WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense policy objectives

  1. Western Hemisphere Defense Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras , Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay have contributed to or led multi-national security operations and United Nations (UN...impact on regional and global peace and security and reflect the new realities of defense cooperation in the hemisphere. Working with Canada and...Mexico, DoD remains prepared to deter and defeat direct threats to our homeland. We partner with Canada on regional security issues such as an evolving

  2. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). March 17, 2016. 55 For detailed information on Iran-Kuwait relations , see CRS Report RS21513, Kuwait...pipeline-plans. 124 For detail on India’s foreign policy and relations with the United States, see CRS Report R42823, India -U.S. Security Relations ...45 India

  3. Quadrennial Defense Review 2014: trends in US defense policy and consequences for NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Overhaus, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Every four years the Pentagon publishes a report on the central developments and trends in US defense policy. The Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) released in early March 2014 is the first to include in more detail the consequences of the defense budget cuts passed since 2011. Otherwise, the so-called US rebalance to the Asia-Pacific region and the war-weariness of the American people are the principal factors shaping US defense policy. While not representing a watershed for transatlantic def...

  4. Report of the Defense Science Board Subcommittee on Department of Defense Research Policy. Part 1. Policy on Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-12-31

    f. .. AD-A955 482 Report of the Defen e Science Board Subcomtnittee on Depart•eat of Defense RESEARCH POLICY OTIC SELECTED NOV 2 91J88 0(/H...ACCESSION NO NA 11 TITLE (inc/ud* Stcunty Oassificat/on) Report of the Defense Science Board Subcomittee on Department of Defense Research Policy , Part...Defense Research Policy Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering Washington, D. C. 31 December 1963 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE

  5. Analysis of government policies to support sustainable domestic defense industries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Armed forces all over the world need military equipment to support their security missions. Having a domestic defense industry is one approach that countries use to supply their armed forces’ requirements. The successful development of a domestic defense industry depends on many factors, but perhaps the most significant variable is the government. Because governments are both buyers and suppliers of national security, government polici...

  6. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    PAGE READ) iNSTRULCTIONS I BEFORE COMPLETING F’ORM~I 11P40T ’mUMSER 2. G~OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. ACCIFtEN1VS CATAI- OG mUMe(R N-2771-AF . TI I- E n d S u...a general theory of military science, military art, military history, military pedagogy , military administration, military geography, military...foreign policy activity, the Soviet state actively and purposefully opposes the export of counterrevolution and the policy of oppression , supports the

  7. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  8. Can Profit Policy and Contract Incentives Improve Defense Contract Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    team for their contributions and suggestions, including Bruce R. Harmon, Christopher S. Wait, Karen W. Tyson, Sunjin Choi, and Byron Callan. The...peer industries, and broader industry segments for the period 1989–2006. Aside from 1993 and the sharp technology downturn after 2000, the defense...effects of profit policy on contractor profits can only be inferred. Profits and capital are influenced by numerous market factors, government profit

  9. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Approved: 1~( ::Z.. ~ { V \\ Date:),_ s--- n ?/ c t__ ’J O () i DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND CONCLUSIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE...power in public opinions , scholar arenas, and international institutions. My idea was then to dig into the French defense and foreign policies in...séance solennelle d’ouverture de la 16ème conférence des chefs d’Etat de France et d’Afrique,” June 20, 1990. • Websites: Vie publique , http://www.vie

  10. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  11. 7 CFR 1250.506 - Policy and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy and objective. 1250.506 Section 1250.506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... and Regulations General § 1250.506 Policy and objective. (a) It shall be the policy of the Egg Board...

  12. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology and Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    occlusion , multipath etc.) through the use of inertial measurement systems (Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyro, Dynamically Tuned Gyro) and will...management systems provide mobile and semi- mobile assets (e.g., Abrams, Theater Missile Defense - TMD ) with low cost, low burden survivability...technology for development of an operational high energy Airborne Laser (ABL) for Theater Missile Defense ( TMD ). Address risk reduction issues for develop

  13. 78 FR 6813 - Defense Legal Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... ``the Board'') will be held on Friday, February 15, 2013. The Public Session will begin at 9:00 a.m. and end at 4:00 p.m. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Gruber, Defense Legal Policy Board, PO Box...-9343. For meeting information please contact Mr. David Gruber, Defense Legal Policy Board, PO Box...

  14. The Policy Object: A Different Perspective on Policy Enactment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new perspective for higher education policy research. It introduces the concept of "policy object" to designate the discrete preoccupation(s) of a policy text (e.g. a new governance regime, a quality system, or new degrees) and suggests that actor conceptualisations of the policy object intersect with other elements…

  15. The Policy Object: A Different Perspective on Policy Enactment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new perspective for higher education policy research. It introduces the concept of "policy object" to designate the discrete preoccupation(s) of a policy text (e.g. a new governance regime, a quality system, or new degrees) and suggests that actor conceptualisations of the policy object intersect with other elements…

  16. Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

    2014-08-01

    Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

  17. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  18. Management by objectives in EU rural development policy : lessons from the EU cohesion and water policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roza, P.; Terluin, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is explored which ideas the EU cohesion policy and the EU water policy provide for the introduction of management by objectives in the EU rural development policy. Such an introduction may give rise to both flexibilities and inflexibilities. On the one hand management by objectives

  19. U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy in an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    rarely , if ever, large enough to produce this effect (Hale, 1987). As a consequence, it is a general rule that the more units produced, the lower will...defense-industrial independence. Although licensed manufacturing transfers the know-how to build products, it rarely transfers the tacit knowledge...defense policy: Medium power, even bigger ambitions? Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 22(2), 183–96. Berghezan, G., & Richard, P. (2002). Israël, terre

  20. Multi-Objective Constraint Satisfaction for Mobile Robot Area Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Dorronsoro, and En- rique Alba. jMetal: A Java Framework for Developing Multi-Objective Optimiza- tion Metaheuristics . Technical Report ITI-2006-10...32 3.1 Framework Development...17 NSGA-II non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 jMetal Metaheuristic Algorithms in

  1. Energy Objectives for the United States Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Service, Library of Congress Schwartz, M., Blakely, K., & O’Rourke, R ., for the Congressional Research Service (CRS) 2012 14 More capable warfighting...Report FT602T1) Crowley, T. D., Corrie, T. D., Diamond, D. B., Funk, S. D., Hansen , W. A., Stenhoff, A. D., & Swift, D. C., for Logistics Management...Memorandum] Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition 2011 28 Department of the Navy ( DON ) objectives for FY 2012 and

  2. 7 CFR 1210.330 - Policy and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1210.330 Policy and objective... research, development, advertising, and promotion in order to: (a) Strengthen watermelons'...

  3. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  4. Motives for European Union Common Security and Defense Policy Mission Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ABBREVIATIONS CDU Christian Democratic Union CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy CSDP Common Security and Defense Policy DRC Democratic Republic of...rightist party, the Christian Democratic Union ( CDU ), was for it. In France the Union for the Popular Movement (UMP), closely aligned with the former

  5. Who’s in Charge? Defense Policy Formation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Hongo , DPJ shows stress fractures under pressure of leadership, August 8, 2009, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090808f1.html (accessed...ballistic shield.” September 1, 2000. Jane’s International Defense Review. http://www4.janes.com/subscribe (accessed August 18, 2010). Hongo , Jun

  6. Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Policy, Missions and Programs: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    destroy its target. A French-Italian program called SAMP/T (Sol-Air Moyenne Portee/ Terrestre ) is being considered for a point defense system; further...Patriot PAC-3 missile. The Multimode Missile includes semi-active track- via -missile guidance, improved propulsion and uses an aimed blast

  7. Spanish Defense Policy under the Socialist Government 1982-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    further, given the right conditions. Critics fail to realize that a complex web of historical and domestic political factors have fixed the Spanish...34 International Defense Review 21 (April 1988): 566. 78 The State-owned Empresa Nacional BazAn de Construcciones for instance, built and is upgrading the

  8. Singapore’s Defense Policy: Essential or Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru , Philippines, South Africa, South Korea, South Vietnam, Spain, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Egypt...Singapore’s defense industrialization occurred amidst a steady growth dynamic that was centered on textiles in the 1970s, semi-conductors and memory chips

  9. The Sublime Objects of Education Policy: Quality, Equity and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Quality and equity are touchstones of education policy in the twenty-first century in a range of global contexts. On the surface, this seems fitting: after all, who could object to more quality and greater equity in education? Yet what do we mean by quality and equity, and how are they related? This paper draws on Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to…

  10. Population policy forum. Women as subjects, not objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1991-01-01

    I very much agree with Marge Berer that feminists must recognize that there needs to be a population policy, worldwide and country by country, that encourages lower birth rates and that it is essential to start talking about population policies that respect and promote women's moral agency. Indeed I think it would be fair to say that the failure to respect and promote women's moral agency is the major reason why government-sponsored population policies have failed in the past. Male population planners habitually think of mass population as objects, rather than subjects, of population policy. This is why they think so readily of "incentives" or even more coercive methods. Birth control is thought of as a "war" to be imposed on the population, not as an integral part of the self-development of the people's own capacity to organize and become decisionmakers. If this is true in relation to the male population, it is even more so in relation to women. Population policy continues the basic male approach to women as bodies under their control, not as self-actualizing subjects. Until population policies take as their starting point women's human development as persons and moral agents in their own right, such policies both will be abusive to women and also will not "work." However, Marge Berer's remarks about oppressive, dehumanizing governments as incapable of promoting any other form of population policy give one pause. If this is the case, then neither national governments nor most international agencies linked to Western hegemonic neocolonialism can be the authentic promoters of feminist population policy. There must be a global effort to build parallel women's health organizations that work on the grassroots level with women, especially poor women, to empower these women themselves to become the leaders in educational and economic development of the women in their communities. Only in and through this larger context can such women both learn how to use and become

  11. Analysis of Government Policies to Support Sustainable Domestic Defense Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Companies in US and Their Sales Sales Number of Companies 41 products that reflect consumers’ tastes and preferences, and prices that reflect the...SUSTAINABLE DOMESTIC DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Roni Marzah and Budi Setiawan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  12. European Security and Defense Policy: The Dialectics of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    only certain types of missions. Rather than centering on a robust military capability, Europe’s security concept has recently been more diplomatically... Pompidou : The Politics of Grandeur (Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974), p. 316. 27 of a powerful national leader. The gains of the EC were...procedures, operations centers and headquarters that were not already available via NATO. As European states were experiencing falling defense budgets, this

  13. Iceland and the EU's Foreign, Security and Defense Policy. EU Goals, Icelandic History and Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Þóra Karlsdóttir 1987

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study how well the EU’s foreign, security and defense policies coincide with Iceland’s foreign policies, particularly in regards to Iceland’s history and traditions. For this purpose, main aspects of Iceland’s foreign policy history are studied, in particular the background to Iceland’s decision to join NATO. Four aspects of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) are then used as case-studies, along with three aspects of the EU’s Common Security and De...

  14. Optimal Decomposition of Service Level Objectives into Policy Assertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Rastegari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WS-agreement specifies quality objectives that each partner is obligated to provide. To meet quality objectives, the corresponding partner should apply appropriate policy assertions to its web services and adjust their parameters accordingly. Transformation of WS-CDL to WSBPEL is addressed in some related works, but neither of them considers quality aspects of transformation nor run-time adaptation. Here, in conformance with web services standards, we propose an optimal decomposition method to make a set of WS-policy assertions. Assertions can be applied to WSBPEL elements and affect their run-time behaviors. The decomposition method achieves the best outcome for a performance indicator. It also guarantees the lowest adaptation overhead by reducing the number of service reselections. We considered securities settlement case study to prototype and evaluate the decomposition method. The results show an acceptable threshold between customer satisfaction—the targeted performance indicator in our case study—and adaptation overhead.

  15. Optimal Decomposition of Service Level Objectives into Policy Assertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Yousef; Shams, Fereidoon

    2015-01-01

    WS-agreement specifies quality objectives that each partner is obligated to provide. To meet quality objectives, the corresponding partner should apply appropriate policy assertions to its web services and adjust their parameters accordingly. Transformation of WS-CDL to WSBPEL is addressed in some related works, but neither of them considers quality aspects of transformation nor run-time adaptation. Here, in conformance with web services standards, we propose an optimal decomposition method to make a set of WS-policy assertions. Assertions can be applied to WSBPEL elements and affect their run-time behaviors. The decomposition method achieves the best outcome for a performance indicator. It also guarantees the lowest adaptation overhead by reducing the number of service reselections. We considered securities settlement case study to prototype and evaluate the decomposition method. The results show an acceptable threshold between customer satisfaction-the targeted performance indicator in our case study-and adaptation overhead.

  16. Urban logistics: how can it meet policy makers' sustainability objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S; Allen, J.; Browne, M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how urban freight activity can function such that it meets the urban sustainability objectives policy makers are now beginning to implement. It considers: the importance of urban freight transport in maintaining the economic vitality of the city; the negative impacts that it imposes; the concept of urban sustainability and the development of sustainability strategies; and the means and measures by which freight transport could be made more sustainable. It presents results...

  17. 78 FR 27959 - Defense Legal Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...: Holiday Inn Ballston, 4610 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia 22203. DATES: The meeting will be held on... CONTACT: Mr. David Gruber, Staff Director, Defense Legal Policy Board, PO Box 3656, Arlington, VA 22203...: defenselegalpolicyboarddfo@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 697-9343. For meeting information please contact Mr. David Gruber,...

  18. Changing the Department of Defense’s Policy on Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    updated to address this issue . According to the policy, a military member may be discharged from the military for any the following:1 2 1. “member... Issues , Congressional Research Services: Report for Congress 6. Author Not Listed, (2007), “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”, The US Military: Where it’s...2007 from http://www.hrc.org/alva/dadt.html 18. Ottosson, D (2006, November), LGBT World Legal Wrap Up Survey, International Lesbian Gay

  19. Social Objectives in Polish Fiscal Policy – Spending vs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Franek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The organization of this article was subordinated to the connections between the government program documentation related to the state social objectives and their implementation at the budgetary level. The article shows the necessity of perceiving fiscal policy as an instrument toimplement government programming objectives. The aim of the article is to assess the degree of implementation of social objectives on the basis of information resulting from the experience gained in the area of performance budgeting in Poland.Methodology: To assess the scale of financing of social objectives in Poland in comparison with other European countries, the author used Eurostat data from COFOG (Classification of the Functions of Government. To assess the effectiveness of state operations related to the achievement of social objectives, the author used information from the implementation of the performance-oriented state budget. It was assumed that the performance-oriented system linking the clear structure of public expenditure with the objectives and measures assigned to them to assess the effectiveness of fiscalpolicy in particular areas of government intervention.Findings: The relations between individual strategic documents related to social objectives and performance-oriented budgetary structure are presented. The results indicate that the scale of financing of social tasks in Poland is at a lower level than the average for European countries. The author points out the functions related to the achievement of social objectives whose effectiveness could be improved.Originality: Using information from the implementation of the performance-oriented budget to compare the individual budget functions of social character on the basis of the evaluation of the degree to which the measures for these functions’ operations have been implemented.

  20. Motives for European Union Common Security and Defense Policy Mission Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The European Union (EU) currently lacks a comprehensive agreement on where the EU will engage in crisis management missions under the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) framework. This thesis investigates the motives for why the European Union engages in military or civilian operations under the framework of CSDP. Predominant research suggests the three dominant factors motivating the EU to engage in CSDP are national intere...

  1. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  2. Considering Materiality in Educational Policy: Messy Objects and Multiple Reals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Educational analysts need new ways to engage with policy processes in a networked world of complex transnational connections. In this discussion, Tara Fenwick and Richard Edwards argue for a greater focus on materiality in educational policy as a way to trace the heterogeneous interactions and precarious linkages that enact policy as complex…

  3. Competing Explanations of U.S. Defense Industry Consolidation in the 1990s and Their Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan R. Brady; Greenfield, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Was the consolidation of defense industry in the 1990s driven by U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) directives, or was it driven instead by the same forces that drove consolidation in many other sectors of the U.S. economy in the 1990s? To better understand the roles of DOD policy and economy-wide forces in shaping the U.S. defense industry, we test for structural breaks in defense industry and spending data and compare our findings to those relating to other sectors and the general economy. We...

  4. Maritime Security in East Asia: Peaceful Coexistence and Active Defense in China’s Diaoyu/Senkaku Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The origins and role of the concepts of peaceful coexistence and active defense in Chinese foreign policy are investigated and applied to China’s policy toward the Diaoyu/Senkakus. The dominant moderate conceptual strategic thinking encourages Beijing to aim for the establishment of a modus vivendi...

  5. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...... to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals....

  6. Plan - chaos - policy: Car mobility and the objects of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    Based on the history of Copenhagen traffic management and policy the role of the spatial configurations and strategic plans is discussed in relation to social studies of technology.......Based on the history of Copenhagen traffic management and policy the role of the spatial configurations and strategic plans is discussed in relation to social studies of technology....

  7. Effective Management for National or Local Policy Objectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; Skou, Mette; Beer, Frederikke

    This research considers the role of local policies and management in affecting street-level bureaucrats’ actions in implementing national policy mandates. The focus on sanctioning behavior by social workers provides a strong test of these effects, given that the behaviors are both visible and hav...

  8. Effective Management for National or Local Policy Objectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; Skou, Mette; Beer, Frederikke

    This research considers the role of local policies and management in affecting street-level bureaucrats’ actions in implementing national policy mandates. The focus on sanctioning behavior by social workers provides a strong test of these effects, given that the behaviors are both visible and have...... services, middle managers, and front-line workers. Key findings are that local politics matters in affecting how municipal policies fit with the national mandate. Management also matters. Greater application of the goal-directed management tools of clearly signaling managerial expectations and recruiting...... workers. Managers’ addressing adverse selection problems seems more effective than coping with moral hazard. The combination of local politicians’ influence on the formation of local policy goals and managers’ influence in getting workers to comply with those indicates a very important role for policy...

  9. Object/Shape Recognition Technology: An Assessment of the Feasibility of Implementation at Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    IV.  ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT PROPERTY PROCESS AT DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY DISPOSITION SERVICES AND MATURITY ASSESSMENT OF OBJECT/SHAPE RECOGNITION...implement full automation with optical sorting and data mining that included sensors, laser, object/shape recognition technology on conveyor belt...the current state of object/shape recognition technology and assess the feasibility of implementing it at DLA DS. C. RESEARCH QUESTIONS, SCOPE AND

  10. Environmental policy discourse and its material objects: Bridging the gap with 'modest realism'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Discourse theories offer a penetrating approach to environmental policy analysis, as they focus on the interpretive worlds produced in policy actors' utterances and writings, and the argumentative struggles that lead to one view dominating over others in a policy domain. However they fail to theorise the relationships between policy discourse and the material realities that are the objects of policy. This is because their social constructivist epistemology deprives them of criteria for judgin...

  11. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  12. 7 CFR 613.2 - Policy and objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... diversity and lengthening the grazing season on dryland pastures and rangelands; (7) Managing brush on... needs. It is the policy of NRCS to conduct plant materials work in cooperation with other agencies of... plant materials work is to find suitable plants to address conservation needs. In contrast, the emphasis...

  13. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  14. Development of objective provision trees for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Defense-in-depth evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    KALIMER is one of sodium-cooled fast reactor and being developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), was developed and suggested in this paper. Developed OPT is for the defense-in-depth level 3, core heat removal safety function. Using OPT method, the evaluation of defense-in-depth implementation for the design features of KALIMER reactors were tried in this study. To utilize the design information of KALIMER, challenges in OPTs which are under development in this study, were identified based on the system physical boundaries. This approach make the identification of possible and postulated challenges much clear and this will be a benefit to further identification of provisions in KALIMER design. OPTs for other levels of defense-in-depth and other safety functions are under development.

