WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense policy objectives

  1. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  2. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  3. Strategic nuclear policy and ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The article explains the problems of the antirockets (ABM) as they were part of the presentation Salt I 1972. It is a translation from the English of a publication of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute in London. A topical analysis of the strategic nuclear policy of the two superpowers and their attitudes in the question of ballistic missile defense are given by means of two monographies. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. The US-Russia missile defense dialogue as a factor of the Russian defense policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Suslov

    2013-01-01

    To a big extent the Russian defense policy and, as a consequence, development of the Russian defense industrial complex, is determined by the prospects of the US missile defense policy and fate of the US-Russia negotiations in this area. As a cooperative solution seems improbable in the observable future, Russia plans to develop certain response measures of military nature, including creation of a new heavy ICBM, and to create its own missile defense by 2015. However, this policy does not see...

  5. Why Social Policy Needs Objective Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThere are many qualms about subjective indicators, and some believe that social policy would be better for not using them. This paper consists of a review of these objections. It is argued that policy makers need subjective indicators. The main reasons being: 1. Social policy is never

  6. Status of DOE defense waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program

  7. European security and defense policy and its implications for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özköse, Ö Faruk

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The “European Security and Defense Policy” is an evolving process. Since the Maastricht Treaty (1991), the European Union members have been trying to constitute a common security and defense policy within the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy, second pillar of the European Union. The efforts to create “separable but not separate” European forces within NATO have increased speed in the last years and changed direction towar...

  8. Pareto Optimal Solutions for Network Defense Strategy Selection Simulator in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If the defender knows his preferred reward distribution, the advantages of Pareto optimization can be retained by using a scalarization algorithm prior to the implementation of the MORL. In this paper, we simulate a network defense scenario by creating a multi-objective zero-sum game and using Pareto optimization and MORL to determine optimal solutions and compare those solutions to different scalarization approaches. We build a Pareto Defense Strategy Selection Simulator (PDSSS system for assisting network administrators on decision-making, specifically, on defense strategy selection, and the experiment results show that the Satisficing Trade-Off Method (STOM scalarization approach performs better than linear scalarization or GUESS method. The results of this paper can aid network security agents attempting to find an optimal defense policy for network security games.

  9. Decline of Civilian power in Japan's Defense Policy

    OpenAIRE

    SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫

    2006-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...

  10. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  11. Assessment of Ukranian National Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    Romanian- Slovakian-Hungarian engineer battalion “Tisa”, as a rapid reaction force with the mission of natural disaster relief in the Carpathian region...threats (Army’s multifunctional NBC protection and engineer units) and experience of their using ( Chernobyl nuclear plant in 1986, humanitarian...man-made disasters was exemplified by the 2011 nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Moreover, based on the results of the Strategic Defense Review in Ukraine

  12. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  13. The Future of American Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    16-44. Sharma, Avi. "Who Leads in a G-Zero World? Multi-Nationals, Sustainable Development, and Corporate Social Responsibility in a Changing...Policies in the U.S. & Western Europe." Public Finance & Management 7, no. 3(September 2007): 295-339. Tiltiņš, Alekss and Baiba Šavriņa. "Alternative

  14. National Security and the Industrial Policy Debate: Modernizing Defense Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    47. 49. Michael Schroeder and Walecia Konrad, " Nucor : Rolling Right Into Steel’s Big Time," Business Week 19 Nov. 1990: 76. 50. Clyde V. Prestowitz...Defense." The I Industrial Policy Debate. Ed. Chalmers Johnson. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1984. i 74I Schroeder, Michael and Walecia Konrad. " Nucor

  15. Report of the Defense Science Board/Defense Policy Board Task Force On Theater Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... also tackled the controversial subject of the ABM Treaty and its effect on theater missile defenses Subsequent to its interim report, which expressed strong concerns about the demarcation path the US...

  16. German Defense Policy At A Turning Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In discussing “the question of Germany’s normalizing ambitions”, Chaya Arora (2006) describes three important developments that have “added to...22). Which War to Mention?; Germany’s Russia Policy. The Economist, p. 25. Arora, Chaya . (2006). Germany’s Civilian Power Diplomacy: NATO...Dieter Dettke, Germany Says “No”, 73. 22 Ibid., 72. 23 Adrian Hyde-Price, Germany & European Order, 123. 24 Ibid., 123. 25 Ibid., 123. 26 Chaya

  17. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  18. On Some Tendencies in Defense Policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia K. Meden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the newest trends in the German defense policy, caused by the aggravation of European geopolitical situation. The author analyzes various sources, among them official reports presented to the Ministry of Defense and the Bundestag; speeches by the Minister of Defense and by supreme commanders of the Bundeswehr; published in mass media information on condition and problems of the military forces, as well as modernization of the equipment. Officially it is deemed, that the reform of the Bundeswehr which started in 2011, so far has turned into an amorphous process of renewal (Neuausrichtung, intended to improve the military organization. Since the acting Cabinet was farmed, Ursula von der Leyen - the first woman Minister of Defense of Germany - directs these activities, and her style of work affects all the work in the Ministry. Meanwhile, the revision of the main parameters of the defensive activity and the whole German politics is caused not by a fresh leadership, but by the most sharp after the end of the "cold war" geopolitical crisis in Europe. The author comes to conclusion, that a turning point in the Defensive Policy of Germany is taking shape, so that all the aspects of military organization are now affected: command stuff training, military equipment, strengthening of ties with allies. Anti-Russian propaganda in mass-media reanimates an image of an enemy and prepares public opinion to the future growth of military expenses; it even overcomes certain pacifism, so usual in modern society. Here in Russia, one must take all this into account, as an idea of the low fighting capacity of the Bundeswehr, which was formed in the last years, is getting obsolete, and could became a dangerous illusion.

  19. Singapore’s Defense Policy: Essential or Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Republic, Ecuador , El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco...mitigating measures, it is timely to establish the appropriate context to ensure a focused and fruitful discussion of Singapore’s defense policy. As...regional allies. 41 Today, ASEAN has matured considerably as an organization, buoyed by the relative warmth and stability of regional relationships in

  20. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  1. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  2. New technologies and defense policy for the European theater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipis, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in what should be a reassuring phenomenon for America's European allies, US military planners think of applications of new technologies in new conventional weapons systems almost exclusively in the context of defending Western Europe. Given the global interests of the United States and the nature and location of emerging threats (as the Gulf war has so dramatically emphasized) this is a rather narrow base for US conventional weapons modernization planning. As recent events in Eastern Europe make clear, the cogency of America's defense policy may be dramatically undermined by the reduction of the Soviet threat. As yet, it is unclear to what extent the development of future conventional forces will be conducted with reference to America's participation in NATO

  3. Administrative Management by Objectives. Policy 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Allen County Schools, New Haven, IN.

    Management-by-objectives (MBO) focuses attention on objectives stated as end accomplishments rather than the activities which bring about those accomplishments. MBO identifies eight major areas of management which become involved in the process: (1) planning, (2) performance appraisal, (3) individual motivation, (4) coordination, (5) control, (6)…

  4. Multi-Objective Constraint Satisfaction for Mobile Robot Area Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    David A. Van Veldhuizen . Evo- lutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Problems. Springer, New York, NY, 2nd edition, 2007. [9] Dean, Thomas...J.I. van Hemert, E. Marchiori, and A. G. Steenbeek. “Solving Binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems using Evolutionary Algorithms with an Adaptive

  5. Is a Blanket Elective Single Embryo Transfer Policy Defensible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Y. Adashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity, elective single transfer (eSET in in vitro fertilization (IVF was first proposed in 1999. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent oral debate between a proponent and an opponent of expanded eSET utilization in an attempt to determine whether a blanket eSET policy, as is increasingly considered, is defensible. While eSET is preferable when possible, and agreed upon by provider and patient, selective double embryo transfer (DET must be seriously entertained if deemed more appropriate or is desired by the patient. Patient autonomy, let alone prolonged infertility and advancing age, demand nothing less. Importantly, IVF-generated twins represent only 15.7% of the national twin birth rate in the United States. Non-IVF fertility treatments have been identified as the main cause of all multiple births for quite some time. However, educational and regulatory efforts over the last decade, paradoxically, have exclusively only been directed at the practice of IVF, although IVF patient populations are rapidly aging. It is difficult to understand why non-IVF fertility treatments, usually applied to younger women, have so far escaped attention. This debate on eSET utilization in association with IVF may contribute to a redirection of priorities.

  6. Applying Rapid Acquisition Policy Lessons for Defense Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    import- ing Silicon Valley- style innovation practices to its acquisition process, it is im- portant to assess an organization’s ability to...these efforts. Keywords: defense acquisition, defense procurement, rapid acquisition, de- fense innovation, program management , organizational culture...Device De- feat Organization, JIEDDO, Rapid Equipping Force, REF Silicon Valley- style innovation is a hot topic in the Department of De-fense (DOD). For

  7. Ukraine's Foreign Policy: from Military Doctrine to Defense Security One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович Кузьмук

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of reforming and developing Ukraine’s Armed Forces on the basis of the analysis of the key provisions of the Strategic defense bulletin adopted in 2012. The author proposes the ways of solving this problem and substantiates the transition in the defense planning from the military doctrine to the doctrine of Ukraine’s security and defense.

  8. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrews, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    .... This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing...

  9. Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E.; Wood, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ishikawa, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hyde, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-05-24

    Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.

  10. 7 CFR 1210.330 - Policy and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... research, development, advertising, and promotion in order to: (a) Strengthen watermelons' competitive... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1210.330 Policy and objective...

  11. 78 FR 77664 - Defense Policy Board (DPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...: (a) Issues central to strategic DoD planning; (b) policy implications of U.S. force structure and force modernization and on DoD's ability to execute U.S. defense strategy; (c) U.S. regional defense... public or interested organizations may submit written statements to the membership of the DPB at any time...

  12. Extreme Trust Region Policy Optimization for Active Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei; Sun, Fuchun; Huaping Liu; Yupei Wu; Fuchun Sun; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei

    2018-06-01

    In this brief, we develop a deep reinforcement learning method to actively recognize objects by choosing a sequence of actions for an active camera that helps to discriminate between the objects. The method is realized using trust region policy optimization, in which the policy is realized by an extreme learning machine and, therefore, leads to efficient optimization algorithm. The experimental results on the publicly available data set show the advantages of the developed extreme trust region optimization method.

  13. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  14. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    for discussing how a multi objective policy paradigm can contribute to future climate change mitigation. The paper includes country case studies from Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, South Korea and the United States covering renewable energy options......, industry, transportation, the residential sector and cross-sectoral policies. These countries and regions together contribute more than two thirds of global GHG emissions. The paper finds that policies that are nationally driven and that have multiple objectives, including climate-change mitigation, have...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  15. Policy priority objectives: comparative assessment in four European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Ramos, A.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainability must be an urban issue. Cities should be managed so as to minimize their impacts on environment, but providing an appropriate framework for economic and social development. However, European cities are facing some trends that threaten sustainable development. The aim of the EC research project INSIGHT-7FP (2013/16) is to develop appropriate management tools that can help to achieve sustainability in the context of European cities. In the project, a set of policy objectives have been designed for the management of urban areas, in order to face the main threats existing over cities. The paper presents a methodology based on indicators for analysing the progress towards these ten policy objectives in the four EU cities participating in the project: London (12.3 mill. inhab.), Madrid (6.4 mill. inhab.), Barcelona (5.4 mill. inhab.) and Rotterdam (1.4 mill. inhab.). All the indicators used in the analysis have been validated by ten policy makers of European cities. These policy makers participated on the stakeholders consultation carried out in the project, where the importance of the policy objectives proposed was also assessed. The paper concludes determining the policy priority objectives in each city, in order to contain the main threats existing over them: London should especially address the threats of social exclusion and transport inefficiency; Madrid the threats of economic decline and urban sprawl; Barcelona the economic decline and Rotterdam the contribution to climate change and the urban sprawl. Finally, the role played by the land use and transport system in these policy objectives is analysed. To this end, the assessment allows for the comparability of the results in a horizontal manner, in the basis of common indicators. Nearly half of these indicators are related to the land use and transport system of the cities. (Author)

  16. Who’s in Charge? Defense Policy Formation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Hongo , DPJ shows stress fractures under pressure of leadership, August 8, 2009, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090808f1.html (accessed...ballistic shield.” September 1, 2000. Jane’s International Defense Review. http://www4.janes.com/subscribe (accessed August 18, 2010). Hongo , Jun

  17. The Value of a European Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-08

    relations has lately dominated US foreign policy. Subsequently some normative and meta- ethical conceptual conclusions will be drawn upon to show how US...relations has lately dominated US foreign policy by analyzing recent 3 policy decisions. After this analysis, some normative meta ethical conclusions...old patterns or as Kagan writes: “Europeans have stepped out of the Hobbesian world of anarchy into the Kantian world of perpetual peace.”13 The fact

  18. 32 CFR 237a.3 - Objective and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.3 Objective and policy. (a) It is important that...D. Such understanding can be achieved by (1) wide dissemination of information to the business community, consistent with national security, and (2) cooperation with industry in public relations...

  19. Fundamental Objectives and Directives Principles of State Policy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is a term that is eclectic. It is a global phenomenon that has paired itself with both past and present civilizations. Financial corruption is a variant of this obnoxious ill of modern state, Nigeria not being an exception. The provisions of the Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State policy in the ...

  20. Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Office of Management and Budget xviii Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices PSC Product and Service Code...themselves as minority-owned, women-owned, veteran- owned, or small disadvantaged businesses . The resulting database gives sourcing managers a tool for...REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A

  1. Analysis of Government Policies to Support Sustainable Domestic Defense Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the form of tax receipts from home and overseas sales, such as income taxes , corporate taxes , as well as avoiding unemployment pay (if workers are...Economic Co-Operation and Development [ OECD ], 2015) .............................................................30 Figure 3. Classification of Offset...domestic defense industry, the end result may be an unacceptably high cost to the government and the population. To avoid this outcome, the main function

  2. The role of community policies in defensible space compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Winter; Sarah McCaffrey; Christine A. Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Recently enacted federal and state policies provide incentives, including financial assistance, for local jurisdictions to manage risks associated with wildland fire. This has led to an array of local-level policies designed to encourage homeowners to create fire-safe landscapes. This qualitative study collected data from focus group interviews with homeowners in three...

  3. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  4. Kazakhstan's Defense Policy: An Assessment of the Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDermott, Roger N

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. war on terrorism, with its deployment of military assets within Central Asia in support of ongoing antiterrorist operations in Afghanistan, ensures the long-term strategic importance of Central Asia in U.S. policy planning...

  5. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  6. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza A: balancing conflicting policy objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Déirdre Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention, our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R(0 and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies

  7. Analysis of Department of Defense social media policy and its impact on operational security

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardi, Eric V.; Murphy, Mark; Kim, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The emergence and rapid adoption of social media by society has forced the Department of Defense (DOD) to adapt, and ultimately develop and incorporate, social media policy into its cybersecurity strategy. While social media has influenced DOD strategy, it has also had a direct impact on the organization’s operational security (OPSEC). DOD personnel using social media represent a potential OPSEC risk through the various ways and means ...

  8. Considering Materiality in Educational Policy: Messy Objects and Multiple Reals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Educational analysts need new ways to engage with policy processes in a networked world of complex transnational connections. In this discussion, Tara Fenwick and Richard Edwards argue for a greater focus on materiality in educational policy as a way to trace the heterogeneous interactions and precarious linkages that enact policy as complex…

  9. Effective Management for National or Local Policy Objectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; Skou, Mette; Beer, Frederikke

    This research considers the role of local policies and management in affecting street-level bureaucrats’ actions in implementing national policy mandates. The focus on sanctioning behavior by social workers provides a strong test of these effects, given that the behaviors are both visible and have...... workers with a better fit with the goals of the organization increases workers’ compliance with local policy goals, but only when these diverge from national ones! Increasing staff capacity and information provision have simpler effects in fostering more compliance with the national policy mandate among...... workers. Managers’ addressing adverse selection problems seems more effective than coping with moral hazard. The combination of local politicians’ influence on the formation of local policy goals and managers’ influence in getting workers to comply with those indicates a very important role for policy...

  10. Maritime Security in East Asia: Peaceful Coexistence and Active Defense in China’s Diaoyu/Senkaku Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The origins and role of the concepts of peaceful coexistence and active defense in Chinese foreign policy are investigated and applied to China’s policy toward the Diaoyu/Senkakus. The dominant moderate conceptual strategic thinking encourages Beijing to aim for the establishment of a modus vivendi...

  11. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  12. fundamental objectives and directives principles of state policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    and Directive Principles of State policy in the Constitution of the Federal ... The Social Contract theory of the school of jurisprudence opines that the ... privatization process contrary to law and public concerns as expressed by local ... among Nigerians of different ethnic, linguistic, religions or other background and the.

  13. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  14. Would Enforcing Competition Law Compromise Industry Policy Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    One recurring concern in the debate over the efficacy of enacting competition laws in developing countries is that its enforcement may compromise important industrial policy goals. This concern has been raised in regional fora and in multilateral organizations such as the World Trade Organization, where officials have considered the pros and cons of including competition provisions in international trade agreements. However, the concern is broader and often national debates over the merits of...

  15. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.

  16. Role of Department of Defense Policies in Identifying Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Deployed US Service Members, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agimi, Yll; Regasa, Lemma Ebssa; Ivins, Brian; Malik, Saafan; Helmick, Katherine; Marion, Donald

    2018-05-01

    To examine the role of Department of Defense policies in identifying theater-sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). We conducted a retrospective study of 48 172 US military service members who sustained their first lifetime TBIs between 2001 and 2016 while deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. We used multivariable negative binomial models to examine the changes in TBI incidence rates following the introduction of Department of Defense policies. Two Army policies encouraging TBI reporting were associated with an increase of 251% and 97% in TBIs identified following their implementation, respectively. Among airmen, the introduction of TBI-specific screening questions to the Post-Deployment Health Assessment was associated with a 78% increase in reported TBIs. The 2010 Department of Defense Directive Type Memorandum 09-033 was associated with another increase of 80% in the likelihood of being identified with a TBI among soldiers, a 51% increase among sailors, and a 124% increase among Marines. Department of Defense and service-specific policies introduced between 2006 and 2013 significantly increased the number of battlefield TBIs identified, successfully improving the longstanding problem of underreporting of TBIs.

