑞麒

    2001-01-01

    介绍了以美国为首的北约舰队防空体系的构成、任务和主要防御对象。对北约舰队防空体系的最新发展动向进行了分析。针对目前北约舰队防空体系中的薄弱环节,提出了突防的具体构想。%This paper introduces the construction, tasks ,targets and analyzed the future developing tendency of the fleet air-defense system of NATO led by U.S.. According to the weak links of the defense system,this paper presents a idea to break through the defense net.

  8. Communication from Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Entry requirements for the USA: "ESTA" (Electronic System for Travel Authorization) online registration The requirement to register before entering the USA announced by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to be introduced on 12 January 2009. Visitors to the USA will then be required to register their personal data and travel data online not less than 72 hours prior to travel. https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/ General information on entry requirements for the USA are also available on the Carlson Wagonlit Travel website under the heading „CWT informs": http://www.carlsonwagonlit.ch

  9. Communication from Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Entry requirements for the USA: "ESTA" (Electronic System for Travel Authorization) online registration The requirement to register before entering the USA announced by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to be introduced on 12 January 2009. Visitors to the USA will then be required to register their personal data and travel data online not less than 72 hours prior to travel. https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/ General information on entry requirements for the USA is also available on the Carlson Wagonlit Travel website under the heading „CWT informs": http://www.carlsonwagonlit.ch

  10. A DSP-based controller for a linear actuator system with sub-angstrom resolution and 15-millimeter travel range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolyanitskiy, A.; Shu, D.; Wong, T.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); IIT

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and tested a new digital signal processor (DSP)-based closed-loop feedback controller for a linear actuator system with sub-angstrom resolution and 15-mm travel range. The linear actuator system consists of a laser Doppler encoder with multiple-reflection optics [1], a high-stiffness weak-link mechanism with high driving sensitivity and stability [2], and a Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSP-based controller for high-performance closed-loop feedback control. In this paper, we discuss the DSP-based controller design, as well as recent test results yielding step sizes below 50 picometers obtained with the atomic force microprobe setup.

  11. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  12. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  13. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals.......We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals....

  14. Immune multi-agent model using vaccine for cooperative air-defense system of systems for surface warship formation based on danger theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Xiaozhe Zhao; Beiping Xu; Wei Wang; Zhiyong Niu

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem on cooperative air-defense of surface warship formation, this paper maps the cooperative air-defense system of systems (SoS) for surface warship formation (CASoSSWF) to the biological immune system (BIS) according to the similarity of the defense mechanism and characteristics be-tween the CASoSSWF and the BIS, and then designs the mo-dels of components and the architecture for a monitoring agent, a regulating agent, a kil er agent, a pre-warning agent and a com-municating agent by making use of the theories and methods of the artificial immune system, the multi-agent system (MAS), the vaccine and the danger theory (DT). Moreover a new immune multi-agent model using vaccine based on DT (IMMUVBDT) for the cooperative air-defense SoS is advanced. The immune response and immune mechanism of the CASoSSWF are analyzed. The model has a capability of memory, evolution, commendable dy-namic environment adaptability and self-learning, and embodies adequately the cooperative air-defense mechanism for the CA-SoSSWF. Therefore it shows a novel idea for the CASoSSWF which can provide conception models for a surface warship forma-tion operation simulation system.

  15. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  16. Effects of magnetic field on the antioxidant defense system of recirculation-cultured Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Zeng, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Si-Yuan; Li, Zong-Tao

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of magnetic fields (MF) on growth of microalgae such as Chlorella vulgaris, which has been consumed as health food for various nutritional and pharmacological effects. This preliminary study investigated whether static MF can modulate the antioxidant system in C. vulgaris by exposing the cells to static MF generated by dual yoke electromagnets with magnetic flux density of 10-50 mT for 12 h. After exposure to 10-35 mT for 12 h, the activity of superoxide dismutases and peroxidase increased significantly compared to control cells. However, a remarkable increase of catalase activity occurred at 45 and 50 mT. The lipid peroxidation of algae cells determined by production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was much increased when exposed to 35, 45, and 50 mT of MF. The scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was decreased markedly while there was no variation of total carotenoids content in C. vulgaris cells. Assay of specific growth rate in 72 h cultivation after MF exposure was also conducted. In groups after exposure to 10-35 mT of MF, specific growth rate was significantly increased. These results suggest that 10-35 mT of static MF exposure could promote the growth of C. vulgaris and regulate its antioxidant defense system to protect cells efficiently, which could possibly enhance the growth of C. vulgaris in industrialized cultivation by MF.

  17. Role of glutathione metabolism and glutathione-related antioxidant defense systems in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczewska, J; Kedziora-Kornatowska, K; Kozakiewicz, M; Zary-Sikorska, E; Pawluk, H; Pawliszak, W; Kedziora, J

    2016-06-01

    The risk of developing chronic hypertension increases with age. Among others factors, increased oxidative stress is a well-recognized etiological factor for the development of hypertension. The co-occurrence of oxidative stress and hypertension may occur as a consequence of a decrease in antioxidant defense system activity or elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Glutathione is a major intracellular thiol-disulfide redox buffer that serves as a cofactor for many antioxidant enzymes. Glutathione-related parameters are altered in hypertension, suggesting that there is an association between the glutathione-related redox system and hypertension. In this review, we provide mechanistic explanations for how glutathione maintains blood pressure. More specifically, we discuss glutathione's role in combating oxidative stress and maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via the formation of nitrosothiols and nitrosohemoglobin. Although impaired vasodilator responses are observed in S-nitrosothiol-deficient red blood cells, this potential hypertensive mechanism is currently overlooked in the literature. Here we fill in this gap by discussing the role of glutathione in nitric oxide metabolism and controlling blood pressure. We conclude that disturbances in glutathione metabolism might explain age-dependent increases in blood pressure.

  18. Report of the Defense Science Board task force on military system applications of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The Task Force found a number of superconductivity applications that could result in significant new military capabilities, including electronics and high power applications. In particular, superconducting materials could enable significant military improvements in: Magnetic Field Sensors with greatly increased sensitivity for improved detection and identification capability; Passive Microwave and Millimeter-wave Components enabling increased detection range and discrimination in clutter; Staring Infrared Focal Plane Array sensors incorporating superconducting electronics permitting significant range and sensitivity increases over current scanning IR sensors; Wideband Analog and Ultra-Fast Digital Signal Processing for radar and optical sensors; High Power Motors and Generators for ship and aircraft propulsion leading to: decreased displacement; drive system flexibility; increased range; or longer endurance on station; Magnets/Energy Storage for high power microwave, millimeter-wave or optical generators (e.g., free electron laser); capability for powering quiet propulsion systems; Electro-Magnetic Launchers capable of launching hypervelocity projectiles for antiarmor weapons and close-in ship defense weapons; and Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Propulsion enabling ultra quiet drives for submarines, torpedoes, and surface ships.

  19. Human multidrug resistance ABCB and ABCG transporters: participation in a chemoimmunity defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András

    2006-10-01

    In this review we give an overview of the physiological functions of a group of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, which were discovered, and still referred to, as multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. Although they indeed play an important role in cancer drug resistance, their major physiological function is to provide general protection against hydrophobic xenobiotics. With a highly conserved structure, membrane topology, and mechanism of action, these essential transporters are preserved throughout all living systems, from bacteria to human. We describe the general structural and mechanistic features of the human MDR-ABC transporters and introduce some of the basic methods that can be applied for the analysis of their expression, function, regulation, and modulation. We treat in detail the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) and the ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP) proteins and describe emerging information related to additional ABCB- and ABCG-type transporters with a potential role in drug and xenobiotic resistance. Throughout this review we demonstrate and emphasize the general network characteristics of the MDR-ABC transporters, functioning at the cellular and physiological tissue barriers. In addition, we suggest that multidrug transporters are essential parts of an innate defense system, the "chemoimmunity" network, which has a number of features reminiscent of classical immunology.

  20. Aversive picture processing: effects of a concurrent task on sustained defensive system engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Löw, Andreas; McTeague, Lisa M; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Viewing a series of aversive pictures prompts emotional reactivity reflecting sustained defensive engagement. The present study examined the effects of a concurrent visual task on autonomic, somatic, electrocortical, and facial components of this defensive state. Results indicated that emotional activation was largely preserved despite continuous visual distraction, although evidence of attenuation was observed in startle reflex and electrocortical measures. Concurrent task-specific reactivity was also apparent, suggesting that motivational circuits can be simultaneously activated by stimuli with intrinsic survival significance and instructed task significance and that these processes interact differently across the separate components of defensive engagement.

  1. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.55 Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance...

  2. Modification of the Elite Ant System in Order to Avoid Local Optimum Points in the Traveling Salesman Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefikhoshbakht, Majid; Rahmati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new algorithm which is a modified version of the elite ant system (EAS) algorithm. The new version utilizes an effective criterion for escaping from the local optimum points. In contrast to the classical EAC algorithms, the proposed algorithm uses only a global updating, which will increase pheromone on the edges of the best (i.e. the shortest) route and will at the same time decrease the amount of pheromone on the edges of the worst (i.e. the longest) route. In order to assess the efficiency of the new algorithm, some standard traveling salesman problems (TSPs) were studied and their results were compared with classical EAC and other well-known meta-heuristic algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm has been able to improve the efficiency of the algorithms in all instances and it is competitive with other algorithms.

  3. The lactoperoxidase system links anion transport to host defense in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Gregory E; Wijkstrom-Frei, Corinne; Randell, Scott H; Fernandez, Vania E; Salathe, Matthias

    2007-01-23

    Chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis result from CFTR channel mutations but how these impair antibacterial defense is less clear. Airway host defense depends on lactoperoxidase (LPO) that requires thiocyanate (SCN-) to function and epithelia use CFTR to concentrate SCN- at the apical surface. To test whether CFTR mutations result in impaired LPO-mediated host defense, CF epithelial SCN- transport was measured. CF epithelia had significantly lower transport rates and did not accumulate SCN- in the apical compartment. The lower CF [SCN-] did not support LPO antibacterial activity. Modeling of airway LPO activity suggested that reduced transport impairs LPO-mediated defense and cannot be compensated by LPO or H2O2 upregulation.

  4. Exponential Stability of Traveling Pulse Solutions of a Singularly Perturbed System of Integral Differential Equations Arising From Excitatory Neuronal Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linghai Zhang

    2004-01-01

    We establish the exponential stability of fast traveling pulse solutions to nonlinear singularly perturbedsystems of integral di.erential equations arising from neuronal networks. It has been proved that exponentialstability of these orbits is equivalent to linear stability. Let L be the linear di.erential operator obtainedby linearizing the nonlinear system about its fast pulse, and let σ(L) be the spectrum of L. The linearizedstability criterion says that if max{Reλ: λ∈σ(L), λ ≠ 0} ≤ .D, for some positive constant D, and λ = 0 is asimple eigenvalue of L(ε), then the stability follows immediately (see [13] and [37]). Therefore, to establish theexponential stability of the fast pulse, it su.ces to investigate the spectrum of the operator L. It is relativelyeasy to .nd the continuous spectrum, but it is very di.cult to .nd the isolated spectrum. The real part ofthe continuous spectrum has a uniformly negative upper bound, hence it causes no threat to the stability. Itremains to see if the isolated spectrum is safe.Eigenvalue functions (see [14] and [35,36]) have been a powerful tool to study the isolated spectrum of the associatedlinear di.erential operators because the zeros of the eigenvalue functions coincide with the eigenvaluesof the operators. There have been some known methods to de.ne eigenvalue functions for nonlinear systems ofreaction di.usion equations and for nonlinear dispersive wave equations. But for integral di.erential equations,we have to use di.erent ideas to construct eigenvalue functions. We will use the method of variation of parametersto construct the eigenvalue functions in the complex plane C. By analyzing the eigenvalue functions, we.nd that there are no nonzero eigenvalues of L in {λ∈ C: Reλ≥ .D} for the fast traveling pulse. Moreoverλ = 0 is simple. This implies that the exponential stability of the fast orbits is true.

  5. Interstellar Travel. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning travel between the stars. Topics include cost considerations, hyperspace navigation, exploration, and propulsion systems for vehicles to be used in interstellar travel. Human factor issues and social aspects of interstellar travel are also discussed.

  6. Patriot/Medium Extended Air Defense System Combined Aggregate Program (Patriot/MEADS CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    FUE - First Unit Equipped IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Missile Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...Milestone c FUE IOT &E Start Complete Full Rate Production Deci... AcQuisition Increment 2 Milestone C Lightweight Launcher FUE IOT &E Start

  7. The Impact of Civilian Control on Contemporary Defense Planning Systems: Challenges for South East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    NATO – Decisive Test for the Government of the Republic of Moldova,” Folder: Pros and Cos of NATO, November 13, 2009, http://prisa.md/eng... Barany , Zoltan. Defense Academy Publication Series. Vienna: National Defense Experience. Comparative Politics, Vol. 30, No. 1 (October 1997): 21...and Military Effectiveness: Romania. Mija, Valeriu. “Implementation of IPAP RM-NATO – Decisive Test for the Government of the Republic of Moldova

  8. Plant natriuretic peptides: Systemic regulators of plant homeostasis and defense that can affect cardiomyoblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-09-01

    Immunologic evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptide (NPs) hormones in plants because antiatrial NP antibodies affinity purify biologically active plant NPs (PNP). In the model plant, an Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) has been identified and characterized. AtPNP-A belongs to a novel class of molecules that share some similarity with the cell wall loosening expansins but do not contain the carbohydrate-binding wall anchor thus suggesting that PNPs and atrial natriuretic peptides are heterologs. AtPNP-A acts systemically, and this is consistent with its localization in the apoplastic extracellular space and the conductive tissue. Furthermore, AtPNP-A signals via the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and modulates ion and water transport and homeostasis. It also plays a critical role in host defense against pathogens. AtPNP-A can be classified as novel paracrine plant hormone because it is secreted into the apoplastic space in response to stress and can enhance its own expression. Interestingly, purified recombinant PNP induces apo-ptosis in a dose-dependent manner and was most effective on cardiac myoblast cell lines. Because PNP is mimicking the effect of ANP in some instances, PNP may prove to provide useful leads for development of novel therapeutic NPs. Copyright © 2013 by The American Federation for Medical Research.