  15. Drawing Lessons When Objectives Differ? Assessing Renewable Energy Policy Transfer from Germany to Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Steinbacher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the tremendous energy challenges Morocco faces, and its potential role as an exporter of green electricity to Europe, the country has been particularly targeted by Germany’s efforts to promote the uptake of renewable energies abroad. This paper explores whether ideas and policies in the field of renewable energy effectively traveled through transfer channels established between Germany and Morocco. In particular, the question of how Morocco’s policy objectives shaped the result of transfer processes is discussed, shedding light on a currently under-researched determinant for policy transfer. Drawing upon forty-five semi-structured interviews with Moroccan, German, and international stakeholders, as well as card-ranking exercises, the article provides first-hand insights into the dynamics and drivers of Morocco’s “energy transition”. Findings presented in the article show that differing policy objectives did not preclude the transfer of ideas between Germany and Morocco, but shaped its outcome with regard to policy instrument selection. While basic policy orientations in favour of renewable energies were facilitated by transferred knowledge, a perceived incompatibility between domestic policy objectives and the policy instruments used in the foreign model led to selective lesson-drawing from the German example. This finding underlines the importance for “senders” who wish to actively promote sustainable energy policies abroad to adapt outreach strategies to the policy objectives of potential followers.

  16. Labor Studies Programs: Objectives, Proposals, Policies, Outlines & Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This document outlines a labor studies program which may lead to several levels of achievement: a certificate in labor studies, an associate degree, an associate of arts degree, or a transfer of credits leading to a baccalaureate degree. The program is intended for labor union members or for anyone else interested in labor studies. Objectives of…

  17. Climate policy. Objectives, conflicts, solutions; Klimapolitik. Ziele, Konflikte, Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar [TU Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer die Oekonomie des Klimawandels; Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin (Germany); Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimaforschung (Germany); Jakob, Michael [Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Extreme temperatures and deaths in Pakistan, floods in Russia, draughts in California, melting glaciers, harvest losses and a century vine in the Rheingau 2015: the consequences of the climatic change can be observed on all continents and oceans. The international climate politics has installed the intergovernmental panel on climate change that is of fundamental importance for political agenda. Up to now mankind has little experience with the fair and efficient use of common assets. Therefore climate policy is of special importance for international cooperation. [German] Hitzetote in Pakistan, Ueberschwemmungen in Russland, Duerren in Kalifornien, schmelzende Gletscher, Ernteverluste und ein Jahrhundertwein im Rheingau 2015: Die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels lassen sich bereits auf allen Kontinenten und in allen Ozeanen beobachten. Die internationale Klimapolitik hat sich im Weltklimarat ein einzigartiges Gremium geschaffen, das fuer die Agenda der Politik von grundlegender Bedeutung ist. Noch hat die Menschheit wenig Erfahrung mit der gerechten und effizienten Nutzung globaler Gemeinschaftsgueter. Daher kommt der Klimapolitik eine besondere Bedeutung zu, denn sie hat fuer die internationale Kooperation auf vielen Feldern eine Vorbildfunktion.

  18. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  19. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  20. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  1. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  2. Near Earth Objects and Cascading Effects from the Policy Perspective: Implications from Problem and Solution Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of near-Earth-objects (NEOs) in regard to physical attributes and potential risk and impact factors presents a complex and complicates scientific and engineering challenge. The societal and policy risks and impacts are no less complex, yet are rarely considered in the same context as material properties or related factors. Further, NEO impacts are typically considered as discrete events, not as initial events in a dynamic cascading system. The objective of this contribution is to position the characterization of NEOs within the public policy process domain as a means to reflect on the science-policy nexus in regard to risks and multi-hazard impacts associated with these hazards. This will be accomplished through, first, a brief overview of the science-policy nexus, followed by a discussion of policy process frameworks, such as agenda setting and the multiple streams model, focusing events, and punctuated equilibrium, and their application and appropriateness to the problem of NEOs. How, too, for example, does NEO hazard and risk compare with other low probability, high risk, hazards in regard to public policy? Finally, we will reflect on the implications of alternative NEO "solutions" and the characterization of the NEO "problem," and the political and public acceptance of policy alternatives as a way to link NEO science and policy in the context of the overall NH9.12 panel.

  3. Asian tsunami relief: Department of Defense public health response: policy and strategic coordination considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Dave

    2006-10-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in modern history. In particular, this disaster created massive, unique, public health threats, necessitating equally massive public health response efforts. The U.S. government (USG), including the Department of Defense (DoD), played a pivotal role in the response. This article examines some of the central policy issues and strategic coordination and planning measures involved in the public health response. The nearly unanimous consensus of international public health experts has been that the potential public health crisis in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami was averted largely because of the coordinated efforts of host nation officials and professionals, international and nongovernmental health organizations, and bilateral donors, especially the USG, including the DoD. The DoD played a central role in public health efforts through coordination and communication assistance, logistical and materiel support, disease surveillance activities, health needs assessments, and the contributions of the USS Mercy hospital ship. The core lessons involve the importance of an early, dedicated, public health response as a component of the overall disaster relief effort, as well as seamless coordination of health sector stakeholders in the USG and with those of the international community and affected host nations, which allows each organization to play to its strengths and to avoid duplication. The Asian tsunami relief effort highlighted the value of civil-military cooperation in disaster relief, particularly in the area of public health. The prominent role of the DoD in tsunami relief efforts, including public health efforts, also yielded beneficial secondary effects by bolstering security cooperation and winning "hearts and minds" in the region.

  4. The Evolution of the Policy Objectives of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network from 2004 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the South Korean government's policy objectives for the Broadband Convergence Network (BcN) between 2004 and 2007. The BcN is envisioned as conduit for broadband content and applications. This paper uses generativity as a conceptual framework to determine whether the objectives for the BcN, based on a…

  5. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  6. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  7. The Use of Impact Assessment Tools to Support Sustainable Policy Objectives in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter De Smedt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has become an overall policy objective in Europe. The sustainability transition is seen as the process of coming to terms with sustainability in all its ecological, social, economic, and institutional dimensions. This challenging process is as much about new ways of knowing as it is about resource management and product innovation. I analyzed how scientific tools such as environmental, socioeconomic, and integrated models have been developed and used to provide a solid foundation for sustainable policy objectives. I used a scoping study to compare current impact assessment exercises and research policy cases within the European Commission (EC. Although the EC is recognized as having supported environmental policy integration for more than three decades, updated insight is relevant because the current impact assessment system within the EC is highly dynamic, involving frequent new policy commitments and institutional initiatives to strengthen its practice and quality within the last three years. In addition, a broad range of research projects have been initiated to support this process by developing new concepts and tools and linking them with actual policy initiatives. Finally, the focus on design and use of scientific tools will contribute to a better understanding of what hinders the tools from being relevant, accurate, and legitimate. For example, while being simplifications of reality, many scientific models remain so complex that they are seen as black boxes instead of transparent analytical tools. Consequently, research outcomes do not fully reach policy makers.

  8. United States National Strategy and Defense Policy Objectives After Chemical Disarmament

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-19

    Port Agency, tried on charges arising house at 41A Chaillot Street in Pans. from a 1973 cholera outbreak . 1980, August Iraq cleaned out the Syrian...Ethiopia, Egypt vs. Yemen , Vietnam vs. Laos-Cambodia, Iraq vs. Iran, early in the war, Iraq vs. Kurds, and Cubans vs. Angolan rebels. Some also reason...Tribesmen in Yemen in 1963-67.2 - Began chemical weapons production in the early 60’s and acquired a rudimentary biological warfare capability in the

  9. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  10. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  11. An environmental-economic framework to support multi-objective policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: environmental accounting, environmental indicators, farming systems, sustainability, organic farming, ecological-economic modelling, spatial analysis, multi-objective policy-making, opportunity cost.There is a growing awareness in present-day society of the potent

  12. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-01-01

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strate

  13. OysterFutures: Integrating Stakeholder Objectives with Natural System Models to Promote Sustainable Natural Resource Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, E. W.; Blair, J.; Cornwell, J. C.; Freitag, A. E.; Gawde, R. K.; Hartley, T. W.; Hood, R. R.; Jones, R. M.; Miller, T. J.; Thomas, J. E.; Wainger, L. A.; Wilberg, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Achieving effective natural resource management is challenged by multiple and often competing objectives, a restricted set of policy options, and uncertainty in the performance of those options. Yet, managers need policies that allow continued use of natural resources while ensuring access for future generations and maintenance of ecosystem services. Formal approaches are needed that will assist managers and stakeholders in choosing policy options that have a high likelihood of achieving social, ecological, and economic goals. The goal of this project, OysterFutures, is to address this need by improving the use of predictive models to support sustainable natural resource policy and management. A stakeholder-centered process will be used to build an integrated model that combines estuarine physics, oyster life history, and the ecosystem services that oysters provide (e.g., harvest, water quality) to forecast outcomes under alternative management strategies. Through a series of facilitated meetings, stakeholders will participate in a science-based collaborative process which will allow them to project how well policies are expected to meet their objectives using the integrated model. This iterative process will ensure that the model will incorporate the complex human uses of the ecosystem as well as focus on the outcomes most important to the stakeholders. In addition, a study of the socioeconomic drivers of stakeholder involvement, information flow, use and influence, and policy formation will be undertaken to improve the process, enhance implementation success of recommended policies, and provide new ideas for integrating natural and social sciences, and scientists, in sustainable resource management. In this presentation, the strategy for integrating natural system models, stakeholder views, and sociological studies as well as methods for selecting stakeholders and facilitating stakeholder meetings will be described and discussed.

  14. Multi-agent reinforcement learning based on policies of global objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In general-sum games, taking all agent's collective rationality into account, we define agents' global objective,and propose a novel multi-agent reinforcement learning(RL) algorithm based on global policy. In each learning step, all agents commit to select the global policy to achieve the global goal. We prove this learning algorithm converges given certain restrictions on stage games of learned Q values, and show that it has quite lower computation time complexity than already developed multi-agent learning algorithms for general-sum games. An example is analyzed to show the algorithm' s merits.

  15. A Common European Security and Defense Policy in the European Union: Greek Policy and Strategy on ESDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    create such an empire, and an army for all of Europe. That leader was Charlemagne , or Charles the Great, King of the Franks and Emperor of the Holy...army responsible for the security and defense of all Europe. Charles, King of the Franks, known as Charlemagne , who became the supreme ruler of...Western Europe when crowned Emperor on Christmas Day in the year 800 AD,3 rose from such a power vacuum and the lack of such an army after the fall of

  16. 77 FR 56193 - Defense Policy Board; Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... and force modernization and on DoD's ability to execute U.S. defense strategy; (c) U.S. regional...) level discussions on national security issues regarding Iran, including Internal Political Dynamics and... no later than five business days prior to the meeting in question. The Designated Federal Officer...

  17. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    .... Williams, OUSD (AT&L) DPAP/DARS, Room 3B855, 3060 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3060. Comments... submitted by mail). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy G. Williams, telephone 703- 602-0328... operations, or other military operations or exercises designated by the Combatant Commander. (d)...

  18. Full employment as a possible objective for EU policy II: Review of some empirical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cingolani Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution appeared in the previous issue of Panoeconomicus reviewed the theoretical arguments brought by Alain Parguez and Jean Gabriel Bliek in support of their idea of assigning a full employment objective to European economic policies and their coordination (Bliek and Parguez (2007 and Parguez (2007b. Without pretending at exhaustiveness, this contribution reviews and partly extends the empirical evidence they presented in support of their argument with reference to selected macroeconomic developments in several countries and different historical periods, in particular for the US, Canada, Japan and the EU. It confirms the descriptive power of the circuit and its relevance for the discussion of alternative economic policies, in particular in the field of employment. Together with the previous article, it shows that the circuit can be used to update economic policy thinking, nourishing also the necessary democratic debate amongst police alternatives. .

  19. Foreign Policy and Defense Attitudes in West Europe: Trends and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Europe." POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 98 (Summer 1983): 179-196. Safran, William. THE FRENCH POLICY. New York: Longman, 1979. 118 Sartori , Giovani ...mechanism by which public opinion is linked to policy is understood within democratic theory to be the political party. Sartori (1976) asserts that what

  20. Improving Defense Acquisition Management and Policy Through a Life-Cycle Affordability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing . Journal of Marketing , 68(1), 1–17. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2011). It’s all B2B ...and beyond...also conducted archival and literature reviews to identify non-defense markets including the rail industry, fence-to-fence highway construction...applied knowledge. Conceptualizing the market as shifting from conversion of material to conversion of knowledge represents the move globally to

  1. America’s Achilles Heel: Defense Against High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse-policy vs. Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Energy Regulatory Commission FM Field Manual GRID Act Grid Reliability and Infrastructure Defense Act HEMP High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse JP...product to the end user.41 Across the U.S., there are upwards of 40,000 miles of gathering lines from the oil wells, both on and offshore , that feed into...particles are emitted at nearly the speed of light. The emissions can cause disturbances in the solar wind that disrupt satellites and create powerful

  2. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    services, post-separation medical and dental coverage, career counseling, financial planning, employment and re-employment rights , and veterans...available at http://thinkprogress.org/ lgbt /2011/05/11/177408/navy-marriage-rescind/. FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military...raised that the possibility or actuality of military deployments may encourage courts to deny custodial rights of a service member to a former spouse

  3. Current Trends in Social Media and the Department of Defense’s Social Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-23

    mobile phones. With the growing popularity of smartphones ,1 mobile app use has doubled from 2012 to 2013, and messaging apps have increased by 203...platforms of today are not the platforms of tomorrow. Specifically, the growth of smartphone use and the presence and use of social media apps is...your REFERENCES 26 Defense Finance and Accounting Service. (2013). DFAS ‘Info2Go’ app available in the Apple App Store and the Android market

  4. Objective criteria ranking framework for renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Nwofor O.; N, Dike V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a framework that seeks to improve the objectivity of renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria. It consists of expert ranking of resource abundance, resource efficiency and resource environmental comfort in the choice of renewable energy options for large scale power generation. The rankings are converted to a more objective function called Resource Appraisal Function (RAF) using dependence operators derived from logical relationships amongst the various criteria. The preferred option is that with the highest average RAF coupled with the least RAF variance. The method can be extended to more options, more criteria, and more opinions and can be adapted for similar decisions in education, environment and health sectors.

  5. Issues With Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    U.S. Navy, UK MoD, and the Australian DoD. Riposo’s projects have covered reviews of domestic and foreign acquisition programs, Department acquisition...permission of the firm that owns the information to use it. The process of getting permission to use the information can be time- consuming , may...government and nongovernment employees in the acquisition process. We identified their basis in law and policy and determined whether the policy

  6. Commercializing Defense Technologies and Helping Defense Firms Succeed in Commercial Markets: A Report on the Objectives, Activities, and Accomplishments of the TAP-IN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology Access for Product Innovation (TAP-IN), the largest technology deployment project funded by TRP, was competitively selected through a national solicitation for proposals. TAP-IN was created to help companies access and apply defense technologies and help defense-dependent companies enter new commercial markets. Defense technologies included technologies developed by DoD, DOE, NASA, and their contractors. TAP-IN was structured to provide region-based technology access services that were able to draw on technology resources nationwide. TAP-IN provided expert assistance in all stages of the commercialization process from concept through prototype design to capital sourcing and marketing strategy. TAP-IN helped companies locate new technology, identify business partners, secure financing, develop ideas for new products, identify new markets, license technology, solve technical problems, and develop company-specific applications of federal technology. TAP-IN leveraged NASA's existing commercial technology network to create an integrated national network of organizations that assisted companies in every state. In addition to NASA's six regional technology transfer centers (RTTCs), TAP-IN included business and technology development organizations in every state, the Industrial Designers Society of America, and the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC).

  7. Optimal air quality policies and health: a multi-objective nonlinear approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, Helder; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Carnevale, Claudio; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Turrini, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa

    2017-05-01

    The use of modelling tools to support decision-makers to plan air quality policies is now quite widespread in Europe. In this paper, the Regional Integrated Assessment Tool (RIAT+), which was designed to support policy-maker decision on optimal emission reduction measures to improve air quality at minimum costs, is applied to the Porto Urban Area (Portugal). In addition to technological measures, some local measures were included in the optimization process. Case study results are presented for a multi-objective approach focused on both NO2 and PM10 control measures, assuming equivalent importance in the optimization process. The optimal set of air quality measures is capable to reduce simultaneously the annual average concentrations values of PM10 and NO2 in 1.7 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. This paper illustrates how the tool could be used to prioritize policy objectives and help making informed decisions about reducing air pollution and improving public health.

  8. Uncomfortable trade-offs: Canadian policy makers' perspectives on setting objectives for their health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Julia; Allin, Sara; Grignon, Michel; Pasic, Dianna; Walli-Attaei, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Although a wide range of health system performance indicators are commonly reported on, there has been little effort to establish their relevance to the objectives that health systems actually pursue. The aim of this study was to identify, explore and better understand health policy makers' views regarding the objectives and outcomes for their health systems, how they are prioritized, and the underlying processes that yield them to inform the development of health system efficiency measures. A descriptive, qualitative methodology was employed using key informant interviews with 17 current and former senior health ministry officials in 8 Canadian provinces and 2 territories. Health ministries have clearly stated objectives for health systems focused on the achievement of health system delivery and population health goals and, increasingly, public, patient and financial accountability. Acute care objectives are routinely prioritized over population health objectives and viewed as resulting from challenges associated with difficult trade-off decisions shaped by organized interests and the media rather than explicit, evidence-based processes. This study provides insights beyond publicly available documents to explore the processes that underlie simple statements of health system objectives. Our findings suggest that despite respondents giving priority to improving individual and population health, it is more commonly portrayed as an ideal objective than as a realistic one. By understanding what lies behind statements about what health systems are striving for, we offer a more robust avenue for increasing the uptake of future studies of health system performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of Innovation in Merger Policy: Europe's efficiency defense versus America's Innovatoin Markets approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cefis, E.; Grondsma, M.; Sabidussi, A.; Schenk, E.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the world’s economies and discussions in the literature about the growing importance of innovation to firms have given rise to a demand for expanding the analysis of merger policy. The present study focuses on the different criteria used to assess the impact of M&A activities on

  10. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  11. The role of Innovation in Merger Policy: Europe's efficiency defense versus America's Innovatoin Markets approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cefis, E.; Grondsma, M.; Sabidussi, A.; Schenk, E.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the world’s economies and discussions in the literature about the growing importance of innovation to firms have given rise to a demand for expanding the analysis of merger policy. The present study focuses on the different criteria used to assess the impact of M&A activities on innov

  12. 78 FR 33073 - Defense Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... the DPB's mission to advise on: (a) Issues central to strategic DoD planning; (b) policy implications... top secret (SCI) level discussions on national security issues regarding strategic choices within... no later than five business days prior to the meeting in question. The Designated Federal...

  13. Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  14. Waste minimization policies, regulations, and practices within the U.S. Department of Energy defense programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.

  15. Waste minimization policies, regulations, and practices within the U.S. Department of Energy defense programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.