  17. Climate policy. Objectives, conflicts, solutions; Klimapolitik. Ziele, Konflikte, Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar [TU Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer die Oekonomie des Klimawandels; Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin (Germany); Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimaforschung (Germany); Jakob, Michael [Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Extreme temperatures and deaths in Pakistan, floods in Russia, draughts in California, melting glaciers, harvest losses and a century vine in the Rheingau 2015: the consequences of the climatic change can be observed on all continents and oceans. The international climate politics has installed the intergovernmental panel on climate change that is of fundamental importance for political agenda. Up to now mankind has little experience with the fair and efficient use of common assets. Therefore climate policy is of special importance for international cooperation. [German] Hitzetote in Pakistan, Ueberschwemmungen in Russland, Duerren in Kalifornien, schmelzende Gletscher, Ernteverluste und ein Jahrhundertwein im Rheingau 2015: Die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels lassen sich bereits auf allen Kontinenten und in allen Ozeanen beobachten. Die internationale Klimapolitik hat sich im Weltklimarat ein einzigartiges Gremium geschaffen, das fuer die Agenda der Politik von grundlegender Bedeutung ist. Noch hat die Menschheit wenig Erfahrung mit der gerechten und effizienten Nutzung globaler Gemeinschaftsgueter. Daher kommt der Klimapolitik eine besondere Bedeutung zu, denn sie hat fuer die internationale Kooperation auf vielen Feldern eine Vorbildfunktion.

  18. NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribanova G. I.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors employ geopolitical analysis to identify the core characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards the Baltic Sea region. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the region was considered as one of the safest in terms of military security. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the region has witnessed a growing tension in relations between NATO and the Russian Federation. A comparative analysis of NATO’s official documents on the Baltics shows that the chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to emerging military threats but also to launch an awareness campaign to explain its position and dispel the myth about Russia preparing to start a hybrid war against the Baltic States.

  19. Balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector: lessons from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; McMahon, Meghan; Greyson, Devon

    2008-08-01

    Policy-makers worldwide struggle to balance health with industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. Tensions arise over pricing and reimbursement in particular. What health plans view as necessary to maintain equitable access to medicines, industry views as inimical to R&D and innovation. Australia has grappled with this issue for years, even incorporating the goal of "maintaining a responsible and viable medicines industry" into its National Medicines Policy. This case study was conducted via a narrative review that examined Australia's experiences balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. The review included electronic databases, grey literature and government publications for reports on relevant Australian policy published over the period 1985-2007. While pharmaceutical companies claim that Australia's pricing and reimbursement policies suppress drug prices and reduce profits, national policy audits indicate these claims are misguided. Australia appears to have secured relatively low prices for generics and "me-too drugs" while paying internationally competitive prices for "breakthrough" medicines. Simultaneously, Australia has focused efforts on local pharmaceutical investment through a variety of industry-targeted R&D incentive policies. Despite the fact that policy reviews suggest that Australia has achieved balance between health and industrial policy objectives, the country continues to face criticism from industry that its health goals harm innovation and R&D. Recent reforms raise the question whether Australia can sustain the apparent balance.

  20. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  1. Department of Defense energy policy and research: A framework to support strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakos, Joshua K.; Quintanilla, Jose A.; Huscroft, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is the major consumer of energy within the Federal government, and it has been directed to implement cost cutting measures related to energy dependence through numerous Executive Orders and Congressional legislation. As a result, the DOD released an Energy Strategy which outlines ways to reduce energy requirements in order to meet both Presidential and Congressional mandates for energy security. With this research, we provide a historical review (1973–2014) of energy policy, legislation, and research. Additionally we identify gaps between strategy and research. The results show that DOD energy research lacks a unifying structure and guiding framework. We propose a knowledge management framework to unify and guide research efforts in direct support of the DOD Energy Strategy. - Highlights: •Unification of effort is needed to support strategic goals. •Provides the current state of DOD energy research. •Proposes a framework to guide DOD energy research. •Frames the DOD energy research context and landscape. •Promotes a unifying structure for DOD energy research.

  2. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  3. Deliverable 1.2: Report on ENP Policy Concerning its Objectives and Policy Measures over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borell, M.; Boschma, R.A.; Monastiriotis, V.; Wesselink, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report consists of two working papers, which subsequently offer an overview of the history, structure and institutional instruments of the ENP and the policies that have been implemented due to the ENP, and a review of the political and political economy literature on the ENP. Together these

  4. Are Law and Policy Clear and Consistent? Roles and Responsibilities of the Defense Acquisition Executive and the Chief Information Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2223) are necessarily in conflict with one another or represent a “ prima facie ” conflict. However, we are pointing out that, because of the potentially...that DoD policy should state what constitutes “compliance” with government and DoD standards. The Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is obligated to issue...aircraft, weap- ons, command and control, communications, intelligence, and IT business systems. In contrast, the R&R of CIOs are generally restricted to

  5. A Common European Security and Defense Policy in the European Union: Greek Policy and Strategy on ESDP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakitsas, Miltiadis

    2003-01-01

    ... have been pursuing their capabilities to conduct conflict prevention and crisis management operations, with no intention of overcoming NATO's role and capabilities in the field of collective defense, but with the...

  6. United States National Strategy and Defense Policy Objectives After Chemical Disarmament

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-19

    decision to use CB weapons in order to gain publicity, extract ransom or achieve revenge. 40 GREATEST TERRORIST, CB THREAT Modern state sponsored...countries became ill after eating oranges, lemons and grapefruit from Israel which were contaminated with mercury, injected under the citrus skins with a

  7. Prepublication Review of Government Employee Speech: A Case Study of the Department of Defense and United States Air Force Security/Policy Review Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Michael L.

    Since 1957 the Department of Defense has subjected all forms of speech of U.S. military personnel meant for publication to prepublication review based on security and policy criteria. The historical development of the Defense Department's prepublication review program and its specific implementation by the U.S. Air Force lead to questions of First…

  8. Clausewitz and the Theory of Military Strategy in Europe - Reflections Upon a Paradigm of Military Strategy Within the European Common Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    ... as a core element of the Common Security and Defense Policy of the EU, Based on the interpretation of Clausewitz's theory of war and strategy in Britain, France, and Germany, main commonalities...

  9. Quadrennial Defense Review, National Defense Authorizatin Act for Fiscal Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Objectives of Overall JS QDR Effort Develop a QDR process that will shape defense policies Ensure the process is strategy-based, not budget-based Define a force structure responsive to the national...

  10. World of intelligence defense object detection-machine learning (artificial intelligence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anitya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Bhushan, Vinayak

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a Quick Locale based Convolutional System strategy (Quick R-CNN) for question recognition. Quick R-CNN expands on past work to effectively characterize ob-ject recommendations utilizing profound convolutional systems. Com-pared to past work, Quick R-CNN utilizes a few in-novations to enhance preparing and testing speed while likewise expanding identification precision. Quick R-CNN trains the profound VGG16 arrange 9 quicker than R-CNN, is 213 speedier at test-time, and accomplishes a higher Guide on PASCAL VOC 2012. Contrasted with SPPnet, Quick R-CNN trains VGG16 3 quicker, tests 10 speedier, and is more exact. Quick R-CNN is actualized in Python and C++ (utilizing Caffe) and is accessible under the open-source MIT Permit.

  11. Overarching sustainability objectives overcome incompatible directions in the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goti, Leyre; Fitzpatrick, Mike; Döring, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    The lack of clarity in the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) must be addressed to create a more efficient balance across diverse ecological, economic and social dimensions. Particularly economic and social objectives present at an overarching level must be made explicit and addressed...... objectives to managing fisheries can be derived from stakeholders. The paper first reviews the definition of objectives, from a historical and conceptual perspective. Secondly, it discusses the issues of manageability and acceptability, and finally describes an articulation of the high level objectives...

  12. The Realization Mechanism of China's Monetary Policy Objectives: 2001-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guogang

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the realization mechanism for the final and interim targets of China's monetary policy from 2001 to 2010.It finds that the three significant price surges in the ten years were not the results of loose monetary policy While maintaining rapid economic growth,China avoided the inflation linked with excess monetary supply.The introduction of total new lending in the interim targets also showed the maturing of China's monetary policy target system.To improve China's monetary operation,three measures need to te taken:firstly,basing stabilizing monetary policy on the trend of the non-food price index within the CPI;secondly,readjusting the definition of money according the different characteristics of transaction money and reserve money;and thirdly,including yuan exchange rates into the intermediate objectives of monetary policy.

  13. Performance Evaluation of an Object Management Policy Approach for P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of network-based multimedia applications poses many challenges for content providers to supply efficient and scalable services. Peer-to-peer (P2P systems have been shown to be a promising approach to provide large-scale video services over the Internet since, by nature, these systems show high scalability and robustness. In this paper, we propose and analyze an object management policy approach for video web cache in a P2P context, taking advantage of object's metadata, for example, video popularity, and object's encoding techniques, for example, scalable video coding (SVC. We carry out trace-driven simulations so as to evaluate the performance of our approach and compare it against traditional object management policy approaches. In addition, we study as well the impact of churn on our approach and on other object management policies that implement different caching strategies. A YouTube video collection which records over 1.6 million video's log was used in our experimental studies. The experiment results have showed that our proposed approach can improve the performance of the cache substantially. Moreover, we have found that neither the simply enlargement of peers' storage capacity nor a zero replicating strategy is effective actions to improve performance of an object management policy.

  14. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  15. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  16. 76 FR 70424 - Defense Policy Board; Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... national security issues within the Pacific Rim, the Eastern Mediterranean, NATO, and nuclear deterrence... Advisory Committee Management Officer for the Department of Defense, pursuant to 41 CFR 102-3.150(b...

  17. Defensive Changes in Corporate Payout Policy: Share Repurchases and Special Dividends.

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, David J

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines defensive payouts announced in response to hostile corporate control activity. The evidence indicates that the announcement of defensive share repurchases is associated with an average negative impact on the share price of the target firm. In contrast, special dividend payments generally increase the wealth of target-firm shareholders. Regardless of payout type, those firms remaining independent after the outcome of the corporate control contest experience an abnormal shar...

  18. Frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions and the policy objectives they promote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Paul A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Four cost-effective frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions currently receive widespread attention: cap-and-trade, emission fees, and hybrid cap-and-trade approaches that include upper or lower limits on permit prices (price ceilings or floors). This paper develops a fifth framework that uses an emission fee with an upper limit on the quantity of emissions—a quantity ceiling—and compares the impact of each framework on emission prices and quantities. Cap-and-trade with a price ceiling minimizes price increases for emitting activities in all cases whereas an emission fee with a quantity ceiling maximizes emissions reductions. Thus, the choice of framework influences policy outcomes because each framework is more or less suited to particular policy goals. Whether pursuing one potential policy goal serves society's interests best depends on the eventual consequences of climate damage and emissions pricing, which are uncertain when policy choices are made. Policy updating over time may reduce but likely cannot entirely eliminate the differences in outcome that arise due to framework choice. Therefore, the “best” framework for emissions pricing depends on subjective preferences regarding the relative importance of different policy objectives, most notably whether one is more risk averse to climate damages or emissions price increases. - Highlights: • This article develops and examines a carbon tax that includes a quantity constraint on emissions. • This approach maximizes climate protection in all cases, unlike existing policy alternatives. • This promotes rapid reductions in emissions if mitigation is easy without risk to long term targets. • This analysis reveals that different policy frameworks promote different policy goals. • The analysis helps round out ongoing policy discussions over how to deal with climate change

  19. An Object-Oriented Information Model for Policy-based Management of Distributed Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, G.; Gay, V.C.J.; Horlait, E.; Hamza, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented information model to support a policy-based management for distributed multimedia applications. The information base contains application-level information about the users, the applications, and their profile. Our Information model is described in details and

  20. Using Multi-Objective Optimization to Explore Robust Policies in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.; Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.; Butler, A.

    2017-12-01

    The long term reliability of water deliveries in the Colorado River Basin has degraded due to the imbalance of growing demand and dwindling supply. The Colorado River meanders 1,450 miles across a watershed that covers seven US states and Mexico and is an important cultural, economic, and natural resource for nearly 40 million people. Its complex operating policy is based on the "Law of the River," which has evolved since the Colorado River Compact in 1922. Recent (2007) refinements to address shortage reductions and coordinated operations of Lakes Powell and Mead were negotiated with stakeholders in which thousands of scenarios were explored to identify operating guidelines that could ultimately be agreed on. This study explores a different approach to searching for robust operating policies to inform the policy making process. The Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS), a long-term water management simulation model implemented in RiverWare, is combined with the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) to solve an eight objective problem formulation. Basin-wide performance metrics are closely tied to system health through incorporating critical reservoir pool elevations, duration, frequency and quantity of shortage reductions in the objective set. For example, an objective to minimize the frequency that Lake Powell falls below the minimum power pool elevation of 3,490 feet for Glen Canyon Dam protects a vital economic and renewable energy source for the southwestern US. The decision variables correspond to operating tiers in Lakes Powell and Mead that drive the implementation of various shortage and release policies, thus affecting system performance. The result will be a set of non-dominated solutions that can be compared with respect to their trade-offs based on the various objectives. These could inform policy making processes by eliminating dominated solutions and revealing robust solutions that could remain hidden under conventional analysis.

  1. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  2. Forming the Research Component of the U.S. Defense Budget Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr V. Balyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the structure and principles of the defense spending for research and development in the U.S., as well as the main agencies and contractors involved. The article offers specific cases to illustrate the role of key players of the U.S. budgetary process, the U.S. President, Congress, Department of Defense, and their relations with the scientific community. Spending in this area is organized as a three-level structure, which includes development of new weapons systems, creation of military platforms and systemic integration of the armed forces. One of the most noteworthy participants on the weapons development level is the Defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA, which provides support for R&D projects able to facilitate technological breakthroughs and provide results applicable by the armed forces. The emphasis of the article is on the participation of the private sector on all levels of the defense spending and especially in the systemic integration. At this level even formulating the request becomes a highly challenging task, which demands involvement of the most highly qualified specialists and organizations. The authors analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the wide participation of commercial enterprises and provide cases illustrating possible conflicts between government and private actors and ways of their resolution.

  3. U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy in an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    arsenal. London, UK: Sphere. (Original work published 1981). Kalinina, N., & Kozyulin, V. (2010, Winter). Russian defense industry: Feet of clay ...Mirages over the Andes: Peru , France, the United States, and military jet procurement in the 1960s. The Pacific Historical Review, 71(2), 269–300

  4. International Dynamics of U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    2010, Winter). Russian defense industry: Feet of clay . Security Index, 1(90), 31–46. Kan, S. (2002). CRS report for Congress—Taiwan: Major U.S...military (pp. 1–44). Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute. Le Roy, F. (2002, May). Mirages over the Andes: Peru , France, the United States

  5. Monetary Policy Objectives During the Crisis: An Overview of Selected Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstevska Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent global crisis brought many challenges to the central bankers worldwide, including the issue of monetary policy objectives. In this view, besides price stability maintenance, a special attention by central bankers during the crisis was given to the output stabilization. This paper explores this issue on the case of a group of countries from Southeast Europe (SEE. For this purpose, rather simple analysis of the policy rate and output gap as well as output gap variability by countries have been provided, aimed at giving some initial insights of the monetary policy and output stabilization during the crisis. Our findings pointed that the central banks in the analysed SEE countries paid attention to the output stabilization, specifically during the crisis period and that was presumably enabled by controllable inflation developments.

  6. A True Test of Faith in the Common Defense: U.S. Policies Toward Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Kim R

    2006-01-01

    .... Though this paper is not a religious exposition it will examine United States security policies toward Turkey stepping through the National Security Strategy National Military Strategy the European...

  7. Designing Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways using Many-Objective Robust Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2017-04-01

    Dealing with climate risks in water management requires confronting a wide variety of deeply uncertain factors, while navigating a many dimensional space of trade-offs amongst objectives. There is an emerging body of literature on supporting this type of decision problem, under the label of decision making under deep uncertainty. Two approaches within this literature are Many-Objective Robust Decision Making, and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. In recent work, these approaches have been compared. One of the main conclusions of this comparison was that they are highly complementary. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making is a model based decision support approach, while Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is primarily a conceptual framework for the design of flexible strategies that can be adapted over time in response to how the future is actually unfolding. In this research we explore this complementarity in more detail. Specifically, we demonstrate how Many-Objective Robust Decision Making can be used to design adaptation pathways. We demonstrate this combined approach using a water management problem, in the Netherlands. The water level of Lake IJselmeer, the main fresh water resource of the Netherlands, is currently managed through discharge by gravity. Due to climate change, this won't be possible in the future, unless water levels are changed. Changing the water level has undesirable flood risk and spatial planning consequences. The challenge is to find promising adaptation pathways that balance objectives related to fresh water supply, flood risk, and spatial issues, while accounting for uncertain climatic and land use change. We conclude that the combination of Many-Objective Robust Decision Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is particularly suited for dealing with deeply uncertain climate risks.

  8. An Analysis of Department Of Defense Policy and Guidance for Implementation of Performance-Based Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    stability to the provider’s order book and adds shareholder value . Incentives that focus on profit may not be applicable for public facilities, but... Stakeholders (from ASD (L&MR) 2011b, 17) ...............3  Figure 3.  System Life Cycle Illustration (from Secretary of Defense 2014, 2–1) ...........5...Figure 2 is provided to show the roles, relationships, responsibilities and business agreements among the various key product support stakeholders

  9. What Policy Actors Seek for: Reciprocal Misunderstanding of Objectives of Participatory Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ; Birutė MIKULSKIENĖ

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore different policy actors’ attitudes towards participation in public decision making. The paper examines objectives of external participants’ involvement and compares various participants’ judgements on the process and results of participation. We screened operation of formal networks of participatory decision making at the Lithuanian Ministries of Health and Education & Science. The research revealed the willingness of decision makers to allow different ...

  10. Defense Department Profit and Contract Finance Policies and Their Effects on Contract and Contractor Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Scot A; Harmon, Bruce R; Tyson, Karen W; Fasana, Kenton G; Wait, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of profit policy is a contract price that reimburses the contractor for its costs, provides the necessary incentives to yield beneficial performance, and to provide the contractor with sufficient risk reward...

  11. Defense Department Profit and Contract Finance Policies and Their Effects on Contract and Contractor Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Scot A; Harmon, Bruce R; Tyson, Karen W; Fasana, Kenton G; Wait, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    .... The goal of profit policy is a contract price that reimburses the contractor for its costs, provides the necessary incentives to yield beneficial performance, and provides the contractor with sufficient risk reward...

  12. Defense Management: Proposed Lodging Policy May Lead to Improvements, but More Actions Are Required

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartlett, Roscoe

    2002-01-01

    Mthough we do not believe that travel regulations require DOD to revise its PCS lodging policy, the department does have the discretion to make the proposed change to bring consistency to the program...