  9. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  10. Biotransformation and nitroglycerin-induced effects on antioxidative defense system in rat erythrocytes and reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana D; Dorđević, Nataša Z; Curčić, Milena G; Stajn, Andraš S; Spasić, Mihajlo B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate - GTN) are mediated by liberated nitric oxide (NO) and formed reactive nitrogen species, which induces oxidative stress during biotransformation in red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of GTN on antioxidative defense system (AOS) in rat erythrocytes (without) and reticulocytes (with functional mitochondria). Rat erythrocyte and reticulocyte-rich RBC suspensions were aerobically incubated (2 h, 37°C) without (control) or in the presence of different concentrations of GTN (0.1-1.5 mM). After incubation, concentrations of non-enzymatic components of AOS, activities of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway activity were followed in RBC suspensions. In rat reticulocytes, GTN decreased the activity of mitochondrial MnSOD and increased the activity of CuZnSOD. In rat RBCs, GTN induced increase of Vit E concentration (at high doses), but decreased glutathione content and activities of all glutathione-dependent antioxidative enzymes; the OPP pathway activity significantly increased. GTN biotransformation and induction of oxidative stress were followed by general disbalance of antioxidative capacities in both kinds of RBCs. We suggest that oxidative stress, MnSOD inhibition and depletion of glutathione pool in response to GTN treatment lead to decreased bioavailability of NO after GTN biotransformation in rat reticulocytes.

  11. Melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes cultured in the presence of chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otreba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders and belongs to phenothiazine class of neuroleptic drugs. It shows severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms as well as ocular and skin disorders, but the mechanism is still not fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chlorpromazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes. It has been demonstrated that chlorpromazine induces concentration dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC(50) was calculated to be 2.53 μM. Chlorpromazine in lower concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μM) increased the melanin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) content and tyrosinase activity, while changes of antioxidant enzymes activity were not observed. It suggests that long-term chlorpromazine therapy, even with low drug doses, may lead to hyperpigmentation disorders in skin and/or eye. The use of the analyzed drug in higher concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 μM) caused significant alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in normal melanocytes, what may explain a potential role of chlorpromazine in the depletion of cellular antioxidant status leading to other adverse effects associated with the high-dose and/or long-term therapy.

  12. Juglans mandshurica leaf extract protects skin fibroblasts from damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-05-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light, xenobiotics, hormonal changes, heat, and smoking. ROS production is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by these factors, causing skin aging, including wrinkling, by activating the metalloproteinases (MMP-1) that break down type I collagen (COL1A1). The walnut tree Juglans mandshurica MAX. (JM) is found in China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of JM leaf extract (JME) against oxidative stress in HS68 human skin fibroblasts. JME significantly and dose-dependently protected HS68 cells against H₂O₂-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Other assays demonstrated that JME protected HS68 cells by regulating ROS production and increasing levels of glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and activated NF-E2-related factor 2. JME additionally prevented the elevation of MMP-1 and reduction of COL1A1 induced by H₂O₂. It also inhibited H₂O₂-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. These results indicate that JME protects human skin fibroblasts from H₂O₂-induced damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  13. Intracellular Oxidant Activity, Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System, and Cell Senescence in Fibroblasts with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez-Sureda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome (DS is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F, this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  14. Imbalanced free radicals and antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenia: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-chun; CHEN Qiao-zhen; MA Ying; ZHOU Jun-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes of blood oxidative-antiovidative level in schizophrenic patients and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods: Forty-six Chinese patients met DSM-Ⅳ (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Ⅳ) criteria for schizophrenia and fifty age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Baseline psychiatric symptom severity was assessed with brief psychiatric rating scale, positive and negative syndrome scale on the blood draw day. Fresh blood samples were collected to measure levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells by spectrophotometric assays simultaneously. Results:Comparison of the biochemical parameters indicated that the level of nitric oxide and lipid peroxide increased in patient group,which represented a positive correlation with positive scale scores; while the activities of three critical enzymes decreased and showed a negative linear correlation. Conclusion: This study showed that there are dysregulation of free radical metabolism and poor activities of the antioxidant defense systems in schizophrenic patients. Excess free radicals formation may play a critical role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Using antioxidants might be an effective therapeutic approach to partially alleviate or prevent the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  15. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  16. Contemporary strategic management approach in the defense system by U.S. methodology concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin I. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to emphasize the importance of contemporary strategic management approachs in the defense system. Displays the work of American author Leslie Lewis and C. Robert Roll "Strategy-to- tasks: a methodology for resource allocation and management". It were used by parts of the discussion above, in order to describe the strategy-to-tasks methodology for planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS. In developed Western countries adopted some elements of strategic management to determine and monitor the execution of strategic plans in the defense system. This trend is spreading to other countries as a result of the necessity of obeying certain methodological and technological achievements. The uncritical acceptance of a strategic management approach can cause great confusion and problems, and the terminology and scientific explanation for this trend is of great importance. Introduction PPBS is a resource management framework based on force planning concept. It was developed at the lRand Company during the late eighties and is adapted to the special needs of several DoD organization. The planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS PPBS is DoD`ş primary system for planning and managing defense resources. It links the overall U.S. national security strategy to specific programs. It was designed to facilitate fiscally-constrained planning, programming and budgeting in terms of complete programs (i.e. forces and systems rather than through artificial budget categories. The goal is to determine forces, systems and program costs. Strategy-to-tasks and the PPBS The Strategy-To-Tasks methodology, regardless of its application, it must be consistent and supportive of each phase of the PPBS. This section describes the basics frameworks of which are adapted to resource allocation and management activities for the Special Operations Command (USSOCOM. The authors have used it during the various phases of the PPBS. The National Security

  17. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  18. A survey of COTS wireless transceiver solutions for unmanned/unattended homeland defense systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Timothy J.; Wells, Jeffrey S.; Trimble, Michael L.

    2004-08-01

    As the war on terrorism continues abroad, the need to maintain security at home remains a major concern. Every aspect of the security effort can benefit from rapid information transfer. Advances in Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) radios make them valuable in applications ranging from deployed sensors on unsecured borders, to organizing an emergency response team. Additionally, the reduced cost and availability of these transceivers make them a viable alternative to custom developments. As an example, COTS radios can serve as the communication element in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and munitions systems. Other applications include networked sonobuoys and networked RFID tracking. An additional advantage of COTS solutions is that they are available in a small form factor. They have extremely small mechanical outlines and are easily installed in systems requiring miniature designs and light payloads such as man-pack emplaced radios for the Army"s Future Combat System (FCS), as well as missions carried out by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The availability of the COTS radios result in a low-cost alternative for communication links that are applicable to military and Homeland Defense projects. They provide an easily obtainable, low-cost radio alternative enabling quick design cycles to meet mission timeliness. COTS solutions eliminate months from a typical design cycle and have many features already implemented such as ad-hoc routing and encryption. This enables robust hardware to be fielded quickly when a new need arises. The focus of this paper is to identify different COTS modules that can efficiently and cost effectively be applied to these and other various applications.

  19. Complex Dynamical Behaviors in a Predator-Prey System with Generalized Group Defense and Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey system with generalized group defense and impulsive control strategy is investigated. By using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills, a local asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than the critical value. By using bifurcation theory, we show the existence and stability of positive periodic solution when the pest eradication lost its stability. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including (1 high-order quasiperiodic and periodic oscillation, (2 period-doubling and halving bifurcation, (3 nonunique dynamics (meaning that several attractors coexist, and (4 chaos and attractor crisis. Further, the importance of the impulsive period, the released amount of mature predators and the degree of group defense effect are discussed. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

  20. The eclipsing system V404 Lyr: Light-travel times and γ Doradus pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: slkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: koojr@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    We present the physical properties of V404 Lyr exhibiting eclipse timing variations and multiperiodic pulsations from all historical data including the Kepler and SuperWASP observations. Detailed analyses of 2922 minimum epochs showed that the orbital period has varied through a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two sinusoidal variations, with periods of P {sub 3} = 649 days and P {sub 4} = 2154 days and semi-amplitudes of K {sub 3} = 193 s and K {sub 4} = 49 s, respectively. The secular period increase at a rate of +1.41 × 10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1} could be interpreted as a combination of the secondary to primary mass transfer and angular momentum loss. The most reasonable explanation for both sinusoids is a pair of light-travel-time effects due to two circumbinary objects with projected masses of M {sub 3} = 0.47 M {sub ☉} and M {sub 4} = 0.047 M {sub ☉}. The third-body parameters are consistent with those calculated using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. For the orbital inclinations i {sub 4} ≳ 43°, the fourth component has a mass within the hydrogen-burning limit of ∼0.07 M {sub ☉}, which implies that it is a brown dwarf. A satisfactory model for the Kepler light curves was obtained by applying a cool spot to the secondary component. The results demonstrate that the close eclipsing pair is in a semi-detached, but near-contact, configuration; the primary fills approximately 93% of its limiting lobe and is larger than the lobe-filling secondary. Multiple frequency analyses were applied to the light residuals after subtracting the synthetic eclipsing curve from the Kepler data. This revealed that the primary component of V404 Lyr is a γ Dor type pulsating star, exhibiting seven pulsation frequencies in the range of 1.85-2.11 day{sup –1} with amplitudes of 1.38-5.72 mmag and pulsation constants of 0.24-0.27 days. The seven frequencies were clearly identified as high-order low-degree gravity-mode oscillations which might be excited

  1. The Eclipsing System V404 LYR: Light-travel Times and γ Doradus Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim

    2014-08-01

    We present the physical properties of V404 Lyr exhibiting eclipse timing variations and multiperiodic pulsations from all historical data including the Kepler and SuperWASP observations. Detailed analyses of 2922 minimum epochs showed that the orbital period has varied through a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two sinusoidal variations, with periods of P 3 = 649 days and P 4 = 2154 days and semi-amplitudes of K 3 = 193 s and K 4 = 49 s, respectively. The secular period increase at a rate of +1.41 × 10-7 days yr-1 could be interpreted as a combination of the secondary to primary mass transfer and angular momentum loss. The most reasonable explanation for both sinusoids is a pair of light-travel-time effects due to two circumbinary objects with projected masses of M 3 = 0.47 M ⊙ and M 4 = 0.047 M ⊙. The third-body parameters are consistent with those calculated using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. For the orbital inclinations i 4 >~ 43°, the fourth component has a mass within the hydrogen-burning limit of ~0.07 M ⊙, which implies that it is a brown dwarf. A satisfactory model for the Kepler light curves was obtained by applying a cool spot to the secondary component. The results demonstrate that the close eclipsing pair is in a semi-detached, but near-contact, configuration; the primary fills approximately 93% of its limiting lobe and is larger than the lobe-filling secondary. Multiple frequency analyses were applied to the light residuals after subtracting the synthetic eclipsing curve from the Kepler data. This revealed that the primary component of V404 Lyr is a γ Dor type pulsating star, exhibiting seven pulsation frequencies in the range of 1.85-2.11 day-1 with amplitudes of 1.38-5.72 mmag and pulsation constants of 0.24-0.27 days. The seven frequencies were clearly identified as high-order low-degree gravity-mode oscillations which might be excited through tidal interaction. Only eight eclipsing binaries have been known to contain

  2. Culture shock and travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  3. Aging and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  4. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  5. Exploring the potential of open big data from ticketing websites to characterize travel patterns within the Chinese high-speed rail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jinfu; Qiu, Yanning; Luan, Xiali; Han, Shanrui; Zhou, Wen; Xu, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Big data have contributed to deepen our understanding in regards to many human systems, particularly human mobility patterns and the structure and functioning of transportation systems. Resonating the recent call for 'open big data,' big data from various sources on a range of scales have become increasingly accessible to the public. However, open big data relevant to travelers within public transit tools remain scarce, hindering any further in-depth study on human mobility patterns. Here, we explore ticketing-website derived data that are publically available but have been largely neglected. We demonstrate the power, potential and limitations of this open big data, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR) system as an example. Using an application programming interface, we automatically collected the data on the remaining tickets (RTD) for scheduled trains at the last second before departure in order to retrieve information on unused transit capacity, occupancy rate of trains, and passenger flux at stations. We show that this information is highly useful in characterizing the spatiotemporal patterns of traveling behaviors on the Chinese HSR, such as weekend traveling behavior, imbalanced commuting behavior, and station functionality. Our work facilitates the understanding of human traveling patterns along the Chinese HSR, and the functionality of the largest HSR system in the world. We expect our work to attract attention regarding this unique open big data source for the study of analogous transportation systems.

  6. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations; meet national defense requirements; and serve interstate and interregional travel. All routes on the Interstate System are a part of the... consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and the States. The STRAHNET includes highways which...

  7. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. III - Mars expedition system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1991-01-01

    Several alternative configurations of life-support systems (LSSs) for a Mars missions are compared analytically on a quantitative basis in terms of weight, volume, and power. A baseline technology set is utilized for the illustrations of systems including totally open loop, carbon dioxide removal only, partially closed loop, and totally closed loop. The analytical model takes advantage of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of LSS subsystems into functional elements that represent individual processing technologies. The open-loop systems are not competitive in terms of weight for both long-duration orbiters and short-duration lander vehicles, and power demands are lowest with the open loop and highest with the closed loop. The closed-loop system can reduce vehicle weight by over 70,000 lbs and thereby overcome the power penalty of 1600 W; the closed-loop variety is championed as the preferred system for a Mars expedition.

  8. Multiphase Oscillator Using Traveling Pulses Developed in a System of Transmission Lines with Regularly Spaced Resonant-tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating multiphase oscillatory signals in millimeter-wave frequencies based on the dynamics of a traveling pulse developed in a closed transmission line periodically loaded with resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) that is coupled with several straight RTD lines. When supplied with an appropriate voltage at the end of an RTD line, a pulse edge is shown to exhibit a spatially extended limit-cycle oscillation on the line. We consider the case where several RTD lines are connected halfway to a closed one at even intervals. In this case, the oscillatory edge developed in each straight RTD line is mutually synchronized such that a pulse-shaped rotary traveling wave develops on the closed RTD line. The oscillating edge on each straight line is also synchronized with the traveling pulse on the closed line, such that the leading edge of the traveling pulse on the closed line and the forward edge on the straight line pass the cross point simultaneously. As a result, when N L straight lines are connected to the closed line, the phase difference between two adjacent oscillatory edges becomes 2π/N L . On the other hand, the trailing edge of the traveling pulse at the cross point breaks the voltage wave on the straight line into two pieces, one of which travels forward to form a solitary wave and the other of which travels backward to reach the input end, where it is reflected and starts to travel forward and this forward moving edge is supposed to be synchronized with the leading edge of the traveling pulse. It means that a back-and-forth edge and a forward-moving solitary wave develop periodically on each straight line. Because the time required for the traveling pulse to go around the closed line must be coincident with the period of the edge oscillation on each straight line, a unique traveling pulse cannot synchronize with each oscillating edge when the cell size of the closed line becomes large, resulting in the development of multiple traveling

  9. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-46 - Travel costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... scheduling results in time savings and more effective use of personnel that would outweigh additional travel...) Costs incurred by contractor personnel on official company business are allowable, subject to the..., DoD Civilian Personnel, Appendix A, prescribed by the Department of Defense, for travel in...