  16. A Management Analysis and Systems Model of Department of Defense Acquisition Structure and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    parsimonious strategy (Hall 1983, Stenberg 1980) based largely on classical macroeconomic theories. This sector will incorporate GNP, interest rates...by Randers (1980), I Graham (1980), Tank-Nielsen (1980), Mass and Senge (1980), Stenberg !4 J&0! 79 (1980), Bell and Senge (1980) and Forrester and...an interview guide. Stenberg found, when dealing with public policy issues, that interaction with a "reference group" made up of "specialists" from

  17. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    autonomous identity and capacity on the global stage , it is simply a vehicle for the member states to pursue those parts of their foreign policy which...become more difficult at this stage . The cumbersome approval process of the Lisbon Treaty, and Britain’s and France’s opposition to departing from...March 2008), 4. 25 Ibid., 15. 11 change, competition for energy, poverty and poor governance, demographic changes and globalisation .”26 The NSS

  18. Defense Logistics: Enhanced Policy and Procedures Needed to Improve Management of Sensitive Conventional Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    told us that depots are required to receipt inbound shipments within 24 hours based on a policy letter issued prior to 2010, and that this requirement...affect the safe, timely, and cost - effective transportation of HAZMAT. For example, we found that at least 44 times during fiscal years 2012 and...procurement costs for certain usable items that may already be available in the Army’s stockpile. We made 7 recommendations, of which 2 have been

  19. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  20. A Computationally Efficient P-LRU based Optimal Cache Heap Object Replacement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ul Islam Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancement in the field of distributed computing depicts a need of developing highly associative and less expensive cache memories for the state-of-art processors i.e., Intel Core i6, i7, etc. Hence, various conventional studies introduced cache replacement policies which are one of the prominent key factors to determine the effectiveness of a cache memory. Most of the conventional cache replacement algorithms are found to be as not so efficient on memory management and complexity analysis. Therefore, a significant and thorough analysis is required to suggest a new optimal solution for optimizing the state-of-the-art cache replacement issues. The proposed study aims to conceptualize a theoretical model for optimal cache heap object replacement. The proposed model incorporates Tree based and MRU (Most Recently Used pseudo-LRU (Least Recently Used mechanism and configures it with JVM’s garbage collector to replace the old referenced objects from the heap cache lines. The performance analysis of the proposed system illustrates that it outperforms the conventional state of art replacement policies with much lower cost and complexity. It also depicts that the percentage of hits on cache heap is relatively higher than the conventional technologies.

  1. An official American Thoracic Society policy statement: managing conscientious objections in intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Newby, Mithya; Wicclair, Mark; Pope, Thaddeus; Rushton, Cynda; Curlin, Farr; Diekema, Douglas; Durrer, Debbie; Ehlenbach, William; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Glavan, Bradford; Langer, Rabbi Levi; Manthous, Constantine; Rose, Cecile; Scardella, Anthony; Shanawani, Hasan; Siegel, Mark D; Halpern, Scott D; Truog, Robert D; White, Douglas B

    2015-01-15

    Intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians sometimes have a conscientious objection (CO) to providing or disclosing information about a legal, professionally accepted, and otherwise available medical service. There is little guidance about how to manage COs in ICUs. To provide clinicians, hospital administrators, and policymakers with recommendations for managing COs in the critical care setting. This policy statement was developed by a multidisciplinary expert committee using an iterative process with a diverse working group representing adult medicine, pediatrics, nursing, patient advocacy, bioethics, philosophy, and law. The policy recommendations are based on the dual goals of protecting patients' access to medical services and protecting the moral integrity of clinicians. Conceptually, accommodating COs should be considered a "shield" to protect individual clinicians' moral integrity rather than as a "sword" to impose clinicians' judgments on patients. The committee recommends that: (1) COs in ICUs be managed through institutional mechanisms, (2) institutions accommodate COs, provided doing so will not impede a patient's or surrogate's timely access to medical services or information or create excessive hardships for other clinicians or the institution, (3) a clinician's CO to providing potentially inappropriate or futile medical services should not be considered sufficient justification to forgo the treatment against the objections of the patient or surrogate, and (4) institutions promote open moral dialogue and foster a culture that respects diverse values in the critical care setting. This American Thoracic Society statement provides guidance for clinicians, hospital administrators, and policymakers to address clinicians' COs in the critical care setting.

  2. A policy-based multi-objective optimisation framework for residential distributed energy system design★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy systems (DES are increasingly being introduced as solutions to alleviate conventional energy system challenges related to energy security, climate change and increasing demands. From a technological and economic perspective, distributed energy resources are already becoming viable. The question still remains as to how these technologies and practices can be “best” selected, sized and integrated within consumer areas. To aid decision-makers and enable widespread DES adoption, a strategic superstructure design framework is therefore still required that ensures balancing of multiple stakeholder interests and fits in with liberalised energy system objectives of competition, security of supply and sustainability. Such a design framework is presented in this work. An optimisation-based approach for the design of neighbourhood-based DES is developed that enables meeting their yearly electricity, heating and cooling needs by appropriately selecting, sizing and locating technologies and energy interactions. A pool of poly-generation and storage technologies is hereto considered combined with local energy sharing between participating prosumers through thermal pipeline design and microgrid operation, and, a bi-directional connection with the central distribution grid. A superstructure mixed-integer linear programming approach (MILP is proposed to trade off three minimisation objectives in the design process: total annualised cost, annual CO2 emissions and electrical system unavailability, aligned with the three central energy system objectives. The developed model is applied on a small South Australian neighbourhood. The approach enables identifying “knee-point” neighbourhood energy system designs through Pareto trade-offs between objectives and serves to inform decision-makers about the impact of policy objectives on DES development strategies.

  3. Balancing Exploration, Uncertainty Representation and Computational Time in Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    As we confront the challenges of managing river basin systems with a large number of reservoirs and increasingly uncertain tradeoffs impacting their operations (due to, e.g. climate change, changing energy markets, population pressures, ecosystem services, etc.), evolutionary many-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) solution strategies will need to address the computational demands associated with simulating more uncertainties and therefore optimizing over increasingly noisy objective evaluations. Diagnostic assessments of state-of-the-art many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to support EMODPS have highlighted that search time (or number of function evaluations) and auto-adaptive search are key features for successful optimization. Furthermore, auto-adaptive MOEA search operators are themselves sensitive to having a sufficient number of function evaluations to learn successful strategies for exploring complex spaces and for escaping from local optima when stagnation is detected. Fortunately, recent parallel developments allow coordinated runs that enhance auto-adaptive algorithmic learning and can handle scalable and reliable search with limited wall-clock time, but at the expense of the total number of function evaluations. In this study, we analyze this tradeoff between parallel coordination and depth of search using different parallelization schemes of the Multi-Master Borg on a many-objective stochastic control problem. We also consider the tradeoff between better representing uncertainty in the stochastic optimization, and simplifying this representation to shorten the function evaluation time and allow for greater search. Our analysis focuses on the Lower Susquehanna River Basin (LSRB) system where multiple competing objectives for hydropower production, urban water supply, recreation and environmental flows need to be balanced. Our results provide guidance for balancing exploration, uncertainty, and computational demands when using the EMODPS

  4. Defense Security Cooperation Agency Vision 2020. Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, cash sale, or lease , in furtherance of national policies and objectives...Presidential Policy Directive 23 on Security Sector Assistance. D S C A V i s i o n 2 0 2 0 Solutions for America’s Global Partners 7 DSCA...less labor-intensive for USG implementing agencies. Oct 2014 – Dec 2016 d. Explore and develop options for using LOAs to support leases of defense

  5. Welcome to the wild, wild north: conscientious objection policies governing Canada's medical, nursing, pharmacy, and dental professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jacquelyn; Downie, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, as in many developed countries, healthcare conscientious objection is growing in visibility, if not in incidence. Yet the country's health professional policies on conscientious objection are in disarray. The article reports the results of a comprehensive review of policies relevant to conscientious objection for four Canadian health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy and dentistry. Where relevant policies exist in many Canadian provinces, there is much controversy and potential for confusion, due to policy inconsistencies and terminological vagueness. Meanwhile, in Canada's three most northerly territories with significant Aboriginal populations, whose already precarious health is influenced by funding and practitioner shortages, there are major policy gaps applicable to conscientious objection. In many parts of the country, as a result of health professionals' conscientious refusals, access to some legal health services - including but not limited to reproductive health services such as abortion - has been seriously impeded. Although policy reform on conscientious conflicts may be difficult, and may generate strenuous opposition from some professional groups, for the sake of both patients and providers, such policy change must become an urgent priority.

  6. 32 CFR 631.12 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives. 631.12 Section 631.12 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.12 Objectives. The primary objectives of off-installation operations are to— (a) Render assistance and provide information...

  7. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  8. Development of Core Heat Removal Objective Provision Trees for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Defense-in-Depth Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huichang; Kang, Bongsuk; Lee, Youngho [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth levels and safety functions for KALIMER sodium-cooled fast reactor, suggested in the reference and, OPTs for level 1, 2, and 3 defense-in-depth and core heat removal safety function, were developed and suggested in this paper. The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the defensein-depth design during the licensing of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR), but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defensein-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. At this moment, the identified provisions have both aspects as requirements and design features already adopted in KALIMER design. In the next stage of this study, derived provisions to be adopted will be compared with the actual design features and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.

  9. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  10. Honduras Defense Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    and its Organization .......... 14 Civil -Military Relations ............................17 Impact of the Military on the Government ........... 18 Ill...Discovered by Columbus in his last voyage in August 1502, Honduras was part of the Mayan Empire that flourished throughout Southern Mexico, Guatemala...34 + " ’- " - ’ ] , . i + .°, +,.o .r+ .* -- 7--- -. * - I . .. .. early 1930’s. Civil wars, armed revolts and political struggle for power was the common denominator

  11. Aligning research to meet policy objectives for migrant families: an example from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly MP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Evidence-based policy making' for immigrants is a complicated undertaking. In striving toward this goal, federal Canadian partners created the Metropolis Project in 1995 to optimize a two-way transfer of knowledge (researchers – policy makers within five Canadian Centres of Excellence focused on migrants newly arrived in Canada. Most recently, Metropolis federal partners, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, defined one of six research priority areas as, immigrant 'families, children, and youth'. In order to build on previous work in the partnership, we sought to determine what has been studied within this research-policy partnership about immigrant 'families, children, and youth' since its inception. Methods Annual reports and working papers produced in the five Centres of Excellence between 1996–2006 were culled. Data on academic works were extracted, results coded according to eleven stated federal policy priority themes, and analyzed descriptively. Results 139 academic works were reviewed. All federal priority themes, but few specific policy questions were addressed. The greatest volume of policy relevant works were identified for Services (n = 42 and Education and Cultural Identity (n = 39 priority themes. Conclusion Research conducted within the last 10 years is available to inform certain, not all, federal policy questions. Greater specificity in federal priorities can be expected to more clearly direct future research within this policy-research partnership.

  12. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    was judged to be practicable and, when not, Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) or Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) contracts.6 By 1966, McNamara had...discouraged the use of FPIF for development contracts in favor of CPIF. ( Cost Plus Award Fee may not have been included in the contracting play book yet...Estimate CLC Calibrated Learning Curve CPIF Cost Plus Incentive Fee DAB Defense Acquisition Board DAMIRS Defense Acquisition Management Information

  13. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries’ Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    and those that rem of offsets to establish a defense industrial base in the recipient country defense offsets extensively since the 1970s (Perlo...the British/French Jaguar, the British/German/ Italian Tornado, and the French/German Alpha Jet emerged from Thus, the U.S. succeeded in achieving...Other indications of Brazil’s failure to establish self- production which were discussed in Chapter II include the Italian and components to equip their

  14. Public Nordic Cultural Policy - Historical preconditions, overriding objectives, significant developments, recent challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    policies in Norden also differ mutual in many aspects. The survey introduces and discusses major common public cultural policy elements in the five Nordic national states (Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden and Finland), the autonomous and semi autonomous small nations (Greenland, The Faeroe Islands......Public Nordic cultural policy have, especially since the 1960s, in large part been characterised by convergence regarding major elements. In addition the Nordic countries, like other European national states are today confronted with and affected by fundamental late-modern processes: Globalisation......, migration, economic instrumentalisation, political colonisation, questions of the freedom of speech, issues on national identity vs. cosmopolitanism etc. By these and other reasons it is reasonable to speak of a pan-Nordic cultural policy model in 2016, while still highlighting the fact, that cultural...

  15. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at; Proebstl, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.proebstl@boku.ac.at

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  16. Objections to and Defense of Contextualism%语境主义的异议与辩护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹剑波

    2014-01-01

    Contextualism is the most reasonable theory to resolve skeptical problems .However ,a lot of epistemologists have raised a variety of objections to contextualist answers .These objections include the objections from uselessness ,defects and alternative theories .After analyzing these objections ,it is easy to find that the anti-contextual objections to contextualism are either misunderstood ,or irrelevant ,or rebutta-ble .Thus ,although the contextualism still need improving ,the statement that contextualism is still the most reasonable theory to resolve skeptical problems now is still true .%语境主义是现有解答怀疑主义难题中最合理的理论。然而,对于语境主义解答方案,许多知识论者提出了各种不同的异议。这些异议概括地说有来自无用论的异议、来自缺陷论的异议和来自替代论的异议。分析发现反语境主义者对语境主义的批判要么是误解的,要么是无关痛痒的,要么是可辩解的。因此,虽然语境主义有需要修正之处,但是说“语境主义仍是现有解答怀疑主义难题中最合理的理论”是成立的。

  17. Fortresses and Icebergs: The Evolution of the Transatlantic Defense Market and the Implications for U.S. National Security Policy. Volume 1: Study Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    rationale and the roadmap for our engagement with Europe on defense markets in support of our mutual security objectives. Dr. Jacques S. Gansler Roger C...Acquired by Northrop through Litton Industries. Leading producer of military and space navigation systems. Northrop Grumman Sperry Marine GmbH...when it acquired Litton Industries. Its subsidiaries Northrop Grumman Italia, Northrop Grumman LITEF and Northrop Grumman Sperry Marine, are all

  18. MORTGAGE MARKET AS A MEAN OF ACHIEVING THE STATE FINANCIAL POLICIES OBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romaniuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways to ensure the implementation of financial policies of the state through the mortgage market: capital accumulation, expansion of house construction, providing social development. It is analyzed main advantages and disadvantages of foreign models of the mortgage market and the role of the state in them.

  19. Stabilizing a crisis as an object of knowledge: How the NATO Defense College made sense of the emerging crises in Libya and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2017-01-01

    about conducting a military mission and academic cultural expertise about the region. The expertise drawn upon in the Ukraine case ranged from local expertise (‘being there’) to nationality (‘being one of them’) to area studies (Russia expertise) and academic knowledge (military history) as well......Based on interviews, participant observation and close reading of documents at the NATO Defense College (NDC) this chapter discusses the processes of stabilizing the crises in Libya (2011) and Ukraine (2013-2015) as objects of knowledge. Following the general thrust of this volume, this chapter......’ the Libya and the Ukraine ‘situations’, the chapter highlights how the NDC operates with two conceptual pairs which define security expertise: academic knowledge/practical experience and civilian/military perspectives. With regards to Libya, the types of expertise mobilised were both practical expertise...

  20. Does the EU meet its policy objective of 'promoting sustainable use of arctic resources'? An analysis from the viewpoint of arctic energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Hossain, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    The EU started to develop its own Arctic policy in 2008. One of the three main objectives of this policy is the promotion of sustainable use of Arctic resources. "Sustainability" was also a focus of the 2011 resolution of the European Parliament as a guiding principle in developing European policies

  1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    total defense expenditure figures were calculated using the European Central Bank ( ECB ) fixed rates to the euro in 1999 where possible, or the...earliest available annual average exchange rate provided by the ECB . For 2007 figures, where necessary, the ECB annual average exchange rates of the

  2. Implementation of the Defense Business Operations Fund (DBOF) Policies and Unit Costing in the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    a bussines . The "fee for service" program may enable part of the DOD perform better, but other parts of DOD cannot use the program effectively. You...research or class development. What makes AFRT different from MIT, Harvard , or Yale? 3.1. 1 agree. 0 4. In the era of defense drawdown, the DOD may

  3. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  4. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  5. An Evaluation of the Romanian Fruits and Vegetables Producers Access to Different Types of Common Agricultural Policy Instruments. Is there Any Real Consistency with the Policy Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu MARCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables sectors are considered to be strategic in the European Union due to their contribution to a better human health. Among others positive effects, their intake increase reduce mortality and obesity, assuring in the same time harmonised development for young children. The present study thus focused to reveal the consistency of the measure implemented in the Common Agricultural Policy to support fruits and vegetables production in Romania in liaison with the policy objectives. The country is one of the main ten important European producers of horticultural products in terms of production volumes and acreage. Results showed that over the last seven years (2007-2014, the sectorial production drawbacks have not been ameliorated very much. Both sectors are dominated by small-size farms that can produce only seasonally and mainly for short-market chains. In the same time, the greenhouses area shrink to levels that made the country extremely dependent to imports especially for tomatoes. The analysis of the pillar one payments schemes revealed that the fruits and vegetables producers could have access to only one payment that was half from European averages. Moreover, almost half of the producers had low sizes that left them outside the eligible criteria. The measures designed for the second pillar also penalized producers through the selection criteria. These results showed that for Romania there was not a real consistency between the actual policy measures and the objectives assumed by policy makers. The future measures (2014-2020 seem to correct these negative findings being better tailored to the situation of the local fruits and vegetables producers.

  6. Iranian Ballistic Missile Threat and a Phased, Adaptive Approach for Missile Defense in Europe: Perceptions, Policies and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    critical challenges that endanger peace. The institute has offices in New York, Brussels and Moscow. In May 2009, EWI published a report titled...Program: Treading Water in Shark -Infested Seas,” The Heritage Foundation, April 8, 2010, http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/04/The-Obama...Administrations-Ballistic-Missile- Defense-Program-Treading-Water-in- Shark -Infested-Seas. 129 Ibid. 57 an ICBM until 2020 (using the SM-3 Block

  7. A Study on: Exploring U.S. Missile Defense Requirements in 2010: What Are the Policy and Technology Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    military offi- cers, law enforcement personnel, and organized crime groups are willing to engage in illegal activ- ities for a price. This willingness...Interview with Gennady G. Yanpolsky, "A New Era for Russian Defense Export," Military Technology, December 1995, p. 33. Vago Muradian, "Russia Wants...34 that have hindered ballistic missile devel- opment in the past. For example, rocket- society papers on staging problems, discussions on guid- ance

  8. Paris agreement in the light of the objectives and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points to the overall context of the discussion about the problems related to Climate change. The paper analyzes the provisions of the Paris Agreement, adopted on the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Paris, December, 2015. The overall context of the discussion is determined by the content and significance of the objectives and principles defined in the Paris Agreement in relation to the goals and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law in general. Particular emphasis is given to the place and importance of the objectives related to human rights (the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. The central part of the paper examines the significance of the objectives and principles in the field of the climate change that are contained in the provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant international agreements relevant to climate change that were adopted prior to the Paris Agreement. Further on, the provisions of the Paris Agreement are analyzed, and in particular the parts relating to the objectives and principles. The last part of the paper gives an overview of the relevance of the solutions contained in the Paris Agreement for the Republic of Serbia. Paper provides an overview of the basic strategic and normative elements of national policy in the field of climate change, including the question of objectives and principles. In addition to that it considers the thesis that Paris agreement, aside from the elements of the continuity as the successor of the Kyoto protocol, contains a new element regarding goals and principles of international community's activities in the climate change field.

  9. [Forestalling policy as a strategic objective of space biology and medicine at the present time point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B

    2011-01-01

    The article ushers into the acrimonious debates about paths of innovative development and criticality of fundamental sciences in technological progress for Russia security, and breakthrough potential. Among the alternative routes of technical development are different forms of priority boost of growing points in which Russia has attained and held steadily the leading position occupying a prominent segment in the international division of labor. Space effort of Russia gives a model example of successful implementation of the national program and demonstrates leadership in this area of human activities. The article presents analysis of the factors and circumstances that predetermined the winning in the early, Gagarin's period of piloted space flights of the forefront position of the country as well as the vector of cosmonautics' advance for many years ahead Despite the host of issues with implementation of the ISS utilization program and planning of exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, the unique experience of preparations and carrying out investigations and tests with humans in space, the enormous groundwork in fundamental biomedical researches over the past 50 years of piloted flights allow optimistic prognosis of gaining headway with essentially new ambitious space projects. The key question is whether the forestalling policy of priority development of piloted cosmonautics as the most integrated and science intensive sector of innovation techniques will be realized. The answer will guide near- and long-term future of the space industry and, consequently, the fortune of national fundamental space sciences, space biomedicine being its part and parcel.

  10. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 223.4 Section 223.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a)...

  11. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2014-05-01

    . This paper describes water banking in Arizona from a policy perspective and identifies reasons for its implementation. It goes on to explore conditions under which water banking could successfully be applied to other parts of the world, specifically including Australia.