  13. Agricultural franchising and contribution to achieving objectives of the EU common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy is the oldest, the most complex, the most expensive EU policy and it represents one of the most important drivers of European integration. Agrarian franchising is one of the innovations in the field of franchising, which implementation is still in its infancy and it is necessary to strive for the popularization of this business model. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of agricultural franchising concept development and contribution of implementation of this concept to the achievement of the Common Agricultural Policy objectives and improvement of the agrarian sector as a whole. Special attention is paid on agricultural franchising as a hybrid form of disinvestment in conditions of economic crisis. Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages of agricultural franchising, we conclude that it has the potential for solving a large number of problems that occur in the agrarian sector, with a particular focus on the importance of agricultural franchising to the achievement of the CAP objectives.

  14. Policy objective of generic medicines from the investment perspective: The case of clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Péter; Harsányi, András; Zelei, Tamás; Csetneki, Kata; Kaló, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The objective of generic drug policies in most countries is defined from a disinvestment perspective: reduction in expenditures without compromising health outcomes. However, in countries with restricted access of patients to original patented drugs, the objective of generic drug policies can also be defined from an investment perspective: health gain by improved patient access without need for additional health budget. This study examines the investment aspect of generic medicines by analyzing clopidogrel utilization in European countries between 2004 and 2014 using multilevel panel data models. We find that clopidogrel consumption was strongly affected by affordability constraints before the generic entry around 2009, but this effect decayed by 2014. After controlling for other variables, utilization had a substantially larger trend increase in lower-income European countries than in the higher-income ones. Generic entry increased clopidogrel consumption only in lower- and average-income countries but not in the highest-income ones. An earlier generic entry was associated with a larger effect. The case of clopidogrel indicates that the entrance of generics may increase patient access to effective medicines, most notably in lower-income countries, thereby reducing inequalities between European patients. Policymakers should also consider this investment aspect of generic medicines when designing pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  16. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  17. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    19 Military Regulations Regarding Marriage ...21 Use of Military Installations as Sites for Marriage Ceremonies and Participation of Chaplains and Other Military and Civilian Personnel in...111-321 called for the repeal of Title 10 U.S.C., Section 654, which served as the basis for the 1993 policy banning open homosexuality in the

  18. The role of Innovation in Merger Policy: Europe's efficiency defense versus America's Innovatoin Markets approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cefis, E.; Grondsma, M.; Sabidussi, A.; Schenk, E.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the world’s economies and discussions in the literature about the growing importance of innovation to firms have given rise to a demand for expanding the analysis of merger policy. The present study focuses on the different criteria used to assess the impact of M&A activities on

  19. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  20. What Policy Actors Seek for: Reciprocal Misunderstanding of Objectives of Participatory Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to explore different policy actors’ attitudes towards participation in public decision making. The paper examines objectives of external participants’ involvement and compares various participants’ judgements on the process and results of participation. We screened operation of formal networks of participatory decision making at the Lithuanian Ministries of Health and Education & Science. The research revealed the willingness of decision makers to allow different stakeholders to contribute to the solution of problems of diverse character. The results of interviews manifested reciprocal miscommunication towards objectives and results of participatory decision making. Public administrators demonstrated their high willingness to acquire expertise, while external participants sought to present specific interests and got them implemented as well. However, it has to be admitted that decision makers are not committed to the results generated by stakeholders.

  1. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-07-15

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  2. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-01-01

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  3. Diagnostic Assessment of the Difficulty Using Direct Policy Search in Many-Objective Reservoir Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally reservoir operations provide fundamental services to water supply, energy generation, recreation, and ecosystems. The pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating a significant investment in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or defining operations for new reservoirs. Recent work has highlighted the potential benefits of exploiting recent advances in many-objective optimization and direct policy search (DPS) to aid in addressing these systems' multi-sector demand tradeoffs. This study contributes to a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEAs) efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability when supporting DPS for the Conowingo dam in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Seven benchmark and state-of-the-art MOEAs are tested on deterministic and stochastic instances of the Susquehanna test case. In the deterministic formulation, the operating objectives are evaluated over the historical realization of the hydroclimatic variables (i.e., inflows and evaporation rates). In the stochastic formulation, the same objectives are instead evaluated over an ensemble of stochastic inflows and evaporation rates realizations. The algorithms are evaluated in their ability to support DPS in discovering reservoir operations that compose the tradeoffs for six multi-sector performance objectives with thirty-two decision variables. Our diagnostic results highlight that many-objective DPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg

  4. Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  5. Library Operations Policies and Procedures, Volume 2. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    use and customize those policies and procedures applicable to the implementor’s situation. It is not the intent of this manual to restrict the library...improvements. Pare 10 ka•- V •DkI U Release Manager The Release Manager provides franchisees with media copies of existing libraries, as needed. Security...implementors, and potential library franchisees . Security Team The Security Team assists the Security Officer with security analysis. Team members are

  6. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    David M. Triesman, “A Strong, Competitive Europe is Vital” ( Mansion House, London, 9 January 2007), Denis MacShane, “Enlarging the EU: Peace and...Europe” ( Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006), http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=Speech&id=1893537 (accessed 18 April 2009... Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006. Howorth, Jolyon. Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007

  7. Applications of Artificial Intelligence to the Strategic Defense Initiative’s Battle Management/Command and Control Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    technology issue is expected to take years of research (20:11). According to Lt Gen James A. Abrahamson, director of the SDI organization heading up...from occurring (14:79). A Wqhite House Panel known as the (Dr. James ) Fletcher Defensive Technologies Study Group has pointed out that, in the past...Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Volume I. Los Altos CA: WilliamKaufmann Inc., 1981. 5. Basden , Andrew. "On the Application of Expert Systems,N

  8. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  9. Balancing Exploration, Uncertainty Representation and Computational Time in Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    As we confront the challenges of managing river basin systems with a large number of reservoirs and increasingly uncertain tradeoffs impacting their operations (due to, e.g. climate change, changing energy markets, population pressures, ecosystem services, etc.), evolutionary many-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) solution strategies will need to address the computational demands associated with simulating more uncertainties and therefore optimizing over increasingly noisy objective evaluations. Diagnostic assessments of state-of-the-art many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to support EMODPS have highlighted that search time (or number of function evaluations) and auto-adaptive search are key features for successful optimization. Furthermore, auto-adaptive MOEA search operators are themselves sensitive to having a sufficient number of function evaluations to learn successful strategies for exploring complex spaces and for escaping from local optima when stagnation is detected. Fortunately, recent parallel developments allow coordinated runs that enhance auto-adaptive algorithmic learning and can handle scalable and reliable search with limited wall-clock time, but at the expense of the total number of function evaluations. In this study, we analyze this tradeoff between parallel coordination and depth of search using different parallelization schemes of the Multi-Master Borg on a many-objective stochastic control problem. We also consider the tradeoff between better representing uncertainty in the stochastic optimization, and simplifying this representation to shorten the function evaluation time and allow for greater search. Our analysis focuses on the Lower Susquehanna River Basin (LSRB) system where multiple competing objectives for hydropower production, urban water supply, recreation and environmental flows need to be balanced. Our results provide guidance for balancing exploration, uncertainty, and computational demands when using the EMODPS

  10. A policy-based multi-objective optimisation framework for residential distributed energy system design★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy systems (DES are increasingly being introduced as solutions to alleviate conventional energy system challenges related to energy security, climate change and increasing demands. From a technological and economic perspective, distributed energy resources are already becoming viable. The question still remains as to how these technologies and practices can be “best” selected, sized and integrated within consumer areas. To aid decision-makers and enable widespread DES adoption, a strategic superstructure design framework is therefore still required that ensures balancing of multiple stakeholder interests and fits in with liberalised energy system objectives of competition, security of supply and sustainability. Such a design framework is presented in this work. An optimisation-based approach for the design of neighbourhood-based DES is developed that enables meeting their yearly electricity, heating and cooling needs by appropriately selecting, sizing and locating technologies and energy interactions. A pool of poly-generation and storage technologies is hereto considered combined with local energy sharing between participating prosumers through thermal pipeline design and microgrid operation, and, a bi-directional connection with the central distribution grid. A superstructure mixed-integer linear programming approach (MILP is proposed to trade off three minimisation objectives in the design process: total annualised cost, annual CO2 emissions and electrical system unavailability, aligned with the three central energy system objectives. The developed model is applied on a small South Australian neighbourhood. The approach enables identifying “knee-point” neighbourhood energy system designs through Pareto trade-offs between objectives and serves to inform decision-makers about the impact of policy objectives on DES development strategies.

  11. Policy objectives for conserving freshwater ecosystems: How many rivers, which ones, and what level of protection are required

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A current initiative aims to develop a set of operational policy objectives for facilitating national-level coordination in the conservation of freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity. This initiative draws from the relatively new...

  12. Development of Core Heat Removal Objective Provision Trees for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Defense-in-Depth Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huichang; Kang, Bongsuk; Lee, Youngho [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth levels and safety functions for KALIMER sodium-cooled fast reactor, suggested in the reference and, OPTs for level 1, 2, and 3 defense-in-depth and core heat removal safety function, were developed and suggested in this paper. The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the defensein-depth design during the licensing of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR), but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defensein-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. At this moment, the identified provisions have both aspects as requirements and design features already adopted in KALIMER design. In the next stage of this study, derived provisions to be adopted will be compared with the actual design features and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.

  13. A Versatile System for the In-Field Non-Destructive Characterization of Radioactive Waste Packages and of Objects in the Defense against Nuclear Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecherl, T.; Gostomski, Ch.-Lierse-von

    2013-06-01

    In-filed non-destructive characterization of radioactive waste packages and of objects in the defense of nuclear threats requires purpose-built but similar equipment. Based on commercially available measuring devices like dose-rate and gamma detectors, X-ray and gamma-transmission sources etc. a versatile and mobile mechanical positioning system for these devices is designed, assembled and operated facilitating basic to even complex measuring procedures. Several in-field measuring campaigns resulted in its further optimization. Today an highly mobile and flexible mechanical manipulator system is available supporting nearly all types of required measuring devices thus rising to nearly all occasions. (authors)

  14. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  15. Optimal Replacement Policies for Non-Uniform Cache Objects with Optional Eviction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahat, Omri; Makowski, Armand M

    2002-01-01

    .... However, since the introduction of optimal replacement policies for conventional caching, the problem of finding optimal replacement policies under the factors indicated has not been studied in any systematic manner...

  16. Digital Distributed Control System Design: Control Policy for Shared Objects in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuqiao; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is an HTR demonstration plant with a structure of two modules feeding one steam turbine. Compared with the structure of one single reactor feeding one turbine, there are more devices shared between these two modules. When they are operated, the shared components are prone to introduce collisions or even logical deadlocks for different technical processes. The future commercial HTR-PM plants are supposed to comprise more modules for a larger turbine, thus the collision problem introduced by the shared components may become severer. Therefore, how to design suitable policies in the distributed control system (DCS) to relieve the collisions during using these shared devices is a new and also a very important problem. In this paper, the classifications of the shared devices are first addressed, and then how to identify the shared objects of an NPP is proposed. Furthermore, a general model for the control logic design is proposed, taking into consideration the collision avoidance, time delay and fairness. The example of how to apply the schemes to relieve the conflicts and deadlocks in the processes of using the shared devices in fuel element cycling system is illustrated. (author)

  17. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  18. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories

  19. Can the Green Economy deliver it all? Experiences of renewable energy policies with socio-economic objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, Michael; Pachauri, Shonali; Steinbacher, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Open question if renewables achieve both environmental and socioeconomic objectives. • Two policies each assessed looking at energy access and employment respectively. • Important role of governments and need for monitoring capacity is confirmed. • Short-term socioeconomic benefits realized in two cases, but they may not sustain. • Cases underline need for methodologies to better assess multiple-objective policies. - Abstract: The Green Economy (GE) paradigm aims to reconcile environmental and socio-economic objectives. Policies to deploy renewable energy (RE) are widely perceived as a way to tap the potential synergies of these objectives. It is, however, still largely unclear whether the potential of simultaneously achieving both environmental and socio-economic objectives can be fully realized, and whether and how multiple objectives influence policy design, implementation, and evaluation. We aim to contribute to this aspect of GE research by looking at selected country experiences of renewable energy deployment with respect to the socio-economic goals of job creation or energy access. Across the cases examined, we find the following implications of relevance for the GE framework: First, we confirm the important role of governmental action for GE, with the specific need to state objectives clearly and build monitoring capacity. Second, consistent with the “strong” green growth variant of GE, some of the cases suggest that while renewable deployment may indeed lead to short-term socio-economic benefits, these benefits may not last. Third, we underline the urgent need for new methodologies to analyze and better understand multiple-objective policies, which are at the heart of the GE paradigm.

  20. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  1. Governing low-carbon energy transitions in sustainable ways: Potential synergies and conflicts between climate and environmental policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildingsson, Roger; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a central sustainability concern, but is often treated separately from other policy areas in environmental governance. In this article we study how low-carbon energy transitions might be governed in line with broader sustainability goals. We identify conflicts and synergies between low-carbon strategies and the attainment of longer-term environmental objectives by examining the Swedish environmental quality objectives as a governance arrangement. Our analysis indicates that low-carbon strategies might be compatible with preserving other aspects of ecological sustainability. However, this requires relevant flanking policies and measures for non-climate objectives, e.g. systems that control the expansion of biomass and ensure the use of sustainable methods. For such a governance system to be credible and capable, it needs to be flexible in terms of adapting to specific and changing contexts, and reflexive enough to factor in new knowledge on requirements for sustainable development and potentially changing values of future generations. - Highlights: • We identify synergies and conflicts between climate and environmental objectives. • Low-carbon energy transitions can be compatible with other sustainability goals. • This demands relevant flanking policies, e.g. on sustainable biomass harvesting. • This requires policy measures to take different local contexts into account. • Governance systems need to respond to new knowledge and changing values.

  2. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  3. Public Nordic Cultural Policy - Historical preconditions, overriding objectives, significant developments, recent challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Public Nordic cultural policy have, especially since the 1960s, in large part been characterised by convergence regarding major elements. In addition the Nordic countries, like other European national states are today confronted with and affected by fundamental late-modern processes: Globalisation......, migration, economic instrumentalisation, political colonisation, questions of the freedom of speech, issues on national identity vs. cosmopolitanism etc. By these and other reasons it is reasonable to speak of a pan-Nordic cultural policy model in 2016, while still highlighting the fact, that cultural...... policies in Norden also differ mutual in many aspects. The survey introduces and discusses major common public cultural policy elements in the five Nordic national states (Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden and Finland), the autonomous and semi autonomous small nations (Greenland, The Faeroe Islands...

  4. Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. - Highlights: • Russia–EU institutional inconsistency has accelerated Russia's gas export diversification. • Institutions for regional development are an important component of Russia's gas policy in Asia. • Transformations in globalising gas markets induced Russia's limited gas export liberalisation. • Genuine gas policy liberalisation can facilitate the attainment of Russia's goals in Asia

  5. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Pröbstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a “Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007–13” (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: ► Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. ► Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. ► The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  6. AGRICULTURAL FRANCHISING AND CONTRIBUTION TO ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES OF THE EU COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Milica

    2014-01-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy is the oldest, the most complex, the most expensive EU policy and it represents one of the most important drivers of European integration. Agrarian franchising is one of the innovations in the field of franchising, which implementation is still in its infancy and it is necessary to strive for the popularization of this business model. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of agricultural franchising concept development and contribution of implement...

  7. A bi-objective model for optimizing replacement time of age and block policies with consideration of spare parts’ availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsyouf, Imad

    2018-05-01

    Reliability and availability of critical systems play an important role in achieving the stated objectives of engineering assets. Preventive replacement time affects the reliability of the components, thus the number of system failures encountered and its downtime expenses. On the other hand, spare parts inventory level is a very critical factor that affects the availability of the system. Usually, the decision maker has many conflicting objectives that should be considered simultaneously for the selection of the optimal maintenance policy. The purpose of this research was to develop a bi-objective model that will be used to determine the preventive replacement time for three maintenance policies (age, block good as new, block bad as old) with consideration of spare parts’ availability. It was suggested to use a weighted comprehensive criterion method with two objectives, i.e. cost and availability. The model was tested with a typical numerical example. The results of the model demonstrated its effectiveness in enabling the decision maker to select the optimal maintenance policy under different scenarios and taking into account preferences with respect to contradicting objectives such as cost and availability.

  8. Universal approximators for multi-objective direct policy search in water reservoir management problems: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mason, Emanuele; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The optimal operation of water resources systems is a wide and challenging problem due to non-linearities in the model and the objectives, high dimensional state-control space, and strong uncertainties in the hydroclimatic regimes. The application of classical optimization techniques (e.g., SDP, Q-learning, gradient descent-based algorithms) is strongly limited by the dimensionality of the system and by the presence of multiple, conflicting objectives. This study presents a novel approach which combines Direct Policy Search (DPS) and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) to solve high-dimensional state and control space problems involving multiple objectives. DPS, also known as parameterization-simulation-optimization in the water resources literature, is a simulation-based approach where the reservoir operating policy is first parameterized within a given family of functions and, then, the parameters optimized with respect to the objectives of the management problem. The selection of a suitable class of functions to which the operating policy belong to is a key step, as it might restrict the search for the optimal policy to a subspace of the decision space that does not include the optimal solution. In the water reservoir literature, a number of classes have been proposed. However, many of these rules are based largely on empirical or experimental successes and they were designed mostly via simulation and for single-purpose reservoirs. In a multi-objective context similar rules can not easily inferred from the experience and the use of universal function approximators is generally preferred. In this work, we comparatively analyze two among the most common universal approximators: artificial neural networks (ANN) and radial basis functions (RBF) under different problem settings to estimate their scalability and flexibility in dealing with more and more complex problems. The multi-purpose HoaBinh water reservoir in Vietnam, accounting for hydropower

  9. Fortresses and Icebergs: The Evolution of the Transatlantic Defense Market and the Implications for U.S. National Security Policy. Volume 1: Study Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    public data, World Wide Web research, and any reports and analysis developed by that nation’s government or by other defense experts and analysts...europe.org/Objects/2/Files/ WEB %20Common%20Indus- try%20Standards.pdf . 37 “Siemens settles bribery cases,” International Herald Tribune (Dec. 15, 2008...GD European Land Combat Systems to oversea GDLS’ European subsidiaries. Subsidiaries shown below. Santa Barbara Sistemas SA Spain Acquired from

  10. Policy and technical considerations for high-level radioactive wastes: a statement of issues and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of issues that EPA must consider in translating broad policy considerations into environmental protection criteria for high-level and TRU-contaminated waste. This paper reviews these issues and suggests some questions for discussion at this workshop

  11. Development and selection of operational management strategies to achieve policy objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Rockmann, C.; Aanesen, M.; Armstrong, C.; Quesne, Le W.; Bloomfield, H.; Hal, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform of the EU Common Fisheries Policy in 2002, effort has been devoted to addressing the governance, scientific, social and economic issues required to introduce an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in Europe. Fisheries management needs to support the three pillars of

  12. Iranian Ballistic Missile Threat and a Phased, Adaptive Approach for Missile Defense in Europe: Perceptions, Policies and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    vii ACRONYMS AA Aegis Ashore ABL Airborne Laser ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ADCF Air Defense Command Frigates AEOI ...in September 2002 at the IAEA’s General Conference in Vienna, Iran’s Vice President and President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran ( AEOI

  13. Risk Management and Simulation Based Live Fire Test and Evaluation in the Performance Based Defense Business Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, R

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to reduce the policy and management process costs of Congressionally mandated Live Fire Test and Evaluation procedures in the new Performance Based Defense Acquisition environment...