  10. Brassinosteroids make plant life easier under abiotic stresses mainly by modulating major components of antioxidant defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojjam V. Vardhini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various abiotic stress factors significantly contribute to major worldwide-losses in crop productivity by mainly impacting plant’s stress tolerance/adaptive capacity. The latter is largely governed by the efficiency of antioxidant defense system for the metabolism of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS, caused by different abiotic stresses. Plant antioxidant defense system includes both enzymatic (such as superoxide dismutase, SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1; catalase, CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6; glutathione reductase, GR, E.C. 1.6.4.2; peroxidase, POD, E.C. 1.11.1.7; ascorbate peroxidase, APX, E.C. 1.11.1.11; guaiacol peroxidase, GPX, E.C. 1.11.1.7 and non-enzymatic (such as ascorbic acid, AsA; glutathione, GSH; tocopherols; phenolics, proline etc. components. Research reports on the status of various abiotic stresses and their impact on plant growth, development and productivity are extensive. However, least information is available on sustainable strategies for the mitigation of abiotic stress-mediated major consequences in plants. Brassinosteroids (BRs are a novel group of phytohormones with significant growth promoting nature. BRs are considered as growth regulators with pleiotropic effects, as they influence diverse physiological processes like growth, germination of seeds, rhizogenesis, senescence etc. and also confer abiotic stress resistance in plants. In the light of recent reports this paper: (a overviews major abiotic stresses and plant antioxidant defense system, (b introduces BRs and highlights their significance in general plant growth and development, and (c appraises recent literature available on BRs mediated modulation of various components of antioxidant defense system in plants under major abiotic stresses including metals/metalloids, drought, salinity, and temperature regimes. The outcome can be significant in devising future research in the current direction.

  11. International patients on operation vacation: medical refuge and health system crisis Comment on "International patients on operation vacation - perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopaedic treatments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Neil

    2015-03-07

    An understanding of patient mobility, international patients and medical tourism includes supply and demand side considerations. As well as micro-level reports of motivation and satisfaction we must acknowledge broader system-level dynamics. Exploring these may unearth more complex geographies of patient travel.

  12. The future of air travel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ben Iannotta

    2015-01-01

      Here, Iannotta discusses the future of air travel. Among other things, safety technologies that seemed exotic will become the norm, like the auto industry's hands-free Bluetooth systems and side-curtain airbags...

  13. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? You...

  14. The relationship between yield and the antioxidant defense system in tomatoes grown under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, D T; Gossett, D R; Millhollon, E P; Hanna, H Y; Banks, S W; Lucas, M C

    1996-11-01

    Four putative heat-tolerant tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) cultivars (Tamasabro, Heat Wave, LHT-24, and Solar Set) and one putative heat-sensitive tomato cultivar (Floradade) were grown in the field under non-stress (average daily temperature of 26 degrees C) and heat-stress (average daily temperature of 34 degrees C) conditions. At anthesis, approximately five weeks after being transplanted to the field, leaf samples were collected for antioxidant analyses. Yield was determined by harvesting ripe fruit seven weeks after the collection of leaf samples. Heat stress resulted in a 79.1% decrease in yield for the heat-sensitive Floradade, while the fruit yield in the heat-tolerant cultivars Heat Wave, LHT-24, Solar Set, and Tamasabro was reduced 51.5%, 22.1%, 43.8%, and 34.8% respectively. When grown under heat stress, antioxidant activities were also greater in the heat-tolerant cultivars. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased up to 9-fold in the heat-tolerant cultivars but decreased 83.1% in the heat-sensitive Floradade. Catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase activity increased significantly in all cultivars. Only Heat Wave showed a significant increase in glutathione reductase in response to heat stress but all heat-tolerant cultivars exhibited significantly lower oxidized ascorbate/reduced ascorbate ratios, greater reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione rations, and greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations compared to the heat-sensitive cultivar Floridade. These data indicate that the more heat-tolerant cultivars had an enhanced capacity for scavenging active oxygen species and a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle and suggest a strong correlation between the ability to up-regulate the antioxidant defense system and the ability of tomatoes to produce greater yields when grown under heat stress.

  15. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    host-defense system of Metazoa.

  16. Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on Several Business System Audit Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    2 0 , 2 0 1 4 Report No. DODIG-2014-084 Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hotline Allegations...i l / h o t l i n e HOTLINE Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e , & A b u s e Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and

  17. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Food Poisoning from Marine Toxins Water Disinfection for Travelers Howard D. Backer RISK FOR TRAVELERS ... of iodine and chlorine (see Halogens below). Chemical Disinfection HALOGENS The most common chemical water disinfectants are ...

  18. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers. Health departments, the travel industry, multinational corporations, missionary and volunteer organizations, and travelers can also ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  19. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ... for purposes of medical treatment (see Chapter 2, Medical Tourism ), the blood and blood products used in the ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Travelers' Health Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... FAQ Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ... motion sickness. Adding distractions—controlling breathing, listening to music, or using aromatherapy scents such as mint or ...

  2. Design of a Multi-Sensor Cooperation Travel Environment Perception System for Autonomous Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the environment perception system designed for intelligent vehicle SmartV-II, which won the 2010 Future Challenge. This system utilizes the cooperation of multiple lasers and cameras to realize several necessary functions of autonomous navigation: road curb detection, lane detection and traffic sign recognition. Multiple single scan lasers are integrated to detect the road curb based on Z-variance method. Vision based lane detection is realized by two scans method combining with image model. Haar-like feature based method is applied for traffic sign detection and SURF matching method is used for sign classification. The results of experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the whole system.

  3. Radio Data System-Platform for traffic and travel information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current National and European context where the public information is simultaneously spread on multiple channels and especially through mass-media channels, the text messaging services from public radio channels proved to be very useful and efficient for this purpose. Over the years, the use of a warning system like Radio Data System (RDS, at a global level shown, through text message or sound alarms is useful for the drivers to know the traffic, as well as for being aware of any emergency situations (fires, floods, earth-quakes. In this paper we present the characteristics of an RDS system with the Alert feature, as well as the study of radio covering of four from the Romanian National Radio News network's broadcasting points.

  4. Convergence to a pulsating travelling wave for an epidemic reaction-diffusion system with non-diffusive susceptible population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Arnaud; Giletti, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    In this work we study the asymptotic behaviour of the Kermack-McKendrick reaction-diffusion system in a periodic environment with non-diffusive susceptible population. This problem was proposed by Kallen et al. as a model for the spatial spread for epidemics, where it can be reasonable to assume that the susceptible population is motionless. For arbitrary dimensional space we prove that large classes of solutions of such a system have an asymptotic spreading speed in large time, and that the infected population has some pulse-like asymptotic shape. The analysis of the one-dimensional problem is more developed, as we are able to uncover a much more accurate description of the profile of solutions. Indeed, we will see that, for some initially compactly supported infected population, the profile of the solution converges to some pulsating travelling wave with minimal speed, that is to some entire solution moving at a constant positive speed and whose profile's shape is periodic in time.

  5. New Light-Travel Time Models and Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Planetary System HU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, Tobias C; Gozdziewski, Krzysztof; Haghighipour, Nader; Lee, Chung-Uk; Scullion, Eamon M

    2011-01-01

    In this work we propose a new orbital architecture for the two proposed circumbinary planets around the polar eclipsing binary HU Aquarii. We base the new two-planet, light-travel time model on the result of a Monte Carlo simulation driving a least-squares Levenberg-Marquardt minimisation algorithm on the observed eclipse egress times. Our best-fitting model with $\\chi_{r}^2=1.43$ resulted in high final eccentricities for the two companions leading to an unstable orbital configuration. From a large ensemble of initial guesses we examined the distribution of final eccentricities and semi-major axes for different $\\chi_{r}^2$ parameter intervals and encountered qualitatively a second population of best-fitting parameters. The main characteristic of this population is described by low-eccentric orbits favouring long-term orbital stability of the system. We present our best-fitting model candidate for the proposed two-planet system and demonstrate orbital stability over one million years using numerical integrati...

  6. Science, Systems, and Theoretical Alternatives in Educational Administration: The Road Less Travelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical reflection on ideas that have been published in the "Journal of Educational Administration" over the last 50 years that present perspectives on the nature of educational administration and its various aspects, that are alternatives to the mainstream systems-scientific view of…

  7. Traveller: An Interactive Cultural Training System Controlled by User-Defined Body Gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, F.; André, E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Silva, A.; Paiva, A.; Degens, D.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Krumhuber, E.; Kappas, A.; Aylett, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cultural training system based on an interactive storytelling approach and a culturally-adaptive agent architecture, for which a user-defined gesture set was created. 251 full body gestures by 22 users were analyzed to find intuitive gestures for the in-game actions in

  8. Science, Systems, and Theoretical Alternatives in Educational Administration: The Road Less Travelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical reflection on ideas that have been published in the "Journal of Educational Administration" over the last 50 years that present perspectives on the nature of educational administration and its various aspects, that are alternatives to the mainstream systems-scientific view of…

  9. Traveling Wave Solutions for a Class of Predator-Prey System with General Functional Response%一类带有扩散项的捕食系统的行波解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩江晶

    2013-01-01

    By using a shooting method, we show the existence of the traveling wave solutions for a class of diffusive predator-prey systems. Our method is a significant improvement of techniques used by Dunbar, which is mainly to construct an unbounded Wazeeski set. This method provides a more sufficient way to study the existence of the traveling wave solutions for predator-prey system.

  10. Role of Dectin-2 for Host Defense against Systemic Infection with Candida glabrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.; Bain, J.M.; Reid, D.M.; Oosting, M.; Verschueren, I.; Gow, N.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Brown, G.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Koentgen, F.; Erwig, L.P.; Quintin, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here, we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C.

  11. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  12. Thiamine primed defense provides reliable alternative to systemic fungicide carbendazim against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rajeev Nayan; Joshi, Rohit; Shukla, Alok; Pandey, Mayank; Kumar, J

    2012-08-01

    A novel pathogen defense strategy by thiamine priming was evaluated for its efficacy against sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1A, of rice and compared with that of systemic fungicide, carbendazim (BCM). Seeds of semidwarf, high yielding, basmati rice variety Vasumati were treated with thiamine (50 mM) and BCM (4 mM). The pot cultured plants were challenge inoculated with R. solani after 40 days of sowing and effect of thiamine and BCM on rice growth and yield traits was examined. Higher hydrogen peroxide content, total phenolics accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under thiamine treatment displayed elevated level of systemic resistance, which was further augmented under challenging pathogen infection. High transcript level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) validated mode of thiamine primed defense. Though minimum disease severity was observed under BCM treatment, thiamine produced comparable results, with 18.12 per cent lower efficacy. Along with fortifying defense components and minor influence on photosynthetic pigments and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, thiamine treatment significantly reduced pathogen-induced loss in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, NR activity and NR transcript level. Physiological traits affected under pathogen infection were found signatory for characterizing plant's response under disease and were detectable at early stage of infection. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategies to control plant diseases.

  13. 基于道路拥堵信息的公交出行规划系统%Bus Travel Planning System Based on Road Congestion Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶杰; 卢岩文; 朱琪; 钱国栋; 徐本亮; 陆丽芳

    2014-01-01

    As road congestion increases, a bus travel planning system based on road congestion informa-tion is established for guiding users to avoid congested roads. The index system of road congestion is ana-lyzed, the congestion parameter indexes for roads and intersections are selected, a simple method for counting traffic light waiting times is put forward, and a congestion index algorithm for the bus travel plan-ning scheme is proposed. Taking Jiaxing as an example, SQL+IIS+ASP+Android technology is used to build the C/S-structure dynamic bus travel planning system based on road congestion information. The system recommends bus travel plan which could guide users to avoid congested roads, as well as to ad-vance travel efficiency and to reduce travel time. The implementation of the system for the public provides more comprehensive bus travel information and more convenient access to information.%针对当前道路拥堵增多的情况,建立了一个基于道路拥堵信息的公交出行规划系统,以引导公众避开拥堵道路。分析道路拥堵状况的指标体系,分别选取路段和交叉口的通行参数指标,并给出一种红绿灯等待灯次的简便算法,提出公交出行规划方案的拥堵指数算法。以嘉兴市为例,采用SQL+IIS+ASP+Android技术构建了C/S架构的基于道路拥堵信息的动态公交出行规划系统。该系统推荐的出行方案能引导用户避开拥堵道路,提高出行效率,减少出行时间,为公众出行提供了更全面的公交出行信息和更便利的信息获取途径。

  14. Linear stability analysis for periodic traveling waves of the Boussinesq equation and the KGZ system

    CERN Document Server

    Hakkaev, Sevdzhan; Stefanov, Atanas

    2012-01-01

    The question for linear stability of spatially periodic waves for the Boussinesq equation (the cases $p=2,3$) and the Klein-Gordon-Zakharov system is considered. For a wide class of solutions, we completely and explicitly characterize their linear stability (instability respectively), when the perturbations are taken with the same period $T$. In particular, our results allow us to completely recover the linear stability results, in the limit $T\\to \\infty$, for the whole line case.

  15. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  16. Traveling Wave Solutions of a Generalized Camassa-Holm Equation: A Dynamical System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a generalized Camassa-Holm equation C(3,2,2: ut+kux+γ1uxxt+γ2(u3x+γ3ux(u2xx+γ3u(u2xxx=0. We show that the C(3,2,2 equation can be reduced to a planar polynomial differential system by transformation of variables. We treat the planar polynomial differential system by the dynamical systems theory and present a phase space analysis of their singular points. Two singular straight lines are found in the associated topological vector field. Moreover, the peakon, peakon-like, cuspon, smooth soliton solutions of the generalized Camassa-Holm equation under inhomogeneous boundary condition are obtained. The parametric conditions of existence of the single peak soliton solutions are given by using the phase portrait analytical technique. Asymptotic analysis and numerical simulations are provided for single peak soliton, kink wave, and kink compacton solutions of the C(3,2,2 equation.

  17. Theater Missile Defense Extended Test Range Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement - Eglin Gulf Test Range. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    DOD Department of Defense DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office EA Environmental Assessment ECAC Electronic Compatibility Analysis Center...natural attractions (kayaking, birdwatching , hiking, participating in cultural events); responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the

  18. Petri Net Decomposition Approach for Bi-Objective Routing for AGV Systems Minimizing Total Traveling Time and Equalizing Delivery Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EDA, Shuhei; NISHI, Tatsushi; MARIYAMA, Toshisada; KATAOKA, Satomi; SHODA, Kazuya; MATSUMURA, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective is minimizing total traveling time and equalizing delivery time simultaneously. The dispatching and conflict-free routing problem for AGVs is represented as a bi-objective optimal firing sequence problem for Petri Net...