  12. Homeland Defense: DOD Needs to Address Gaps in Homeland Defense and Civil Support Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    tornado, storm, high water , wind-driven water , tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption , landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or...Secretary of Defense and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy on homeland defense and civil support matters, among other things. The...Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs is the principal advisor to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Secretary

  13. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  14. Reinventing the Arsenal: Defense-Industrial Adaptation in Small States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marc R Devore

    2016-01-01

    .... forced governments to reevaluate their defense-industrial policies. In each case, governments abandoned the pursuit of defense-industrial self-sufficiency and adopted export-dependent defenseindustrial policies...

  15. Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 1. Definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Pak, Anita W P

    2006-12-01

    Teamwork involving multiple disciplines is increasingly emphasized in health research, services, education and policy. The terms multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary are increasingly used in the literature, but are ambiguously defined and interchangeably used. This paper is the first of two in a series. It discusses the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of such teamwork. The paper is a literature review based on dictionaries, and Google and MEDLINE (1982-2006) searches. Multidisciplinarity draws on knowledge from different disciplines but stays within their boundaries. Interdisciplinarity analyzes, synthesizes and harmonizes links between disciplines into a coordinated and coherent whole. Transdisciplinarity integrates the natural, social and health sciences in a humanities context, and transcends their traditional boundaries. The objectives of multiple disciplinary approaches are to resolve real world or complex problems, to provide different perspectives on problems, to create comprehensive research questions, to develop concensus clinical definitions and guidelines, and to provide comprehensive health services. Multiple disciplinary teamwork has both benefits and drawbacks. The three terms refer to the involvement of multiple disciplines to varying degrees on the same continuum. The common words for multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary are additive, interactive, and holistic, respectively. With their own specific meanings, these terms should not be used interchangeably. The more general term "multiple disciplinary" is suggested for when the nature of involvement of multiple disciplines is unknown or unspecified. While multiple disciplinary teamwork is appropriate for complex problems, it is not always necessary in every single project.

  16. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  17. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment.Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions.Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region.Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys.What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially.What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking in

  18. 32 CFR 197.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 197.4 Section 197.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.4 Policy. It is DoD...

  19. 32 CFR 148.4 - Policy documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy documentation. 148.4 Section 148.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... Inspections of Facilities § 148.4 Policy documentation. Agency heads shall ensure that any policy...

  20. 32 CFR 257.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 257.4 Section 257.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 257.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to accept service of process directed to the Secretary...

  1. 32 CFR 239.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 239.3 Section 239.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.3 Policy. (a) It is DoD policy, in implementing section 3374...

  2. 32 CFR 260.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 260.4 Section 260.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS VENDING FACILITY PROGRAM FOR THE BLIND ON DOD-CONTROLLED FEDERAL PROPERTY § 260.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that a...

  3. 32 CFR 235.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 235.4 Section 235.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SALE OR RENTAL OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON DOD PROPERTY § 235.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) No...

  4. 32 CFR 226.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 226.3 Section 226.3 National Defense... THE HOMELESS § 226.3 Policy. (a) By Memorandum for the Secretaries of the Military Departments from... Secretary of Defense stated it is Department of Defense policy that shelters for the homeless may...

  5. 32 CFR 212.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 212.4 Section 212.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES AND....4 Policy. It is DoD policy, consistent with 32 CFR part 213, that procedures be established for...

  6. 32 CFR 231.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 231.2 Section 231.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES... Policy. The policy pertaining to financial institutions operating on DoD installations is contained in...

  7. 32 CFR 191.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 191.4 Section 191.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS THE DOD CIVILIAN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO) PROGRAM § 191.4 Policy. It is DoD Policy to: (a)...

  8. 32 CFR 210.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 210.3 Section 210.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS ENFORCEMENT OF STATE TRAFFIC LAWS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 210.3 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department...

  9. 32 CFR 213.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 213.4 Section 213.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL ENTITIES AUTHORIZED TO OPERATE ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 213.4 Policy. It is DoD policy...

  10. 32 CFR 193.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 193.3 Section 193.3 National Defense... NATIONAL DEFENSE § 193.3 Policy. In order to insure that the national defense is served by adequate, safe and efficient highway transportation, it shall be the policy of the DoD to (a) integrate the...

  11. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  12. 32 CFR 268.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies (NAC). ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 268.3 Section 268.3 National Defense... REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.3 Policy. It is the policy of the...

  13. 32 CFR 247.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 247.4 Section 247.4 National Defense... DEFENSE NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES AND CIVILIAN ENTERPRISE PUBLICATIONS § 247.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that..., user, or patron.” If a violation or rejection of this equal opportunity policy by an advertiser is...

  14. 32 CFR 249.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 249.4 Section 249.4 National Defense... OF DoD-RELATED SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PAPERS AT MEETINGS § 249.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a... understanding in accordance with foreign disclosure policies of the Department of Defense. Presentation of such...

  15. Delivering planning objectives through regionalbased land-use planning and land policy instruments : An assessment of recent experiences in the Dutch provinces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straalen, Fennie M.; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie B.; van den Brink, Adri

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the extent to which the introduction of four new regional planning and land policy instruments in the Netherlands improves the delivery of regional planning objectives. On the basis of case-study research, we identify why and to what extent the Dutch regional authorities-the pro

  16. Network Wide Service Level-Oriented Route Guidance in Road Traffic Networks: Traffic management in line with the policy objectives of the road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, R.L.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Service level control is a promising strategy to realize policy objectives within road networks like improving network production while taking road user interests, livability and safety into account. In this contribution a service level-oriented route guidance control approach is presented that is a

  17. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  18. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  19. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource m

  20. 日俄战争后的日本《帝国国防方针》与中国东北%Japan's Imperial Defense Policy after the Japanese-Russian War and Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀一; 聂奎全

    2012-01-01

    Japan decided its "continental policy" for expansion as early as the late 19th century.In order to further clarify its national orientation,the Imperial Defense Policy was formulated with the purpose of replacing "defensive strategy" with "offensive strategy" in 1907 after the Japanese-Russian War.The Policy set Russia and US as imaginary enemies,elaborated its military strategy in Northeast of China against Russia and brought out detailed schemes of the power and interests search in this area.Generally speaking,Imperial Defense Policy is considered a manifestation of the developed "continental policy".%19世纪末,日本基本确立了旨在对外扩张的大陆政策。日俄战争以后,日本为了进一步明确日本的国家发展方向,于1907年制定了《帝国国防方针》,其主要宗旨是以"攻势战略"来替代"守势战略"。该方针以俄国、美国为假想敌国,不仅全面阐述了日本在中国东北防御俄国的军事战略,而且还对日后在东北所要获取的重要利权提出了具体方案。这一企图全面扩大日本在东北权益的《帝国国防方针》,是日本业已形成发展的大陆政策的具体表现。

  1. 32 CFR 266.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 266.4 Section 266.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AUDITS OF... Policy. The DoD Components shall rely on and use financial and performance audits performed by non...

  2. 32 CFR 195.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 195.4 Section 195.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 195.4 Policy. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground...

  3. Quadrennial Defense Review and Ballistic Missile Defense Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    global defense posture 3 BMDR Highlights • Outlines a strategy and policy framework to – Defend the homeland against limited ballistic missile attack...abroad – Collaborate closely with allies and partners – Pursue a cooperative and tailored global defense posture – Strengthen US civilian capacity...reviews in 2010 – QDR and BMDR released February 1, 2010 – Nuclear Posture Review to be released this spring – Space Posture Review, with Director of

  4. THE SECURITY, ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH POLICY DEFINED FROM AN INITIAL CRITICAL ANALYSIS AND UNFOLDED INTO OBJECTIVES, GOALS AND PROGRAMS: PRACTICAL USAGE AT ONE GAS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lily Maciene Diniz; MBA em Perícia, Auditoria e Gestão Ambiental; Cavalcanti, Yara Teixeira; MBA em Perícia, Auditoria e Gestão Ambiental; Lins, Gustavo Aveiro; CEDERJ/SEE-RJ/CEDAE; Cunha, Roberto Ricardo Rachid Saab Barbosa; UERJ; Rodrigues, Manoel Gonçalves; UERJ; de Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro; UERJ

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a Security, Environment and Health (SMS) Policy as intent letter of the organization, expressing its global objectives and the commitment to improve the SMS performance based on an initial critical analysis allows knowing in which situation the organization is relating to SMS issues, besides to be the first phase for a management system implementation. For this work, a survey based on the five basic principles of the management system in charge of the continuous enhance, ...

  5. Energy Indicators 2012. Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2012. Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency has a mandate to identify indicators for follow-up of the energy policy objectives. A first presentation of indicators was done in 2002. Since then, annual presentations have been made with different themes. Past themes have been the electricity market (2003), district heating and natural gas market (2004), energy consumption (2005), oil consumption (2006), secure energy supply (2007), renewable energy (2008), EU (2009) and energy efficiency (2011). This year's theme is bioenergy development.

  6. Economic and environmental multi-objective optimization to evaluate the impact of Belgian policy on solar power and electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen; Van Passel, Steven; Lizin, Sebastien; Vincent, Thomas; Martin, Benjamin; Gandibleux, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This research uses multi-objective optimization to determine the optimal mixture of energy and transportation technologies, while optimizing economic and environmental impacts. We demonstrate the added value of using multi-objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMILP) considering economies of scale versus using continuous multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) assuming average cost intervals. This paper uses an improved version to solve MOMILPs exactly (Vincent, et al. 2013). To diff...

  7. Energy Indicators 2013 - Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2013 - Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency has been commissioned by the government to develop indicators for monitoring the energy policy objectives. A first report of indicators was published in 2002. Thereafter, annual reports have been published, with different themes. Past themes have been the Electricity market (2003), District heating and natural gas market (2004), Energy (2005), Oil use (2006), Energy security (2007), Renewable Energy (2008), EU (2009), Energy efficiency (2011) and Bioenergy development (2012). This year's theme is 'Transportation' and beyond there are also theme extensions as 'District heating market' and 'Cost comparison of heating options for apartment buildings' as attachments to this report. The publication begins with a brief review of the energy policy goals. Then we describe two thematic indicators, five light indicators and twenty basic indicators. While this report will serve as a tool for monitoring the energy policy objectives it's our hope that it will also make a contribution to the discussion on the development of the future Swedish energy system. The previous publications are available on the Agency's Web site, www.energimyndigheten.se.

  8. The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Weyant, John; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Krey, Volker; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Richels, Richard G.; Rose, Steven; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the synthesis of results from the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum Study 27, an inter-comparison of 19 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. The study investigated the value of individual mitigation technologies such as energy intensity improvements, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), nuclear power, solar and wind power and bioenergy for climate mitigation. Achieving atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration targets at 450 and 550 ppm CO2 equivalent requires massive greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A fragmented policy approach at the level of current ambition is inconsistent with these targets. The availability of a negative emissions technology, in most models biofuels with CCS, proved to be a key element for achieving the climate targets. Robust characteristics of the transformation of the energy system are increased energy intensity improvements and the electrification of energy end use coupled with a fast decarbonization of the electricity sector. Non-electric energy end use is hardest to decarbonize, particularly in the transport sector. Technology is a key element of climate mitigation. Versatile technologies such as CCS and bioenergy have largest value, due in part to their combined ability to produce negative emissions. The individual value of low-carbon power technologies is more limited due to the many alternatives in the sector. The scale of the energy transformation is larger for the 450 ppm than for the 550 ppm CO2e target. As a result, the achievability and the costs of the 450 ppm target are more sensitive to variations in technology variability. Mitigation costs roughly double when moving from 550 ppm to 450 ppm CO2e, but remain below 3% of GDP for most models.

  9. 基于Stingray Objective Studio的防空C3I显控系统界面开发%The Interface Development of Display and Control System of Air Defense C3I Based on Stingray Objective Studio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄博; 李进; 雷英杰

    2005-01-01

    文中提出了用Stingray Objective Studio工具集来进行防空显控系统界面开发.使得开发人员将大量的时间和精力用于系统结构和数据处理算法上,这样不光降低了开发难度,也增强了系统的功能和稳定性.

  10. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  11. The Lisbon Treaty and its Implications for the Common Security Defense Policy in the Light of the Emerging Strategic Partnership between NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Berücksichtigung des Lissabonner Reformvertrages (Munich: AVM-Verlag, 2009), 4. 34See Martin Reichard, The EU-NATO Relationship–A Legal and Political...high readiness, and the responsibility between ‘framework’ nations rotates. See Gustov Lindstrom , Chaillot Paper No. 97, “Enter the EU Battlegroups...Plus agreements remain controversial. Martin Reichard, a legal expert on European Defense, provides a good view on the evolution of these agreements

  12. Devising and Attaining National Health Objectives: A Case Study in Policy Formulation Using Asthma Targets in Healthy People 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-06

    Progress, New York:Simon and3 Schuster, 1990. Catron, Bayard L. and Harmon, Michael M. Action Theory in Practice:Toward Theory Without I Conspiracy. PAR...particular objective as actually being. These actors have the means and burden of effecting asthma prevention and control. Consistent with an action ... theory approach used in organizational management, exploring the pathways and barriers seen by the various players should inform the decision-making

  13. A hybrid credibility-based fuzzy multiple objective optimisation to differential pricing and inventory policies with arbitrage consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemy Yaghin, R.; Fatemi Ghomi, S. M. T.; Torabi, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    In most markets, price differentiation mechanisms enable manufacturers to offer different prices for their products or services in different customer segments; however, the perfect price discrimination is usually impossible for manufacturers. The importance of accounting for uncertainty in such environments spurs an interest to develop appropriate decision-making tools to deal with uncertain and ill-defined parameters in joint pricing and lot-sizing problems. This paper proposes a hybrid bi-objective credibility-based fuzzy optimisation model including both quantitative and qualitative objectives to cope with these issues. Taking marketing and lot-sizing decisions into account simultaneously, the model aims to maximise the total profit of manufacturer and to improve service aspects of retailing simultaneously to set different prices with arbitrage consideration. After applying appropriate strategies to defuzzify the original model, the resulting non-linear multi-objective crisp model is then solved by a fuzzy goal programming method. An efficient stochastic search procedure using particle swarm optimisation is also proposed to solve the non-linear crisp model.

  14. Defense Financial and Investment Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    to direct its attention to problems such as profit policy and the management and investment practices of defense contractors. Prorit Study 󈨖 In 1982...I \\-L 10 NO ADJUSTMENT 46- 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Sources: Touche Ross; Prorit 󈨐 V-34

  15. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  16. 32 CFR 246.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 246.4 Section 246.4 National Defense... STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The U.S... policies and practices of the Stars and Stripes shall be in accordance with journalistic standards...

  17. 32 CFR 264.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 264.4 Section 264.4 National Defense... INTERCHANGE OF PATENT RIGHTS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION § 264.4 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of... through Government channels and only when consistent with the National Disclosure Policy, or when approved...

  18. 32 CFR 192.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 192.4 Section 192.4 National Defense... OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING § 192.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that under DoD Directive 1350.2 1 the..., 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. (a) National Housing Policy. Federal law...

  19. 32 CFR 151.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Defense to protect, to the maximum extent possible, the rights of U.S. personnel who may be subject to criminal trial by... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 National...

  20. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  1. Defensive Minefield Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Minefield Planning by Carlos Vallejo Game Lieutenant, Ecuadorian Navy B. S., Escuela Superior Naval, Ecuador 1980 Submitted in partial fulfillment of...was a superior open-ocean naval force to the North Koreans, defensive minewarfare was able to, at least temporarily, defeat U.S. Navy objectives in...Oswaldo Rosero 1 Unit 8 Coastal Route 1 Monterey, California 93940 77 11. Office of the N’aval Attache 4 Direccion de Educacion 2535 15th. st. N. W

  2. 32 CFR 216.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 216.4 Section 216.4 National Defense... Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 983, no covered funds may be provided by contract or... Secretary of Defense determines that the covered school: (1) Has a policy or practice (regardless of when...

  3. 32 CFR 290.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE CONTRACT AUDIT AGENCY (DCAA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 290.4 Policy. Agency... who cites the FOIA. 3 Copies may be obtained from the Defense Contract Audit Agency, Attn: CMO, 8725...

  4. 32 CFR 1288.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 1288.2 Section 1288.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS REGISTRATION OF... period of 3 years from the year and month of issue. (d) Activities will use DLA Form 1454, Vehicle...

  5. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  6. Gerenciamento pelas diretrizes e o gerenciamento por objetivos: uma análise comparativa Policy deployment and management by objectives: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Turrioni

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A realidade brasileira e a velocidade do processo de difusão do modelo de gerenciamento da Qualidade Total e suas respectivas técnicas têm gerado algumas complexidades. Entre elas está a grande dificuldade da alta administração em conseguir que a Gerência da Qualidade Total realmente atinja os objetivos pretendidos com sua implementação. Este trabalho visa abrir a discussão sobre um método para prevenir essa dificuldade, o Gerenciamento pelas Diretrizes, analisando este modelo por meio de uma comparação com o mais tradicional, e em geral mais conhecido, Gerenciamento por Objetivos.Brazilian reality and the velocity of the diffusion process of the Total Quality Management model and its techniques have given rise to some complexities. Among them is the difficulty that top management has in making the Total Quality Managers actually achieve the desired objectives due to this implementation. This paper aims to open the discussion of the Policy Deployment method as an alternative to deal with these problems, in opposition to the more traditional and generally well known Management by Objectives.

  7. Strategic impasse offense, defense and deterence theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimbala, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The book is divided into three parts: the first section, scrutinizes the relationship between offense and defense and examines SDI and more inclusive strategic defense matters. It also questions the connection between policy objectives and force, and explores the complication of externalities, such as relations with allies. In section two, Cimbala reviews the operational art likely to be employed by the Soviets in a conventionally fought European war and defines and appraised the sensor-cyber revolution in technology and its impacts on preferred strategies. The final part, considers was termination scenarios and related issues, including superpower competition in the Third World, and explains how issues of sovereignty effect deterrence, avoidance, and future super power relations.

  8. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  9. 76 FR 46757 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... execute U.S. defense strategy; (c) U.S. regional defense policies; and (d) any other research and analysis... travel, Board members shall serve without compensation. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy... travel and per diem for official travel, subcommittee members shall serve without compensation....

  10. 32 CFR 767.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 767.3 Section 767.3 National Defense... Regulations and Obligations § 767.3 Policy. (a) The Naval Historical Center's policy has been to evaluate each... aircraft wrecks may be necessary or appropriate to protect the cultural resource and/or to fulfill other...

  11. 32 CFR 230.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 230.4 Section 230.4 National Defense... INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 230.4 Policy. (a) The following pertains to financial institutions on DoD... the policies identified in this part. The DoD Components shall rely on commercially available sources...

  12. 32 CFR 256.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 256.4 Section 256.4 National Defense... INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.4 Policy. (a) General. As a first priority step, all reasonable...) Compatible use land—(1) General. (i) DoD policy is to work toward achieving compatibility between air...

  13. 32 CFR 250.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 250.4 Section 250.4 National Defense... UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.4 Policy. (a) In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 140c, the... governments. (c) Nothwithstanding the authority provided in paragraph (a), of this section, it is DoD policy...

  14. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalter Henry D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual

  15. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  16. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense...Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development Objective/Threshold Current Estimate MS B DEC 2009 DEC 2009 JUN...2010 DEC 2009 CDR AUG 2011 MAY 2012 MAY 2013 MAY 2012 MS C DEC 2014 JUN 2015 JUN 2016 AUG 2016 1 (Ch-1) IOT &E Start JAN 2016 MAR 2016 MAR 2017 OCT 2017

  17. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM2.5. However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2016-11-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  19. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  20. Information Infrastructure Development Recommendations through Analysis of Current Information Technology Infrastructure, Plans and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    information society , and the military influence on information and communication technologies development; a review of the policy, objectives, concepts and methods, and the resources outlined in the Information Technology Management Strategic Plan, the Defense Information Infrastructure Master Plan, and the Global and National Information Infrastructure

  1. 32 CFR 562.4 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives. 562.4 Section 562.4 National Defense... § 562.4 Objectives. The objectives of the ROTC program are to: (a) Attract, motivate, and prepare... the need for national security. Attaining these objectives prepares students for commissions...