  14. Balanced Scorecard Goal Four: Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives A Graduate Management Project Submitted to The Residency Committee In Candidacy for the Degree of Masters in...internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves as a strategy map...headquarters. The goal, "Provide Policy Management , Advocacy and Problem Solving", addresses the relationship between the headquarters and its internal

  15. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  16. Does the EU meet its policy objective of 'promoting sustainable use of arctic resources'? An analysis from the viewpoint of arctic energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Hossain, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    The EU started to develop its own Arctic policy in 2008. One of the three main objectives of this policy is the promotion of sustainable use of Arctic resources. "Sustainability" was also a focus of the 2011 resolution of the European Parliament as a guiding principle in developing European policies

  17. Essential equivalence: the objectives and requirements of a stategic nuclear policy: a perspective on the evolution of US strategic nuclear policy, and an assessment of present and emerging US strategic policy and force stucture options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    This study provides a discussion of the origins and evolution of US strategic nuclear policy, the objectives an requirements of US nuclear forces, and an assessment of present and emerging US stategic nuclear policy and force structure options. It identifies the distinctive phases of US strategic nuclear policy, the conditions of the military environments in which those policies were developed, the interaction of US-Soviet strategic force and arms control processes during these phases, and the domestic debates which have accompanied US strategic nuclear policy developments. In particular, the study focuses on the major contending views which continue to characterize the debate concerning US strategic nuclear policy. The study assesses the implications of the contending views represented in what is commonly referred to as the counterforce-countervalue debate, particularly as they relate to the perception of what constitutes a credible US deterrent posture, and the corresponding alternatives that these views bring with them for making US strategic nuclear policy and force structure decisions. The arms control process, in general, and SALT I and SALT II in particular, is discussed as an integral and dynamic component of the strategic debate, fundamentally affecting the nation's security policies. The implications of modern weapons technology, and the problems inherent in preserving strategic stability between adversary nations with asymmetries in military force structures and doctrines, are also discussed. Further, the study focuses on the question of whether or not nuclear superiority can be considered relevant under the contemporary international conditions

  18. The unexpected challenges of using energy intensity as a policy objective: Examining the debate over the APEC energy intensity goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Energy intensity (energy demand per unit of economic output) is one of the most widely used indicators of energy efficiency in energy policy discussions. Yet its application in real-world policymaking can be surprisingly problematical. This paper aims to provide guidance to governments and organizations considering using energy intensity as a policy objective. Scope: In 2007 the APEC community adopted, then in 2011 revised, an APEC region-wide energy intensity improvement goal. This paper presents a case study of that experience, focusing on three key ‘lessons learned’. These lessons are not original findings. However, none of them have received the recognition they deserve, and consequently, they came as a surprise to many of those involved in APEC's policy discussions. Conclusions: The three lessons are as follows: (1) Energy intensity improvement is happening surprisingly quickly, but not quickly enough to meet the world's energy challenges. (2) It is difficult to find a definition of energy intensity that can make it suitable for use as an indicator of regional energy efficiency. (3) Whether the GDP's of individual economies are converted to common currency using market exchange rates or purchasing power parity (PPP) can dramatically change regional energy intensity improvement calculations. - Highlights: • APEC adopted, then subsequently revised, an energy intensity reduction goal. • This is a case study of APEC's use of energy intensity as a policy objective. • Energy intensity is declining more rapidly than many policymakers realized. • The definition of energy intensity adopted can dramatically change the incentives. • Currency conversion methodologies can dramatically change the calculations

  19. Public Policy Issues in Transport. Taxes and standards for energy security and greenhouse gas objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskeland, Gunnar (Cicero, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-07-01

    The direct case for fuel economy standards on a stand alone basis dies in the textbook on the basis of first principles: the fuel tax is a better targeted instrument. In practice, the fuel economy standard, is killed by the 'rebound effect'. Vehicle users will, once they have more fuel efficient vehicles, respond to lower marginal costs by increased vehicle use. If an important part of negative externalities from transport are associated with vehicle kilometres (accidents, congestion, road wear) rather than fuel consumption, the rebound effect increases negative externalities from transport. The more direct way of addressing negative externalities from transport is to increase fuel taxes, and depending on their prior level, this is our first recommendation. But higher fuel taxes often raise political resistance. The fuel efficiency of existing cars is an important way by which people have adapted to present fuel taxes, determining their resistance to increases. A higher fuel efficiency standard is an instrument that faces little political resistance and which - over time - reduces the political resistance to increased fuel taxes. In efforts to reduce the fuel intensity of an economy, this interplay between an activity's fuel intensity, like gallons per vehicle mile, and the activity level, vehicle miles travelled or transported, nicely illustrates some important empirical questions and public policy issues: i) the first best policy proposition to reduce fuel related externalities is fuel taxes. Indeed, at the right level of fuel taxes, the externalities are zero: they are internalized. ii) the part of an economy's ability to shed fuel consumption lies in increased fuel efficiency in the individual activities, and this part can be stimulated with fuel efficiency standards. The other part, the activity level, should then be addressed with fuel tax increases. iv) We speculate that it may be difficult credibly to raise expected fuel taxes more than

  20. Evaluation Policy Alternatives for the Reengineering of the Department of Defense Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program - A Stakeholder Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...) to evaluate the personal property pilot programs as part of Management Reform Memorandum # 6. This thesis evaluates the policy alternatives for reengineering the DOD personal property program using a stakeholder approach...

  1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Lieutenant General, Canadian Forces, Canadian Military Repre- sentative to NATO Elizabeth Race, Deputy Defence Policy Advisor, Canadian Joint...Ruehle, Head, Energy Security Section, Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO ( Brus - sels) Patrick Nash, Lieutenant General, Irish Army, for- mer

  2. Paris agreement in the light of the objectives and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points to the overall context of the discussion about the problems related to Climate change. The paper analyzes the provisions of the Paris Agreement, adopted on the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Paris, December, 2015. The overall context of the discussion is determined by the content and significance of the objectives and principles defined in the Paris Agreement in relation to the goals and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law in general. Particular emphasis is given to the place and importance of the objectives related to human rights (the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. The central part of the paper examines the significance of the objectives and principles in the field of the climate change that are contained in the provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant international agreements relevant to climate change that were adopted prior to the Paris Agreement. Further on, the provisions of the Paris Agreement are analyzed, and in particular the parts relating to the objectives and principles. The last part of the paper gives an overview of the relevance of the solutions contained in the Paris Agreement for the Republic of Serbia. Paper provides an overview of the basic strategic and normative elements of national policy in the field of climate change, including the question of objectives and principles. In addition to that it considers the thesis that Paris agreement, aside from the elements of the continuity as the successor of the Kyoto protocol, contains a new element regarding goals and principles of international community's activities in the climate change field.

  3. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2014-05-01

    . This paper describes water banking in Arizona from a policy perspective and identifies reasons for its implementation. It goes on to explore conditions under which water banking could successfully be applied to other parts of the world, specifically including Australia.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 724 - Policy Statement by the Secretary of Defense-Addressing Certain Categories of Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; Subject: Review of Discharges Under Other Than Honorable Conditions Issued... applications for such review from former service members. Each Secretary is authorized to issue a discharge... States Code 1553. “This policy shall apply to those service members whose cases are finalized or in...

  5. Shadows of Stuxnet: Recommendations for U.S. Policy on Critical Infrastructure Cyber Defense Derived from the Stuxnet Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    wastewater, oil and natural gas, chemical, transportation, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage , and discrete manufacturing (e.g...4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2... Management xiv PDD presidential decision directive PPD 21 Presidential Policy Directive 21 PLC programmable logic controller SCADA supervisory

  6. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  7. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  8. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  9. Japan's shift to a proactive defense architecture: Challenges faced by industry, government, and society

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hoyoon

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a result of the changing security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Japan is shifting to a more proactive defense policy, as outlined in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG). This thesis investigates the challenges faced by Japan's industry, government, and society in meeting the NDPG objectives. To do this, this thesis probes the following problem areas: difficulties with indigenous production of weapons systems, inability...

  10. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  11. Consensus builds on population policy as ICPD PrepCom meetings conclude. Vatican objections firm and vocal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    In April, 1994, at UN headquarters in New York, delegates from almost 200 countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) negotiated a Programme of Action to be ratified following more debate at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September. A sizable consensus emerged for this Preparatory Committee III (PrepCom) meeting. It has an expanded view of population policy that centers more on meeting individual needs and less on achieving strict demographic goals. Thus, it focuses on the unmet need for reproductive health services (family planning, basic women's health care, and services linked to sexually transmitted diseases). It considers women's status and female education as being important themselves as well as key determinants of fertility rates. Disagreement over access to abortion services and reproductive health services for adolescents remain. Unlike earlier world conferences, most of the world is working towards a consensus, while the Vatican and just a few small countries (Benin, Malta, Honduras, and Nicaragua) object to these services. Some topics that US National Conference of Catholic Bishops did not want in the Programme of Action were references to reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion, promoting condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS, and even safe motherhood. The US and Japan have committed sizable increases in population assistance. Some European countries are concerned about how their contributions would be allocated. US Undersecretary for Global Affairs and a mostly female 23-member US delegation attended PrepCom III. Most of the US delegates were from NGOs. Many country delegates were women. Many countries accepted recommendations of the women's caucus. The US's priorities are promotion of universal access to the full range of high quality family planning and reproductive health services; increasing women's status; child survival promotion; serving adolescent needs; augmenting the role and responsibility of men in

  12. Defense Contract Management Command Capitalization of Fixed Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service had implemented effective management control procedures and complied with laws...

  13. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  14. 32 CFR 13.5 - Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHIEF DEFENSE COUNSEL, DETAILED DEFENSE COUNSEL, AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNSEL § 13.5 Policies. (a) Prohibition.... Personnel assigned to the Office of the Chief Defense Counsel, as well as all members of the Civilian...

  15. Missile defense in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  16. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions on the ongoing Syria conflict caused a rift...Uzbekistan (IMU).104 That group, which is active in Afghanistan, in mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization.105 Almost all...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  17. Western Hemisphere Defense Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    El Salvador , Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay have contributed to or led multi-national security operations and United Nations (UN...critical support during the initial stages of the Haiti earthquake relief effort. As military forces often have a unique capability to respond

  18. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... of source and object codes, regardless of medium are not agency records. (This does not include the... existing computer program or printout for retrieval of the requested information. (c) The prior application...

  19. Bioenergy: Resource efficiency and contributions to energy- and climate policy objectives; Bioenergi: Resurseffektivitet och bidrag till energi- och klimatpolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goeran; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Physical Resource Theory; Boerjesson, Paal; Rosenqvist, Haakan [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

    2008-09-15

    Increasing the use of bioenergy in place of fossil fuels is motivated by a number of energy policy goals. Individual bioenergy systems must be evaluated relative to a particular goal or set of goals. Depending on which specific political goal that is in focus, the attractiveness of different bioenergy systems can vary in relation to even broad objectives such as the resource-efficient use of agricultural and forest land. Furthermore, the outcome of a specific evaluation is sensitive to explicit as well as implicit assumptions and choices regarding, e.g., definition of system boundaries, economic conditions, implementation of policies, byproduct markets, and establishment of new technologies. Several biofuels production chains generate byproducts of value. Energy balance calculations are greatly influenced by how such byproducts are taken into account. Often, the most important factor underlying different results from different energy balance studies is a difference in analytic assumptions, for instance in allocation methods and system borders. Different studies can only be accurately compared if they are based on comparable analytic assumptions. Which methods are justified in a given energy balance study is determined by the current conditions for the specific bioenergy system under analysis. In the future, bioenergy systems may increasingly consist of various generation combinations wherein liquid biofuels may for instance be co-generated with power, heat, and solid biofuels, etc. from a mix of raw biomass. The driving factors are the synergies available with the higher total energy efficiency and resources efficiency obtained by combined approaches, compared to when the energy carriers are produced on their own. These solutions imply that if there is a market for the other energy carriers, and the total net system exchange is high, a lower net value for liquid fuels may be acceptable. The climate efficiency of a bioenergy system also depends on its impact on

  20. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... 215 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability... adding a section at 215.300 with a reference to Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy...

  1. 32 CFR 151.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 National Defense... FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Defense to protect, to the maximum extent possible, the rights of U.S. personnel who may be subject to criminal trial by...

  2. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  3. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  4. Devising and Attaining National Health Objectives: A Case Study in Policy Formulation Using Asthma Targets in Healthy People 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-06

    Soros, George. The Alchemy of Finance , New York:Simon & Schuster, 1987. Stein, Harold. ed. Public Adminstration and Policy Development: A Case Book...of asthma in the United States. The Health Care Financing Administration has reported that asthma-related expenditures were more than $4 billion in

  5. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  6. Computer Network Defense and Attack: Information Warfare in the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Carole

    2001-01-01

    .... This paper will discuss current computer network defense and attack policy in the context of ends, ways and means, explain what is lacking in current policy and offer recommendations for improvement...

  7. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  8. Energy Indicators 2012. Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2012. Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency has a mandate to identify indicators for follow-up of the energy policy objectives. A first presentation of indicators was done in 2002. Since then, annual presentations have been made with different themes. Past themes have been the electricity market (2003), district heating and natural gas market (2004), energy consumption (2005), oil consumption (2006), secure energy supply (2007), renewable energy (2008), EU (2009) and energy efficiency (2011). This year's theme is bioenergy development.

  9. Defense Agency Travel Payments at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center management controls over payments to Defense agency personnel for temporary duty and local travel...

  10. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  11. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: a White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Wendy; Leitman, Liddy; Polin, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Global Doctors for Choice-a transnational network of physician advocates for reproductive health and rights-began exploring the phenomenon of conscience-based refusal of reproductive healthcare as a result of increasing reports of harms worldwide. The present White Paper examines the prevalence and impact of such refusal and reviews policy efforts to balance individual conscience, autonomy in reproductive decision making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. The White Paper draws on medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Estimates of prevalence are difficult to obtain, as there is no consensus about criteria for refuser status and no standardized definition of the practice, and the studies have sampling and other methodologic limitations. The White Paper reviews these data and offers logical frameworks to represent the possible health and health system consequences of conscience-based refusal to provide abortion; assisted reproductive technologies; contraception; treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss; and prenatal diagnosis. It concludes by categorizing legal, regulatory, and other policy responses to the practice. Empirical evidence is essential for varied political actors as they respond with policies or regulations to the competing concerns at stake. Further research and training in diverse geopolitical settings are required. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients' health and rights, providers and professional medical/public health societies must lead attempts to respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women's lives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  13. Defense Business Operations Fund Inventory Record Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether inventory amounts on the FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements were presented fairly in accordance...

  14. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  15. 32 CFR 634.5 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program objectives. 634.5 Section 634.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.5 Program objectives. (a) The objectives of motor vehicle traffic...

  16. Energy Indicators 2013 - Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2013 - Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency has been commissioned by the government to develop indicators for monitoring the energy policy objectives. A first report of indicators was published in 2002. Thereafter, annual reports have been published, with different themes. Past themes have been the Electricity market (2003), District heating and natural gas market (2004), Energy (2005), Oil use (2006), Energy security (2007), Renewable Energy (2008), EU (2009), Energy efficiency (2011) and Bioenergy development (2012). This year's theme is 'Transportation' and beyond there are also theme extensions as 'District heating market' and 'Cost comparison of heating options for apartment buildings' as attachments to this report. The publication begins with a brief review of the energy policy goals. Then we describe two thematic indicators, five light indicators and twenty basic indicators. While this report will serve as a tool for monitoring the energy policy objectives it's our hope that it will also make a contribution to the discussion on the development of the future Swedish energy system. The previous publications are available on the Agency's Web site, www.energimyndigheten.se.

  17. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  18. A hybrid credibility-based fuzzy multiple objective optimisation to differential pricing and inventory policies with arbitrage consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemy Yaghin, R.; Fatemi Ghomi, S. M. T.; Torabi, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    In most markets, price differentiation mechanisms enable manufacturers to offer different prices for their products or services in different customer segments; however, the perfect price discrimination is usually impossible for manufacturers. The importance of accounting for uncertainty in such environments spurs an interest to develop appropriate decision-making tools to deal with uncertain and ill-defined parameters in joint pricing and lot-sizing problems. This paper proposes a hybrid bi-objective credibility-based fuzzy optimisation model including both quantitative and qualitative objectives to cope with these issues. Taking marketing and lot-sizing decisions into account simultaneously, the model aims to maximise the total profit of manufacturer and to improve service aspects of retailing simultaneously to set different prices with arbitrage consideration. After applying appropriate strategies to defuzzify the original model, the resulting non-linear multi-objective crisp model is then solved by a fuzzy goal programming method. An efficient stochastic search procedure using particle swarm optimisation is also proposed to solve the non-linear crisp model.

  19. The Lisbon Treaty and its Implications for the Common Security Defense Policy in the Light of the Emerging Strategic Partnership between NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Berücksichtigung des Lissabonner Reformvertrages (Munich: AVM-Verlag, 2009), 4. 34See Martin Reichard, The EU-NATO Relationship–A Legal and Political...high readiness, and the responsibility between ‘framework’ nations rotates. See Gustov Lindstrom , Chaillot Paper No. 97, “Enter the EU Battlegroups...Plus agreements remain controversial. Martin Reichard, a legal expert on European Defense, provides a good view on the evolution of these agreements

  20. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  1. 32 CFR 631.16 - Navy policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Navy policy. 631.16 Section 631.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.16 Navy policy. The...