  19. Traveler Module for Cargo System by Omnibus in Ciego de Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoelkis Hernández Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research comes from the need of optimization and improvement of the processes that take place in the National Bus Company located in the province of Ciego de Avila. Nowadays a process of business improvement of transportation is taking effect and in this way improving its main processes and workflows. Reservation processes, refund, waiting list and traffic control, are indispensable for the proper functioning of the enterprise, that´s why a better management and greater control over this process is desired by the directors. To carry out the computerization of the processes mentioned before, it was necessary to make a detailed analysis of the state of the art computer systems that respond to these processes, besides to use business intelligence for the large amount of information that is managed, as well as the main tools and technologies for the development o f enterprise application. Moreover, the proposed architecture in the system was not an unseen topic by the time of evaluating the solution for this problem and to achieve a product with quality. The development of the web application, based on the Model-View-Controller pattern, using the Symfony framework, it allows the management of the main services offered by the company: reservation, waiting list, refund of tickets, among others.

  20. Travel time and travel cost in European air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Dusek, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine two issues of consumer air travel accessibility in Europe, namely flight time and ticket costs. The first part of the paper discusses the various methodological problems of creating time matrix and cost matrix of air travel. Because of problems of conceptualizing of the air travel network and the modifiable areal unit problem the analysis is conducted on several spatial levels. The smallest network consists of 15 busiest airports and the largest network has ...

  1. Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem Based on The Genetic Reactive Bone Route Algorithm whit Ant Colony System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The TSP is considered one of the most well-known combinatorial optimization tasks and researchers have paid so much attention to the TSP for many years. In this problem, a salesman starts to move from an arbitrary place called depot and after visits all of the nodes, finally comes back to the depot. The objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the salesman.  Because this problem is a non-deterministic polynomial (NP-hard problem in nature, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm called REACSGA is used for solving the TSP. In REACSGA, a reactive bone route algorithm that uses the ant colony system (ACS for generating initial diversified solutions and the genetic algorithm (GA as an improved procedure are applied. Since the performance of the Metaheuristic algorithms is significantly influenced by their parameters, Taguchi Method is used to set the parameters of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested on several standard instances involving 24 to 318 nodes from the literature. The computational result shows that the results of the proposed algorithm are competitive with other metaheuristic algorithms for solving the TSP in terms of better quality of solution and computational time respectively. In addition, the proposed REACSGA is significantly efficient and finds closely the best known solutions for most of the instances in which thirteen best known solutions are also found.

  2. Impacts of SOC on car-following behavior and travel time in the heterogeneous traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Ding, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Since the SOC (state of charge) of the battery of each electric vehicle directly determines whether the battery should be charged/swapped, the SOC may affect the electric vehicle's driving behavior. In this paper, we introduce the SOC of battery into the electric vehicle's driving behavior model and propose a car-following model for electric vehicles, and then use the proposed model to study the effects of the SOC of battery and battery swap on each vehicle's driving behavior in the heterogeneous traffic system consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles. The numerical results show that the proposed model can reproduce some complex traffic phenomena resulted by the SOC of battery and battery swap and that the influences on each vehicle's driving behavior are directly related to the initial traffic state, the electric vehicle's proportion, and the SOC of battery.

  3. Conceptual study of an ICRH traveling-wave antenna system for low-coupling conditions as expected in DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, R.; Messiaen, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the central heating of a fusion reactor ion cyclotron radio frequency heating (ICRH) is the first choice method as it is able to couple RF power to the ions without density limit. The drawback of this heating method is the problem of excitation of the magneto-sonic wave through the plasma boundary layer from the antenna located along the wall, without exceeding its voltage standoff. The amount of coupling depends on the antenna excitation and the surface admittance at the antenna output due to the plasma profile. The paper deals with the optimization of the antenna excitation by the use of sections of traveling-wave antennas (TWAs) distributed all along the reactor wall between the blanket modules. They are mounted and fed in resonant ring system(s). First, the physics of the coupling of a strap array is studied by simple models and the coupling code ANTITER II. Then, after the study of the basic properties of a TWA section, its feeding problem is solved by hybrids driving them in resonant ring circuit(s). The complete modeling is obtained from the matrices of the TWA sections connected to one of the feeding hybrid(s). The solution is iterated with the coupling code to determine the loading for a reference low-coupling ITER plasma profile. The resulting wave pattern up to the plasma bulk is derived. The proposed system is totally load resilient and allows us to obtain a very selective exciting wave spectrum. A discussion of some practical implementation problems is added.

  4. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  5. Impact of the Defense Critical Technologies Plan on Weapon Systems Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    middle of the 1980’s several factors led to the realization that DoD’s T&E capabilities were approaching a crisis situation. These factors included...techologies most critica to saing the long-term quai.- tative superiority of United States wampon syvtme. The number of such technologie identified in any...United States, The Defense Technology Base, Introduction and Overview, U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1988. Pastine, John, D. Dr., "A Crisis

  6. Application of System and Integration Readiness Levels to Department of Defense Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    structural support (Struct), atmospheric propagation (Atmos), target, target acquisition, tracking, pointing ( ATP ), and battle management and...involve building the target, but the atmosphere and ATP form an interface with the target so an IRL is associated with the target, but no TRL. 264 Defense...Table 5, if most effort had been placed into developing the laser, beam director, ATP algorithms; and target infor- mation, but not much effort

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    http://www.strategypage.com/dls/ articles /SLAMRAAM-Dies-From-Loneliness-2- 5-2011.asp. Federation of American Scientists . 2000. “M6 Bradley Linebacker...MANPADS-under-armor (MUA) concept was adopted to provide mobile air defense to maneuver forces (Federation of American Scientists 2000). This involved... swim in water. The functional hierarchy for the Move function is shown in Figure 17. 39 Figure 17. Functional Hierarchy for F.3 Move d

  8. Noise Parameters of CW Radar Sensors Used in Active Defense Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Active defense represents an innovative way of protecting military vehicles. It is based on the employment of a set of radar sensors which detect an approaching threat missile and activate a suitable counter-measure. Since the radar sensors are supposed to detect flying missiles very fast and, at the same time, distinguish them from stationary or slow-moving objects, CW Doppler radar sensors can be employed with a benefit. The submitted article deals with a complex noise analysis of this type...

  9. United States Department of Defense Research in Robotic Unmanned Systems for Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    first responder combat casualty care, and patient evacuation under hostile fire have compounded combat losses throughout history. Force protection of military first responders is complicated by current international and coalition troop deployments for peacekeeping operations, counter terrorism, and humanitarian assistance missions that involve highly visible, politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has significantly invested in autonomous vehicles, and other robots to support its Future Force. By leveraging

  10. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  11. Travel-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  12. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  13. Simulated groundwater flow paths, travel time, and advective transport of nitrogen in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor Watershed, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Lois M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2017-07-31

    Elevated concentrations of nitrogen in groundwater that discharges to surface-water bodies can degrade surface-water quality and habitats in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. An analysis of groundwater flow in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and deeper confined aquifers that underlie the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) watershed and estuary was conducted by using groundwater-flow simulation, in conjunction with a particle-tracking routine, to provide estimates of groundwater flow paths and travel times to streams and the BB-LEH estuary.Water-quality data from the Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network, a long-term monitoring network of wells distributed throughout New Jersey, were used to estimate the initial nitrogen concentration in recharge for five different land-use classes—agricultural cropland or pasture, agricultural orchard or vineyard, urban non-residential, urban residential, and undeveloped. Land use at the point of recharge within the watershed was determined using a geographic information system (GIS). Flow path starting locations were plotted on land-use maps for 1930, 1973, 1986, 1997, and 2002. Information on the land use at the time and location of recharge, time of travel to the discharge location, and the point of discharge were determined for each simulated flow path. Particle-tracking analysis provided the link from the point of recharge, along the particle flow path, to the point of discharge, and the particle travel time. The travel time of each simulated particle established the recharge year. Land use during the year of recharge was used to define the nitrogen concentration associated with each flow path. The recharge-weighted average nitrogen concentration for all flow paths that discharge to the Toms River upstream from streamflow-gaging station 01408500 or to the BB-LEH estuary was calculated.Groundwater input into the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor estuary from two main sources— indirect discharge from base

  14. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance.

  15. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel wishes to remind you of the following conditions concerning travel to the USA. Passport conditions Since 26 October 2004, nationals of the countries covered by the US Visa Waiver Programme have been required to present a valid machine-readable passport when entering the United States. Failing this, they require a valid US non-immigrant visa in addition to their passport. Passports issued after 25 October 2005 must also bear a digital photograph. Passports issued after 25 October 2006 must contain biometric data to allow visa-free entry to the US. Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS) form Since 4 October 2005, all non-US citizens travelling to the USA have been required to complete the APIS form before departure and present it when they check in. This new procedure will certainly increase the time it takes to check in. We therefore advise passengers to present themselves at the respective check-in desk in good time. The APIS form can be downloaded from our homepage: w...

  16. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  17. New travelling wave solutions for combined KdV-mKdV equation and (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xian-Lin; Tang Jia-Shi

    2007-01-01

    Some new exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation are obtained, which were neglected by Sirendaoreji et al in their auxiliary equation method. By using this method and these new solutions the combined Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV (mKdV) equation and (2+1)-dimensional Broer Kaup-Kupershmidt system are investigated and abundant exact travelling wave solutions are obtained that include new solitary wave solutions and triangular periodic wave solutions.

  18. Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis reveals key roles of melatonin in plant defense systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weeda

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exists across kingdoms including plant species. Studies on melatonin in plants have mainly focused on its physiological influence on growth and development, and on its biosynthesis. Much less attention has been drawn to its affect on genome-wide gene expression. To comprehensively investigate the role(s of melatonin at the genomics level, we utilized mRNA-seq technology to analyze Arabidopsis plants subjected to a 16-hour 100 pM (low and 1 mM (high melatonin treatment. The expression profiles were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes. 100 pM melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of only 81 genes with 51 down-regulated and 30 up-regulated. However, 1 mM melatonin significantly altered 1308 genes with 566 up-regulated and 742 down-regulated. Not all genes altered by low melatonin were affected by high melatonin, indicating different roles of melatonin in regulation of plant growth and development under low and high concentrations. Furthermore, a large number of genes altered by melatonin were involved in plant stress defense. Transcript levels for many stress receptors, kinases, and stress-associated calcium signals were up-regulated. The majority of transcription factors identified were also involved in plant stress defense. Additionally, most identified genes in ABA, ET, SA and JA pathways were up-regulated, while genes pertaining to auxin responses and signaling, peroxidases, and those associated with cell wall synthesis and modifications were mostly down-regulated. Our results indicate critical roles of melatonin in plant defense against various environmental stresses, and provide a framework for functional analysis of genes in melatonin-mediated signaling pathways.

  19. Game Theory for Proactive Dynamic Defense and Attack Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letchford, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    While there has been a great deal of security research focused on preventing attacks, there has been less work on how one should balance security and resilience investments. In this work we developed and evaluated models that captured both explicit defenses and other mitigations that reduce the impact of attacks. We examined these issues both in more broadly applicable general Stackelberg models and in more specific network and power grid settings. Finally, we compared these solutions to existing work in terms of both solution quality and computational overhead.

  20. Game Theory for Proactive Dynamic Defense and Attack Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letchford, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    While there has been a great deal of security research focused on preventing attacks, there has been less work on how one should balance security and resilience investments. In this work we developed and evaluated models that captured both explicit defenses and other mitigations that reduce the impact of attacks. We examined these issues both in more broadly applicable general Stackelberg models and in more specific network and power grid settings. Finally, we compared these solutions to existing work in terms of both solution quality and computational overhead.

  1. DEFENSE SYSTEM TO EXPLORE ON MILITARY CASTLE OF HAILONG TUEN%古代军事城堡海龙屯防御体系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 但文红; 吴孟珊

    2013-01-01

    建于13世纪中期海龙屯是中国军事防御城堡的杰出代表,是西南地区播州土司文化军事领域的重要遗迹.海龙屯城堡在军事防御思想、堡址选择、军事防御体系布防等方面体现了冷兵器时代“以弱御强”的战略防御思想.借自然天险筑军事城堡,设立远、中、近的军事防御体系,屯兵于民,建立自给自足的军事给养保障,是海龙屯军事城堡防御思想的集中体现.%Hailong tuen is outstanding representative of China's military defense castle and it was built in middle of 13 th century . It is an important historical remains of sowing state toast culture of military field in southwest. The military defense thought of the age of cold" to the weak strong " is reflected by Hailong tuen in the aspects of the military defense thought, fort address selection, military defense system etc. The military castle defense concentration system of Hailong tuen depends natural , setting up far, medium and near military defense system, assembled troops in people , and established self - sufficient military supplies security.

  2. Rabies in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  3. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  4. Daily variations of the antioxidant defense system of the lithodid crab Lithodes santolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvezov, Natasha; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Tapella, Federico; Romero, M Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Several physiological processes can induce daily variations in aerobic metabolism. Lithodes santolla is a decapod crustacean of special concern since it is a sub-Antarctic species of commercial interest. The aim of this work was to study in L. santolla the daily variations in levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and haemolymphatic pH. Males of L. santolla of commercial size were randomly dissected every 4 h during a period of 24 h. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were determined in samples of gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph. Ascorbic acid, total glutathione, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were also determined in all tissues. Gills showed the highest enzymatic activity and hepatopancreas the highest concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidants. Maximum antioxidant activity was during the dark phase in gills and during the photophase in the haemolymph. Muscle showed significant daily variations, with peaks during the photophase and scotophase. Overall, an antioxidant protective mechanism is present in all tissues, where SOD and CAT represent the first line of defense. The defense mechanism in L. santolla seems to be more active during the dark phase, with slight differences among the analyzed tissues, indicating a higher metabolic rate.

  5. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  6. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  7. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans - Understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille eDühring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important humanpathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within thehuman host for a long time. Alterations in the host environment, however, can render C. albicansvirulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and thehuman innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategiesincluding immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation,pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. FurthermoreComputational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactionare highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. Anoutlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defenseand evasion mechanisms is given.

  8. Calcium supplementation improves Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in salt-stressed rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-d-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47 seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger for three days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt-induced stress caused oxidative stress in rice seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS production and methylglyoxal (MG formation. The salt-stressed rice seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the rice seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system.

  9. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  10. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Systemic defense priming by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in maize depends on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew L; Ton, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Exudation of benzoxazinoid metabolites from roots of young maize seedlings recruits the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from the soil to the rhizosphere. In this study, we have investigated whether these rhizobacteria are beneficial for maize by eliciting systemic defense priming. Root colonization of the maize hybrid cultivar Delprim by P. putida primed wound- and jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible emission of aromatic and terpenoid volatiles, but not the emission of the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Furthermore, root colonization by P. putida primed stress-inducible transcription of the JA-dependent gene SerPIN, whereas JA-dependent induction of the MPI gene was unaffected. Systemic priming of SerPIN by P. putida only occurred in benzoxazinoid-producing plants, and was absent in benzoxazinoid-deficient plants. The results from this study suggest that root colonization by P. putida primes a selection of JA-dependent defenses in Maize, which is reliant on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots.