  2. 32 CFR 542.4 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives. 542.4 Section 542.4 National Defense... Objectives. The Army JROTC/NDCC objectives are to develop in each cadet— (a) Good citizenship and partiotism... respect for the role of the US Army in support of national objectives. (f) A knowledge of basic...

  3. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  4. Boundary Objects and Boundary Brokering to Make the Research-Policy-Practice Nexus Possible: The Case of the Chinese Higher Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangye

    2015-01-01

    The research­-policy-practice nexus is a long­-standing issue in higher education research (HER). Although closer linkages and greater relevance have been repeatedly suggested to improve the impact of HER on policy and practice, sophisticated theorization with contextual sensitivity is underdeveloped to renew the discussion in the non­-western…

  5. Inspection of the Defense Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Valuation OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL INSPECTION OF THE DEFENSE PRISONER OF WAR/MISSING IN ACTION OFFICE Report No. 96-023 November...Information Systems Agency Defense Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Office Defense Supply Service Washington Equal Employment Opportunity Equal...Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Under Secretary of Defense (Policy) Washington Headquarters Services INSPECTOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

  6. 32 CFR 162.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCING CAPITAL... approved for funding based on recognized principles of economic analysis. Each PECI project shall be subject to all restrictions established by public law, DoD policy, and other regulatory constraints. (c...

  7. 75 FR 18041 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... platforms due to its corrosion protection properties. On April 8, 2009, the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) issued a memorandum establishing policy for the minimization...

  8. Mobile User Objective System (MUOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Objective System (MUOS) is a narrowband Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) system that supports a worldwide, multi -Service population of mobile...with the State Department and the Secretary of Defense regarding the Italian court-issued Niscemi work sequestration. The program entered Multi ...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-345 Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition

  9. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    offensive. As such, it is quite unlike the strategic concepts presently being considered in civilian academic circles." C. Roberts, "The New Realism and Old...forces is at best derived from a few cinema films and a few books they have read, are eager to share (and do share) their sensational revelations and

  10. Bulgaria in European Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    influence of the West and cultural globalization. The major global religions are Christianity (2 billion adherents) Islam (1 billion) and Hinduism (0.7...Modernization has created a new generation of technological understanding and adapted religious movements like evangelism in America, " Hinduism

  11. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-06

    47 India .................................................................................................................................. 48...3 Khamene’i: “U.S. Would Overthrow Iranian Government If It Could— Media .” Reuters, February 8, 2014. 4 Erik Slavin. “Iran Emphasizes Nuclear...U.S.-based confederate allegedly in conjunction with a Mexican drug cartel. February 13, 2012 Wife of Israeli diplomat wounded in Delhi, India

  12. Defense policies under review / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitika-ala asekaitseministri Michele Flournoy 26. veebruaril toimunud kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja USA koostööst Afganistanis, NATO-Vene suhetest ning NATO-st üldiselt

  13. Defense policies under review / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitika-ala asekaitseministri Michele Flournoy 26. veebruaril toimunud kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja USA koostööst Afganistanis, NATO-Vene suhetest ning NATO-st üldiselt

  14. Defense Policy in the Reagan Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    it\\ . Finally, special thanks are due Mrs. Maria ’Ihurmlan :0r her tx ping anld preparation oft the manuscript. ’I lie me1rik(ts Nol the ork bclng...8217- 1!1 tiflt N in 111 Gram -Rud~man, a concerns Awill ensure that no budget proposed hy the administration will emerge as law untouched by le,- isla

  15. PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS IN THE DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulia Fagimovna Galiullina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the conditions of attracting the potential private business investments to a defense industry to enhance the country's defense and national security on the basis of the following argument: "business wins if the state wins". It is suggested to supplement the existing forms of cooperation between the state and business such as a government contact and privatization in the defense industry by the mechanism of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP, which is based on cooperation and risks sharing between the state and business. Implementation of PPP projects in Russia is slowed by the lack of basic federal law in PPPs field (adopted by the State Duma of Russian Federation Federal Assembly in the first reading and the corresponding legal act of the PPP in the defense industry (a federal law project is being considered . Their adoption and incorporation in the country's legislation will ensure legal and regulatory framework for PPPs in the defense industry. In addition to imperfect legislation there are a number of economic, administrative, legal and political constraints. Solving these problems will allow to either effectively develop priority areas of the defense industry , or  support defense enterprises in the restructuring of their economic activity within the PPP projects realization.Objective: to substantiate the need for a public-private partnership mechanism.Subject of study: relevance and conditions for the implementation of PPP projects in the defense industry of Russia.Result: On the basis of the legal framework, the current situation analysis in the defense industry the role of public-private partnerships is justified and the current restrictions of PPP projects implementation in this area in terms of economics, management, law and policy are systematized.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-4

  16. 32 CFR 701.63 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS... Directives and Other Documents Affecting the Public § 701.63 Policy. In accordance with the spirit and intent... Department of Defense policy described in 32 CFR part 336, 40 FR 4911, moreover, the public is encouraged...

  17. 32 CFR 64.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.4 Policy. (a) It is DoD policy that military... national security needs. (c) The military retirees ordered to active duty may be used according to...

  18. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 855.1 Section 855.1 National Defense... AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses its... utility. The Air Force engages in dialogue with the civil aviation community and the Federal...

  19. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY: Defense Acquisition..., at 703- 693-1145. Please cite NDAA FY 2013 Profit Policy Public Meeting. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: DoD is interested in opening a dialogue with experts and interested parties in Government and...

  20. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  1. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  2. 75 FR 20578 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2008 Defense Threat Reduction Agency Services... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Director of DTRA and the Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS...

  3. 23 CFR 660.503 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objectives. 660.503 Section 660.503 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.503 Objectives. The defense access roads program provides...

  4. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  5. 32 CFR 1636.2 - The claim of conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The claim of conscientious objection. 1636.2 Section 1636.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.2 The claim of conscientious objection. A claim...

  6. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  7. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objective rationale. 279.9... DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.9 Objective rationale. (a) Statement of objectives... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their...

  8. A fuzzy multi-objective model for capacity allocation and pricing policy of provider in data communication service with different QoS levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Wang, Xianjia; Zhong, Yong-guang; Yu, Lean; Jie, Cao; Ran, Lun; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Xu, Xianhao

    2012-06-01

    Data communication service has an important influence on e-commerce. The key challenge for the users is, ultimately, to select a suitable provider. However, in this article, we do not focus on this aspect but the viewpoint and decision-making of providers for order allocation and pricing policy when orders exceed service capacity. It is a multiple criteria decision-making problem such as profit and cancellation ratio. Meanwhile, we know realistic situations in which much of the input information is uncertain. Thus, it becomes very complex in a real-life environment. In this situation, fuzzy sets theory is the best tool for solving this problem. Our fuzzy model is formulated in such a way as to simultaneously consider the imprecision of information, price sensitive demand, stochastic variables, cancellation fee and the general membership function. For solving the problem, a new fuzzy programming is developed. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed method. The results show that it is effective for determining the suitable order set and pricing policy of provider in data communication service with different quality of service (QoS) levels.

  9. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  10. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  11. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  12. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  13. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  14. Who Pays for National Defense? Financing Defense Programs in the United States, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Uk; Bohte, John

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on military expenditures in the United States have primarily focused on the extent to which guns versus butter trade-offs are prevalent without examining this relationship in the context of how other fiscal policy tools are used to pay for defense. Using annual data from 1947-2007, this study examines the relative importance of…

  15. Energy policy objectives scenarios 2050. Reactions on the need for expansion of wind energy and photovoltaics; Energiepolitische Zielszenarien 2050. Rueckwirkungen auf den Ausbaubedarf von Windenergie und Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Matthias [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Gerhardt, Norman; Sandau, Fabian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany). Gruppe Energiewirtschaft und Systemanalyse

    2015-12-15

    The energy policy debate about renewable energies in Germany is currently focused almost exclusively on expansion targets of the power sector. Imost cases it remains an open question how much current is needed in the long term. A comparison of four cross-sectoral target scenarios shows that electricity consumption in 2050 in many cases could be much higher, depending on the assumptions and interpretation of climate targets than previously thought. [German] Die energiepolitische Diskussion um erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland konzentriert sich zurzeit fast ausschliesslich auf die Ausbauziele im Stromsektor. Dabei bleibt zumeist die Frage offen, wie viel Strom langfristig benoetigt wird. Ein Vergleich von vier sektoruebergreifenden Zielszenarien zeigt, dass der Stromverbrauch im Jahr 2050 je nach Annahmen und Interpretation der Klimaziele weitaus hoeher liegen koennte als bisher vielfach angenommen.

  16. 32 CFR 552.67 - Life insurance policy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Life insurance policy content. 552.67 Section 552... Reservations § 552.67 Life insurance policy content. Insurance policies offered and sold on Army installations... premium based on the length of time the policy has been in force. (f) Variable life insurance policies...

  17. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel R; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  18. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  19. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  20. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  1. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  2. Didáticas e discursos em defesa do desenho como objeto de ensino e de sua inserção na instrução pública luso-brasileira - Didactics and discourses in defense of the drawing as an object teaching and its inclusion in public luso-brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Maria Costa Trinchão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O texto identifica e analisa idéias que nortearam as políticas educacionais e propostas didático-pedagógicas apontadas no século XVII, ampliadas no XVIII, que ajudaram a socializar o Desenho como disciplina escolar e guiaram a elaboração de novos mecanismos didáticos na cultura ocidental no século XIX. O desempenho na arte do Desenho ora seguia os propósitos da educação da visão e da mente de Comenius, ora em busca da justeza do olho e da flexibilidade da mão na orientação de Rousseau, ou pela precisão do pensamento e da observação aplicada por Pestalozzi, ou ainda de forma natural e intuitiva indicada por Froebel, o desenhar como atividade inerente ao indivíduo. Destaca também, discursos de artistas e pedagogos portugueses em defesa do Desenho como objeto de ensino para instrução pública e como meio civilizador. Palavras-chave: história da disciplina de desenho; didática do desenho; defensores do desenho.   DIDACTICS AND DISCOURSES IN DEFENSE OF THE DRAWING AS AN OBJECT TEACHING AND ITS INCLUSION IN PUBLIC LUSO-BRAZILIAN EDUCATION Abstract The text identifies and analyses the ideas that guided the educational policies and didactic-pedagogic proposals created in the XVII century and developed throughout the XVIII century, which helped to socialize Drawing as a school discipline, and lead to the development of new didactic mechanisms in the XIX century western cultures. The development in the Art of Drawing changed its guidelines according to whom it followed it could either pursue the sharpness of the eye and the flexibility of the hand, according to Rousseau, as it could aim for the precision of the mind and of the observation defended by Pestalozzi, or it could accept the natural and intuitive way to develop the Art of Drawing defended by Froebel, drawing as inherent activities in the individual. It also highlights Portuguese pedagogues and artists speeches in defense of Drawing, both as public teaching

  3. 多目标政策背景下的四川阿坝藏族牧区城镇化建设分析%On Sichuan Aba Tibetan Pastoral Areas Urbanization in the Multi-objective Policy Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君

    2012-01-01

    Aba Tibetan and pastoral areas in recent years at all levels of government to develop and implement a plan of action of the herders to settle in the construction of new socialist pastoral areas,ecological protection,tourism and revitalization of public policy.Based on the comb of the role of these policies,this paper considers: the policy in the context of multi-objective should be to the herders to settle in a plan of action-based,tourism-oriented,ecological environment protection and culture to maintain the principle of promoting the urbanization of the Aba Tibetan pastoral areas.%近年来阿坝藏族牧区各级政府制定并实施了牧民定居行动计划、社会主义新牧区建设、生态保护、旅游业振兴等公共政策。基于对这些政策作用的梳理,本文认为:多目标政策背景下,应以牧民定居行动计划为基础,旅游业为导向,生态环境保护和文化保持为原则,推动阿坝藏族牧区城镇化建设。

  4. 44 CFR 327.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 327.3 Section 327.3... PREPAREDNESS POLICY ON USE OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INDUSTRIAL PLANT EQUIPMENT BY PRIVATE INDUSTRY (DMO-10A) § 327.3 Policy. (a) General. (1) Primary reliance for defense production shall be placed upon private...

  5. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    2012/06/08/russia_installs_new_radars_as_a_ deterrent_15834.html. 130. “Direct Line with Vladimir Putin ,” President of Russia , April 17, 2014...and increases the danger of war. In his 2012 pre-election treatise on defense policy and national security, Rus- sian President Vladimir Putin ...Kontsern PVO Almaz-Antey) was established by President Vladimir Putin in 2002 uniting no fewer than 46 enterprises, including factories, research and

  6. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Merrath, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  7. United States Civil Military Relations: Defense Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    358–421. 154 Lederman, Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 74. 155 Thomas L. McNaugher and Roger L. Sperry , “Improving Military Coordination...edited by Thomas C. Bruneau and Florina Cristiana Matei, 26–38. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis, 2015. McNaugher, Thomas L. and Roger L... Sperry . “Improving Military Coordination: The Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization of the Department of Defense.” In Who Makes Public Policy: The

  8. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  9. Defense and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the Economy C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A

  10. Application of passive defense in urban housing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, with advances in the technology of weapons and military equipment, urban areas are most at risk of invasion. Among the most important factors in enhancing human casualties in military attacks on urban areas, one can point to the unrealistic architecture of houses which does not conform to principles such as optimal site selection and layout of the structure of human settlements, proper distribution, principles of concealment, camouflage and deception, the high degree of vulnerability of buildings and interior architecture of buildings with regard to passive defense. Structural arrangement of spaces and their connection with surrounding areas has created great opportunities for saving lives And improves system performance and reduces its vulnerability. This study with a descriptive-qualitative approach, investigates the role of passive defense in urban housing planning and the conclusions are used to create safe city, strong city and deterrent city. Results show that determining the geometric design of house, pop location, availability and predictability of secure spaces are regarded as multi-functional space for each building in times of peace and war are among the optimal components of building architecture and vernacular architecture from the perspective of a passive defense.Crises, threats and disasters are classified into two main categories: natural, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, droughts and human category such as war, accidents and diseases which are more than 50 types. The main objective of this study is investigating crisis caused by war in residential areas. In the full-scale military conflicts, one of the ultimate goals of the parties involved is making an effort to bring the breadth and scope of the battlefield to civilian centers especially to urban centers, which is usually accompanied by heavy air strikes. This act is one of the most effective strategies in the fate of wars

  11. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.36 Policy—Interim leasing of...

  12. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  13. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  14. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greiving

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

  15. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of Controlled Unclassified Information Labels and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Release OUSD(AT&L) U.S. Congress: PL107–347 (E- Government Act of 2002; FISMA is Title III) OMB: M-13-13 ( Open Data Policy) DoD/SECDEF President of the...Congress December 17, 2002 Enhances management and promotion of electronic government services and processes M-13-13 Open Data Policy-Managing...nongovernment entities throughout the acquisi- tion process. The data and derivative analyses are governed by a system of labels and markings, rules

  16. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  17. 76 FR 65186 - Request for Public Comments on How the Department of Defense Can Improve the Way It Procures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Request for Public Comments on How the Department of Defense Can Improve the Way It Procures Defense Items... program is an important instrument of U.S foreign policy. It allows the United States to provide...

  18. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  19. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  20. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  1. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  2. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... characteristics, made or received by the DIA in connection with the transaction of public business and in the DIA...

  3. 32 CFR 100.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION § 100.3 Policy. Persons who are enlisted or appointed in, or transferred to a Reserve component of the Armed Forces of the United States, under the provisions of 10...

  4. 32 CFR 1292.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.2 Policy. (a) Military Heads of DLA field activities are authorized to issue... command and may issue security regulations and orders in fulfillment of their responsibility to protect...

  5. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  6. Interned Minds: Issues of Historical Interpretation in Michelle Malkin's In Defense of Internment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGE, R. Paul

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the controversial work by Michelle Malkin (2004 entitled In Defense of Internment. Malkin is an ex-FOX news commentator in the United States who supports racial profiling in the war on terrorism. Malkin explores historical questions related to Japanese-American internment during World War II as a justification for a new policy on racial profiling. Her book offers us a chance to look at how history can be used to buttress anti-democratic policies. Sharply rebuked by many American historians, this treatise possesses problematic methodological issues and raises serious questions in terms of the direction that democracy should take with civil liberties. As part of the open debate that she promotes, this paper addresses some of the more critical errors in her historical analysis and polemical work, which she continues to promulgate on her personal website in rationalizing the concept of objective discrimination.

  7. 32 CFR 321.14 - DSS implementation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DSS implementation policies. 321.14 Section 321...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE SECURITY SERVICE PRIVACY PROGRAM § 321.14 DSS implementation policies. (a) General. The implementation of the Privacy Act of 1974 within DSS is as prescribed by DoD Directive...

  8. Defense Planning and Arms Control. Proceedings of a Special NSAI Conference, 12-14 June 1980, National Defense University, Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    selected defense issues. * The President, whose schizophrenia on arms control and defense policy Issues has been demonstrated repeatedly, and whose...are politically unavoidable and overdue, may eventually have their desired effect. Meanwhile, they may also stimulate traditional Russian paranoia , of

  9. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  10. Turkey's Accession to the European Union in terms of impact on the EU's security and defense policies: potential and drawbacks A adesão da Turquia à União Europeia em termos de impacto nas políticas de segurança e defesa: potencial e limitações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of Turkey's likely entry in the European Union (EU in terms of the EU's foreign, security and defense policies. It reviews Turkish capabilities, namely its military capabilities, which could provide the EU with valuable defense assets. There are differences related to Turkey's relations with the EU, which have increasingly spilled over into the NATO, hindering the development of cooperation over crisis management operations. The article then delves in the implications of Turkey's strategic geographical location to EU policies. It reviews how far the EU and Turkey may have convergent interests in some of the neighboring regions, especially in the Middle East.O presente artigo analisa o impacto da possível adesão da Turquia à União Europeia (UE em termos da política externa, de segurança e defesa. O artigo começa por analisar as capacidades da Turquia, especialmente as suas capacidades militares e de que forma estas poderiam fornecer à UE os recursos de defesa de que necessita. De seguida, examina as divergências nas relações da Turquia-UE, criando obstáculos ao desenvolvimento da cooperação NATO-UE em matéria de gestão de crises. O artigo avalia ainda as consequências para a UE decorrentes da localização estratégica da Turquia. Analisa-se até que ponto a UE e a Turquia poderão ter interesses convergentes em algumas destas zonas, especialmente no Oriente Médio.

  11. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  12. Energy Policy to Fuel Economic Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Although the 12th Five-Year Plan technically concludes in 2015, it is more apt to view the plan as the opening salvo to a pivotal decade intended to shepherd China toward a sustainable, innovative, and integrated continental economy.Indeed, the new plan is a sober recognition that pursuit of China's current export and investment-led growth model is facing diminishing returns.Sustaining growth, in the face of a realignment in global consumption and demand patterns, will require a different emphasis on qualitative growth and domestic consumption.A lower 7 percent growth target and language that trumpets economic development over growth indicate that Chinese policymakers realize this.

  13. Office of Inspector General report on audit of work force restructuring under Section 3161 of the National Defense Authorization Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    As authorized by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal year 1993, Department of Energy (Department) policy is to provide educational assistance to terminated contractor employees who were impacted by the Department`s downsizing. A terminated employee is anyone who voluntarily or involuntarily departs due to a reduction in employment under a Departmental restructuring plan. The objectives of the audit were to determine if the Department provided (1) reasonable means for terminated contractor employees to obtain training to qualify for new employment and (2) reasonable compensation to southern Nevada for any impact the Department`s downsizing had on the community.