  2. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy. (a...

  3. 32 CFR 96.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD INFORMATION BY THE MILITARY SERVICES § 96.4 Policy. Section 503 of title... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 96.4 Section 96.4 National Defense... campaigns to obtain enlistments. It is the policy of the Department of Defense that the Military Services...

  4. The economic environment of wholesale power generation fuel products at MOL Co, Hungary, and the principal objectives of the trade policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, I.

    1998-01-01

    The trading conditions of petroleum fuel products are influenced mainly by the liberalized nature of the market. The economic regulations are concentrated to new basic rules: transparent, competition-neutral market aspects, maintaining competition, elimination of market dominance, consumer protection for those without bargaining power, environmental protection for the interest of the society. The fuel market structure and the competition in the region and in Hungary is discussed. The trade policy objectives and tools for MOL are presented, and the trends and prospects for power fuel products and quality development are outlined. (R.P.)

  5. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    individual policy activities. Subfunctions are assigned a numeric identifier (ending in a single digit ) related to the function to which they belong...operations, equipment repair, and maintenance of defense facilities, healthcare costs, and administration. 24% Military Personnel (MILPERS) Pay and

  6. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  7. 32 CFR 542.4 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives. 542.4 Section 542.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY EDUCATION SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES § 542.4... respect for the role of the US Army in support of national objectives. (f) A knowledge of basic military...

  8. 32 CFR 636.2 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program objectives. 636.2 Section 636.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.2 Program objectives. In addition to the...

  9. Defense Science Board Task Force on Mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuttle, Jr, William G

    2005-01-01

    .... national security objectives as it is today. Both the 2001 and 2005 National Defense Strategy objectives place greater emphasis than in the past on the nation's worldwide commitments, increasing the demand for responsive forces capable...

  10. Readiness of the Defense Message System to Replace the Automatic Digital Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The Defense Information Systems Agency began developing the Defense Message System (DMS) in 1988 to replace messaging functions provided by AUTODIN and electronic mail systems. Audit Objectives...

  11. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  12. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  13. Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure Data Collection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-19

    VXW-ÄVAVKVX’AWXW/XVXV:*: OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL SUMMARY REPORT ON THE AUDIT OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY 1995 DEFENSE BASE REALIGNMENT...FOR DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Summary Report on the Audit of Defense Logistics Agency 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure...the data that DLA provides to support recommendations for the 1995 Commission. The specific objective for the audits was to determine whether the

  14. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 174.4 Section 174.4 National Defense... will, when feasible, be accelerated to facilitate the transfer of real property for community reuse. In...

  15. A line of defense approach to fissile material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, S.P.; Holloway, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A crucial element of the safety policy of the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is that concerned with the safe control of fissile material in order to minimize the potential for unplanned criticality. The principles by which AWE controls fissile material advocate a simple Line of Defense (LOD) approach to assessing criticality-safety related aspects of fissile operations. An LOD assessment provides a measure of the depth of defense available to prevent general types of criticality accident and can be used to demonstrate compliance with the risk-based Basic Safety Limits (BSLs) and Objectives (BSOs) used by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to judge the safety of operations in accordance with its Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Plants. This paper discusses the LOD concept, the basis of LOD assessment and describes LODs specific to criticality control

  16. Procurement of Contract Reconciliation Services by the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate DLA's procedures for contracting with NSI to reconcile contracts before their transfer from the Defense Contract Administration Services Regions to the Defense Finance Center...

  17. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  18. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  19. 32 CFR 636.8 - Registration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration policy. 636.8 Section 636.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.8 Registration policy. In addition to th...

  20. 32 CFR 634.19 - Registration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration policy. 634.19 Section 634.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Motor Vehicle Registration § 634.19 Registration policy. (a) Motor vehicles will be...

  1. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  2. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  3. 75 FR 20578 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat... amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Director of DTRA and the Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of...

  4. A New Approach for the Design and Evaluation of Land Defense Concepts,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    possible innovations can be vast. For example, tanks are a bugaboo of "defensive defense" advocates. Yet the Israelis in the Golan Heights in 1973 found...1551-1556. Loser, Jochen, and Otto Buchorn, " Portfolio on Area-Distributed Defense as an Alternate Defense Policy for NATO in the 1990s

  5. 75 FR 10163 - Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...; (5) Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; (6) Under Secretary of..., Technology, and Logistics; (12) Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; (13) Principal Deputy... Defense Research and Engineering; (17) General Counsel of the Department of Defense, the Assistant...

  6. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalter Henry D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual

  7. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  8. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and Mathematics at the Royal Institute of Tech- nology, Stockholm, Sweden; and Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg , Germany . viii ix SUMMARY...and analysis to influence policy debate and bridge the gap between military and academia. The Center for Strategic Leadership and Development...provide an overview of four different national approaches to cyber defense: those of Nor- way, Estonia, Germany , and Sweden. While provid- ing a

  9. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  10. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM 2.5 . However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  12. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2017-06-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  13. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  14. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  15. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy defense waste management program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Program Implementation Plan describes the Department of Energy's current approach to managing its defense high-level, low-level, and transuranic radioactive waste. It documents implementation of the policies described in the 1983 Defense Waste Management Plan

  17. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO? Strategic Forum. Number 184, August 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schake, Kori

    2001-01-01

    ...) Although transatlantic policies will be colored by issues such as the Kyoto treaty, missile defenses, and relations with Russia, ESDP is likely to dominate defense debates as the European Union (EU...

  18. Ensuring a Strong U.S. Defense for the Future: The National Defense Panel Review of the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    territorial disputes with China. We note recent moves to station U.S. forces in Darwin , the plan to station a number of Littoral Combat Ships in Singapore...Under Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (C) Charles “Chuck” Hagel Secretary of Defense Mara Karlin Principal Director for Strategy, Policy (P...Support Staff to the Panel Charles Arnold George Sinks U.S. Government Liaison Officers Lori Abele Chief of Staff, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense

  19. The Trump Administrations March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and...Budget Lynn M. Williams Analyst in U.S. Defense Budget Policy April 3, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R44806 The Trump ...8 The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: FAQs Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction On

  20. Comprehensiveness of the FY 1996 Other Defense Organizations Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center consistently and accurately compiled financial data received from field accounting...

  1. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  2. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  3. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  4. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  6. 32 CFR 169a.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance to employees whose Federal jobs are eliminated through CA competitions. (h) Permit interim-in... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... shall consider the overall DoD mission and the defense objective of maintaining readiness and...

  7. Mere Objectives or Hard Law? A Case Study on the EU‘s Social Policy in the Context of Free Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to assess the impact of the EU Internal Market rules on the development of Union’s social policy. To that end the author analyses trends in the EU’s social policy over time, also following the outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, synthesising selected Union’s legislation, soft measures and case law relating to social policy, with a view to determining their immediate or potential impact on social rights and social protection. It is submitted that to date, the Union has made but a very restricted use of its powers to develop the social dimension of its Single Market, which contributes to the difficulties in reconciling social and labour rights with competition law and economic freedoms. This problem is ascribed not exclusively to the commonly blamed inequality of arms resulting from the prevalence of soft measures in the area of social policy and the hard law regulatory framework for the implementation of the Single Market rules. Its core is identified in the lack of will on the part of national governments to advance economic integration on common (European social foundations. Hence the necessary prerequisite for the further advance of the EU social policy and a sustainable European socio-economic model is the attitude change in the Member States.

  8. Center for Homeland Defense and Security Homeland Security Affairs Journal

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS). The journal provides a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security.

  9. Defense Inventory: Army War Reserve Spare Parts Requirements Are Uncertain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Department of Defense policy calls for each of the services to acquire and maintain sufficient war materiel inventories to commence execution of the two-war scenario and sustain operations until...

  10. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Palestinian peace process through Hamas attacks on buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions...mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization. 105 Almost all of the Central Asian states share a common language and culture with...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  11. Defense Policy in the Reagan Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    usimie force short of1 ý ar. the evidence is, imied. lii some cases, the 1United States has acted boldIN and quickl\\, as in the Cuban Missile Crrsi, In...structure sxs tems are needed, otherwise the tendency \\%Ml he to extract maximum henefit from ever\\ technolo,2\\ rather than the relevant ones. With reuard to

  12. Defense policies under review / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitika-ala asekaitseministri Michele Flournoy 26. veebruaril toimunud kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja USA koostööst Afganistanis, NATO-Vene suhetest ning NATO-st üldiselt

  13. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 855.1 Section 855.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES... of Air Force airfields in foreign countries will be subject to US Federal laws and regulations that...

  14. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  15. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    deploying advanced air defense systems18, such as the Russian S-300 and S-500, and concealing them in hardened, camouflaged sites, such as extensive... Russian objections to the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and fund homeland defense priorities.39 Furthermore, the PTSS system was also... Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Capability Becomes Operational,” Jane’s Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2011. 55 Joseph W. Kirschbaum, REGIONAL MISSILE

  16. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  17. 75 FR 64710 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of Defense Services Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Program Acquisition and Strategic Sourcing (DPAP...

  18. Are vehicle travel reduction targets justified? Evaluating mobility management policy objectives such as targets to reduce VMT and increase use of alternative modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2009-09-17

    This article presented several reasons for reforming current transportation policies to include targets to reduce vehicle miles of travel (VMT) and encourage use of alternative modes such as walking, cycling or public transit. Demographic and economic trends are increasing the demand for alternative modes, and economic competitiveness will require increased efficiency. As such, a variety of integrated transportation and land use policy reforms are needed to prepare for the future. Mobility management strategies that reduce vehicle travel include efficient road and parking pricing; more flexible zoning codes; and ridesharing incentives. Most mobility management strategies help solve a variety of problems and provide many benefits, including congestion reduction, road and parking cost savings, consumer savings, traffic safety, improved mobility for non-drivers, energy conservation, emission reductions, efficient land development, and improved public fitness and health. Improvements to public transit, road and parking pricing, and commute trip reduction programs also tend to reduce urban-peak traffic. The article suggested that VMT reduction targets are the first step in implementing mobility management policies. Although automobile travel will not disappear, it will decrease compared with current planning practices. 55 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Department of Defense Involvement in Homeland Security: The Militarization of the Southwestern Border in the U.S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... The Department of Defense (DoD) was given the lead role in Homeland Defense and it directed the U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) to implement plans and policies to defend against future terrorist attacks...

  1. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  2. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  3. 48 CFR 232.702 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 232.702 Section 232.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 232.702 Policy. Fixed-price...

  4. A fuzzy multi-objective model for capacity allocation and pricing policy of provider in data communication service with different QoS levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Wang, Xianjia; Zhong, Yong-guang; Yu, Lean; Jie, Cao; Ran, Lun; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Xu, Xianhao

    2012-06-01

    Data communication service has an important influence on e-commerce. The key challenge for the users is, ultimately, to select a suitable provider. However, in this article, we do not focus on this aspect but the viewpoint and decision-making of providers for order allocation and pricing policy when orders exceed service capacity. It is a multiple criteria decision-making problem such as profit and cancellation ratio. Meanwhile, we know realistic situations in which much of the input information is uncertain. Thus, it becomes very complex in a real-life environment. In this situation, fuzzy sets theory is the best tool for solving this problem. Our fuzzy model is formulated in such a way as to simultaneously consider the imprecision of information, price sensitive demand, stochastic variables, cancellation fee and the general membership function. For solving the problem, a new fuzzy programming is developed. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed method. The results show that it is effective for determining the suitable order set and pricing policy of provider in data communication service with different quality of service (QoS) levels.

  5. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  6. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  7. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  8. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    these conditions, ownership retained the power and control instruments at the highest level. The specific form of relations of ownership and management can be found in the so-called public sector as an institutional system of state economic engagement. Stronger organizational democracy and managers and employees participation are  moving in two directions: greater participation in the ownership and greater participation in decision making. This implies closer and partly equalized interests between important internal stakeholders (owners, managers, employees.   Development of management in public sector   The way in which public administration performs its duties (so-called administrative work has always been a matter of dispute and the desire for reform. Poor quality of communication between users (citizens and the administrative system has resulted in distrust, on the one hand, and bureaucratization on the other hand. Due to decentralization of political systems, government subjects at various levels of hierarchy have relationships closer to partnership than to subordination. Partnerships require a redistribution of responsibilities, obligations, and funds and other resources among all stakeholders in the management of the affairs of general - common importance. Hence, the term public administration replaced the term government administration, indicating a wider range of entities involved in policy making and implementation of activities. Traditional administrative approach (Public Administration, assuming the concept of elite democracy, relies on three institutional social categories: the party system, the political leadership and the bureaucracy. Accordingly, the authorities can successfully respond to numerous demands and expectations of citizens only by a standardized and administrative approach, particularly in areas such as education, health, economic and monetary system, defense and others. In accordance with its own peculiarities and historical heritage

  9. Material Accounting and Management Control Weaknesses in the Defense Agencies' FYs 1995 and 1996 Financial Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to summarize Defense agency accounting system weaknesses and related management control program weaknesses identified during audits of defense agencies' FYs 1995 and 1996 financial data...

  10. Didáticas e discursos em defesa do desenho como objeto de ensino e de sua inserção na instrução pública luso-brasileira - Didactics and discourses in defense of the drawing as an object teaching and its inclusion in public luso-brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Maria Costa Trinchão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O texto identifica e analisa idéias que nortearam as políticas educacionais e propostas didático-pedagógicas apontadas no século XVII, ampliadas no XVIII, que ajudaram a socializar o Desenho como disciplina escolar e guiaram a elaboração de novos mecanismos didáticos na cultura ocidental no século XIX. O desempenho na arte do Desenho ora seguia os propósitos da educação da visão e da mente de Comenius, ora em busca da justeza do olho e da flexibilidade da mão na orientação de Rousseau, ou pela precisão do pensamento e da observação aplicada por Pestalozzi, ou ainda de forma natural e intuitiva indicada por Froebel, o desenhar como atividade inerente ao indivíduo. Destaca também, discursos de artistas e pedagogos portugueses em defesa do Desenho como objeto de ensino para instrução pública e como meio civilizador. Palavras-chave: história da disciplina de desenho; didática do desenho; defensores do desenho.   DIDACTICS AND DISCOURSES IN DEFENSE OF THE DRAWING AS AN OBJECT TEACHING AND ITS INCLUSION IN PUBLIC LUSO-BRAZILIAN EDUCATION Abstract The text identifies and analyses the ideas that guided the educational policies and didactic-pedagogic proposals created in the XVII century and developed throughout the XVIII century, which helped to socialize Drawing as a school discipline, and lead to the development of new didactic mechanisms in the XIX century western cultures. The development in the Art of Drawing changed its guidelines according to whom it followed it could either pursue the sharpness of the eye and the flexibility of the hand, according to Rousseau, as it could aim for the precision of the mind and of the observation defended by Pestalozzi, or it could accept the natural and intuitive way to develop the Art of Drawing defended by Froebel, drawing as inherent activities in the individual. It also highlights Portuguese pedagogues and artists speeches in defense of Drawing, both as public teaching

  11. Who Pays for National Defense? Financing Defense Programs in the United States, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Uk; Bohte, John

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on military expenditures in the United States have primarily focused on the extent to which guns versus butter trade-offs are prevalent without examining this relationship in the context of how other fiscal policy tools are used to pay for defense. Using annual data from 1947-2007, this study examines the relative importance of…

  12. Energy policy objectives scenarios 2050. Reactions on the need for expansion of wind energy and photovoltaics; Energiepolitische Zielszenarien 2050. Rueckwirkungen auf den Ausbaubedarf von Windenergie und Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Matthias [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Gerhardt, Norman; Sandau, Fabian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany). Gruppe Energiewirtschaft und Systemanalyse

    2015-12-15

    The energy policy debate about renewable energies in Germany is currently focused almost exclusively on expansion targets of the power sector. Imost cases it remains an open question how much current is needed in the long term. A comparison of four cross-sectoral target scenarios shows that electricity consumption in 2050 in many cases could be much higher, depending on the assumptions and interpretation of climate targets than previously thought. [German] Die energiepolitische Diskussion um erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland konzentriert sich zurzeit fast ausschliesslich auf die Ausbauziele im Stromsektor. Dabei bleibt zumeist die Frage offen, wie viel Strom langfristig benoetigt wird. Ein Vergleich von vier sektoruebergreifenden Zielszenarien zeigt, dass der Stromverbrauch im Jahr 2050 je nach Annahmen und Interpretation der Klimaziele weitaus hoeher liegen koennte als bisher vielfach angenommen.

  13. Defensive medicine: No wonder policymakers are confused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    Discussions regarding defensive medical practice often result in proposals for public policy actions. Such proposals generally are premised on assumptions about defensive medicine, namely, that it (a) is driven by physicians' legal anxieties, (b) constitutes bad medical practice, (c) drives up health care costs, (d) varies depending on a jurisdiction's particular tort law climate, (e) depends on medical specialty and a physician's own prior experience as a malpractice defendant, and (f) is a rational response to actual legal risks confronting physicians. This article examines a sample of recent literature focusing on defensive medicine and finds that the messages conveyed vary widely, helping to explain the confusion experienced by many policymakers trying to improve the quality and affordability of health care.

  14. The main decisions which the Parliament and Government will have to take from summer 2012 in order France be able to reach its energy policy objectives. Report to the Prime Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Based on several hearings, this report aims at formulating a set of propositions of decisions which the French Parliament and Government should take during the 2012-2017 term to reach France's energy policy objectives. After having recalled the context and outlined why years to come are crucial for energy policy, in France and in the rest of Europe as well, the author discusses the European and French commitments in relationship with investment programs, perspectives of electricity price increase and radioactive waste management. Then, he addresses the main energy challenges to be faced, more particularly with respect to energy efficiency, renewable energies, power grids, gas (including shale gas) and electronuclear production. He also discusses transverse issues like research and development, carbon tax, energy precariousness, and other issues related to sustainable development

  15. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of 'game-changer' advances in science and technology.

  16. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  17. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  18. Risk Management and Simulation Based Live Fire Test and Evaluation in the Performance Based Defense Business Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, R

    1999-01-01

    .... The service and acquisition program independent Live Fire Test and Evaluation Community has not fully recognized the changing defense acquisition business environment and modified policy and business...