  12. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  13. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  14. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 31-THREATENED LAW ENFORCEMENT/INVESTIGATIVE EMPLOYEES § 301-31.14 May I receive a travel...

  15. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  16. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health Care ... removal of their thymus or have had indirect radiation therapy in the distant past, these people can ...

  18. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  19. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 2. Appendices A, B and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    Logistics Agency: M-Gen John L. Klingenhagen, USA (to Sep 75) M-Gen Eugene B. Sterling, USAF Office Of the Assistant Secretary of Defense...m-ohi ki.iuu iOMI K£Y • lbl.OLl n I N« l-HOUUCI IbbULb wt l&hl lUBI HKKL CHOO PCX CUMH Pll...1OOo 1 101 /PCT l-KUO 12 1 >»iIOOOI/per CHOO HI t»llOOOI/flT fKOO 112 »»iIOOOI/PCT PKOU 111 ••1lOOOt/PCT KMOo Itb »t|10001/PCT fHOO Ibl

  20. Chemotaxis can provide biological organisms with good solutions to the travelling salesman problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to find good solutions to the traveling salesman problem can benefit some biological organisms. Bacterial infection would, for instance, be eradicated most promptly if cells of the immune system minimized the total distance they traveled when moving between bacteria. Similarly, foragers would maximize their net energy gain if the distance that they traveled between multiple dispersed prey items was minimized. The traveling salesman problem is one of the most intensively studied problems in combinatorial optimization. There are no efficient algorithms for even solving the problem approximately (within a guaranteed constant factor from the optimum) because the problem is nondeterministic polynomial time complete. The best approximate algorithms can typically find solutions within 1%-2% of the optimal, but these are computationally intensive and can not be implemented by biological organisms. Biological organisms could, in principle, implement the less efficient greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm, i.e., always move to the nearest surviving target. Implementation of this strategy does, however, require quite sophisticated cognitive abilities and prior knowledge of the target locations. Here, with the aid of numerical simulations, it is shown that biological organisms can simply use chemotaxis to solve, or at worst provide good solutions (comparable to those found by the greedy algorithm) to, the traveling salesman problem when the targets are sources of a chemoattractant and are modest in number (n < 10). This applies to neutrophils and macrophages in microbial defense and to some predators.

  1. 人防地下室楼盖选型%Selection on Civil Air Defense Basement Floor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东亚

    2015-01-01

    Through the selection and comprehensive analysis of civil air defense basement floor system, it can be found that the occupancy floor height, construction cost, concrete and steel bar cost of beam and slab of Girderless floor are less than those of other floor systems.Girderless floor has huge comprehensive benefits.%进行人防地下室楼盖选型,综合分析比较可以得到:无梁楼盖相对于其他形式楼盖占用层高最少,施工费用最低,梁和板混凝土和钢筋材料费最少,综合效益最好。

  2. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  3. The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resist Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two, Aimee M; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kotol, Paul F; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Du-Thumm, Laurence; Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    The human skin microbiome has been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining health by contributing to innate defense of the skin. These observations have inspired speculation that the use of common skin washing techniques may be detrimental to the epidermal antibacterial defense system by altering the microbiome. In this study, several common skin cleansers were used to wash human forearms and the short-term effect on the abundance of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the abundance and diversity of bacterial DNA was measured. Despite small but significant decreases in the amount of LL-37 on the skin surface shortly after washing, no significant change in the bacterial community was detected. Furthermore, Group A Streptococcus did not survive better on the skin after washing. In contrast, the addition of antimicrobial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride or triclocarban to soap before washing decreased the growth of Group A Streptococcus applied after rinse. These results support prior studies that hand washing techniques in the health care setting are beneficial and should be continued. Additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of chronic washing and the potential impact of skin care products on the development of dysbiosis in some individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial modulation of bacoside A biosynthetic pathway and systemic defense mechanism in Bacopa monnieri under Meloidogyne incognita stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Srivastava, Madhumita; Singh, Vivek; Gupta, M. M.; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M. incognita stress. These microbes not only augmented bacoside A production (1.5 fold) but also strengthened host resistance via enhancement in chlorophyll a, defense enzymes and phenolic compounds like gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Furthermore, elevated lignification and callose deposition in the microbial combination treated plants corroborate well with the above findings. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of priming by beneficial microbes and underscore their capacity to trigger bacoside A production in B. monnieri under biotic stress. PMID:28157221

  5. Viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSS): novel strategy of viruses to ablate the host RNA interference (RNAi) defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Vakharia, Janaki; Mehla, Rajeev; Abreha, Measho; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Tikoo, Akshay; Chauhan, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic viruses have developed a molecular defense arsenal for their survival by counteracting the host anti-viral system known as RNA interference (RNAi). Cellular RNAi, in addition to regulating gene expression through microRNAs, also serves as a barrier against invasive foreign nucleic acids. RNAi is conserved across the biological species, including plants, animals and invertebrates. Viruses in turn, have evolved mechanisms that can counteract this anti-viral defense of the host. Recent studies of mammalian viruses exhibiting RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity have further advanced our understanding of RNAi in terms of host-virus interactions. Viral proteins and non-coding viral RNAs can inhibit the RNAi (miRNA/siRNA) pathway through different mechanisms. Mammalian viruses having dsRNA-binding regions and GW/WG motifs appear to have a high chance of conferring RSS activity. Although, RSSs of plant and invertebrate viruses have been well characterized, mammalian viral RSSs still need in-depth investigations to present the concrete evidences supporting their RNAi ablation characteristics. The information presented in this review together with any perspective research should help to predict and identify the RSS activity-endowed new viral proteins that could be the potential targets for designing novel anti-viral therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of ecopathogenic environmental factors on the system of antioxidant defense in different parts of the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severynovs'ka, O V; Hryhorova, M O; Zaĭchenko, O Iu; Rybal'chenko, V K

    2006-01-01

    Influence ofecopathogenic environmental (radiation-chemical) factors on activities of superoxiddismutase, catalase and total antioxidative activity (TAA) has been investigated in morphologically and functionally different parts of rat brain. It has been found that reaction of cells in brain cortex, subcortical structures and cerebellum to these factors in all cases is revealed through the antioxidant enzyme activities decrease in all studied brain structures but in various degrees. In brain cortex, which is characterized by higher metabolic level, functional complexity and specialization, the higher level of antioxidation defense is marked both in normal state and under the action of negative factors, that allows to maintain the prooxidation-antioxidation balance. Subcortical structures were more sensitive to the heavy metal impact. Compared to the action of single factors at chronic combined influence of radiation and heavy metals on the separate antioxidative enzymes a summation effect can be observed and at aforesaid joint impact on multi-component system of antioxidation defense a partial mutual evening-out of effects of radiation and chemical agents can be marked.

  7. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  8. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  9. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  10. Travel epidemiology. WHO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezairy, Hussein A

    2002-12-01

    International travel is undertaken by large, and ever increasing numbers of people for professional, social, recreational and humanitarian purposes, and this upward trend looks set to continue. Travelers are exposed to a variety of health risks of the unfamiliar environment of the visited area. The risk of exposure is determined by destination, duration of the visit, purpose of the visit, behavior of the traveler and underlying physical and biological status of the traveler. However, most risks can be minimized by suitable precautions taken before, during and after travel. Travelers can themselves, also, easily introduce any infectious agents they may harbor to the visited area. Many infectious diseases have been introduced in many parts of the world through travel and trade. Travel has been identified as a prime factor in the global spread of infectious diseases. In a world of rapid air travel, no country is safe from infectious diseases. An outbreak in one country can easily and rapidly be transmitted across long distances to affect other countries through travel and trade. The World Health Organization devotes great attention to prevention and control of global spread of infectious diseases and minimizing the negative effect of international travel on health. The main strategies of the World Health Organization for minimizing the negative effects of expanding travel on global health security include developing the necessary strategies, rules and regulations; strengthening global communicable diseases surveillance and response; dissemination of related information throughout the world and strengthening national capacity for communicable diseases surveillance and response.

  11. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  12. Effectiveness Evaluation of Air Defense System Based on Queuing Theory%基于排队论的防空作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志华; 唐金国; 文建国; 李木易; 刘志豪; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    文章分析了防空体系对空袭目标的拦截次数计算方法,通过排队论的方法,建立了防空体系效能评估模型。最后通过仿真计算,得出影响防空体系作战效能的重要因素,为决策提供一定的理论依据。%This text analyzes the computing technology of intercepting numbers of air defense system to the goal. Through the queuing theory method, have set up the evaluation efficiency model of air defense system. Finally simulation results show the important factors of in- fluencing the fighting efficiency of air defense system, and offer certain theoretical foundation for people who making policy.

  13. Networking Effect Analysis of Ship-Airplane Cooperating Air Defense System%舰机协同防空体系网络化效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国生; 刘钢; 贾子英

    2011-01-01

    针对舰机海上协同防空作战体系网络化效应难以度量的问题,提出舰机协同组网概念,建立舰机协同组网网络环模型.将舰机协同防空区域进行划分,通过核心子网络在不同防空区域的转移以及邻接矩阵Perron-Frobenius特征值(PFE)的计算,分析了舰机协同防空体系的网络化效应.该分析方法简单,将其应用在舰机协同防空体系网络化效应分析是有效的.%To solve the question of measuring networking effect for ship-airplane cooperating air defense system, the definition of ship-airplane cooperating networking is proposed, and the networking loop model of ship-airplane cooperating networking is established. The ship-airplane cooperating air defense area is divided, through the core sub-networking shifting in different air defense area and the computation of adjoin matrix Perron-Frobeniu eigenvalue(PFE), the networking effect of ship-airplane cooperating air defense system is analyzed. This analysis method is simple and effective on analyzing networking effect of ship-airplane cooperating air defense system.

  14. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... prevent recontamination during storage Table 2-10. Microorganism size and susceptibility to filtration ORGANISM AVERAGE SIZE (µm) ...

  15. Comprehensive care of travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, R E; Peate, W F; Cordes, D H

    1986-12-01

    Travel, especially if it is international, often means major changes for the family. Family physicians should assess the epidemiologic risk and psychosocial significance of travel or relocation in light of the family's life-cycle stage and antecedent health. Using core references, which are kept current in partnership with public health agencies, family physicians are able to provide comprehensive immunization, medications, and patient education for all travel risks. Families are given medical record summaries and recommended sources of care at their destination. Eight weeks after their return patients are reassessed for newly acquired illness and helped to integrate the perspectives gained during the travel into the family's future dynamics. Taking advantage of growing travel medicine opportunities, family medicine educators should base the care of travelers and teaching of residents on defined competence priorities. Travelers' health provides a mutually rewarding model of shared care with public health consultants in the community medicine curriculum.

  16. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  17. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Brendan J; Barth, Zachary K; McKitterick, Amelia C; Seed, Kimberley D

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements) are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin) respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution.

  18. Overview of the molecular defense systems used by sea urchin embryos to cope with UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Matranga, Valeria

    2017-07-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a well-recognized developmental biology model and its use in toxicological studies has been widely appreciated. Many studies have focused on the evaluation of the effects of chemical stressors and their mixture in marine ecosystems using sea urchin embryos. These are well equipped with defense genes used to cope with chemical stressors. Recently, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly UVB (280-315 nm), received more attention as a physical stressor. Mainly in the Polar Regions, but also at temperate latitudes, the penetration of UVB into the oceans increases as a consequence of the reduction of the Earth's ozone layer. In general, UVR induces oxidative stress in marine organisms affecting molecular targets such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Depending on the UVR dose, developing sea urchin embryos show morphological perturbations affecting mainly the skeleton formation and patterning. Nevertheless, embryos are able to protect themselves against excessive UVR, using mechanisms acting at different levels: transcriptional, translational and post-translational. In this review, we recommend the sea urchin embryo as a suitable model for testing physical stressors such as UVR and summarize the mechanisms adopted to deal with UVR. Moreover, we review UV-induced apoptotic events and the combined effects of UVR and other stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J O'Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution.

  20. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Brendan J.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements) are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin) respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution. PMID:28594826

  1. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  2. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...... lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT...

  3. ROMANIA’S PARTICIPATION TO THE AEGIS BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM AS REFLECTED BY ROMANIAN NEWSPAPERS’ EVALUATIVE DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Mihaela LEVONIAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate Romanian media discourse on the current standing of the relations between Romania and the United States of America in the military fi eld. The main topic investigated is connected to Romania’s decision to host the land-based component of the Balllistic Missile Defense System on its ground, an event which attracted signifi cant media coverage during the year 2011. The corpus analyzed consisted of 37 news and opinion items and reports published on the site of three Romanian newspapers. The main research questions were to assess whether the evaluations of this event were positive or negative, who were the actors issuing these statements and what objects were discussed in association to this event. The results showed that positive evaluations were more common than negative evaluations and that the offi cial stances on this topic formed a very coherent perspective, endorsing the project.

  4. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  5. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  6. Integrated Traffic Information Service System for Public Travel Based on Smart Phones Applications: A Case in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chonghua Zhou; Zhiyong Weng; Chen Xu; Zhizhe Su

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its outstanding performance and rich features, Smart phones have been the rapid development over the past decade, more and more people love to use its mobile Application to process the day-to-day affairs instead of PC, including the normal call and Short Messaging Service, Personal Information Management, send and receive e-mail, browse Web, multimedia Applications and online shopping. In April 2011, the Taipei people began to use the free smart phone Apps “Good Travel in Taipei” to ...

  7. Hematospermia in a returned traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient's microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection.

  8. Economic study of a water pumping system for traveling gun machine; Estudo economico de uma adutora, para sistema autopropelido de irrigacao, operando com motor diesel e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lessandro Coll; Viola, Marcelo R.; Bilibios, Carolina; Oliveira, Henrique F.E. de; Lima Junior, Joaquim A. de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed at comparing the set-up and operation costs of a water pumping system using engines which run on two different fuels (diesel oil and alcohol) for application in traveling gun machines. The study was carried out by considering fuel prices in Minas Gerais State on 10/11/2008. The results showed that annual costs with diesel oil engines (R$ 67,460.64) were less than those for alcohol engines (R$ 82,608.12). Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to point out that the operation with alcohol engines was found to be viable only when this fuel price does not exceed R$ 1.40 per liter. (author)

  9. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  10. The DEFENSE (debris Flows triggEred by storms - nowcasting system): An early warning system for torrential processes by radar storm tracking using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Marco, Federica; Gaeta, Armando Riccardo; Barbero, Secondo

    2014-09-01

    Debris flows, responsible for economic losses and occasionally casualties in the alpine region, are mainly triggered by heavy rains characterized by hourly peaks of varying intensity, depending on the features of the basin under consideration. By integrating a recent classification of alpine basins with the radar storm tracking method, an innovative early warning system called DEFENSE (DEbris Flows triggEred by storms - Nowcasting SystEm) was developed using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Alpine catchments were classified into three main classes based on the weathering capacity of the bedrock into clay or clay-like minerals, the amount of which, in unconsolidated material, directly influences the debris flow rheology, and thus the sedimentary processes, the alluvial fan architecture, as well as the triggering frequency and seasonal occurrence probability of debris flows. Storms were identified and tracked by processing weather radar observations; subsequently, rainfall intensities and storm severity were estimated over each classified basin. Due to rainfall threshold values determined for each basin class, based on statistical analysis of historical records, an automatic corresponding warning could be issued to municipalities.