  14. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  15. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  16. FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S. 3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S . 3000 Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and Budget...Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S . 300 Congressional Research Service Summary This Fact Sheet summarizes selected...Appropriations Committee on May 26, 2016 ( S . 3000). Congressional action on the FY2017 defense appropriations act has been fundamentally shaped by the

  17. The effectiveness of the U.S. missile defense capabilities as a deterrent to the North Korean missile threat

    OpenAIRE

    Gipson, Issac G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last five years, America has placed an ever-increasing emphasis on missile defense and currently spends nearly $10 billion annually on its development. The United States' current missile Defense system is integrated; it depends on the cooperation of defensive elements aboard ships, on land, in the air and space. The objective is to provide a layered defense with multiple opportunities to destroy an incoming missile. By investing heavily in missile defense technology, the United ...

  18. 77 FR 4284 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... relating to mission, policy, accreditation, faculty, student, facilities, curricula, educational methods, research, and administration of the National Intelligence University. The Director, Defense Intelligence... consecutive terms of service. This same term of service limitation also applies to any DoD...

  19. Department of Defense Contractor and Troop Levels in Iraq and Afghanistan: 2007-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Specialist Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition Lawrence Kapp Specialist in Military Manpower Policy August 15, 2016 Congressional Research...Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress, by Moshe Schwartz . The Role of Contractors in Military Operations Throughout its history, DOD has...Background and Analysis, by Moshe Schwartz and Joyprada Swain. 4 See Department of Defense

  20. 76 FR 4322 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts Inventory Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts... United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the public...

  1. 75 FR 64710 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of Defense Services Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Department of Defense Services Contracts... Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08) section 807, the Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Program Acquisition and Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/PASS) will make available to the...

  2. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: the Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches –– an analysis of coastal defense poli

  3. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: The Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches — an analysis of coastal defense polic

  4. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Please review the report findings and recommendations. I am interested in receiving your feedback for inclusion in programs wherever these...needed culture shift to utilize their existing authorities. Finally, expanded coordination among intermural basic research portfolios across the Labs...research portfolios across the Labs without creating additional administrative burdens is needed. The defense research enterprise should

  5. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Wireless Information Assurance • Steganography • Air Force Enterprise Defense (AFED) 10 Distributed Agents for Information Warfare Operational...information (images, documents, overlays, audio , links, etc.) •multi-level data release to coalition forces; key-based access •covert communication...maximize throughput of communication channels Data Hiding/Embedding Steganography Watermarking Steganalysis 14 Payoffs • Integrates existing

  6. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  7. Robust Preallocated Preferential Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Frye , W.H. and Ullman, L.L., Methodology for Calculating Minuteman Defense Effectiveness, SRD-EGI4, Stanford Research Institute, October 1973. 4. Hogg...Corporation 1500 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22209 ATTN: Dr. Tucker Battle Dr. James Skouras Dr. Iram Weinstein Northrop Corporation 8900 E. Washington

  8. DOD Purchase of Renewable Energy Credits Under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 established renewable energy goals for federal government agencies. The National Defense Authorization Act for...Fiscal Year 2012 directs the Secretary of Defense to establish a policy to maximize savings for the bulk purchase of replacement renewable energy certificates...in connection with the development of facility energy projects using renewable energy sources. This requires that each service purchase

  9. National Defense Research Institute Annual Report: Contract Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-14

    Policy, concentrated on cocaine and mar- The RAND team recommended a measure more juana smuggling. Interdiction of the third major directly related to... sors of the Center’s work include both the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management and Person- PROCUREMENT nel) and the Assistant Secretary of

  10. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  11. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis,...

  12. 48 CFR 245.7301 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7301 Policy. (a) Screening must be completed before any surplus contractor inventory sale. (b) Except as provided in 245.7307... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 245.7301 Section...

  13. 32 CFR 253.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY SERVICES § 253.4 Policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department of Defense that an employee shall be accepted for assignment to duty with the Military Services overseas only after it first has been determined...

  14. The Reagan Defense Budget: Prospects and Pressures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    policy and to stimulate U.S. economic growth; and ( ii ) the urgent requirement to build up America’s defense capabilities. The former theme is a traditional...Paris in the Fall of 1981: a ver- sion of it will appear in the Ramses conference proceedings. -2- Unfortunately, it now seems as though these two...Proposed OMB Cut Alternatives (August) Level I 221.9 183.6 247.3 219.2 278.4 246.9 Level II 221.4 183.4 238.5 217.4 276.9 243.5 Level III 216.0 182.0

  15. 澳大利亚对华政策调整--对比分析2009及2013澳大利亚国防白皮书%Australia’ China Policy Adjustment -a Comparative Study of 2009 and 2013 Australia Defense White Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪斌

    2013-01-01

    In May 2013 , Australia announced a new defense white paper , whose most striking feature is that Australia no longer views China as a “threat” and welcomes China ’ s rise.This new policy marks Canberra ’ s positive shift from its previous attitude to-wards China reflected in its 2009 defense white paper which viewed China ’ s rise as a “potential threat” to the regional peace and stability.The reasons behind this change are multifaceted including Australia ’ s need of China for its economic growth , Australia’ s strategic interest in the region , the increasing Australian public recognition of China ’ s importance to Australia , and Canberra ’ s re-consideration and reevaluation of its diplomatic performance , past, present and in the future .%2013年5月,澳大利亚公布了新的国防白皮书,其中最引人注目的是明确表示不再将中国视为“威胁”,欢迎中国崛起。这与2009年澳大利亚国防白皮书形成鲜明对比,当时澳大利亚认为中国崛起可能构成对地区和平与安全的潜在威胁。澳大利亚对华政策的调整原因颇多,包括澳大利亚经济发展需要中国市场的支持、澳本国战略利益需要、澳民众对中国发展的认可,以及澳政府对过去、当前及未来外交实践的再反思和评估。

  16. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  17. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  18. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  19. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  20. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  1. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  2. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2014-01-21

    Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.

  3. Conscientious Objection to Harmful Animal Use within Veterinary and Other Biomedical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that decisions are consistent and defensible from legal and other policy perspectives. However, many other institutions have not yet done so, instead dealing with such cases on an ad hoc basis as they arise. Among other undesirable outcomes this can lead to insufficient student and faculty preparation, suboptimal and inconsistent responses, and greater likelihood of legal challenge. Accordingly, this paper provides pertinent information about the evolution of conscientious objection policies within Australian veterinary schools, and about the jurisprudential bases for conscientious objection within Australia and the USA. It concludes with recommendations for the development and implementation of policy within this arena.

  4. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  5. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  6. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  7. 32 CFR 204.3 - Policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy and procedures. 204.3 Section 204.3...) MISCELLANEOUS USER FEES § 204.3 Policy and procedures. (a) General. It is DoD policy not to compete unfairly... immediate or substantial gain or values (which may or may not be measurable in monetary terms) than...

  8. 48 CFR 244.301 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objective. 244.301 Section 244.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... 244.301 Objective. The administrative contracting officer (ACO) is solely responsible for...

  9. Marketing the Joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, Defense Focused Masters in Business Administration To Active Duty Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    1. The Four Ps of the JMBA The marketing mix is a set of marketing tools utilized to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market.12...Concept Of The Marketing Mix ,” Journal of Advertising Research, 4 (June)2- 7. 13 E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach, 13th ed...appropriate marketing mix and reinforced at every customer contact point. This position and the value proposition are the common thread that binds

  10. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  11. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  12. Defensive engagement and perceptual enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Ihssen, Niklas; Heim, Sabine; Vila, Jaime; Guerra, Pedro; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether visual cortical sensitivity to external cues in the context of an acute defensive reaction is heightened or attenuated. A strong cardiac defense (fear) response was elicited by presenting an abrupt, loud acoustic stimulus following a 10-minute period of quiescence. Electrocortical responses to aversive and neutral pictures following defensive stimulus onset were measured using dense-array EEG. Pictures were flickered at 12.5 Hz to evoke steady-state visual evoked potentials ...

  13. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  14. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    that military separation physicals shall include an assessment of sexual trauma, previously disclosed or undisclosed, during active duty service...comply with these standards. Further, SAPRO must be actively engaged in prevention policy development and legislation. Defense Task Force on Sexual ...SAPRO develop training policies and exercise oversight over Military Service training programs. Sexual assault prevention and response training must

  15. 76 FR 43991 - Amendment of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... knowledge of, and experience in, policy matters relevant to national security and reserve component matters... Homeland Security. f. Ten persons appointed or designated by the Secretary of Defense, each of whom shall be a United States citizen having significant knowledge of and experience in policy matters...

  16. 76 FR 32358 - Meeting of the Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Law 92-463, as amended, notice is hereby given of a forthcoming meeting of the Defense Department... the results of their Workplace and Gender Relations survey. Additionally, the Committee will also... Military Personnel Policy will brief on the laws and policies that restrict the service of female...

  17. The future of planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, A.

    2017-04-01

    Asteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. While the frequency of impacts is reasonably well understood on geologic timescales, it is difficult to predict the next sizeable impact on human timescales by extrapolation from population statistics alone. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking individual objects, we can make precise predictions of any potential close encounters with Earth. As more advance notice is provided, the range of possible mitigation options expands. While the chance of an impact is very small, the potential consequences can be severe, meaning that sensible risk reduction measures should be undertaken. By implementing surveys, the risk of an unforeseen impact can be greatly reduced: the first step is finding the objects. Fortunately, the worldwide community of professional and amateur astronomers has made significant progress in discovering large near-Earth objects (NEOs). More than 95% of NEOs capable of causing global devastation (objects larger than 1 km in diameter) have been discovered, and none of these pose an impact hazard in the near future. Infrastructure is in place to link observations and compute close approaches in real time. Interagency and international collaborations have been undertaken to strengthen cooperative efforts to plan potential mitigation and civil defense campaigns. Yet much remains to be done. Approximately 70% of NEOs larger than 140 m (large enough to cause severe regional damage) remain undiscovered. With the existing surveys, it will take decades to identify the rest. Progress can be accelerated by undertaking new surveys with improved sensitivity.Plain Language SummaryAsteroids and comets have impacted Earth in the past and will do so in the future. Fortunately, by identifying and tracking them, we have the ability to predict any potential close encounters with Earth. By observing the sky repeatedly to search for near-Earth objects, the risk of an unforeseen impact can

  18. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  19. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 37 - What Common National Policy Requirements May Apply and Need To Be Included in TIAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Common National Policy Requirements May Apply and Need To Be Included in TIAs? D Appendix D to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  1. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of therapeutic change. Reviewing maturation and development in relation to the resumption of psychological growth suggests that the provision of a beneficient environment, the "white keys," may lead to the resumption of maturational growth and change. The difference between the two modalities would be in the relative need for a significant other to bring about such change. Expanding on Hartmann and Kris, we can say that maturation requires a certain level of human stimulation and a supportive environment to unfold. At times in our work we encounter a psychoanalysis of and about maturation rather than primarily transference and interpretation. By and large the structure and functions of the ego that have been impeded in their exercise by traumatic circumstances in the environment are reactivated by a generalized holding environment rather than a relationship. In the practice of psychoanalysis this means that the child analyst may be more relaxed about the nonverbal play and relational aspects of the work; he need not fear that dynamics not captured in secondary process are lost to change. To the extent that the analysis provides an opportunity for maturational expression, growth will occur. When growth has been impeded by direct and significant interpersonal factors, the standard interpretative clarifications of defense, drive, and object relations in the context of removing the transference distortions regarding the analyst (and the world) are essential for recovery. Where the sequence of repetition through practice to mastery has become frozen by thwarting and stunting relationships, these potentially dead-end examples of neurotic object constancy must be played out on the "black keys." The amalgamation of the black of transference developments and the white of maturational emergence is paradigmatic for the discovery of new objects and new senses of self. In everyday life and analysis, maturation may lead to

  2. Common object request broker architecture (CORBA)-based security services for the virtual radiology environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R; Cole, C; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K

    2000-05-01

    The US Army Great Plains Regional Medical Command (GPRMC) has a requirement to conform to Department of Defense (DoD) and Army security policies for the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project. Within the DoD, security policy is defined as the set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information. Security policy in the DoD is described by the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), Army Regulation (AR) 380-19, Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE), Military Health Services System Automated Information Systems Security Policy Manual, and National Computer Security Center-TG-005, "Trusted Network Interpretation." These documents were used to develop a security policy that defines information protection requirements that are made with respect to those laws, rules, and practices that are required to protect the information stored and processed in the VRE Project. The goal of the security policy is to provide for a C2-level of information protection while also satisfying the functional needs of the GPRMC's user community. This report summarizes the security policy for the VRE and defines the CORBA security services that satisfy the policy. In the VRE, the information to be protected is embedded into three major information components: (1) Patient information consists of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-formatted fields. The patient information resides in the digital imaging network picture archiving and communication system (DIN-PACS) networks in the database archive systems and includes (a) patient demographics; (b) patient images from x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US); and (c) prior patient images and related patient history. (2) Meta-Manager information to be protected consists of several data objects. This information is distributed to the Meta-Manager nodes and

  3. Ukrainian defense industry under economic sanctions is within the Russia's interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andreyevich Mal’gin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze a correlation between the Russian and the Ukrainian militaryindustrial complexes MIC as well as to determine possibilities for product substitution under economic sanctions. nbsp Methods analysis and synthesis statistical abstract logic methods. Results аn interdependence of Ukrainian and Russian militaryindustrial complexes is revealed the role of economic sanctions as one of the important instruments and twoedged instruments of foreign policy is shown the means of acceleration of development of defenseindustrial complex of Russia are proposed. Scientific novelty the article proves that the Ukrainian defenseindustrial complex under economic sanctions represents serious threat to Russian militaryindustrial complex. The most effective ways of substituting the Ukrainian defense production by the Russian production are determined. Practical value the proposed measures for substituting the Ukrainian military production by the Russian production will under economic sanctions contribute to Russia39s further strengthening of militaryindustrial complex and the enhancement of operational capability of its armed forces. nbsp

  4. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  5. 76 FR 18737 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB) Member Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... (RFPB). Background: Secretary of Defense, George C. Marshall, abolished the Civilian Components Policy... Designated Federal Officer No Later Than The Close Of Business Wednesday, April 13, 2011. The Designated... required to comply with all Department of Defense ethics requirements, to include the filing...

  6. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of...

  7. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  8. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    most senior level—the only one that matters in Russian decisionmaking cul - ture—is also of significance today and will also be re- ferred to later in... org /missile-defense/us-ballistic-missile-defense/p30607. 9. Email exchange with author, July 2013. 10. “Safeguard,” Washington, DC: Federation of Ameri

  9. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  10. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  11. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    cases, those dollars have gone to higher-priority Service, portfolio or program/activity needs. The result is more capability for the warfighter at...Services be more effective, ensuring that our policies are well defined, and getting feedback on what works and what needs to be improved in our...project by a DoD official, but it would require industry to communicate directly with appropriate DoD personnel and to obtain feedback on the

  12. Defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sandra C; Hulsbergen, Alexander F C; Muskens, Ivo S; van Dam, Marjel; Gormley, William B; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-09-20

    In defensive medicine, practice is motivated by legal rather than medical reasons. Previous studies have analyzed the correlation between perceived medico-legal risk and defensive behavior among neurosurgeons in the United States, Canada, and South Africa, but not yet in Europe. The aim of this study is to explore perceived liability burdens and self-reported defensive behaviors among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands and compare their practices with their non-European counterparts. A survey was sent to 136 neurosurgeons. The survey included questions from several domains: surgeon characteristics, patient demographics, type of practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive practices, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized. Forty-five neurosurgeons filled out the questionnaire (response rate of 33.1%). Almost half (n = 20) reported paying less than 5% of their income to annual malpractice premiums. Nearly all respondents view their insurance premiums as a minor or no burden (n = 42) and are confident that in their coverage is sufficient (n = 41). Most neurosurgeons (n = 38) do not see patients as "potential lawsuits". Relative to their American peers, Dutch neurosurgeons view their insurance premiums as less burdensome, their patients as a smaller legal threat, and their practice as less risky in general. They are sued less often and engage in fewer defensive behaviors than their non-European counterparts. The medico-legal climate in the Netherlands may contribute to this difference.

  13. Using the Oldest Military Force for the Newest National Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Claus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Guard is establishing Cyber Mission Teams (CMT that will fulfill a federal role to backfill active duty defending Department of Defense networks, but are also exploring how they could effectively fulfill state missions. The President, Council of Governors, and USCYBERCOM Commander have expressed concerns about U.S. critical infrastructure cyber network vulnerabilities and the increasing magnitude of threat our adversaries pose to those networks’ security. This article explores using this emerging National Guard capability in a state role for protection of critical infrastructure cyber networks. Most of the critical infrastructure is privately owned. Although current executive orders and policy mandate government sharing of cyber threat information, private providers’ reciprocation of sharing their vulnerabilities is voluntary. This article contends that effective cyber defense requires strong private-public partnerships. We developed a critical infrastructure cyber defense model based upon key characteristics from the literature on private-public partnerships and performed a case study of current cyber defense partnerships to validate the model. Our research shows this model to be a useful guide for emerging National Guard Cyber Mission Forces to consider when establishing partnerships for effective critical infrastructure cyber defense.

  14. Defense Strategies Against Modern Botnets

    CERN Document Server

    Stankovic, Srdjan

    2009-01-01

    Botnets are networks of compromised computers with malicious code which are remotely controlled and which are used for starting distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, sending enormous number of e-mails (SPAM) and other sorts of attacks. Defense against modern Botnets is a real challenge. This paper offers several strategies for defense against Botnets with a list and description of measures and activities which should be carried out in order to establish successful defense. The paper also offers parallel preview of the strategies with their advantages and disadvantages considered in accordance with various criteria.

  15. Defense Budgeting in a Constrained Economy: Reengineering the Budget Process to Meet the Challenge of a Modernizing Zimbabwe Defense Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    made possible by the immeasurable assistance from a number of people within and outside the ZDF. Dr Philomina "Muconnect" Nhemachena, Major Clive ...These national values form the basis of national interests which states will use all their might to safeguard. Arlinghaus and Barker posit that "all...and Capabilities (Westview Press, 1986) ed. Bruce E. Arlinghaus and Pauline H. Barker , 3. 6 G. M. Dillon, Defense Policy Making: A Comparative

  16. Defense and the Economy: The Issues of Jobs, Inflation, and Longrun Growth. Hearings before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth of the Committee on the Budget. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (December 7 and 9, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Budget.

    This 2-day Congressional hearing on the impact of defense spending on the economy focuses on three aspects of the relationship between expenditures for national defense and the state of the economy: jobs, inflation, and long-run growth. Testimony includes statements, prepared statements, and additional information submitted for the record by…

  17. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  18. Defense Facility Condition: Revised Guidance Needed to Improve Oversight of Assessments and Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    showed us a classroom inside of a hangar where mold had been found on picture frames, wall shelves, and desk items (see figure 5). Figure 5: Desk...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics Memorandum, Standardizing Facility Condition Assessments (Sept. 10, 2013). 7The...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics Memorandum, Facility Sustainment and Recapitalization Policy (Apr. 29, 2014

  19. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    strategists in Spain has been incorporated into the Plan Estrategico Conjunto (PEC, Joint Strategic Plan ), which is the centerpiece around which revolves the...China yields the following major conclusions relevant to U.S. defense policy and force structure planning . %.4 .4.. WEST EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES i" Doubts...confronts security dilemmas that hold major implications for U.S. defense planning . These include: 0 A perceived need to raise the conventional

  20. Defense Transportation: DOD Needs to Take Actions to Improve the Transportation of Hazardous Material Shipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Air Force, the Navy, and the Marine Corps; and DOT’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. See appendix I for more information on...is a viable microorganism or its toxin that causes, or may cause, human disease. 31DOD guidance for safeguarding biological select agents and...Defense for Transportation Policy; the Defense Logistics Agency; the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps; and DOT’s Pipeline and

  1. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  2. Defense mechanisms in patients with fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormod Landmark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM and depression has been suggested to share a common underlying etiology. Few studies have investigated the role of emotional regulation processes in FM compared to depressive disorders.The purpose of the current study was to explore the use of defense mechanisms in FM patients with and without comorbid lifetime depressive disorder (LDD, and to compare their use of defenses to healthy control subjects and patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Methods: A total of 91 participants were included (17 with FM and LDD, 25 with FM but not LDD, 24 with MDD, and 25 healthy controls. Depressive disorders were identified by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I disorders (SCID-I. All diagnosis of FM were confirmed to meet the American College of Rheumatology's criteria for FM. The Life Style Index (LSI was used to measure defense mechanisms. Results and Conclusions: Group comparisons indicated that MDD patients and FM patients with LDD made significantly more use of defenses than healthy controls, whereas FM patients without LDD made significantly less use of defenses than both MDD patients and FM patients with LDD, but did not differ from healthy controls. Follow up analyses indicated significant main effects for the defense mechanisms of regression, compensation and displacement. This study suggests that FM and depression do not share common risk factors in terms of restricted affects or avoidance of conflicted feelings.