  19. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  20. NATO and EU/European Defense Initiatives: Competitive or Complementary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muckel, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper analyzes the current status of NATO and the European Union (EU) defense initiatives examines national objectives and interests of European key-players and the US and evaluates the aspects of competitiveness or complement of NATO and EU defense initiatives.

  1. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  2. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  3. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  4. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  5. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  7. For a NATO defensive deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy

  8. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  9. Iraqi Civil Defense Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Angelina; O'Connor, Kevin; Rawal, Yogin

    2007-01-01

    .... The assessment team included two engineers/inspectors and three auditors/inspectors. The overall objective of the project was to fully renovate the Civil Defense Headquarters and other buildings on the site to become a fully operational and usable facility.

  10. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  11. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  12. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  13. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. Parliaments and Foreign Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Haney, Patrick; Harnisch, Sebastian; Kaarbo, Juliet; Oppermann, Kai; Tago, Atsushi

    Parliaments differ enormously in their foreign policy competences. This is best documented in the area of “war powers,” understood as decision-making on the use of force. In other issue areas, such as treaty-making, defense budgets, sanctions, or arms exports, differences across countries are far

  15. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of Controlled Unclassified Information Labels and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is...Office of the Secretary of Defense asked RAND to take a closer look at several key sources of inefficiency by evaluating how marking and labeling CUI...ability of data users to properly identify, label, and, if needed, challenge improperly marked data. Identifying which unclassified but potentially

  16. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of Controlled Unclassified Information Labels and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    directly affect the access and utility of acquisition databases. The current information security environment does not establish a consistent... information ” without a nondisclosure agreement • proposing a legislative amendment to 10 U.S.C. 2320, which allows access to technical data for providing...ISSUES WITH Access to Acquisition Data and Information IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of

  17. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greiving

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

  18. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  19. Evaluating Work-Life Balance in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    Evaluating Work - Life Balance in the Department of Defense Erin A. Moeser Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) Kizzy M. Parks...for service members’ family lives may increase satisfaction with work - life balance . Examples of family-friendly organizational policies include...1,500 active duty military personnel were surveyed on the value of work / life balance initiates. More specifically, this study assessed respondents

  20. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  1. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  2. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  3. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Work on the FY 1993 Air Force Defense Business Operations Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    ... fairly in accordance with accepted accounting principles. The objective was revised to correspond with the incremental audit approach that DoD audit organizations were using for the Defense Business Operations Fund' 5 financial statements...

  4. Presentation of Accrued Annual Leave in the FY 1996 Defense Agency Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... We also assessed internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations. As part of that objective, we evaluated how the Defense agencies presented the accrued leave account on the FYs 1994,1995, and 1996 Statements of Financial Position...

  5. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Work on the FY 1993 Air Force Defense Business Operations Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    Our original audit objective was to determine whether the Air Force Consolidated Defense Business Operations Fund financial statements, prepared by the DFAS Denver Center for FY 1993, were presented...

  6. Iran the aerial defense facing a preventive attack against the nuclear sites; Iran la defense aerienne face a une attaque preventive contre ses sites nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruselle, B.; Payre, G

    2006-01-15

    In the context of the nuclear uranium enrichment program development facing the international opinion, the author discusses the Iran policy of implementing a defense against an aerial attack. Even with the modernization of its anti-aerial defense, the Iran will cannot support an aerial american campaign, precise and long. (A.L.B.)

  7. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  8. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  9. Military Construction of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Operations Facility, Columbus, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The audit objectives were to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus Center properly planned and programmed the FY 1996 proposed military construction project and whether...

  10. Defense Virtual Library: Technical Metadata for the Long-Term Management of Digital Materials: Preliminary Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Marcy

    2002-01-01

    ... of the digital materials being preserved. This report, prepared by Silver Image Management (SIM), proposes technical metadata elements appropriate for digital objects in the Defense Virtual Library...

  11. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  12. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  13. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  14. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  15. 48 CFR 207.171-3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 207.171-3 Section... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.171-3 Policy. DoD policy is to... it is anticipated that a prime contract will be awarded without adequate price competition, and the...

  16. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  17. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  18. U.S. weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective

  19. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  20. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  1. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  2. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  3. The superpower, the bridge-builder and the hesitant ally : how defense transformation divided NATO (1991-2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Arie Rem

    2011-01-01

    What shaped the defense transformation policies of NATO member-states? And what does it mean for the future of the alliance? This dissertation explores the impact of the strategic cultures of the United States, the Netherlands and Germany on their efforts to adapt their defense policies and armed

  4. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After independence rural development, hitherto an ensemble of discrete interventions, became part of the overall national development plan. ... This paper attempts to fill this gap, trying to show that the familiar parameters of Lesotho's economy - dependency, dominance of foreign aid, poverty and subsistence production ...

  5. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  6. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  7. Defense program pushes microchip frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, K.

    1985-05-01

    The very-high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) program of the Department of Defense will have a significant effect on the expansion of integrated circuit technology. This program, which is to cost several hundred million dollars, is accelerating the trend toward higher-speed, denser circuitry for microchips through innovative design and fabrication techniques. Teams in six different American companies are to design and fabricate a military useful 'brassboard' system which would employ chips developed in the first phase of the VHSIC program. Military objectives envisaged include automatic monitoring of displays in tactical aircraft by means of an artificial intelligence system, a brassboard used in airborne electronic warfare system, and antisubmarine warfare applications. After a fivefold improvement in performance achieved in the first phase, the second phase is concerned with a further 20-fold increase. The entire VHSIC program is, therefore, to produce a 100-fold gain over the state of the art found when the program started.

  8. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  9. 77 FR 32601 - Meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... update briefings from the Marine Corps and the Army on their assignment policies, and a briefing from the... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Bowling or DACOWITS Staff at 4000 Defense Pentagon, Room 2C548A..., and announcements. --Briefing--Assignment Policy, USMC. --Briefing--Assignment Policy, USA. --Briefing...

  10. 48 CFR 229.170-2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition of services; (3) Generally is implemented through letters of offer and acceptance, other country... DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 229.170-2 Policy. (a) By law, bilateral agreements...

  11. 48 CFR 245.102 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 245.102 Policy. (1) Mapping, charting, and geodesy property. All Government-furnished mapping, charting, and geodesy (MC&G) property is under the control of...

  12. 48 CFR 237.7502 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Acquisition and Management of Industrial Resources 237.7502 Policy. (a) Comply with DoD Directive 4275.5, Acquisition and Management of Industrial...

  13. Defense AT&L (Volume 37, Number 1, January-February 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Senate, he serves as the senior advisor to the secretary of defense on testing Department of Defense weapon systems, and prescribing policies and...including several commands. As general, his final assign- ment was the senior air defense advisor to the chief of staff of the Army. His awards...by going to <www. usajobs.gov>. For more details, see the USA Staffing Ap- plication Manager’s online help at <http://eshelp.opm. gov/ robo /projects

  14. 32 CFR 14.3 - Policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policies and procedures. 14.3 Section 14.3... QUALIFICATION OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNSEL § 14.3 Policies and procedures. (a) Application procedures. (1... the subject of any sanction or disciplinary action by any court, bar, or other competent governmental...

  15. Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS): mothers' and children's responses to the stresses of missile attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, L; Laor, N; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study furthers the validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS) as a measure of children's defensive behavior. Participants were 81 mothers who assessed the defense style (CADS) of their 8- to 10-year-old children, as well as their own defense style and level of object relations. Five years earlier, the mothers had rated their children's symptom level and personality after the missile attacks during the Gulf War. The original factor structure of the CADS was replicated for the most part. Self-oriented and other-oriented defenses were related to the children's early personality and symptomatic reaction, as well as to their mother's defense style and level of object relations. The CADS factors correlated with the defenses of the Defense Mechanisms Manual. The results provide further validation of the CADS and suggest possible areas of implementation, such as longitudinal examination of defenses, psychopathology screening, and therapeutic improvement.

  16. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milligan, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... Offsets are increasing as a percentage of defense exports. Because US industry leads worldwide defense exports, US offsets policy and the potential impact of offsets on US national security are highly significant...

  17. MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY: CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Radu CUHAL; Ludmila STARIŢÎNA; Nicolae BASISTÎI

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  18. Macroprudential policy: conceptual positions

    OpenAIRE

    Stariţîna Ludmila; Cuhal Radu

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  19. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  20. Energy. Policy and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroop, A.

    2006-01-01

    Why does the government have an energy policy? What form does it take? Who is involved in implementing that policy? These and similar questions are answered in the latest Energy Report. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) argues that the objectives are feasible as long as the energy policies are matched by suitable implementation measures [nl

  1. 78 FR 11162 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... administration, or public policy shall be appointed from civilian life by the Secretary of Defense; b. The... point of view and in a manner that is free from conflict of interest. The Department, when necessary... Secretary of Defense or the USD(P&R). Such subcommittees shall not work independently of the Board, and...

  2. Iran the aerial defense facing a preventive attack against the nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, B.; Payre, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the nuclear uranium enrichment program development facing the international opinion, the author discusses the Iran policy of implementing a defense against an aerial attack. Even with the modernization of its anti-aerial defense, the Iran will cannot support an aerial american campaign, precise and long. (A.L.B.)

  3. U.S. Department of Energy, defense waste management program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that the program implementation plan describes the Department of Energy's current approach to managing its defense high-level, low-level, and transuranic radioactive waste. It documents implementation of the policies described in the 1983 Defense Waste Management Plan

  4. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  5. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  6. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  7. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...

  8. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self-Assessment Evaluations - Redacted

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    from mandatory disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization...Project No. D2016-D000RD-0057.000) │ i Results in Brief Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self...Assessment Evaluations Visit us at www.dodig.mil December 20, 2016 Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency

  9. The levels of psychological functioning of personality and the mechanisms of defense

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Camacho, Erika; Chávez-León, Enrique; Ontiveros Uribe, Martha Patricia; Yunes Jiménez, Arlette; Náfate López, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Otto Kernberg states three types of personality organizations, also named psychological functional levels. They reflect the patient's predominant psychological characteristics: identity integration grade, defense mechanisms, and reality test. In mental disorders, the predominant defensive influences significantly in the severity and evolution of the suffering. Objectives The objective of the actual study was to determine the usage of defense mechanisms by patients with some mental disorder, g...

  10. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology and Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    utilizing these agent impermeable membranes. By FY98, develop and conduct physiological testing of a series of microencapsulated phase change materials...bases and depots, as well as civilian areas. By the end of FY02, demonstrate efficacy of enzymatic decontamination system for G and V-type nerve agents

  11. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  12. Defense.gov Special Report: Feds Feed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    defense for civilian personnel policy. Story Mark McCaffrey Featured at FFF Rally Capital Area Food Bank community. For more information visit the Capital Area Food Bank. The Corporation for National and Community Feds Feed Families Website Capital Area Food Bank What Others Are Doing FFF People, Pets and Paper

  13. 76 FR 2246 - Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Presidential nominating conventions, such as the United Nations General Assembly, Super Bowls, and the Group of..., direction, and control of the USD(P) shall: (1) Serve as the principal civilian advisor to the Secretary of... principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense for all DoD health policy shall: (1) Provide guidance and...

  14. Defense.gov Special Report: Travels with Hagel

    Science.gov (United States)

    member of the department's Defense Policy Board. Biography Photo Essays Photo Essay: Hagel Visits U.S Visits Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem Hagel Arrives in Israel for Inaugural Trip to Middle by Hagel and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the Israeli Prime Minister's Office, Jerusalem

  15. Defensive Jurisprudence and Productivity Goals: Jabuticaba Consumerist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz Barros Barreto de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the application of so-called procedural defensive jurisprudence that values exacerbated rationalization of the judiciary activities, preventing the processing of judicial review in the higher courts, and its consequences in consumeristas indemnity processes. It analyzes the pressure to which judges are subjected, especially because of the need to comply with productivity goals. The construction work suggests the misconception of these imposed judicial policies to decrease the procedural stock since that attack the problem on screen superficially and do not solve the basic question.

  16. A changing European Security and defense architecture and its impact on Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yikilkan, Orhan.

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1991 Maastricht Treaty, the European Union countries have been trying to form a common security and defense identity as one facet of the European Union unification process. The efforts to create "separable but not separate" European forces within NATO have accelerated in the last three years and changed direction toward creating an autonomous "European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)" within the framework of the EU. This policy concerns some non-EU European NATO allies, such as T...

  17. Statutory Restrictions on the Position of Secretary of Defense: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Military Policy, Post-War Military Policy, H. Rept. 1765, 78th Congress, 2nd Session. 25 Roger R. Trask and Alfred Goldberg , The Department of Defense 1947...Although the United States has utilized a variation of Truman’s proposed system of military governance for the past 60 years, there was, at the time...Feickert, CRS Specialist in Military Ground Forces. 33 Roger R. Trask and Alfred Goldberg , The Department of Defense 1947-1997: Organization and

  18. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  19. The agricultural policy of Serbia and common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has a relatively high importance in the economic structure of Serbia. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, Common Agricultural Policy is one of the main policies of the European Union. It is very important to point out the fundamental principles and objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy. Harmonization of the national agricultural policy of Serbia with the Common Agricultural Policy and acceptance of its mechanisms is crucial for the development of the agricultural sector as a whole.

  20. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of therapeutic change. Reviewing maturation and development in relation to the resumption of psychological growth suggests that the provision of a beneficient environment, the "white keys," may lead to the resumption of maturational growth and change. The difference between the two modalities would be in the relative need for a significant other to bring about such change. Expanding on Hartmann and Kris, we can say that maturation requires a certain level of human stimulation and a supportive environment to unfold. At times in our work we encounter a psychoanalysis of and about maturation rather than primarily transference and interpretation. By and large the structure and functions of the ego that have been impeded in their exercise by traumatic circumstances in the environment are reactivated by a generalized holding environment rather than a relationship. In the practice of psychoanalysis this means that the child analyst may be more relaxed about the nonverbal play and relational aspects of the work; he need not fear that dynamics not captured in secondary process are lost to change. To the extent that the analysis provides an opportunity for maturational expression, growth will occur. When growth has been impeded by direct and significant interpersonal factors, the standard interpretative clarifications of defense, drive, and object relations in the context of removing the transference distortions regarding the analyst (and the world) are essential for recovery. Where the sequence of repetition through practice to mastery has become frozen by thwarting and stunting relationships, these potentially dead-end examples of neurotic object constancy must be played out on the "black keys." The amalgamation of the black of transference developments and the white of maturational emergence is paradigmatic for the discovery of new objects and new senses of self. In everyday life and analysis, maturation may lead to

  1. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.

  2. Energy policy, strategies for uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.L.; Surrey, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: energy policy-objectives, strategies and policies; the 1967 fuel policy; problems of the optimising approach; the uncertain outlook; oil; coal; gas; electricity; the interdependence of the four fuel industries; energy policy for the future - the need for a long-term strategy; medium-term strategies and short-term policies; the organisational decisions of energy policy. Nuclear power is included in the subject matter. (U.K.)

  3. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  4. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  6. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  8. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  9. Marketing the Joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, Defense Focused Masters in Business Administration To Active Duty Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    1. The Four Ps of the JMBA The marketing mix is a set of marketing tools utilized to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market.12...Concept Of The Marketing Mix ,” Journal of Advertising Research, 4 (June)2- 7. 13 E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach, 13th ed...appropriate marketing mix and reinforced at every customer contact point. This position and the value proposition are the common thread that binds

  10. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  11. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policyobjectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...

  12. Compilation of FY 1995 and FY 1996 DOD Financial Statements at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Indianapolis Center, consistently and accurately compiled financial data from field entities and other sources...

  13. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  14. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  15. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  16. 48 CFR 225.901 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 225.901 Section... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Customs and Duties 225.901 Policy. Unless the supplies are entitled to duty-free treatment under a special category in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  17. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis, particularly...

  18. Defense Reutilization and Marketing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    H -3 E Responsibilities of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions (D R M s...at Defense electronic products which produce radiation Reutilization and Marketing Offices, para- when energized. Among the principal radi- graph F... Sporting Equipment 7820 Games , Toys, and Wheeled Goods 7830 Recreational and Gymnastic Equipment 7910 Floor Polishers and Vacuum Cleaning Equipment

  19. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    DR Decision Review DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DRPM Direct Reporting Program Manager DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency...STE Special Test Equipment STEP Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process STLDD Software Top Level Design Document STP Software Test Plan STPR...established catalog or market prices for specific tasks under standard commercial terms and conditions; this does not include services sold based

  20. Ukrainian defense industry under economic sanctions is within the Russia's interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andreyevich Mal’gin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze a correlation between the Russian and the Ukrainian militaryindustrial complexes MIC as well as to determine possibilities for product substitution under economic sanctions. nbsp Methods analysis and synthesis statistical abstract logic methods. Results аn interdependence of Ukrainian and Russian militaryindustrial complexes is revealed the role of economic sanctions as one of the important instruments and twoedged instruments of foreign policy is shown the means of acceleration of development of defenseindustrial complex of Russia are proposed. Scientific novelty the article proves that the Ukrainian defenseindustrial complex under economic sanctions represents serious threat to Russian militaryindustrial complex. The most effective ways of substituting the Ukrainian defense production by the Russian production are determined. Practical value the proposed measures for substituting the Ukrainian military production by the Russian production will under economic sanctions contribute to Russia39s further strengthening of militaryindustrial complex and the enhancement of operational capability of its armed forces. nbsp

  1. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  2. Demeter's Resilience: an International Food Defense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Morgan; Kennedy, Shaun; Busta, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD), which is led by the University of Minnesota, hosted an international food defense exercise on 27 to 29 May 2008. Established in 2004, NCFPD is a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence with the mission of defending the food system through research and education. Tabletop exercises are practice-based scenarios intended to mimic real life experiences. The objective of the exercise discussed in this article was to facilitate discussion to increase awareness among exercise participants of both the threat that would be posed by an intentional attack on the food supply and the international impact of such an attack. Through facilitated discussion, exercise participants agreed on the following themes: (i) recognition of a foodborne disease outbreak is driven by the characteristics of the illness rather than the actual number of ill individuals; (ii) during the course of a foodborne outbreak there are generally multiple levels of communication; (iii) a common case definition for a foodborne disease is difficult to develop on a global scale; and (iv) the safety and health of all individuals is the number one priority of all parties involved. Several challenges were faced during the development of the exercise, but these were overcome to produce a more robust exercise. The following discussion will provide an overview of the challenges and the strategies used to overcome them. The lessons learned provide insight into how to plan, prepare, and host an international food defense exercise.