  11. Simulation System for Analyzing Guidance Benefit of Travel Time Displayed by VMS%VMS行程时间诱导效益分析仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珍珍; 干宏程; 陈思

    2012-01-01

    Travel time displayed by variable message signs (VMS) is an effective way to release freeway congestion. This paper presents a simulation system for analyzing guidance benefit of travel time displayed by VMS. Taking a network with two origins and two destinations as an example, simulation results show that travel time displayed by VMS can release incident significantly, and guidance benefits improve obviously along with information concerned rates. This simulation system is effective for designing and evaluating traffic control strategies, and providing a basis for decision-making and references to relevant departments to improve the operational efficiency of freeway networks.%利用可变情报板(VMS)发布行程时间信息是缓解交通拥挤的有效手段,提出了一种VMS行程时间诱导效益分析仿真系统,并对仿真系统进行设计与开发.运用该仿真系统对两起点两终点的路网进行建模仿真,仿真结果表明,VMS行程时间对于应对交通事件(如需求激增)引起的拥挤作用显著;驾驶员的信息关注率值越大,路网运行效益改善率越明显.研究旨在为相关部门设计、评价控制策略,优化路网运行效益提供辅助决策依据.

  12. Dark matter in archaeal genomes: a rich source of novel mobile elements, defense systems and secretory complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Forterre, Patrick; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-09-01

    Microbial genomes encompass a sizable fraction of poorly characterized, narrowly spread fast-evolving genes. Using sensitive methods for sequences comparison and protein structure prediction, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of clusters of such genes, which we denote "dark matter islands", in archaeal genomes. The dark matter islands comprise up to 20% of archaeal genomes and show remarkable heterogeneity and diversity. Nevertheless, three classes of entities are common in these genomic loci: (a) integrated viral genomes and other mobile elements; (b) defense systems, and (c) secretory and other membrane-associated systems. The dark matter islands in the genome of thermophiles and mesophiles show similar general trends of gene content, but thermophiles are substantially enriched in predicted membrane proteins whereas mesophiles have a greater proportion of recognizable mobile elements. Based on this analysis, we predict the existence of several novel groups of viruses and mobile elements, previously unnoticed variants of CRISPR-Cas immune systems, and new secretory systems that might be involved in stress response, intermicrobial conflicts and biogenesis of novel, uncharacterized membrane structures.

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  14. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  15. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...D published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009... contractor business systems, DoD is considering a rule to clarify the definition and administration...

  16. The Image of travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and experienced and how he interpreted this knowledge, visually and in words. Rørbye is my primary research focus, but his artistic struggles are very similar to other artists travelling in Italy at the time. I therefore use Martinus Rørbye’s Italian sojourn as a prism of interpretation.......The Danish painter Martinus Rørbye was among of the Danish artists to reinvent the traditions of the genre of travel painting in the 1830s. His changes and developments of a new complex pictorial strategy were in many ways an answer to the changes in society, especially the advent of tourism....... The new travel image had its focus on concurrency, everyday life and the secular world, resulting in images that anticipated the photographic travel image, the snapshot and the travel postcard. The advent of this new strategy proved to have a very long after-life, as tourists and travellers of today still...

  17. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  18. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications.

  19. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  20. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Wolf, Y.I.; Oost, van der J.; Koonin, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi) is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially comp

  1. The Effects of Transition from DoD (Department of Defense) to ISO (international Standards Organization) OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Alpert , Director 1 copy Center for Advanced Study University of Illinois 912 W. Illinois Street Dr. Barry W. Boehm 1 copy TRW Defense Systems Group MS...Dr. Larry E. Druffel 1 copy Software Engineering Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Dr. C.E. Hutchinson, Dean 1 copy

  2. Update on travelers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2005-10-01

    As an international traveler, contact your health care provider at least 4 to 6 weeks before departure to obtain needed vaccinations and prophylactic medications. Be aware of the occurrence of any disease outbreaks in the countries you are visiting. While traveling, don't forget that one of the most important practices in preventing illness from infections is handwashing. Wash your hands carefully and frequently with soap and water, and if soap and water are not available use an alcohol-based hand rub. Be a responsible traveler by becoming informed about health risks and what to do to avoid them before you travel.

  3. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  4. Guidelines on the defense-in-depth and diversity planning and analysis in digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Se Woo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kwon, Ki Choon; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol

    2000-08-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are becoming an ever-increasing part in I and C systems of nuclear power plants due to such features such as versatility, flexibility, and reduced sizes. The digital technology introduces a possibility that common-cause or common-mode failures (CCF or CMF) may cause redundant safety systems to fail in such a way that there is loss of safety function. A special form of CMF analysis called 'defense-in-depth and diversity' (D-in-D and D) analysis has been developed to identify possible common-mode failure vulnerabilities and to support a specific licensing action in digital systems. There are two main stages in D-in-D and D activities: both plan and analysis. The purposes of this technical report are (i) to review background of D-in-D and D and some of important issues in digital D-in-D and D, (ii) to provide guidelines for a vendor to prepare planning and/or analysis documents on D-in-D and D, and (iii) to provide guidelines for an evaluator to review applicant's D-in-D and D planning and/or analysis documents, to ensure that the requirements of the D-in-D and D for digital I and C systems are followed. Most of guidelines suggested in this report were based on NUREG/CR-6303 which was published in 1994. The report will be helpful for a vendor to prepare and for an evaluator to review both D-in-D and D planning or analysis documents for digital I and C systems such as the KNGR project.

  5. The P3 Power Generation System for Advanced Missile Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Kansal, J. Hsu, J. Friedman, and M. B. Srivastava, "Design Considerations for Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Embedded Systems", IEEE...Generator", Proceedings of the Materials Research Society, Perovskite Materials, vol. 718, pp. D10.25.l-7 (2002) A.L. Olson, L.M. Eakins, B.W. Olson, D.F...system in which the P3 system is a bottoming cycle for a mid to high temperature fuel cell will be developed. This option will require a total of two

  6. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  7. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... they have the requisite skills in contracting. When specialized expertise is required, contracting... Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the system criteria are applicable equally to DoD, NASA, and...

  8. Study of Adversarial and Defensive Components in an Experimental Machinery Control Systems Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    GNU Radio , iPDC, PMU Simulator, Saleae Logic, and Termineter). These tools enhance the vulnerability identification and security assessment of energy...Name INL Kali SamuraiSTFU Developer System(s) OpenDNP3 x Automatak Cross-platform Energy Sector Tools GNU Radio x Eric Blossom / GNU Project...code, Revision Number, as well as the Device IP. https://github.com/digitalbond/Redpoint GNU Radio Eric Blossom / GNU Project Cross

  9. Major Defense Acquisition Program (MDAP) Trail Boss Overview and Joint Strike Fighter Decontamination Shelter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Individual Protection Joint Project Manager  Individual Protection 3 JAN 11 Joint Project Manager  Chemical Biological Medical Systems ( Biosurveillance ...Trail Boss) Joint Project Manager  Chemical Biological Medical Systems ( Biosurveillance  Trail Boss) • ra oss      Decontamination  Joint Project

  10. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  11. Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To determine the response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings, Isatis indigotica seedlings were subjected to UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m−2) for 8 h day−1 for 8 days (PAR, 220 µmol m−2 s−1) and then exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm; 5.23 mW mm−2; beam diameter: 1.5 mm) for 5 min each day without ambient light radiation. Changes in free radical elimination systems were measured, the results indicate that: (1) UV-B radiation enhanced the concentration of Malondialdahyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings compared with the control. The concentration of MDA was decreased and the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were increased when seedlings were subjected to elevated UV-B damage followed by laser; (2) the concentration of UV absorbing compounds and proline were increased progressively with UV-B irradiation, laser irradiation and He-Ne laser irradiation plus UV-B irradiation compared with the control. These results suggest that laser radiation has an active function in repairing UV-B-induced lesions in seedlings. PMID:19820308

  12. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  13. Towards a Cyber Defense Framework for SCADA Systems Based on Power Consumption Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M [ORNL; Chen, Qian [Savannah State University; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Calhoun, Chelsea [Savannah State University; Sykes, Summer [Savannah State University

    2017-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial automation system that remotely monitor, and control critical infrastructures. SCADA systems are major targets for espionage and sabotage attackers. According to the 2015 Dell security annual threat report, the number of cyber-attacks against SCADA systems has doubled in the past year. Cyber-attacks (i.e., buffer overflow, rootkits and code injection) could cause serious financial losses and physical infrastructure damages. Moreover, some specific cyber-attacks against SCADA systems could become a threat to human life. Current commercial off-the-shelf security solutions are insufficient in protecting SCADA systems against sophisticated cyber-attacks. In 2014 a report by Mandiant stated that only 69% of organizations learned about their breaches from third entities, meaning that these companies lack of their own detection system. Furthermore, these breaches are not detected in real-time or fast enough to prevent further damages. The average time between compromise and detection (for those intrusions that were detected) was 205 days. To address this challenge, we propose an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that detects SCADA-specific cyber-attacks by analyzing the power consumption of a SCADA device. Specifically, to validate the proposed approach, we chose to monitor in real-time the power usage of a a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To this end, we configured the hardware of the tetsbed by installing the required sensors to monitor and collect its power consumption. After that two SCADA-specific cyber-attacks were simulated and TracerDAQ Pro was used to collect the power consumption of the PLC under normal and anomalous scenarios. Results showed that is possible to distinguish between the regular power usage of the PLC and when the PLC was under specific cyber-attacks.

  14. Information for travellers' physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  15. Information for Travellers' Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, David J; Blinco, Kimberley

    1990-01-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  16. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL informs you that our agency will be closed from 22 December 2006 at 16:30 until 8 January 2007 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL branch at W.H.O. (Mr Pierre Plumettaz), phone: 022 791 55 95. We wish you already a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  17. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Pack ... Or how about sleepover camp? If you have asthma , you'll be packing more than your clothes ...

  18. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    conditions, correspond to the fields of natural sciences and to spatial aesthetics. The Travelling Transect method, inspired by Alexander von Humboldt’s method of transareal travelling and transversal collecting of ephemeral information from site, informs our exploratory fieldwork in the water landscapes...

  19. Traveler response to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed an impressive progress in the capabilities of travel information services. It is expected that in a few years, travelers will be constantly informed, pre-trip as well as en-route, about their optimal departure time, route and transport mode. The information is based

  20. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  1. Traveling with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... let them inspect it. Small jars of baby food travel well. They make little waste and you can dispose of them easily. Air ... not eat raw fruits or vegetables. Eat only food that is hot and has been cooked ... and hotels for guidance and assistance. For foreign travel, check ...

  2. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F; Carosi, G

    1995-01-01

    Annually, over 75 million international passengers travel to tropical areas, more than 20 million of whom come from industrialized countries. They experience a high rate of traveler's diarrhea (TD), varying from 20 to 56%, which may result in serious limitations to their activities. The cause of TD is considered to be infectious in the overwhelming majority of cases and, apart from differences in relative importance, the list of responsible microbial agents is fairly constant regardless of geographic origin. The ingestion of contaminated food or water is considered to be the principal mode of transmission of the enteric pathogens of TD. Several factors have been proposed as playing a role in the etiogenesis of diarrhea in travelers, including personal (age, socioeconomic status, body weight, preexisting gastrointestinal illnesses), behavioral (mode of travel, standard of accommodation, eating in public places, dietary errors) and travel-related (destination, duration of stay, country of origin, season) factors, which are reviewed in detail.

  3. Solution to Upgrade the Existing Power System Network Security Defense System%提升电力系统现有网络安全防御体系的解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永康; 周军鹏; 陈云峰

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed technologies of the existing power system network security defense,it shows the current security and defense technology can solve the vast majority of known malicious code attacks,but it is in a state of passive defense,which can not recognize the new and unknown malicious code,it proposed to upgrade the existing security defense system for the active defense system,to achieve the solution of differentiation and defense in depth.%对电力系统现有的网络安全防御技术进行了分析,得出当前的安全防御技术虽能够解决绝大部分已知的恶意代码攻击,但却处于对新型的和未知的恶意代码攻击无法识别的被动防御的状态,并提出将现有的安全防御体系提升为主动防御体系,实现差异化、纵深防御的解决方案。

  4. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  5. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  6. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... withholding payments. (e) System review matrix. Refer to the matrix at PGI 242.70X1(e) to cross-reference DCAA... estimates; (ii) Provide a written description of the organization and duties of the personnel responsible..., including but not limited to providing, as applicable-- (1) A basic structure that defines the form and...

  7. Conversion of the Defense Communications System from Analog to Digital Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Digital Services ," Proceedings of the IEEE, LX, No. 11 (November 1972), 1352. I p. 1353. 69Allen R. Worley, "The DATRAN System," Proceedings o t he IEE...August 1973, entire issue. Cox, J. E. "Western Union Digital Services ." Proceedings of the IEEE, LX, No. 11 (November 1972), 1350-57. "Crosstalk." Lenkurt

  8. Concepts. The Journal of Defense Systems Acquisition Management. Summer 1981. Volume 4, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Market research and analysis will...totally new function, market research and analysis , and by requiring decisions which could replace entire sections of the existing pro- cedures for major...systems acquisition. The market research and analysis (MR&A) function will determine the success or failure of the ADCP policy. Its that

  9. In defense of unified health system: discourses of health professionals, municipal counselors and aldermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly Garcia Delamuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of municipal health counselors, primary care professionals and aldermen about the Unified Health System and the Brazilian Primary Care Policy. From these, we intend to analyze their involvement to improve the system and verify participation in projects that foster discussions about the challenges of this issue. The investigation took a qualitative approach, the data being collected through 28 semi-structured interviews conducted between November and December 2010 in Londrina-PR. Between the interviewed groups, it becomes apparent that health professionals have better conceptual approach of public health policies. However, all groups demonstrate misconceptions and distance for the principles and guidelines of the Unified Health System, as well as provisions of the Brazilian Primary Care Policy. The findings pointed indicate focus on disease, prioritization of medical consultations and greater value of hospital structures. Although conceptualized with misconceptions, limitations are noted at the public health services. However, the proposals to change the frame remain with distorted connotations. In these groups no practical actions or projects were found to improve the public health scenario. It is concluded the need for ownership of theoretical knowledge about policies involving health organization, by stakeholders, to change the paradigms of the traditional model to the Primary Health care become valued and understood as form of organization of the system.