  3. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  4. Defense Spending and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-07

    the first resolution. Our forecast projects continued growth in the economy and moderate inflation for one or possibly two years, despite federal...than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense would, of course, promote defense-intensive sectors of the economy at the expense of...others, but CBO believes the economy could accommodate such shifts without significant adverse effects on macroeconomic variables such as employment

  5. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  6. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  7. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  8. Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine M; Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick E

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

  9. Nuclear Deterrence: Strong Policy is Needed for Effective Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Skeptics,” The Brown Journal of World Affairs 16, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2009): 32. 54 Herman Kahn, Thinking About the Unthinkable in the 1980s (New York...108 Arnie Heller , “Enhancing Confidence in the Nation’s Nuclear Stockpile,” Science and Technology Review (July/August 2010): 4. 109 Department of...110 Bruce T. Goodwin, “Deterrence with a Minimum Nuclear Stockpile,” Science and Technology Review (July/August 2010): 3. 111 Heller , “Enhancing

  10. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    atmospheric distillation. A topping refinery produces naphtha but no gasoline. • Hydroskimming refineries are equipped with atmospheric distillation... naphtha reforming and necessary processes to treat for sulfur. More complex than a topping refinery, hydroskimmers run light sweet crude and...maximum (-40°C). It is supplied under ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification. Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions. It can be used

  11. Department of Defense Environmental Cleanup Cost Allowability Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    risks associated with TCE focused on its use as an anesthetic. In addition, TCE was used as a coffee decaffeinator , septic tank cleaner and was an...million in those days, and TCE was used in decaffeinating coffee. [Ref. 81:p. 2] Superfund has also brought about a change to the old idea that "liability

  12. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Figure 5). The range of crude oils assays are summarized in Table 5. In the past, when U.S. crude oil production was higher than today, refineries...declining worldwide crude oil production . In 2006, due to increasing fuel costs, the Bush Administration’s war on terrorism, and military operations in

  13. Democratic Security and Defense Policy: A Successful Counterinsurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    117Conflict and Cooperation in the War against Drugs,” Banco de la Republica (April 1998), http://www.banrepcultural.org/blaavirtual/ tesis /colfuturo...www.banrepcultural.org/blaavirtual/ tesis /colfuturo/usa colombia.pdf (accessed 26 August 2011), 82. Council of Hemisferic Affairs, “Overview of the Colombian Conflict

  14. Japan’s Defense Policy: Forecast and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-21

    Kodanska Intnl. Ltd., Tokyo, 1973. Duus , Peter , The Rise of Modern Japan, Houghton Miflin Co., Boston, Mass., 1976. E-mmerson, John K., Arms. Yen and...Yasoaka, op. cit., 1978, pp. 29-34. 22 Duus , P. The Rise of Modern Japan, 1976, pp. 121-25; Stockwin, J. Japan: Divided Politics in a Growth Economy

  15. Theater Missile Defenses and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    and Joseph Rotblat (London: Macmillan Press, 1987), p. 171. 11 dowry " to alleviate European fears of being left defenseless as the U.S. retreated behind...surface missile, the design of which came from reverse-engineering of U.S. Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles. 59 India could be on the verge of...indigenous production with the testing of its Privthi missile. India has also demonstrated successful development of an indigenous space launch capacity

  16. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    standards being developed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers ( ASHRAE ).33 Whether future investments in energy...may 33 The ASHRAE initiative, known as the Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green...archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/ archives /080131standards.asp. 34 U.S. Congress, Joint Committee of Conference, Joint Explanatory Statement - Division A to Accompany

  17. Arms Procurement Cooperation and a European Defense Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-10

    tensions in Europe.25 Following the resignation of DeGaulle in April 1969, his successor as President, Georges Pompidou , began to work more closely...Union. Brighton: Centre for Conteii,-orary European Studies, University of Sussex, 1975. Close, Robert. Europe Without Defence? New York: Pergamon Press

  18. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    is provided in the DOD Energy Managers Handbook.25 In particular, the guidance endorses the sustainable building design approach for building and...Office of the Federal Environmental Executive at http://ofee.gov/eo/ EO_13423FactSheet.pdf accessed (Accessed November 17, 2008). 20 The Sustainable ... Building MOU is available at http://www.fedcenter.gov/_kd/Items/ actions.cfm?action=Show&item_id=4713&destination=ShowItem (accessed on November 17, 2008

  19. An Analysis of Turkey’s Defense Systems Acquisition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    80 xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Military Spending (in Market Exchange Rate...A400M transport aircraft will be procured using the consortium model and prime contractor is the AMSL (Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada). The

  20. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Antoni Podolski, Polska Strategia Bezpieczenstwa jako Praktyczna Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa...Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa: Center for International Relations, 2005), 13. Polish Ministry

  1. Collective Security vs. U.S. Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    in the maintenance of law and order, protecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance, denying airspace, and guaranteeing rights of passage . The...forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage , necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 2. Such...the nature of facilities and assistance, including rights of passage , to be made available to the Security Council on its call for the purpose of

  2. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  3. THE PLANNING, PROGRAMING, BUDGETING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SERBIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa RADUSKI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of introducing the PPBES to the Serbian Ministry of Defense and the Serbian Armed Forces is to provide a rational management of resources and to maintain and build capacity of the Ministry and the Serbian Armed Forces in order to achieve their goals, objectives and missions.Expected results of implementation of the PPBES are reflected in increasing the efficiency and rationalization of the defense planning to a higher level, ensuring compatibility with defense planning and budgeting system of the state and developing a foundation for the effective management of defense resources.

  4. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  5. The Changing Shape of the Defense Industry and Implications for Defense Acquisitions and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    concentration and economy-wide M&As are significantly correlated, but fortunately this is one of the “happy situations” that Gujarati discusses in his...Economic Association International. Gujarati , D.N. (2006). Essentials of econometric (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill-Irwin. Hamilton, J.D. (1994

  6. Defense Manpower Policy: Presentations from the 1976 Rand Conference on Defense Manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    Retention. Related Variables, U.S.N. Personnel Research Activity, Report No, 248, December 1964. La Rocco, James M., Eric Gunderson, and William M. Pugh...military status sepa- U 304 Thomaa rate from, but not equal to, that of men. This move was motivated by the findings of a study that a million and a half

  7. Budget Policy, Deficits, and Defense: A Fiscal Framework for Defense Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    healthcare entitlements―and Reagan’s refusal to increase the largest revenue source―individual income taxes. From GRH to OBRA. Since Reagan and...Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (popularly known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings [ GRH ] for its Senate sponsors) mandated that the budget be balanced over a...were required to enact spending and tax laws that complied with a specific deficit ceiling.16 If they failed to do so, GRH provided for automatic

  8. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR) 1000.22. SUMMARY: On May 18, 2011, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) published a Notice of...

  9. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR...

  10. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  11. 32 CFR 516.28 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Individual Liability § 516.28 Policy. (a) General. Commanders, supervisors, and SJAs or legal... current or former DA personnel who face criminal charges or civil litigation in their individual...

  12. 48 CFR 210.001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 210.001 Policy. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 10.001(a), agencies shall— (i) Conduct market research appropriate to the circumstances before— (A... 109-163); and (ii) Use the results of market research to determine— (A) Whether consolidation...

  13. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  14. 32 CFR 643.24 - Policy-Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Competition. 643.24 Section 643.24... ESTATE Policy § 643.24 Policy—Competition. The use of real estate under the control of DA for private purposes will be granted only after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain competition for its...

  15. 32 CFR 643.38 - Policy-Utility rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Utility rates. 643.38 Section 643.38... ESTATE Policy § 643.38 Policy—Utility rates. (a) Rates for utilities furnished by the Army will be in accordance with AR 420-41. (b) Payments for utilities or services furnished will be deposited to...

  16. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  17. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  18. 48 CFR 44.301 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objective. 44.301 Section 44.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.301 Objective. The objective...

  19. 32 CFR 37.605 - What is the general policy on participants' financial, property, and purchasing systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' financial, property, and purchasing systems? 37.605 Section 37.605 National Defense Department of Defense... Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems § 37.605 What is the general policy on participants' financial, property, and purchasing systems? The general policy...

  20. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  1. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  2. Policy enabled information sharing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  3. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  4. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  5. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  6. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  7. Stop or move: Defensive strategies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline F; Vieira, Andre S; Oliveira, Jose M; Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G; Figueira, Ivan; Erthal, Fatima S; Volchan, Eliane

    2016-04-01

    Threatening cues and surrounding contexts trigger specific defensive response patterns. Potential threat evokes attentive immobility; attack evokes flight when escape is available and immobility when escape is blocked. Tonic immobility installs when threat is overwhelming and life-risky. In humans, reduced body sway characterizes attentive and tonic immobility, the former with bradycardia, and the later with expressive tachycardia. Here, we investigate human defensive strategies in the presence or absence of an escape route. We employed pictures depicting a man carrying a gun and worked with participants exposed to urban violence. In pictures simulating more possibility of escape, the gun was directed away from the observer; in those simulating higher risk and less chance of escape, the gun was directed toward the observer. Matched control pictures depicted similar layouts, but a non-lethal object substituted the gun. Posturographic and electrocardiographic recordings were collected. Amplitude of sway and heart rate were higher for gun directed-away and lower for gun direct-toward. Compared to their respective matched controls, there was a general increase in the amplitude of sway for the gun directed-away pictures; and a reduction in back-and-forth sway and in heart rate for gun directed-toward pictures. Taken together, those measures suggest that, when exposed to threat invading their margin of safety in a context indicating possible escape route, humans, as non-human species, engage in active escape, resembling the flight stage of the defensive cascade. When facing threat indicating less possibility of escape, humans present an immobile response with bradycardia.

  8. Directed energy missions for planetary defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploration, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional propellant for launch to LEO and then ion engines to propel the spacecraft from LEO to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA). During laser ablation, the asteroid itself provides the propellant source material; thus a very modest spacecraft can deflect an asteroid much larger than would be possible with a system of similar mission mass using ion beam deflection (IBD) or a gravity tractor. DE-STARLITE is capable of deflecting an Apophis-class (325 m diameter) asteroid with a 1- to 15-year targeting time (laser on time) depending on the system design. The mission fits within the rough mission parameters of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) program in terms of mass and size. DE-STARLITE also has much greater capability for planetary defense than current proposals and is readily scalable to match the threat. It can deflect all known threats with sufficient warning.

  9. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold

    2016-01-01

    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Alt

  10. Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaya Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense mechanisms used by depressive and anxious patients without comorbidities compared to those used by controls and to determine whether these patterns differ between diagnoses. METHOD: The sample was composed of 167 psychiatric patients and 36 controls that were evaluated using the Defense Style Questionnaire 40. All subjects were evaluated through a clinical interview, and each evaluation was confirmed through the application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured psychiatric interview. We used ANOVA and discriminant analysis to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Neurotic defense mechanisms discriminated controls from all patients except those with social anxiety. Immature defense mechanisms differentiated controls from all patients, as well as distinguished depressive patients from panic disorder and obsessive disorder patients. The discriminant analysis indicated that depressive patients are characterized by projection, panic disorder patients by sublimation and obsessive-compulsive patients by acting out. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and anxious patients differ from other individuals in their use of defense mechanisms, and each diagnosis has a particular pattern. These findings could lead to the development of specific psychotherapeutic interventions.

  11. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  12. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  13. 32 CFR 22.305 - General policy and requirement for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policy and requirement for competition... GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.305 General policy and requirement for competition. (a) It is DoD policy to maximize use of competition in...

  14. Directed Energy Missions for Planetary Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathon; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional prop...

  15. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated – “Changing the System” HeLLeR , TRiCiA A., Deputy Director of Congressional Support, Technical and Analytical Support, USAF A-Team...Interview Recorder” HeLLieR, RiCHARD, Director of Air Force Programs, United Technologies – “Joint Stars System” HeRMAN , DR. ROBeRT, Member, Defense

  16. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  17. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  18. What Happens After the Defense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldtmann, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    who has attempted to attack the master’s vessel and whose distress is the direct result of lawful self-defense by PCASP? This is the question at the heart of this article, which argues that there are certain post incident obligations and that it is crucial to address these obligations at the flag...

  19. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  20. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Wendy L.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and ego defense style among 130 college students. Cluster analysis results facilitated the identification of groups of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists. The researchers found that identified maladaptive perfectionists used…

  1. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  2. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Airframe Total airframe contractor furnished equipment ( CFE ) Total airframe CFE 9 entries (forward fuselage, center fuselage, wing, empennage...etc.) Avionics Total electronics CFE and government- furnished equipment (GFE) Total avionics 16 entries (radar, integrated processor...Relationship CFE Contractor Furnished Equipment CNI Communication, Navigation, Identification DoD Department of Defense FCCM Facilities Capital Cost

  3. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  4. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  5. Interorganizational Policy Studies: Lessons Drawn from Implementation Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.

    1993-01-01

    Contingency approaches to organizing suggest that policy objectives are more likely to be achieved if the structures employed for implementation mesh with the policy objectives being sought. Interorganizational arrangements are used increasingly in carrying out public programs, and contingency logic

  6. Generalized Hough Transform for Object Classification in the Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    industries , such as banking, aerospace, and defense [13]. In defense applications, the networks have been used for object discrimination, feature...extraction, and image identification [13]. Neural networks are equipped with statistical tools for function fitting, pattern recognition, clustering ...In a similar fashion to the JPEG standard, the denoising filter is used to minimize the high frequency background noise in an image prior to edge

  7. 76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... disposal levels of materials for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Annual Materials Plan. The role of the MIC is to... of Economic and Business Affairs, Office of International Energy and Commodity Policy, Washington, DC..., the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) lists the proposed quantities for the FY 2013 Annual Materials...

  8. 76 FR 39411 - Self-Defense of Vessels of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...-defense against piracy. DATES: This notice is effective on July 6, 2011. ADDRESSES: The policy letter and... States against an act of piracy shall not be liable for monetary damages for any injury or death...

  9. 76 FR 67426 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Navy. The Panel's focus will include the Navy energy program, the shipbuilding defense industrial base... national security policy, intelligence, science, engineering, or energy and industry. Panel members... total membership. All Panel members are appointed to provide advice on behalf of the government on...

  10. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico.

  11. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  12. Effects of ECB Monetary Policy: Differences in Policy Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s monetary policy on the economy in the Euro area. Existing studies have not conclusively determined whether the effects of the policy are large or small, effective or ineffective. Also, the difference between policy interest rate increases and decreases has not been fully studied. Using two types of VAR models, this article shows that, as expected, the ECB’s monetary policy designed to boost the economy is effective in inflation stabilization, depreciation of the euro, and production improvement. Also, the impact of policy interest rate increases on inflation rate is negative (i.e., effective. However, the results of other cases are not clear empirically. To maintain price stability is the ECB’s primary objective, so it can be concluded that the ECB in general has conducted monetary policy successfully.

  13. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  14. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  15. Defense Procurement Strategy for a Globalized Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    QDR,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 4. 3 Vago Muradain, “Finalizing Transformation,” DefenseNews, 8 November 2004, p. 34. 4 Hugo Posey and Ben...Interavia, Summer 2004, 34-36. Munton, Bob, and Brinley Salzmann. “U.K.’s Growing Contols.” DefenseNews, 25 October 2004, 96. Muradain, Vago

  16. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIACONESCU DIANA RALUCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks in advanced economies have deployed a variety of unconventional policies during the crisis. It can be seen that the central banks have been mostly successful at achieving their objectives and that spillover to other countries have—thus far at least—been benign overall. Also it can be considered that using unconventional measures may be appropriate in some circumstances, but also they can have disadvantages and all the benefits for using such measures need to be balanced against potential costs. Prior to the crisis the monetary policy was implemented by central banks in a predictable and systematic way, and its transmission mechanism was understood by the economic agents. A transparent central bank reaction function (or broad rule guided market expectations of future interest rates. After the crisis appeared, the central banks from developed countries applied unconventional tools1 to address two important objectives: first one is to restore the proper functioning of financial markets and intermediation, and second one is to provide further monetary policy accommodation. Both these objectives need to support financial stability, including the diminishing big risks in acute phases of the crisis (collapse of the financial system, depression, and deflation. This paper reviews recent experience with these policies and considers issues related to their continued use in the future in the Romanian economy. It will be a tentative to explain how to avoid liquidity trap2 or get out of it – these also can be seen in the Romanian economy in the last few years.

  17. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  18. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  19. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  20. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    posturethrough the CCMDs with measurement feedback to the leadership. The DoD CIO should establishmetrics for this assessment. Include Cyber Preparedness in...DoD should evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting defense posturethrough the CCMDs with measurement feedback to the leadership. The DoD CIO...USCYBERCOM Welcome Maj Keffer, USCYBERCOM Chief of Staff Cyber Portfolio Management Decisions Mr. Terry Carter, Deputy Director, Capabilities and Resource

  1. Science versus policy in establishing equitable Agent Orange disability compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    This article makes the case that current Agent Orange compensation policy for Vietnam War veterans is based neither wholly upon scientific findings about Agent Orange health effects nor on pure public health policy considerations. Rather, it is the logical culmination of decades of experience among policy makers and public health scientists trying to establish clear-cut, equitable, and scientifically defensible compensation policy in the face of limited relevant science and poor or nonexistent exposure data-all within the broader context of Veterans Affairs disability compensation policies, and a deep-seated commitment to support the men and women who served their country during the Vietnam War. Finally, attempts to update current policy will benefit from an understanding of this background.

  2. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  3. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  4. CERN anti-fraud policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  5. 7 CFR 4285.1 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective. 4285.1 Section 4285.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Program § 4285.1 Objective. This subpart sets forth the policies and procedures and delegates...

  6. 47 CFR 202.0 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objectives. 202.0 Section 202.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING AND EXECUTION § 202.0 Objectives. (a) During, or in anticipation of, a...

  7. 28 CFR 511.12 - Prohibited objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT POLICY Searching and Detaining or Arresting Non-Inmates § 511.12 Prohibited objects. (a... type; recording equipment; telephones; radios; pagers; electronic devices; and any other objects...

  8. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  9. 36 CFR 910.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 910.1 Section 910.1... AREA General § 910.1 Policy. (a) The Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation Act of 1972, Pub. L... objectives for development, is supplemented by various adopted policies and programs of the Corporation....

  10. Marine Corps Joint Officer Management Policy and O-7 Joint Service Officer Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Larry R

    2007-01-01

    .... The research was conducted at the request of Manpower and Reserve Affairs, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps to review current policies and their effectiveness in supporting the requirements in the FY 2005 National Defense Authorization Act...

  11. Can Industry Consolidation Lead to Greater Efficiencies? Evidence from the U.S. Defense Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nayantara Hensel

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether mergers in various industries lead to greater market power or improved efficiencies has been the subject of numerous public policy debates. This analysis focuses on the impact of consolidation in the U.S. defense industry over the past 20 years and examines the reasons behind the wave of defense consolidation, the results in terms of the reduction in contractors, the antitrust response to mergers, and evidence on the impact of the mergers on weapons systems’ total and ...