  3. THE DEFENSE IN CHILE FROM 1960 TO 2010: AN ISSUE OF THE MILITARY OR AN ISSUE OF EVERY CHILEAN CITIZEN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO SOTO SILVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a general vision of the national defense trough the last 50 years as well as a study of the National Defense System of Chile. The Decree 181 of 1960 that stated the organization of the system and structure of the National Defense is the starting point, a brief analysis of how it worked until 2010 when it was replaced by the new law of the MOD. The way it worked during the international crisis Chile faced during the 70s and 80s is also discussed. But this study does not stop there, it also tackles the way by which the defense policy evolved from an issue related only to the military, to become an issue of every Chilean citizen, through the widening of the knowledge of defense issues to the civilian and political elites, being the formulation of an explicit Defense Policy the cornerstone of the whole process, by means of the publishing of the three books of the national defense, along with other key public policies in defense issues whereas the contribution of the Defense Community, recognized as such in the Second Book of the Defense, was capital. This community has a representation of all the sectors of the civil society interested in defense issues as well as from the armed forces. This period ends with the law 20.424 “Organic Statute of the Ministry of Defense”, the most important change in defense issues, besides de DFL 181, since the creation of the Ministry of Defense back in 1932.

  4. Large Scale System Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    NUMBER 00 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 01 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Columbia University 1700 Broadway New York NY 10019-5905 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFRL/RIGA 525 Brooks Rd. Rome NY 13441-4505...pealing because of the need to modify source code. Since source-level annotations serve as a vestigial policy, we articulated a way to augment self

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY...

  6. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  7. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  8. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  9. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  10. Identification and Authentication Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... We will accomplish the audit objective in two phases. In this phase, we reviewed current DoD Component policies on the use of identification and authentication controls to access information systems...

  11. Defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sandra C; Hulsbergen, Alexander F C; Muskens, Ivo S; van Dam, Marjel; Gormley, William B; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-12-01

    In defensive medicine, practice is motivated by legal rather than medical reasons. Previous studies have analyzed the correlation between perceived medico-legal risk and defensive behavior among neurosurgeons in the United States, Canada, and South Africa, but not yet in Europe. The aim of this study is to explore perceived liability burdens and self-reported defensive behaviors among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands and compare their practices with their non-European counterparts. A survey was sent to 136 neurosurgeons. The survey included questions from several domains: surgeon characteristics, patient demographics, type of practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive practices, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized. Forty-five neurosurgeons filled out the questionnaire (response rate of 33.1%). Almost half (n = 20) reported paying less than 5% of their income to annual malpractice premiums. Nearly all respondents view their insurance premiums as a minor or no burden (n = 42) and are confident that in their coverage is sufficient (n = 41). Most neurosurgeons (n = 38) do not see patients as "potential lawsuits". Relative to their American peers, Dutch neurosurgeons view their insurance premiums as less burdensome, their patients as a smaller legal threat, and their practice as less risky in general. They are sued less often and engage in fewer defensive behaviors than their non-European counterparts. The medico-legal climate in the Netherlands may contribute to this difference.

  12. Using the Oldest Military Force for the Newest National Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Claus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Guard is establishing Cyber Mission Teams (CMT that will fulfill a federal role to backfill active duty defending Department of Defense networks, but are also exploring how they could effectively fulfill state missions. The President, Council of Governors, and USCYBERCOM Commander have expressed concerns about U.S. critical infrastructure cyber network vulnerabilities and the increasing magnitude of threat our adversaries pose to those networks’ security. This article explores using this emerging National Guard capability in a state role for protection of critical infrastructure cyber networks. Most of the critical infrastructure is privately owned. Although current executive orders and policy mandate government sharing of cyber threat information, private providers’ reciprocation of sharing their vulnerabilities is voluntary. This article contends that effective cyber defense requires strong private-public partnerships. We developed a critical infrastructure cyber defense model based upon key characteristics from the literature on private-public partnerships and performed a case study of current cyber defense partnerships to validate the model. Our research shows this model to be a useful guide for emerging National Guard Cyber Mission Forces to consider when establishing partnerships for effective critical infrastructure cyber defense.

  13. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  14. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  15. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  16. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  18. Air defense planning for an area with the use of very short range air defense sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method of planning the deployment of very short-range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD around an area (‘protected area’ in order to protect it. A function dependent on the distance between the earliest feasible points of destroying targets and the centre of the protected area was taken as an objective function. This is a different indicator from those commonly used in the literature, and based on the likelihood of a defense zone penetration by means of an air attack (MAA: the kill probability of the MAA and the probability of area losses. The model constraints resulted directly from the restrictions imposed by real air defense systems and the nature of the area being defended. This paper assumes that the VSHORAD system operates as a part of a general, superordinate air defense command and control system based on the idea of network-centric warfare, which provides the VSHORAD system with a recognized air picture, air defense plans, and combat mission specifications. The presented method has been implemented. The final part of the paper presents the computational results. Keywords: optimal planning, air defense system, area installation protection, deployment of very short range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD

  19. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  20. Climate Change and the Department of Defense: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    thus an increased chance of wildfires, flooding, and drought. In addition to compro- mising food production in Latin America , these natural disasters...Department of Defense (DOD) fully embraces the idea that global climate change is an actual risk to national security that must be taken into consider- Dr...Barack H. Obama in 2008 introduced seismic shifts in American foreign and domestic policies, which included a 180 degrees reversal of foreign and

  1. The Use of Air Power for Maritime Homeland Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    available from http://www.odci.gov/ nic /PDF_GIF_global/globaltrend2015.pdf (accessed 17 March 2006). 25 Some argue terrorists would have difficulty acquiring...for the 181 For a discussion of the Afghanistan campaign, see Stephen Biddle , Afghanistan and the...78 Biddle , Stephen. Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army

  2. Veiled Normalization: The Implications of Japanese Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    1 Mindy Kotler and Daisuke Okuyama. “Japan’s Global Ambivalence.” Foreign Policy, no. 130, (2002): 96-97. 19...risk in entering the arms market .93 (2006) Self Defense Law 82-2 : In 2006, a significant m ilestone was made in regards to the delegation of...Information Gathering Satellite (IGS) System." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 3 (Autumn, 2004). Kotler , Mindy and Daisuke Okuyama

  3. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-05

    become a closed group within a determined area, especially in the countryside. The economy, dominated by the mining industry (mainly by the bauxite ...indicators Uruguay 1997 – 2006 34 Given the current diplomatic and economic situation, by offering early retirement incentives , the government has...of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government

  4. Implementing Effective Affordability Constraints for Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    version that appears in the Pentagon Digital Library at http://www.whs.mil/library/mildoc/DODD.html. See also Joe Ferrara , “DOD’s 5000 Documents...costs.16 E. MIDS MIDS is a multinational (United States, France, Germany, Italy , Spain) cooperative development program with U.S. Joint Service...Congressional Research Service, 15 January 2014. Ferrara , Joe. “DOD’s 5000 Documents: Evolution and Change in Defense Acquisition Policy.” Acquisition

  5. THE PLANNING, PROGRAMING, BUDGETING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SERBIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa RADUSKI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of introducing the PPBES to the Serbian Ministry of Defense and the Serbian Armed Forces is to provide a rational management of resources and to maintain and build capacity of the Ministry and the Serbian Armed Forces in order to achieve their goals, objectives and missions.Expected results of implementation of the PPBES are reflected in increasing the efficiency and rationalization of the defense planning to a higher level, ensuring compatibility with defense planning and budgeting system of the state and developing a foundation for the effective management of defense resources.

  6. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  7. Aegis International and Ballistic Missile Defense: A New Interoperability Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the 1950’s and 1960s ( NIKE Hercules, Sentinel, Safeguard, Site Defense, etc.). The objectives have been pursued by a centralized organization (the...from land. This means greater geographic flexibility, greater survivability and greater scalability in response to an evolving threat. That’s

  8. Is the Liberal Defense of Public Schools a Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; New, William S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a Leftist critique of standard liberal defenses of the public school. We suggest that the standard arguments employed by mainstream liberal defenders of the public school are generally inadequate because they fail to provide a credible representation of their historical object, let alone effective remedies to our current…

  9. Acquisition Planning at the Defense Communications Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    guidelines for interaction are developed under the leadership of DCA agencywide integrators with the participation of personnel from DCA, the Services...Communications System DCSO - Defense Communications System Organizatin . DDN - Defense Data Network DEC - Decision Making DG - Defense Guidance DIA - Defense

  10. The Reserve Policies of Nations: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    .... American defense planners should therefore keep abreast of ongoing alterations in these countries' reserve components and, in certain cases, might wish to adjust their own forces and policies in response...

  11. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  12. 77 FR 69599 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... force mix; the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff will discuss Operational Reserve Requirements... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Reserve Forces Policy Board, Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  13. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  14. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  15. 75 FR 52732 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Committee; Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of..., the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Missile Defense... Director, Missile Defense Agency, independent advice and recommendations on all matters relating to missile...

  16. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  17. Integrating the commercial and defense high level waste programs - A utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonto, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provided that disposal of high-level wastes resulting from defense activities be included in the authorized repository unless the President determined that separate facilities are required. President Reagan approved commingling of defense and civilian wastes on April 30, 1985. The impacts of this decision on the repository schedule, civilian spent fuel acceptance rates, and cost sharing are reviewed and recommendations for resolving these issues are presented

  18. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors - the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. This report examines the safety objective established by the Department of Energy for the production reactors and the process the Department of its contractors use to implement the objective; focuses on a variety of uncertainties concerning the production reactors, particularly those related to potential vulnerabilities to severe accidents; and identifies ways in which the DOE approach to management of the safety of the production reactors can be improved

  19. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  20. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dae O

    2008-01-01

    ...) through competitiveness analysis is required. Thus, it is necessary to develop appropriate models for analyzing the Korean NDI and to conduct competitiveness analysis by using the developed model...

  1. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  2. Department of Defense Authorization for appropriations for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 1174, Part 4, Strategic Forces and Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Government, academic and military officials provided statements and documents in regard to S. 1174 authorizing appropriations for military activities of the Department of Defense and Department of Energy for defense activities. Strategic Forces and Nuclear deterrence categories include the following major topics: (1) Nuclear Testing Limitations, (2) Strategic Warning Capabilities and ICMB modernization, (3) Strategic Policy and Arms Control, and (4) Strategic Defense Initiatives

  3. Commercial Methodologies for Acquiring Consulting Services: Can Department of Defense Contracting Activities Follow Suit?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Will

    2001-01-01

    .... The objective of this thesis is to ascertain the best pre-award commercial practices for acquiring CS and draw conclusions and make recommendations for employing these proven methods in future Department of Defense (DoD) procurements...

  4. Payroll Expenses Reported in FY 1996 for the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall audit objective was to evaluate management controls applicable to the distribution of civilian payroll and related expenditures in the preparation of the Defense agencies' FY 1996 financial statements...

  5. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense (DoD) has launched a number of initiatives whose common objective has been to reduce the costs of weapon systems that are planned, under development, or in production...

  6. FY 1987 program summary document: Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This document describes the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM) Program as supported by the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 1987 Budget Request to Congress. It specifically addresses the program's organization, objectives, strategies, and plans for FY 1987

  7. Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Statement of Financial Position for FY 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the audit was to determine whether the Statement of Financial Position of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1994 was fairly presented in accordance with Office of Management...

  8. Evaluation of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Audit Coverage of Tricare Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannin, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) audit coverage of contracts for health care provided under TRICARE and the former Civilian Health Care and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services...

  9. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  10. Department of Defense Environmental Cleanup Cost Allowability Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    even 1 millions of lives were endangered or disrupted and property values depreciated . The country was becoming increasingly aware of the serious...Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), if applicable; otherwise, generally accepted accounting principles ( GAAP ). 4. Terms of the contract. 5. Limitations...exemptions that determine the applicability of the Standards. If the Standards do not apply, then GAAP applies to the allocability of costs and in many

  11. Department of Homeland Security Policy for Defense of Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    .... A closer look at commercial enterprises includes web browsing, chat rooms, e-mail, e-commerce, overhauls of business practices and organizations, telecommunication operations, and management of power...

  12. In Defense of Teacher Professionalism as a Policy Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Whereas democracy institutionalizes distrust, professionalism relies on trust. Responding to Berbules and Densmore, this article identifies strong normative reasons, grounded in the interests of children, for promoting teacher professionalism. Exorcising the evils of classic professionalism will eliminate neither equity nor quality problems.…

  13. Defense Outsourcing: The OMB Circular A-76 Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    This report provides information on the Office of Management and Budget s (OMB) Circular A-76, Performance of Commercial Activities, and the impact of a related reform initiative, the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act (FAIR...

  14. Defense Outsourcing: The OMB Circular A-76 Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    This report provides information on the Office of Management and Budget's (0MB) Circular A-76, "Performance of Commercial Activities," and the impact of a related reform initiative, the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act (FAIR...

  15. Defense Manpower Policies in Northern and Central European NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    in the Netherlands generally falling into the follow- ing categories: breadwinners , those personally indispensable, those holding ecclesiastical...in The Military Balance 1977/78, pp. 104-105. Indeed there is only limited utility in comparing just peacetime strengths, since in crisis or conflict

  16. Can Profit Policy and Contract Incentives Improve Defense Contract Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    required by investors. The weighted average cost of capital ( WACC ) is the standard financial statistic that weights the returns demanded by investors that...hold equity and investors that hold debt.6 Like FCFROIC, WACC is expressed as a percentage. Consequently, it is possible to compare these two...contractors include Lockheed, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, and General Dynamics. 6 Mathematically, WACC = Debt/(Debt + Equity) × Debt Cost × (1-Tax Rate

  17. Nuclear Deterrence: Strong Policy is Needed for Effective Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    providing anti-access to U.S. forces should conflict erupt, for example over the Taiwan sovereignty issue.29 Emerging Chinese long- range delivery systems...securing fissile material is already extremely difficult. It is quite possible that some nuclear material is unaccounted for in the world; even if banned ...Nuclear weapons are like very complicated chemical experiments, sometimes changing in unforeseen ways as metals corrode, plastics break down and

  18. Japan’s Defense Policy: Forecast and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-21

    development of a warrior upper class, the Heian era, from 794 until 1185, was a remarkable age known for peaceful pursuit in the arts and for the absence of...for an increasing regional and world role. In the 1960’s, nationalism had become fashionable because it was not linked to prewar militarists or the

  19. Changing the Department of Defense’s Policy on Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    Illegal for Gay People to be Honest, The Human Rights Campaign Homepage, retrieved 7 December 2007 from http://www.hrc.org/alva/dadt.html 7. Belkin...Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, The US Military: Where it’s Illegal for Gay People to be Honest, The Human Rights Campaign Homepage, retrieved 7 December...2007 from http://www.hrc.org/alva/dadt.html 18. Ottosson, D (2006, November), LGBT World Legal Wrap Up Survey, International Lesbian Gay

  20. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    operation TURQUOISE, French authorities did not anticipate that some French contingents could inherently and unconsciously bear a destructive message...forces conduct non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO) at Ruhengeri 31 March DAMI PANDA put in place to conduct operational military assistance to...600 700 Technical Military Assistance Mission of Military Cooperation DAMI PANDA Op NOROIT (1 Oct 1990 - 15 Dec 1993) Op CHIMERE (22 Feb

  1. Globalized Security Reshaping America’s Defense Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Process. A naturalized Canadian from Iran and a Malaysian national were arrested for trying to export parts for the F-14 Tomcat, the F-5 Tiger, and the...of government R&D funds, or the government could receive royalties for each piece of equipment sold overseas. Whatever the method, if European

  2. Spanish Defense Policy under the Socialist Government 1982-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    first three years of his term read, Fernando Mordn, Una Politica Exterior Para Espaha (Barcelona: Editorial Planeta , 1980). 25 ideal solution was to...Exterior para Espafia. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta , 1980. Moxon-Browne, Edward. Political Change in Spain. New York: Routledge, 1989. Nugent, Neill. The

  3. Democratic Security and Defense Policy: A Successful Counterinsurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    117Conflict and Cooperation in the War against Drugs,” Banco de la Republica (April 1998), http://www.banrepcultural.org/blaavirtual/ tesis /colfuturo...Capabilities, FARC Outlining its First Strategic Plan (1970–1974) ............................................................. 33 vii COIN Effort...36 Turbay’s Military COIN Approach, FARC’s Remaking its Strategic Plan (1978–1982

  4. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  5. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  6. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  7. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  8. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  9. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....

  10. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad N.; Arby, Muhammad Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Macroeconomic policies are meant to achieve non-inflationary, stable growth. There are two major groups of policy instruments to achieve the purpose; one is related to monetary conditions and the other to fiscal conditions. Monetary instruments are employed by the central bank and fiscal instruments are employed by ministry of finance. The objectives and implications of policy measures taken by the two institutions often conflict with each other and thus call for policy coordination for effec...

  11. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  12. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  13. On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson’s, David Hume’s, and Adam Smith’s moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sent...