  10. Software Intensive Systems Data Quality and Estimation Research in Support of Future Defense Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    the units. For Kanban in less-familiar systems, and for sizing builds in agile methods such as Scrum , group consensus techniques such as Planning...Schwaber, K. and Beedle, M., Scrum : Agile Software Development, Prentice-Hall, 2002. [Selby 1988] Selby R, “Empirically Analyzing Software Reuse in

  11. Using Organizational Systems Theory to Improve Defense Acquisition and Warfighter Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    is no reality knowable.”13 The famous German philosopher, Friedrich Hegel, also mused over systems and is credited with highlighting the existence...Goodman, 1977). Although the best performing organizations are both effective and efficient ( Katz & Kahn, 1978), there may be tradeoffs between the two

  12. System Maturity Indices for Decision Support in the Defense Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    technologies, but was to be used as ontology for contracting support (Sadin, Povinelli , & Rosen, 1989), thus TRL does not address: A complete...via probabilistic solution discovery. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. In press. Sadin, S.R., Povinelli , F.P., & Rosen, R. (1989). The NASA

  13. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management.

  14. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management. Inspire

  15. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  16. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  17. Cybermediation in the Tourism and Travel Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Les

    Travel and tourism are second only to pornography in adopting Internet-based technologies to intermediate between those supplying the total travel experience, and those seeking to satisfy leisure needs by engaging in tourism. From Thomas Cook in the 1800s, traditional ‘travel trade networks’ have provided the components of the travel experience: transport, accommodation and attractions. However, the Internet has encouraged customer self-service, and on-going debate regarding the future of traditional travel trade intermediaries. The intermediation debate suggests the emergence of ‘hybrid’ intermediation systems combining customer self-service with face-to-face customer contacts characteristic of traditional travel agents. A focus group investigation identified profiles and motives of customers using the Internet to make holiday arrangements. Potential cost savings are a primary motivation for customer self-service. Using the Internet for travel and tourism is becoming commonplace among older travellers as well as younger people. In gathering information before making holiday decisions, potential tourists also engage in a Web 2.0 environment where family and friends, not established intermediaries, provide reliable and authentic information via their individual blogs.

  18. Stress responses sculpt the insect immune system, optimizing defense in an ever-changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley Anne

    2017-01-01

    A whole organism, network approach can help explain the adaptive purpose of stress-induced changes in immune function. In insects, mediators of the stress response (e.g. stress hormones) divert molecular resources away from immune function and towards tissues necessary for fight-or-flight behaviours. For example, molecules such as lipid transport proteins are involved in both the stress and immune responses, leading to a reduction in disease resistance when these proteins are shifted towards being part of the stress response system. Stress responses also alter immune system strategies (i.e. reconfiguration) to compensate for resource losses that occur during fight-or flight events. In addition, stress responses optimize immune function for different physiological conditions. In insects, the stress response induces a pro-inflammatory state that probably enhances early immune responses.

  19. Major Automated Information Systems: Selected Defense Programs Need to Implement Key Acquisition Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    information system NGEN Next Generation Enterprise Network PMBOK ® Project Management Body of Knowledge TMIP-J Theater Medical Information Program...Management Institute’s Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK ®), and assessed each of the 3 programs against these criteria.14 To...1) requirements management and (2) project monitoring and control best practices, as defined by CMMI-ACQ and PMBOK ®. We also assessed these

  20. Defense Information Systems Agency Technical Integration Support (DISA- TIS). MUMPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    programming language; it includes facilities for both high- and low-level programming . C supports low-level hardware control and bit manipulation in addition...purposes. Sup- porting structured programming C 1974 D. Ritchie ALGOL 68 Systems programming (Bell Labs) BCPL Ada 1979 J. lchbiah eta.. Pascal, General...requirements and has high de facto usage for scientific and mathematical programming . C also provides support for efficient array and matrix calculations

  1. System and Mass Storage Study for Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (DMATC/HC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    extraction, file merging, and file extension (beyond 1x1 blocks) features • Automated transaction log The DIED system was installed at...34 This standard establishes a uniform structure for the content and format of digital terrain elevation data. The file structure is organized into 1x1 ...time they completed their minicomputer evaluation study; a la^ge market for the PDP 11/70 already exists in both the government and commercial

  2. Defense Science Board Task Force Report: The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    or range sensing to identify and track handles, doorknobs or objects of interest. Grasping is informed by haptic sensing, both touch ( tactile ) and...uncontrolled action. While the reality of what autonomy is and can do is quite different from those conjured images, these concerns are—in some...independent acting system and automation as an augmentation of human operation. In such cases, autonomy’s fundamental benefits are to increase a

  3. Accelerating Technology Transition: Bridging the Valley of Death for Materials and Processes in Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN , University of Illinois, Chicago KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University JOHN J. GASSNER...Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, and Ranji Vaidyanathan, Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. 10:30 a.m. Boeing Phantom Works, David Banks, The Boeing...Bushman, 3M 8:45 a.m. Approaches Used for Deployment of Automated Biological Detection Systems, David Tilles, Northrop Grumman Automation and

  4. The Defense Civilian Intelligence Personnel System: An Independent Assessment of Design, Implementation, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    recruiting among the “ millennial ” generation of workers who are more accustomed to instant feedback and recognition and would not be content with a...curve, the suppression of wages by permitting bonuses to be paid instead of base salary increases, and the virtual elimination of merit consideration...not support a pay system which ultimately is designed to suppress wages for civilian DoD employees over time. In March 2009, DoD suspended

  5. Program Manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 12, Number 6, November-December 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Division, prime mission equipment acquisition languages in use; and (4) 40 percent of Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. He is a process and were designed to...compromising management style or objectives. It em- tems from both the public and private sectors. A synthesis braces a basic language that simplifies... Acqusition at the Defense Communications Agency" by tivity improvement is important to us in defense, then we Fred L. Adler, C. Bruce Baird, and Joseph

  6. RNAi and antiviral defense in Drosophila: setting up a systemic immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for the silencing of viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. In plants, systemic antiviral immunity has been demonstrated, however much less is known in animals. Recently, some evidence for a systemic antiviral response in arthropods has come to light. Cell autonomous RNAi may not be sufficient to reach an efficient antiviral response, and the organism might rely on the spread and uptake of an RNAi signal of unknown origin. In this review, we offer a perspective on how RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity could confer systemic protection in insects and we propose directions for future research to understand the mechanism of RNAi-immune signal sorting, spreading and amplification.

  7. The need for speed: testing acceleration for estimating animal travel rates in terrestrial dead-reckoning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidder, Owen R; Soresina, Marion; Shepard, Emily L C; Halsey, Lewis G; Quintana, Flavio; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Wilson, Rory P

    2012-02-01

    Numerous methods are currently available to track animal movements. However, only one of these, dead-reckoning, has the capacity to provide continuous data for animal movements over fine scales. Dead-reckoning has been applied almost exclusively in the study of marine species, in part due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the speed of terrestrial species. In the present study we evaluate the use of accelerometers and a metric known as overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) as a proxy for the measurement of speed for use in dead-reckoning. Data were collated from previous studies, for 10 species locomoting on a treadmill and their ODBA measured by an attached data logger. All species except one showed a highly significant linear relationship between speed and ODBA; however, there was appreciable inter- and intra-specific variance in this relationship. ODBA was then used to estimate speed in a simple trial run of a dead-reckoning track. Estimating distance travelled using speed derived from prior calibration for ODBA resulted in appreciable errors. We describe a method by which these errors can be minimised, by periodic ground-truthing (e.g., by GPS or VHF telemetry) of the dead-reckoned track and adjusting the relationship between speed and ODBA until actual known positions and dead-reckoned positions accord.

  8. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  9. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  10. Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin (LFX is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose, C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose, and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose. After seven days of administration, result indicated significant (P<0.05 increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.

  11. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular disease patients in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Hashemi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggest that antioxidant vitamins might reduce the risk of disease outcomes by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supplementation of vitamins E and C on oxidant and antioxidant status in CVD patients. We conducted a case-control study with vitamin E (400 IU/d) and vitamin C (500 mg/d) supplementation in 40 CVD patients for 2 mo. Antioxidant (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and oxidant status were analyzed pre and post supplementation. In the initial stage the activity of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were lower, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated (pvitamin E (83.7%), C (145.3%), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (62.8%) and a significant decrease in MDA (40%) value were observed (pvitamins E and C reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened the antioxidant defense system. Hence, there will be beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in CVD patients.

  12. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  13. Defense and counterdefense in the RNAi-based antiviral immune system in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Joël T; van Cleef, Koen W R; van Rij, Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway to combat virus infections in insects and plants. Hallmarks of antiviral RNAi in these organisms are: (1) an increase in virus replication after inactivation of major actors in the RNAi pathway, (2) production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (v-siRNAs), and (3) suppression of RNAi by dedicated viral proteins. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of RNAi in insects, its function as an antiviral immune system, viral small RNA profiles, and viral counterdefense strategies. We will also consider alternative, inducible antiviral immune responses.

  14. Onset of herbivore-induced resistance in systemic tissue primed for jasmonate-dependent defenses is activated by abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Irene A; Verhage, Adriaan; Schuurink, Robert C; Watt, Lewis G; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the MYC2 transcription factor on the one hand and the AP2/ERF transcription factors ORA59 and ERF1 on the other hand regulate distinct branches of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in an antagonistic fashion, co-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, respectively. Feeding by larvae of the specialist herbivorous insect Pieris rapae (small cabbage white butterfly) results in activation of the MYC-branch and concomitant suppression of the ERF-branch in insect-damaged leaves. Here we investigated differential JA signaling activation in undamaged systemic leaves of P. rapae-infested plants. We found that the MYC2 transcription factor gene was induced both in the local insect-damaged leaves and the systemic undamaged leaves of P. rapae-infested Arabidopsis plants. However, in contrast to the insect-damaged leaves, the undamaged tissue did not show activation of the MYC-branch marker gene VSP1. Comparison of the hormone signal signature revealed that the levels of JA and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine raised to similar extents in locally damaged and systemically undamaged leaves, but the production of ABA and the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid was enhanced only in the local herbivore-damaged leaves, and not in the distal undamaged leaves. Challenge of undamaged leaves of pre-infested plants with either P. rapae larvae or exogenously applied ABA led to potentiated expression levels of MYC2 and VSP1, with the latter reaching extremely high expression levels. Moreover, P. rapae-induced resistance, as measured by reduction of caterpillar growth on pre-infested plants, was blocked in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba2-1, that was also impaired in P. rapae-induced expression of VSP1. Together, these results suggest that ABA is a crucial regulator of herbivore-induced resistance by activating primed JA-regulated defense responses upon secondary herbivore attack in Arabidopsis.

  15. System-on-chip-centric unattended embedded sensors in homeland security and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Esterkin, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    System-on-chip (SoC) single-die electronic integrated circuit (IC) integration has recently been attracting a great deal of attention, due to its high modularity, universality, and relatively low fabrication cost. The SoC also has low power consumption and it is naturally suited to being a base for integration of embedded sensors. Such sensors can run unattended, and can be either commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic, COTS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or optical-COTS or produced in house (i.e., at Physical Optics Corporation, POC). In the version with the simplest electronic packaging, they can be integrated with low-power wireless RF that can communicate with a central processing unit (CPU) integrated in-house and installed on the specific platform of interest. Such a platform can be a human body (for e-clothing), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), or many others. In this paper we discuss SoC-centric embedded unattended sensors in Homeland Security and military applications, including specific application scenarios (or CONOPS). In one specific example, we analyze an embedded polarization optical sensor produced in house, including generalized Lambertian light-emitting diode (LED) sources and secondary nonimaging optics (NIO).

  16. Comparative analysis of kill probability one of the main features of Air Defense Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile SANDRU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The combat features of the Ground Based Air Defence Systems represent the potential of search, discovery, indicate, combat and destruction of the enemy's air assets and the ability to manoeuvre of forces and combat means, for the purpose of capturing the enemy's airspace and avoid actions and attack to defend objectives (of troops assigned in the area of responsibility tacking into account the conditions established by the mission. The paper is focused on a comparative study on the possibilities of target destruction of the Air Air Defence Systems (antiaircraft artillery and Surface-To-Air Missiles. Two situations were chosen: for the first case, related to S1, S2 and S3, we’ve assumed the presence of a flying target describing a uniform rectilinear trajectory both in the presence and in the absence of the enemy’s electronic jamming. For the second case concerning S4 we’ve assumed that the target changed its angle of flight.

  17. In the presence of danger:the extracellular matrix defensive response to central nervous system injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyn B. Jakeman; Kent E. Williams; Bryan Brautigam

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to formation of the extracellular matrix, which provides adhesive sites, signaling molecules, and a diffusion barrier to enhance efifcient neurotransmission and axon potential propagation. In the normal adult CNS, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is relatively stable except in selected regions characterized by dynamic remodel-ing. However, after trauma such as a spinal cord injury or cortical contusion, the lesion epicenter becomes a focus of acute neuroinlfammation. The activation of the surrounding glial cells leads to a dramatic change in the composition of the ECM at the edges of the lesion, creating a perile-sion environment dominated by growth inhibitory molecules and restoration of the peripheral/central nervous system border. An advantage of this response is to limit the invasion of damaging cells and diffusion of toxic molecules into the spared tissue regions, but this occurs at the cost of inhibiting migration of endogenous repair cells and preventing axonal regrowth. The following review was prepared by reading and discussing over 200 research articles in the ifeld published in PubMed and selecting those with signiifcant impact and/or controversial points. This article highlights structural and functional features of the normal adult CNS ECM and then focuses on the reactions of glial cells and changes in the perilesion border that occur following spinal cord or contusive brain injury. Current research strategies directed at modifying the inhibitory perile-sion microenvironment without eliminating the protective functions of glial cell activation are discussed.

  18. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  19. Host-pathogen interactions between the human innate immune system and Candida albicans-understanding and modeling defense and evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühring, Sybille; Germerodt, Sebastian; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The diploid, polymorphic yeast Candida albicans is one of the most important human pathogenic fungi. C. albicans can grow, proliferate and coexist as a commensal on or within the human host for a long time. However, alterations in the host environment can render C. albicans virulent. In this review, we describe the immunological cross-talk between C. albicans and the human innate immune system. We give an overview in form of pairs of human defense strategies including immunological mechanisms as well as general stressors such as nutrient limitation, pH, fever etc. and the corresponding fungal response and evasion mechanisms. Furthermore, Computational Systems Biology approaches to model and investigate these complex interactions are highlighted with a special focus on game-theoretical methods and agent-based models. An outlook on interesting questions to be tackled by Systems Biology regarding entangled defense and evasion mechanisms is given.