  12. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  13. Austere Defense: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    military advice while acquiescing to divestitures, and effectively executing the austere defense cuts required by current law through 2019 and...Could it be that our assessments of risk have, over time, become too conservative? In- deed, even with the effects of full sequestration the United... crunch . Look- ing at overhead, as Douglas Macgregor of Politico magazine reminds us, during World War II, only four four-star generals commanded a

  14. 32 CFR 643.25 - Policy-Grants which may embarrass the Department of the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Army. 643.25 Section 643.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.25 Policy—Grants which may embarrass the Department of the Army. The use of property under DA control will not be authorized for any purpose when...

  15. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Gen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve.

  16. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  17. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  18. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  19. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  20. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  1. Cardiovascular profile of defensive hostile women in a real stressful situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palmero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of defensive hostility on cardiovascular response in a stressful situation. By measuring three of the most commonly used cardiovascular indexes (heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure over three experimental phases (adaptation, task and recovery, the evolution of cardiovascular response was analyzed minute by minute throughout the entire experimental session, to check if the defensive hostility influences the cardiovascular function. Two scales were used: the Cook-Medley Composite Hostility Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Based on the scores on these scales, there were formed four groups (high hostility and high defensiveness, high hostility and low defensiveness, low hostility and high defensiveness, and low hostility and low defensiveness. The stressful situation which was used in the task phase was a real academic examination (exam of the Psychology degree. The hypothesis was that cardiovascular response, activation and recovery, minute by minute, will be greater in hostile defensive women, with an intraphase evolution profile characterized by maintenance or sensitization and slow recovery. Results show that defensive hostile individuals present the highest values in the physiological variables recorded, and less adaptive profiles.

  2. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 2, Issue 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Competition, sponsored by our partner organization, the Defense Acquisition University Alumni Association (DAUAA) at http://www.dauaa.org. For 2014...initiation to satisfaction . Organizations Involved in Resolution of Urgent Needs The organizations examined in this article that support, develop...sef c c = > Where: ef = measure of effectiveness on interval (0, 1) os = level of satisfaction of the objective (rated on a scale of 0 to 1) oc = cost

  3. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 14, Number 1, February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/~clemen/ bio/ mhd /mhdpref.htm Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) (2000, December). Multi-criteria analysis manual...http://www.courses.vcu.edu/MATH327/ (under “Schedule” under “ Lecture Slide”). Keeney, R. L., & Raiffa, H. (1976). Decisions with multiple objectives...theory class 9: Revising judgment in the light of new information & risk and uncertainty management. Unpublished lecture notes. DefeNse aCquisiTion

  4. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  5. Best practices and recommendations on policy packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, Nils; Longva, Frode; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Kessler, Florian; Osland, Oddgeir; Justen, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Schippl, Jens; Åkerman, Jonas; Isaksson, Karolina; Givoni, Moshe; Macmillan, James; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is the final deliverable of the Optic project (Optimal Policies for Transport In Combination), summarises two years of collaborative research into the policy process of combining individual measures into policy packages. Six stages of the policy process are identified. This report gives practical and general advice for each of these stages: 1. Define objectives and targets 2. Create an inventory of measures, identify potential primary measures and detect causal relationship...

  6. Singularizar procesos: una propuesta de continuidad entre la actividad clínica y los objetivos de salud de las políticas sanitarias Singularization processes: a proposal for continuity between clinical activity and health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Beguiristain

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: La Dirección Territorial de Sanidad de Gipuzkoa creó en 1996 el servicio del Plan de Salud con la finalidad de transformar los objetivos de salud priorizados por el Departamento de Sanidad en estrategias de intervención a incorporar a los contratos programa. Proceso y resultados: el procedimiento que el servicio está utilizando para cumplir este objetivo se denomina singularización y consiste en seleccionar un proceso vinculado a un problema de salud prioritario, analizarlo y reconstruirlo de forma que se conozca la actividad relacionada con él, los resultados, el coste económico y su impacto en la salud de la población. El procedimiento permite a la Dirección Territorial de Sanidad, responsable de la compra de servicios al sector público y privado, disponer de información sobre las condiciones de contratación para el proceso revisado. La evaluación anual de los Contratos programa y Conciertos controla el grado de consecución de los pactos realizados y de sus consecuencias sobre la salud de la población. El artículo que se presenta recoge la forma en la que se realiza esta singularización.Backgrounds and objectives: In 1996 the Gipuzkoa Territorial Health Agency (Basque Country, Spain created the Health Plan Service. The aim was to transform the health objectives prioritized by the Health Department into intervention strategies to be incorporated into the local contract services. Process and results: One of the procedures the service uses for this purpose, known as «singularization», involves selecting a process linked to a prioritized health problem, and analyzing and reconstructing it so that the related activity, expected results, financial costs and its impact on the population's health can be identified. After this process the service provides the Territorial Health Agency, which is responsible for service purchase for the public and private sectors, with information about contract conditions for

  7. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.

  9. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  10. Cross-sectional survey on defensive practices and defensive behaviours among Israeli psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, I; Pelov, I; Reuveni, H; Bonne, O; Canetti, L

    2017-03-20

    Psychiatry is a low-risk specialisation; however, there is a steady increase in malpractice claims against psychiatrists. Defensive psychiatry (DP) refers to any action undertaken by a psychiatrist to avoid malpractice liability that is not for the sole benefit of the patient's mental health and well-being. The objectives of this study were to assess the scope of DP practised by psychiatrists and to understand whether awareness of DP correlated with defensive behaviours. A questionnaire was administered to 213 Israeli psychiatry residents and certified psychiatrists during May and June 2015 regarding demographic data and experience with malpractice claims, medicolegal literature and litigation. Four clinical scenarios represented defensive behaviours and reactions (feelings and actions) to malpractice claims. Forty-four (20.6%) certified psychiatrists and four (1.9%) residents were directly involved in malpractice claims, while 132 (62.1%) participants admitted to practising DP. Residents acknowledged the practice of DP more than did senior psychiatrists (p=0.038).Awareness of DP correlated with unnecessary hospitalisation of suicidal patients, increased unnecessary follow-up visits and prescribing smaller drug dosages than required for pregnant women and elderly patients. This study provides evidence that DP is well established in the routine clinical daily practice of psychiatrists. Further studies are needed to reveal whether DP effectively protects psychiatrists from malpractice suits or, rather, if it impedes providing quality psychiatric care and represents an economic burden that leads to more harm for the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  12. WIC Breastfeeding Policy Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Forrestal; Ronette Briefel; James Mabli

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion and support is a core component of the nutrition services provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The objectives of this study were to describe a census of state and local WIC agencies’ policies and practices to promote breastfeeding; the breastfeeding measures that agencies collect and report; and the data systems used to store and report that information. The study also used paradata to assess the WIC Breastfee...

  13. Just in time: circadian defense patterns and the optimal defense hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The optimal defense hypothesis (ODH) provides a functional explanation for the inhomogeneous distribution of defensive structures and defense metabolites throughout a plant's body: tissues that are most valuable in terms of fitness and have the highest probability of attack are generally the best defended. In a previous review, we argue that ontogenically-controlled accumulations of defense metabolites are likely regulated through an integration of developmental and defense signaling pathways. In this addendum, we extend the discussion of ODH patterns by including the recent discoveries of circadian clock-controlled defenses in plants.

  14. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  15. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  16. Cyber Defense: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Protection), available from www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gg/art_65a. html, accessed on July 30, 2014. 36. Christian Kahl, Nachrichten, Vom Kampf in der...www.bundeswehr-journal.de/2013/vom- kampf -in-der-funften- dimension/, accessed on July 30, 2014; “Digitaler Truppenein- satz: Bundeswehr meldet sich...www.bundeswehr-journal. de/2013/vom- kampf -in-der-funften-dimension/. 46. “Spionage- und Hackerabwehr: Bundeswehr baut geheime Cy- berwar-Truppe auf” (“Defense of

  17. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  18. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  19. Department of Defense Expenditure Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Buxton Rd. 1,879 E 88 Redstone Arsenal AL Replace Water Main Along Paton Rd. from H.U. to Martin Rd. 1,857 E 89 Redstone Arsenal AL Fy 2009 Annual Road... Buxton Road E. from Patton to H.U. 1,312 E 25 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Operation and Maintenance, Defense Health Program, and...Meet AR 190-11 75 O 1100 Billings AFRC MT Mechanical System Improvements 188 E 1101 Billings AFRC MT Install Lighting Controls 45 E 1102 Billings

  20. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  1. Determining the Frequency of Defensive Medicine Among General Practitioners in Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Defensive medicine prompts physicians not to admit high-risk patients who need intensive care. This phenomenon not only decreases the quality of healthcare services, but also wastes scarce health resources. Defensive medicine occurs in negative and positive forms. Hence, the present study aimed to determine frequency of positive and negative defensive medicine behaviors and their underlying factors among general practitioners in Southeast Iran. Methods The present cross-sectional study was performed among general practitioners in Southeast Iran. 423 subjects participated in the study on a census basis and a questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics through SPSS 20. Results The majority of participants were male (58.2%. The mean age of physicians was 40 ± 8.5. The frequency of positive and negative defensive medicine among general practitioners in Southeast Iran was 99.8% and 79.2% respectively. A significant relationship was observed between working experience, being informed of law suits against their colleagues, and committing defensive medicine behavior (P< 0.001. Conclusion The present study indicated high frequency of defensive medicine behavior in the Southeast Iran. So, it calls policy-makers special attention to improve the status quo.

  2. Secure and defensive high self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Correll, Joshua

    2003-11-01

    Long-standing theories have suggested high self-esteem (SE) can assume qualitatively different forms that are related to defensiveness. The authors explored whether some high-SE individuals are particularly defensive because they harbor negative self-feelings at less conscious levels, indicated by low implicit SE. In Study 1, participants high in explicit SE but low in implicit SE showed the highest levels of narcissism--an indicator of defensiveness. In Studies 2 and 3, the correspondence between implicit and explicit SE predicted defensive behavior (in-group bias in Study 2 and dissonance reduction in Study 3), such that for high explicit-SE participants, those with relatively low implicit SE behaved more defensively. These results are consistent with the idea that high SE can be relatively secure or defensive.

  3. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  4. Korean Defense Industry: Threat or Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-22

    framework for defense industrial cooperation with Korea . While Senator Dixon eventually dropped his opposition and the Korean Fighter Program is now...US defense firms to transfer technology to Korean firms, the US Government must recognize two realities: first, Korea will develop indigenous...serious Korean competition in the foreseeable future. 8 It does not appear that the Korea defense industry is poised to take away significant market

  5. Implementing an Integrated Network Defense Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    to create an easily defendable avenue for ingress and egress. In medieval times, castles leveraged this principle. If an attacker was brazen enough...defense mirrors that of the physical world, its application has some significant drawbacks. Whereas the medieval castle defenders had the high ground...defenses. Logically an INDS can and should follow the same premise. 3. Integrated Air Defense To model an INDS after an IADS, it is necessary

  6. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  7. Offset implementations for Turkey's International Defense Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report "Offsets" is the umbrella term for a broad range of industrial and commercial "compensatory" practices. Specifically, offset agreements in the defense environment are increasing globally as a percentage of exports. Developed countries with established defense industries use offsets to channel work or technology to their domestic defense companies. Countries with newly industrialized economies are utilizing both military and commercial related offsets that involv...

  8. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan and the Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    captive flight tests (CFTs); in FY98, demonstrating an integrated man- portable fire control system; and in FY99, conducting all-up-round demonstrations...program will con- duct captive -carry and live-fire IR missile tests verses a full-up IRCM suite, demonstrating (1) end-to-end IR countermeasure...area of data coverage. Orca , NAVOCEANO’s ROV, is used to gather bathymetric data. In cost effectiveness, Orca costs about $1.6 million, versus a T-AGS

  9. A Dynamic Linear Modeling Approach to Public Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    Theories of public policy change, despite their differences, converge on one point of strong agreement. The relationship between policy and its causes can and does change over time. This consensus yields numerous empirical implications, but our standard analytical tools are inadequate for testing...... them. As a result, the dynamic and transformative relationships predicted by policy theories have been left largely unexplored in time-series analysis of public policy. This paper introduces dynamic linear modeling (DLM) as a useful statistical tool for exploring time-varying relationships in public...... policy. The paper offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of U.S. defense policy from 1957-2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process and the paper concludes with a discussion of how...

  10. Energy and the national defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknell, H. III

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the US energy situation and its attendant policy problems, this book surveys the availability of different forms and sources of energy. It reviews alternatives to heavy reliance on oil and natural gas, the inseparability of political and economic factors during a transition period, the linkage of domestic and foreign policy, worldwide ramifications of the energy problem, the consequences of policy failures for the prospects of war and peace, and the energy problem as a test of the way the US national policymaking system functions. While the most unsettling discussion relates to the possibilities of energy wars in the Persian Gulf and elsewhere, attention is also given to questions of industrial vigor, high food production, environmental safety, and domestic peace and freedom. A hopeful conclusion stresses the importance of individual effort as the baseline for the democratic system. 378 references, 24 figures, 7 tables.

  11. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  12. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  13. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  14. The insanity defense: Related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested. McNaughton's rules stressed on “understandability of right and wrong” and “intellectual” rather than a moral or affective definition dominated in its formulation. Lack of control and irresistible drives or impulses were neglected Going by the current understanding of neurological evidences of compulsion and lack of impulse control, rationality tests without the inclusion of lack of control, seem to be outdated. Separate “Control determination” than the “Rationality determination” by the jurors may improve the accuracy of Juror's categorizations. There is a suggestion that Relevance ratio is ideal for ‘Evidentiary relevance” and there should be a quality control on expert testimonies. With progress in neuroscience, the law may need to abandon or alter some of its current assumptions about the nature of voluntary conduct, which underlies various defenses PMID:28216769

  15. Defensive anality and anal narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims at demonstrating a currently beleaguered assumption: the central importance, the continuing vitality, and the appropriate complexity of Freud's theory of the drives and of his idea of the primacy of the body ego. It is not enough to consider man a thinking machine or a social being; his animal nature must be given a central place in psychology. The paper postulates that 'anal or sphincter defensiveness' is one of the precursors of the repression barrier. Anality has been comparatively neglected in recent psychoanalytic literature, and so has its explorer, Karl Abraham. The paper's thesis is that there is a special defensive importance to anal erogeneity and libido, and to those aspects of ego and superego that are functionally operative (as the 'sadistic-anal organization' (Freud, 1917)) during the so-called 'sadistic-anal' developmental phase. Any of the psychic danger situations can evoke regression to manifestations of 'anal narcissim'--an attempt to master overwhelming feeling by a kind of emotional sphincter action, narrowing down the world to the controllable and the predictable. The basic assumption here is Fliess's idea that the attainment of anal sphincter control functions--with, as-it-were, 'psychic resonance'--as a means to master primal (murderous, cannibalistic) affect. For optimal psychic development, a proper balance must be attained between anal control of, and anal expression of, instinctual derivatives--especially of affect laden with aggression.

  16. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  19. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  20. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  1. Strategic culture and ballistic missile defense: Russia and the United States. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.D.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis examines U.S. and Russian history and current policy debates to advance understanding of: (1) the strategic cultures of these nations, particularly with respect to BMD policies in the recent past; and (2) whether and how their strategic cultures and approaches to BMD are changing and how that may affect future strategic BMD developments and the status of the ABM Treaty. The development of BMD strategies, including policies concerning the ABM Treaty, within the framework of the established American and Russian strategic cultures is studied, with due attention to the Soviet experience and legacy in the Russian case. U.S. strategic culture does not seem to have changed significantly with the end of the Cold War, but U.S. BMD priorities have been redefined to reflect a higher priority attached to regional and theater-level defenses. It is apparent that the Soviet experience did have a significant impact on Russian strategic culture. Faced with major changes in its international status, domestic political-military arrangements, and scope of national security concerns, Russian strategic culture is nonetheless moving beyond the old Soviet culture. Future Russian policies regarding the transfer of BMD technology, sharing early warning data, and participating in a global protective system are heavily dependent on domestic political developments. United States, Russia, USSR, Strategic culture, Ballistic missile defense, National strategy, Nuclear strategy, Strategic defense, ABM Treaty, Arms control, Strategic stability.

  2. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of... Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. Statements, opinions... Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016

  3. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  4. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  5. 75 FR 65462 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Military Family Readiness Council AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (hereafter referred to as the ``Council''). FOR... military family readiness by the Department of Defense; and (c) evaluate and assess the effectiveness...

  6. 75 FR 3210 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... sector corporations or entities and a wealth of top-level, global business experience in the areas of... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board... gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Business Board (hereafter referred to...

  7. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  8. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  9. Arms Proliferation Policy: Support to the Presidential Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    detailed discussion of the evolution of U.S. policy on export control, see Mitchel B. Wallerstein , with William W. Snyder, Jr., "Appendix G: The...criteria considered are regional stability, the military and other needs of the procuring country, and concerns over ^itchel B. Wallerstein , with William...Congressional Testimony by Mitchel B. Wallerstein , Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, "Foreign Operations Arms Transfer Policy," May 23,1995. Federal

  10. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  11. Defensive medicine among obstetricians and gynecologists in tertiary hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Asher

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the daily work practice under the threat of defensive medicine among obstetricians and gynecologists. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional survey of obstetricians and gynecologists working at tertiary medical centers in Israel. RESULTS: Among the 117 obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey, representing 10% of the obstetricians and gynecologists registered by the Israel Medical Association, 113 (97% felt that their daily work practice is influenced by concern about being sued for medical negligence and not only by genuine medical considerations. As a result, 102 (87% physicians are more likely to offer the cesarean section option, even in the absence of a clear medical indication, 70 (60% follow court rulings concerning medical practices, and 85 (73% physicians mentioned that discussions about medical negligence court rulings are included in their departments' meetings. CONCLUSIONS: Defensive medicine is a well-embedded phenomenon affecting the medical decision process of obstetricians and gynecologists.

  12. Strategic Defense Initiative Fact Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    increasing the available decision time in the event of an acci- dental launch of offensive weapons. In this way SDI could actually alleviate the "first...avoid another Chernobyl and assist in ameliorating current damage). Foreign policy experts make the following observations concerning the two first

  13. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    presentations.Objectives: .Methods: .Results: Educational Policy and Environment and Sustainability Part 1: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Policy Research (90 minutes)Paper 1 - How might critical policy sociology inform policy analysis and enactment in environmental and sustainability education......Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...

  14. The Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    E M B E R 1 8 , 2 0 1 3 The Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More...Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Health Care Joint Venture at Tripler Army Medical Center Needs More Management Oversight Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the

  15. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  16. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  17. Fiscal policy and the global financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

     The financial crisis raises demands for fiscal policy interventions. While a fall in aggregate demand is an important consequence of the crisis, it also reflects more underlying structural problems and changes. Hence, appropriate policy designs have to take account of the nature of the crisis......-run objectives are discussed. Past experience shows that deep recessions become persistent due to marginalization of unemployed, and therefore labour market policies have to be considered as an integral part of policy packages. Finally the question of international policy coordination is addressed....

  18. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  19. U.S. Cybersecurity Defense Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Computer Network Defense ( CND ) actions to include “protecting, monitoring, analyzing, detecting, and responding to unauthorized activity within...such as computer network defense ( CND ), computer network exploitation (CNE), and computer network attack (CNA).38 In this capacity, the institution

  20. Takedown Defenses of Russian Systema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Secours

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing popularity of mixed martial arts (MMA events has motivated many martial artists to cross train in grappling disciplines. While largely beneficial for the arts as a whole, many practitioners have nevertheless integrated grappling strategies without considering whether or not their applications are simply sportive or appropriate for self-defense tactics. In this article, I will examine some historical perspectives on the role of grappling on the battlefield from published literature and consider the evidence left to us through historical texts and artwork. Based on over 20 years experience in the grappling arts, I will attempt to show that ground fighting and grappling are necessary components of a complete tactical arsenal, while carefully illustrating the difference in street tactics. I will place specific emphasis on the role of defending the takedown in a modern survival scenario, giving particular attention to the approach employed by the Russian art of Systema.