  14. Report on Defense Business Operations to the Congressional Defense Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Department’s strategic framework for planning and decision-making, and acknowledged the need to establish clear, actionable strategic goals and...Business Operations Department of Defense Business Transformation 5 2. Business Enterprise Priorities Six Business Enterprise Priorities ( BEPs ... framework products that facilitate the interoperability and integration of the operational activities, processes, data, information exchanges

  15. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  16. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  17. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Victor A. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Bldg. 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Administrative decisions must be grounded in reasonable expectations, founded on sound principles, and bounded by societal norms. Without these first principles, attaining and retaining public trust is a Herculean task. Decisions made by governmental administrators must be both transparent and defensible: without the former the agency will lose the public's trust and support (possibly prompting a legal challenge to the decision) and without the latter the decision may fail to withstand judicial scrutiny. This presentation and accompanying paper delves into the process by which governmental decisions can achieve both defensibility and openness through building stakeholder trust with transparency. Achieving and maintaining stakeholder trust is crucial, especially in the environs of nuclear waste management. Proving confidence, stability, and security to the surrounding citizenry as well as those throughout the country is the goal of governmental nuclear waste remediation. Guiding administrative decision-making processes and maintaining a broad bandwidth of communication are of incalculable importance to all those charged with serving the public, but are especially essential to those whose decisional impacts will be felt for millennia. A strong, clear, and concise administrative record documenting discrete decisions and overarching policy choices is the strongest defense to a decisional challenge. However, this can be accomplished using transparency as the fundamental building block. This documentation allows the decision-makers to demonstrate the synthesis of legal and technical challenges and fortifies the ground from which challenges will be defended when necessary. Further, administrative actions which capture the public's interest and captivate that interest throughout the process will result in a better-informed, more deeply-involved, and more heavily-invested group of interested parties. Management of information, involvement, and investment on the

  18. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Administrative decisions must be grounded in reasonable expectations, founded on sound principles, and bounded by societal norms. Without these first principles, attaining and retaining public trust is a Herculean task. Decisions made by governmental administrators must be both transparent and defensible: without the former the agency will lose the public's trust and support (possibly prompting a legal challenge to the decision) and without the latter the decision may fail to withstand judicial scrutiny. This presentation and accompanying paper delves into the process by which governmental decisions can achieve both defensibility and openness through building stakeholder trust with transparency. Achieving and maintaining stakeholder trust is crucial, especially in the environs of nuclear waste management. Proving confidence, stability, and security to the surrounding citizenry as well as those throughout the country is the goal of governmental nuclear waste remediation. Guiding administrative decision-making processes and maintaining a broad bandwidth of communication are of incalculable importance to all those charged with serving the public, but are especially essential to those whose decisional impacts will be felt for millennia. A strong, clear, and concise administrative record documenting discrete decisions and overarching policy choices is the strongest defense to a decisional challenge. However, this can be accomplished using transparency as the fundamental building block. This documentation allows the decision-makers to demonstrate the synthesis of legal and technical challenges and fortifies the ground from which challenges will be defended when necessary. Further, administrative actions which capture the public's interest and captivate that interest throughout the process will result in a better-informed, more deeply-involved, and more heavily-invested group of interested parties. Management of information, involvement, and investment on the front-end of

  19. Export pricing objectives and factors influencing them

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Gabrielė; Pridotkienė, Jūratė

    2010-01-01

    Pricing is recognized as one of the most important tools to achieve a successful export operation. The starting point in every pricing effort is the process of creating pricing objectives. Pricing objectives are the strategic and economic goals desired by management in pricing the product. Pricing objectives constitute the basis on which pricing methods and policies are formulated. Therefore, a better understanding of the pricing objectives should direct the company’s overall pricing process....

  20. INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF UKRAINIAN DEFENSE LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazhа Y.P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The management and evaluation of defense land was revealed in the article. Specific institution is the military institutе in the institutional framework for defense land. A special regime and zoning, evaluation, payment and exclusion conditions were established for these lands. The market economy has changed the land-property relations in the country. Lands for defense used only in the framework that established the state. Recently there was a tendency of land release this subcategory. This has led to their misuse, belonging to other owners. The research problem consists of the setting clear boundaries of defense land and legal regulation mechanisms of land relations. Public ownership rights applies only to the defense lands. They are located only in the state ownership. The subject is the state that implements ownership (right to possess, use and dispose of the lands of Defense. It ensures the defense of the country and territory for military sites, airfields, parts, ammunition depots. Functional use of defense land is divided into public (military schools, socio-cultural (health centers, recreation centers, industrial (military and industrial objects, residential (cantonment, commercial (commissary, special (military installations, transport ( carpark, bridges, engineering (antennas, radars, storage (defense deport. The land for military unit were given for permanent use with the justification of the project design documentation sizes. The military part of the land for permanent use with the justification sizes by the project design documentation. Safety, security and other areas are created around military and other defense installations. There are restricted areas, prohibited areas. They have a special regime. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real estate. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real

  1. 32 CFR 2400.39 - Responsibility and objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY PROGRAM Security Education § 2400.39 Responsibility and objectives. The OSTP Security Officer shall establish a security education program for OSTP personnel. The program shall be sufficient to... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility and objectives. 2400.39 Section...

  2. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  3. Managing Quadrennial Defense Review Integration: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrader, John

    2001-01-01

    ...). The lessons learned from the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR 1997) included the need for leadership guidance and integration of analytic activities to sort through the myriad issues that are always confronting the Department of Defense...

  4. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  5. The Art and Science of Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics CSC 1995 SUBJECT AREA - Logistics THE ART AND SCIENCE OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS...Government EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Art and Science of Defense Logistics Author: Major S. I. Schuler, USMC Research Questions: 1...00-1995 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Art And Science Of Defense Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. The defense waste processing facility: the final processing step for defense high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Sprecher, W.M.; Walton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Department of Energy is to pursue an aggressive and credible waste management program that advocates final disposal of government generated (defense) high-level nuclear wastes in a manner consistent with environmental, health, and safety responsibilities and requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an essential component of the Department's program. It is the first project undertaken in the United States to immobilize government generated high-level nuclear wastes for geologic disposal. The DWPF will be built at the Department's Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. When construction is complete in 1989, the DWPF will begin processing the high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant into a borosilicate glass form, a highly insoluble and non-dispersable product, in easily handled canisters. The immobilized waste will be stored on site followed by transportation to and disposal in a Federal repository. The focus of this paper is on the DWPF. The paper discusses issues which justify the project, summarizes its technical attributes, analyzes relevant environmental and insitutional factors, describes the management approach followed in transforming technical and other concepts into concrete and steel, and concludes with observations about the future role of the facility

  7. DOE Defense Program (DP) safety programs. Final report, Task 003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 003 of Subcontract 9-X52-W7423-1 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE Defense Program (DP) Safety Programs. The effort included the identification of appropriate safety requirements, the refinement of a DP-specific Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Format and Content Guide (FCG) and Comprehensive Review Plan (CRP), incorporation of graded approach instructions into the guidance, and the development of a safety analysis methodologies document. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective is provided here

  8. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  9. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  10. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  11. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... renewing the charter for the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to... requirements for the support of military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and...

  12. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  13. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  14. 48 CFR 225.7501 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7501 Policy. Acquire... significantly impair the quality at the point of consumption; (ii) An end product or construction material, by... comparative cost of application of the Balance of Payments Program to the total acquisition; or (v) Use of a...

  15. 48 CFR 210.001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 210.001 Policy. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 10.001(a), agencies shall— (i) Conduct market research appropriate to the circumstances before— (A... 109-163); and (ii) Use the results of market research to determine— (A) Whether consolidation of...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7201 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Reporting Contract Performance Outside the United States 225.7201 Policy. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2410g requires offerors and contractors to notify DoD of any intention to perform a DoD contract outside the United States and Canada when the contract could be...

  17. 48 CFR 227.7202-1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-1 Policy. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired under the licenses customarily provided to the public...

  18. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  19. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  20. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  1. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Page 1 GAO-16-339R Ballistic Missile Defense 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 28, 2016 Congressional Committees Missile Defense... Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities For over half a century, the Department of Defense (DOD) has been...funding efforts to develop a system to detect, track, and defeat enemy ballistic missiles. The current system—the Ballistic Missile Defense System

  2. Integration of long-range planning for management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Smith, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    As described in The Defense Waste Management Plan, the defense TRU program goal is to achieve permanent disposal and to end interim storage. TRU waste is currently stored at six Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and new waste is generated at several more sites. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project is well defined, and it has been necessary to integrate the activities of other parts of the TRU program in support of DOE Headquarters policy and the WIPP schedules and technical requirements. The strategy is described in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document. More detailed, quantitative plans have been developed through the use of several system models, with a Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management as the focal point for coordination of proposed plans with all the parties involved

  3. Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslar, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government's responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced

  4. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Trapped between institutions and politics : The role of politics and social dynamics in institutional performance for flood defense management in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simanjuntak, I.; Frantzeskaki, N.; Enserink, B.; Ravesteijn, W.

    2011-01-01

    Flood defense management in Jakarta is a critical governmental activity given that Jakarta is a low-lying delta metropolis and trade center which relies on its safety for the continuity of the economic activities. Despite the urgency for action flood defense policy implementation was a lengthy and

  6. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of fish... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32...

  7. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to the...

  8. 32 CFR 631.17 - Marine Corps policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Marine Corps policy. 631.17 Section 631.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Off-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.17...

  9. Post Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    passed MS B in bust periods than it was for those that passed in boom periods. This observation was reported by the first paper in this series...5. iii did not experience a boom funding climate after passing MS B. That would require far more resources than were available for this paper ...acquisition policy and process. The paper employs three acquisition policy and process bins: • McNamara-Clifford (Fiscal Year (FY) 1964–FY 1969) • Defense

  10. Defense bill: Earmarking as usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earmarked funds in the $268 billion defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 1991 stirred congressional debate in late October. Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, charged that the defense bill contains questionable projects totaling tens of millions of dollars. AGU opposes legislative earmarking of money for particular institutions, maintaining that the practice prevents the best use of federal funding by circumventing competitive review. Nunn noted on the Senate floor that the appropriations bill provided specific funds for cited institutions—contravening a federal law promoting competition. “ If these programs have merit, they will succeed in a fair and competent review in competition,” Nunn said. “If no other institution in the country is able to compete, there should be no fear whatever of competition… But no one else in the world is allowed to compete to work on these projects.”

  11. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  12. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    availability to phytoplankton in the water column, as well as to benthic microalgae, macroalgae , and seagrasses in bottom waters (Gallegos et al., 2005...further another of MCBCL’s key management objectives for meeting the requirements of the CWA. How wetlands may be utilized for water treatment ...Regulations Appendix B Prioritized list of MCBCL’s conservation and water quality needs Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Strategic

  13. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  14. Defense of a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  15. 77 FR 4284 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ..., advice and recommendations on matters relating to mission, policy, accreditation, faculty, student... compensation, except for travel and per diem for official Board-related travel. Each Board member is appointed... renewed by the Secretary of Defense on an annual basis. With the exception of travel and per diem for...

  16. 77 FR 12255 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... recommendations for the continuous improvements of such policies and programs. The Task Force, pursuant to section...-medical case management; iv. The disability evaluation process for members of the Armed Forces; v... amending the charter for the Department of Defense Task Force on the Care, Management, and Transition of...

  17. 78 FR 17993 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... policies, regulations, and technical issues affecting defense trade. The purpose of the meeting will be to... discussed: review of the current definitions of technical data, as well as the control language applied in... statement to the committee in writing. As seating is limited to 125 persons, those wishing to attend the...

  18. External Quality Control Review of the Defense Information Systems Agency Audit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    We are providing this report for your information and use. We have reviewed the system of quality control for the audit organization of the Defense...audit organization encompasses the audit organization’s leadership, emphasis on performing high quality work, and policies and procedures established

  19. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Defense, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In creating this report the Task Force gathered information by conducting site visits; communicating with numerous individuals, including victims; reviewing the Department of Defense survey data; reviewing Academy and Service policies, reports, and data; consulting with subject matter experts; and communicating with related committees and task…

  20. Psychological masochism: A systematic review of the literature on conflicts, defenses, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békés, Vera; Perry, J Christopher; Robertson, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological masochism to identify hypotheses for examination in clinical studies. We identified defenses, conflicts, and motives using standardized measures in 23 psychoanalytic papers. Three primary and three secondary subtypes of masochism emerged in the literature. Overall Gratification Inhibition (subtype I.1) was the "healthiest" form, associated with higher developmental level motives and neurotic defenses. The Global Conflict (I.2) was the least healthy form of masochism, consistent with personality disorder. It was associated with early developmental level motives and immature defenses, including depressive defenses, often associated with depression. Dominant Other (I.3) represented masochistic attachment problems, associated with early developmental level motives, object-related, image-distorting defenses, and narcissism. Of the secondary types, Separation-Abandonment (II.1) reflected object-related defenses, and separation-related motives. Rejection of Others (II.2) represented a sadistic-narcissistic form, associated with image-distorting and disavowal defenses, with both early and later developmental level motives. Finally, Sexual Pleasure vs. Guilt (II.3) was associated with autistic fantasy, and both early and later developmental level motives, suggesting a distinct traumatic origin and representing the juncture of sexual and psychological masochism. Analysts described six distinguishable types of masochism. Future studies should examine their validity.

  1. Defense AT and L. Volume 43, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    the Defense Acquisition Executive Frank Kendall We are now four years since Dr . Carter and I began work on the first iteration of Better Buying Power...the label Dr . Carter gave to the original set of poli-cies we promulgated as part of then Secretary Gates’ efficiency initiatives in 2010. In the...may not come naturally. Drop by these people’s offices oc- casionally, send them periodic e-mails, or reach out to them on Facebook or LinkedIn . By

  2. Improving DoD Energy Efficiency: Combining MMOWGLI Social-Media Brainstorming With Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) to Strengthen the Defense Acquisition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ying; Brutzman, Don; MacKinnon, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Disclaimer: The views represented in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy position of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the federal government. Excerpt from the Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Logistics Management The research presented in this report was supported by the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquis...

  3. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Pourprasert

    2016-01-01

    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  4. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  5. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Defensive Functioning Scale: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Markova, Tsveti; Miller, Kristen; Mickens, Lavonda

    2011-01-01

    We assess the convergent and predictive validity of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) with measures of life events, including childhood abuse and adult partner victimization; dimensions of psychopathology, including axis I (depressive) and axis II (borderline personality disorder) symptoms; and quality of object relations. One hundred and ten women from a university-based urban primary care clinic completed a research interview from which defense mechanisms were assessed. The quality of object relations was also assessed from interview data. The women completed self-report measures assessing depression, borderline personality disorder symptoms, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and adult partner physical and sexual victimization. Inter-rater reliability of the scoring of the DFS levels was good. High adaptive defenses were positively correlated with the quality of object relations and pathological defenses were positively correlated with childhood and adult victimization and symptom measures. Although major image distorting defenses were infrequently used, they were robustly correlated with all study variables. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, major image distorting defenses, depressive symptoms, and minor image distorting defenses significantly predict childhood victimization, accounting for 37% of the variance. In a second stepwise multiple regression analysis, borderline personality disorder symptoms and disavowal defenses combined to significantly predict adult victimization, accounting for 16% of the variance. The DFS demonstrates good convergent validity with axis I and axis II symptoms, as well as with measures of childhood and adult victimization and object relations. The DFS levels add nonredundant information to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition beyond axis I and axis II. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  7. Defense transuranic waste program strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document summarizes the strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) wastes generated in defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. It supercedes a document issued in July 1980. In addition to showing how current strategies of the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) are consistent with the national objective of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere, this document includes information about the activities of the Transuranic Lead Organization (TLO). To explain how the DTWP strategy is implemented, this document also discusses how the TLO coordinates and integrates the six separate elements of the DTWP: (1) Waste Generation Site Activities, (2) Storage Site Activities, (3) Burial Site Activities, (4) Technology Development, (5) Transportation Development, and (6) Permanent Disposal. Storage practices for TRU wastes do not pose short-term hazards to public health and safety or to the environment. Isolation of TRU wastes in a deep-mined geologic repository is considered the most promising of the waste disposal alternatives available. This assessment is supported by the DOE Record of Decision to proceed with research and development work at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico - a deep-mined geologic research and development project. In support of the WIPP research project and the permanent disposal of TRU waste, the DTWP strategy for the near term will concentrate on completion of procedures and the design and construction of all facilities necessary to certify newly-generated (NG) and stored TRU wastes for emplacement in the WIPP. In addition, the strategy involves evaluating alternatives for disposing of some transuranic wastes by methods which may allow for on-site disposal of these wastes and yet preserve adequate margins of safety to protect public health and the environment

  8. System characteristics of tourism policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Neshkov

    2012-01-01

    In the article there is made a systemic characterization and is clarified the nature of tourism policy. A more specific object of attention are some issues connected with the following: the interpretation of the interrelation „policy - tourism”; the clarific ation of the notion of „policy” in the context of tourism; theoretical overview and analysis of specialized literature; systemic characterization of policy in tourism and definition of the notion of „tourism policy”. There are defined and...

  9. Singularizar procesos: una propuesta de continuidad entre la actividad clínica y los objetivos de salud de las políticas sanitarias Singularization processes: a proposal for continuity between clinical activity and health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Beguiristain

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: La Dirección Territorial de Sanidad de Gipuzkoa creó en 1996 el servicio del Plan de Salud con la finalidad de transformar los objetivos de salud priorizados por el Departamento de Sanidad en estrategias de intervención a incorporar a los contratos programa. Proceso y resultados: el procedimiento que el servicio está utilizando para cumplir este objetivo se denomina singularización y consiste en seleccionar un proceso vinculado a un problema de salud prioritario, analizarlo y reconstruirlo de forma que se conozca la actividad relacionada con él, los resultados, el coste económico y su impacto en la salud de la población. El procedimiento permite a la Dirección Territorial de Sanidad, responsable de la compra de servicios al sector público y privado, disponer de información sobre las condiciones de contratación para el proceso revisado. La evaluación anual de los Contratos programa y Conciertos controla el grado de consecución de los pactos realizados y de sus consecuencias sobre la salud de la población. El artículo que se presenta recoge la forma en la que se realiza esta singularización.Backgrounds and objectives: In 1996 the Gipuzkoa Territorial Health Agency (Basque Country, Spain created the Health Plan Service. The aim was to transform the health objectives prioritized by the Health Department into intervention strategies to be incorporated into the local contract services. Process and results: One of the procedures the service uses for this purpose, known as «singularization», involves selecting a process linked to a prioritized health problem, and analyzing and reconstructing it so that the related activity, expected results, financial costs and its impact on the population's health can be identified. After this process the service provides the Territorial Health Agency, which is responsible for service purchase for the public and private sectors, with information about contract conditions for

  10. Processing and certification of defense transuranic waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cargo, C.H.; McKinley, K.B.; Smith, T.H.; Anderson, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1970, defense-generated transuranic waste has been placed into 20-year retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is to remove all retrievably stored transuranic waste form the INEL. To support this objective, the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) are currently being constructed. SWEPP will certify waste, using nondestructive examination techniques, for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). PREPP will process uncertifiable waste into a certifiable waste form. 3 references

  11. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  12. Defense Technology Objectives for the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan and the Defense Technology Area Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Technologies such as radar, jet engines, nuclear weapons, night vision, smart weapons, stealth, the Global Positioning System, and vastly more capable information management systems have changed warfare dramatically...

  13. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  14. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  15. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  16. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  17. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  18. What type of regional policy for Europe? Theoretical reflections and policy lessons from Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In promoting European regional development, policymakers tend to pursue either an offensive, future-oriented or a defensive, tradition-preserving type of policy. Backed by theoretical notions and case evidence from an “ordinary” region, i. e. the Italian island of Sardinia, the following paper

  19. Internal Controls and Compliance With Laws and Regulations for the Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements for FY 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Frederick

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the audit was to determine whether the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position and selected accounts on the Statement of Operations of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY...

  20. Compilation of the FY 1997 Navy General Fund Financial Statements at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Cleveland Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Audit Report on tile Compilation of the FY 1997 Navy General Fund Financial Statements at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Cleveland Center Our objective was to determine whether the DFAS...