  20. [Thromboembolism in travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, I; Sándor, T

    2001-11-11

    The association between long haul travel and the risk of venous thromboembolism are suspected for long time. Mostly air travel related thrombosis series have been reported in the literature. Risk factors can be classified as: 1. travel related factors (coach position, immobilization, prolonged air travel, narrow seat and room, diuretic effect of alcohol, insufficient fluid intake, dehydration, direct pressure on leg veins, rare inspiration). 2. air plane related risk factors (low humidity, relative hypoxia, stress). 3. patient related factors (hereditary and acquired thrombophylia, previous deep venous thrombosis, age over 40, recent surgery or trauma, gravidity, puerperium, oestrogen containing pills, varicosity, chronic heart disease, obesity, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, smoking). No patient related factors were found in some cases. To reduce the hazards air travellers are rightly concerned to know the level of the risk and the airlines should be responsible for this information. People should discuss with their physician what prophlylactic measures should be taken, such as compression stockings or low molecular weight heparin. Not only flight but car, bus and train travellers are also at risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Long haul travel alone is a separate risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

  1. Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses attempt to create a distinctive cellular environment to favor viral replication and spread. Recent studies uncovered new functions of the sphingolipid signaling/metabolism during pathogenic virus infections. While sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide were reported to influence the entry step of several viruses, sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes could directly alter viral replication processes. Influenza virus was shown to increase the level of sphingosine kinase (SK 1 to promote virus propagation. The mechanism involves regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the amplification of influenza viral RNA synthesis and nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. However, bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits SK1 to enhance the efficacy of virus replication, demonstrating the presence of virus-specific strategies for modulation of the sphingolipid system. Therefore, investigating the sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the context of virus replication could help us design innovative therapeutic approaches to improve human health.

  2. 防空武器系统射击概率研究%Research on Firing Probability of Air Defense System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩星; 段芳芳; 高剑

    2014-01-01

    Operational effectiveness of an air defense system is an important factor to evaluate advantages and disad-vantage of the system. Through establishing firing probability model of air defense weapon system, firing probability of an anti-aircraft gun and missile integrated air defense system is analyzed, relation between firing probability and air attack intensity and multi-target capability is determined, which can provide design consideration for system designer.%地面防空武器系统作战效能是衡量武器系统优劣的重要因素。本文通过建立防空武器系统射击概率模型,对某弹炮结合防空武器系统射击概率进行分析,明确射击概率与空袭密度和系统同时多目标能力之间的关系,为系统设计人员提供设计依据。

  3. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  4. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inflammation and schizophrenia: alterations in cytokine levels and perturbation in antioxidative defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, A K; Khan, Md W

    2014-02-01

    Although several theories have been proposed including developmental/neurodegenerative processes, neurotransmitter abnormalities, viral infection, and immune dysfunction, the exact causative factor of schizophrenia is unclear. A relationship between inflammation and schizophrenia has been supported by abnormal cytokine production and altered antioxidant status. This study was aimed to examine the alterations in serum oxidative-antioxidative status and cytokine levels of schizophrenic patients. A total of 91 schizophrenic patients from Saudi Arabia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Fresh blood samples were collected to measure the levels of cytokines and markers of oxidative stress by spectrophotometric assays simultaneously. We observed that there was a significant increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and a decrease in the levels of interferon-γ. Lipid peroxides are elevated in serum, while total-sulfhydryl levels were decreased. Also, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased, while the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, and myeloperoxidase were found to be elevated in serum. We conclude that inflammation resulting from dysregulation of cytokines and altered antioxidant systems may play a critical role in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  6. Enhancement of antioxidant defense system by epigallocatechin-3-gallate during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Narayanan; Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2008-07-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical scavenging systems plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol and a major component of green tea, possess a potent antioxidant property. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of EGCG in the plasma and lungs during bleomycin induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Intratracheal administration of bleomycin (6.5 U/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significant reduction of body weight, enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A). Elevations in lung W/D (wet weight/dry weight) ratio, hydroxyproline content was observed with a synchronized increase in lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides). Intraperitoneal administration of EGCG at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight significantly improved the body weight, enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants and considerably decreased the W/D ratio, hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation marker levels. Histological observations also correlated with the biochemical parameters. Thus, this study confirms the beneficial use of EGCG in alleviating the oxidative stress induced during pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis.

  8. Impact of Contract Bundling and Consolidation on Defense Acquisition System and Defense Industrial Base: The Case of the U.S. Department of the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    or 39% of the value of such contracts. Next, a group of nine firms—EDO Communications and Countermeasures Systems, Lockheed Martin, Sociedad ...49,437,854.00 5.94% SOCIEDAD ESPAIOLA DE MONTAJES INDUSTRIALES SA $60,000,000.00 7.21% LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION $79,342,491.00 9.54% EDO

  9. 舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统技术研究%Study on Shipped Missile-Gun Integrated Defense Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白奕

    2014-01-01

    现代高性能反舰导弹是舰艇末端防御的最大威胁,而舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统为舰艇的末端防御提供了一种有效的途径。分析了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统的作战使用和主要特点,针对海上空袭武器的特点,重点研究了增强系统抗饱和攻击能力的设计方法,并探讨了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统在现代海战中的使用方向。%Modern high-powered antiship missile is the main threaten of ship,and shipped missile-gun integrated defense weapon system is an effective way to the terminal defense of ship. This paper first analyzes the combat operation and main characteristic of missile-gun integrated defense weapon system,then studies the key factor of designing a system. At last the system usage is discussed in the modern sea war.

  10. 分布式信息安全防御系统的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Distributed Information Security Defense System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国鑫; 朱宪花

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the United Threat Management(UTM)'s problems of single point failure and stability of equipment etc., a distributed information security defense system is designed. This system is tree multi-level management structure, it can be divided into three parts, including proactive defense platform, monitoring nodes and host monitoring module. They separately undertake different information system defense tasks. So it can effectively relieve the safety management burden of the gateway, thus solve the problems of single point failure and system stability. This helps to solve hybrid network security threats.%针对统一威胁管理(UTM)的单点失效、设备稳定性等问题,设计一种分布式信息安全防御系统.该系统为树形多级管理结构,可分为主动防御平台、监控节点、主机监控模块3个部分,分别承担不同的信息系统防御任务.实验结果表明,该系统可有效地减轻网关处的安全管理负担,解决单点失效及系统稳定性问题,适用于防御混合型网络安全威胁.

  11. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  12. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Dear customers, On 3 January we informed you that the airlines had decided to cease paying commission to travel agencies in Switzerland. This measure has since been progressively introduced, with rare exceptions. Consequently, in agreement with CERN, we are obliged to apply new transaction fees for private travel, with immediate effect. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) offers: A personalized, professional and competent consultancy service To seek the most economical and best solution adapted to your needs Neutrality in comparing prices and benefits Additional information concerning e.g. visa regulations, insurance, vaccinations, etc. Support in the event of problems We draw your attention to the fact that, in spite of the increase, these prices remain very competitive on today's market. Thank you for your trust and understanding. Yours truly, Carlson Wagonlit Travel CERN agency

  13. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryptosporidiosis was associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found a 6. ... 22. Lalonde LF, Gajadhar AA. Effect of storage media, temperature, and time on preservation of Cryptosporidium parvum ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from rabies in a UK traveller returning from India. Euro Surveill. 2005 Jul;10(30):E050728 5. ... Follow CDC Email Recommend Tweet Post RSS CDC Media Listen Watch YouTube About CDC Employment Newsroom Training/ ...

  15. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  16. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stirrup. These are the smallest bones in your body. Together they are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which ... organizations Related Topics ...

  17. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  18. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traveler Registration During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Resources For Clinicians In-Clinic Quick Links ... toxoid vaccine before departure. After a childhood primary series and a booster dose during adolescence, routine booster ...

  19. Travelling or not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus; Lai, Signe Sophus

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a quantitative content analysis (Krippendorff, 2013) of the first episode of the 32 Danish drama series produced between 2005 and 2014. A number of these have experienced unprecedented, international success, with series such as Borgen (2010-13) and The Killing (2007......-12) travelling to multiple countries on several continents. The article shows that there are systematic differences in terms of formal characteristics, themes, and characters’ communicative style between the series that travel and the series that do not. Especially, the analysis finds that the presence of strong...... female lead characters is systematically linked to the positive travel patterns of the series, and that this cuts across different genres of series. The analysis also finds that series, which have explicitly low production values and simple narrative structure, systematically travels poorer....

  20. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... weight may be small in relation to the size and number of wounds. RIG is difficult to ...

  2. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy snacks, like fresh or dried fruit, veggies, trail mix, or granola bars.Other helpful carry-on ... phone number with you in case of an emergency. If you have a severe food allergy, travel ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel ... military personnel, construction workers, and people who do research outdoors at night or twilight. However, even short- ...

  4. CADMIUM AND NICKEL COMBINED EFFECT ON ASCORBATE-DEPENDENT MECHANISM OF ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM OF PEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Artiushenko

    2014-04-01

    towards control level, i.e. there is a significant induction of the synthesis process. In addition, the amount of ascorbate oxidized forms, as in previous research period, continued to increase. After 24 hours of experiment we registered similar to 12 hours trend of changes in the content of ascorbic acid metabolites. Violation of pro-/antioxidant balance also accompanied by increased ascorbate peroxidase activity. In the pea root system there is the tendency to increase the ascorbate peroxidase activity and this is in concordance with the increasing content of ascorbic and dehydroascorbate acids. At the beginning of stressful activities caused by cadmium and nickel compounds in the leaves is not the case of ascorbate peroxidase activity changes, although 7-hour influence resulted in a statistically significant increase in activity specified oxidoreductase. By the action of heavy metals in low concentrations the content of ascorbic acid in pea leaves increased by 14%. High content in the medium of at least one of the metals since 7-hour exposure caused the depletion of antioxidant resources, as evidenced by the decrease of ascorbic acid in the assimilation organs. After 24 hours of experiment we observed a slowdown in ascorbate peroxidase activity, which could be explained by the lack of ascorbic acid under prolonged stress exposure. Keywords: Pisum sativum L., cadmium, nickel, ascorbic acid, ascorbate peroxidase.

  5. [The condition of the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defense" in mixed saliva of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiyugin, I A; Volchegorskiy, I A

    2014-02-01

    The comparative analysis was made concerning conditions of the system "Peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defenses in mixed saliva of patients with chronic disseminated periodontitis of light (n = 45), mean (n = 36) and severe (n = 18) degrees. The control group consisted of 25 clinically healthy persons with intact periodontium. The study revealed that in comparison with control group, in patients with chronic disseminated periodontitis occurred an increasing of content of heptane-soluble diene conjugates, isopropanol-soluble ketodienes and conjugated trienes, ceruloplasmin and a decreasing of level of alpha-tocopherol, especially under severe degree of disease. The study also established a non-linear U-dependence between indicators of the system "Peroxide oxidation of lipids-antioxidant defenses" in mixed saliva and severity of affection of tissues of periodontium in patients with chronic disseminated dermatosis.

  6. Travel patterns in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  7. Why They Travel Alone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    "WHY Chinese Women Travel Alone" was the theme of a special edition of "Truth Talk" a popular talk show on China Central Television (CCTV), which focused on a few middle-aged women from different cultural backgrounds, social classes, and various educational backgrounds who had all branched out on their own for one reason or another. Each woman spoke of her experiences and feelings while travelling alone. They were all

  8. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  9. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  10. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  12. A Decision Support System for Identifying and Ranking Critical Habitat Parcels on and in the Vicinity of Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    DOD Department of Defense DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DSS Decision Support System DTM Digital Terrain...Typically a 200 foot buffer is marked around the set of cavity trees belonging to a woodpecker group (termed a cavity tree cluster), and within...girdling trees with wire, burying cable, firing artillery within 600 feet and using anything that produces excessive disturbance (e.g., noise

  13. The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, Version 7.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    human factors ” are causal in a majority of military mishaps. This report also reports on a Department of Defense (DoD) effort to improve the system...used to categorize causal and contributing human factors . Specifically, recent attempts to improve coding methods with the goal of achieving better...only as causal . Factor – Any deviation, out-of-the-ordinary, or deficient action or condition discovered in the course of a mishap investigation

  14. Construction of the Disciplinary System of Defense S & T Information Science & Its Core Field Research%装备科技情报学科体系构筑与核心领域研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符福峘

    2003-01-01

    Five issues regarding the construction of the disciplinary system of defense S & T information science are discussed, i. e. the concept and the research subject; the basic factors; the research object and major fields; the na-ture and academic position; and the function and mission. It's pointed out that strengthening the research on the theoreti-cal system of defense S & T information science and using this system to guide information practice and promote the devel-opment of defense S & T information undertakings are of great significance.

  15. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles.

  16. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  17. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  18. Cultivated sea lettuce is a multiorgan protector from oxidative and inflammatory stress by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. Although antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies showed that Nrf2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Liusheng Duan; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Zhaohu Li

    2007-01-01

    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management.Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sangulnalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ·m-2·d-1) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots' dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology.Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus,which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broadleafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.

  20. Role of 9-Lipoxygenase and α-Dioxygenase Oxylipin Pathways as Modulators of Local and Systemic Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Vicente; Tomás Cascón; Begonya Vicedo; Pilar García-Agustín; Mats Hamberg; Carmen Castresana

    2012-01-01

    Plant 9-lipoxygenases(9-LOX)and α-dioxygenases(α-DOX)initiate the synthesis of oxylipins after bacterial infection.Here,the role of these enzymes in plants' defense was investigated using individual Arabidopsis thaliana lox1 and dox1 mutants and a double lox1 dox1 mutant.Studies with Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato(Pst)revealed the enhanced susceptibility of lox1 to the virulent strain Pst DC3000 and the partial impairment of lox1 and dox1 mutants to activate systemic acquired resistance.Notably,both defects were enhanced in the lox1 dox1 plants as compared with individual mutants.We found that pre-treatment with 9-LOX- and α-DOX-generated oxylipins protected plant tissues against bacterial infection.The strongest effect in this respect was exerted by 9-ketooctadecatrienoic acid(9-KOT),which is produced from linolenic acid by 9-LOX.Quantification of 9-KOT revealed its accumulation after bacterial infection.The levels were reduced in lox1 and lox1 dox1 plants but strongly increased in the dox1 mutant due to metabolic interaction of the two pathways.Transcriptional analyses indicated that 9-KOT pre-treatment modifies hormone homeostasis during bacterial infection.The nature of the changes detected suggested that 9-KOT interferes with the hormonal changes caused by bacterial effectors.This notion was substantiated by the finding that 9-KOT failed to reduce the growth of PstDC3000hrpA,a mutant compromised in effector secretion,and of the avirulent strain Pst DC3000 avrRpm1.Further support for the action of the 9-LOX- and α-DOX-oxylipin pathways as modulators of hormone homeostasis was the observation that lox1 dox1 seedlings are hypersensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of ABA and showed enhanced activation of ABA-inducible marker genes as compared with wild-type plants.