Deep-lying hole states in the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.
1982-01-01
The strength function for deep-lying hole states in an optical potential is studied by the method of Green's functions. The role of isospin is emphasized. It is shown that, while the main trends of the experimental data on hole states in isotopes of Sn and Pd can be described by an energy independent optical potential, intermediate structures in these data indicate the specific nuclear polarization effects have to be included. This is done by introducing doorway states of good isospin into the optical model potential. Such states consist of neutron hole plus proton core vibrations as well as more complicated excitations that are analog states of proton hole plus neutron core vibrations of the parent nuclear system. Specific calculations for 115 Sn and 103 Pd give satisfactory fits to the strength function data using optical model and doorway state parameters that are reasonable on physical grounds
Conductivity bound from dirty black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem, E-mail: bitaghsir@shahroodut.ac.ir
2016-11-10
We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiming Liao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the impact of negative bias temperature (NBT stress on the fluctuations in ID and IG for deeply scaled pMOSFETs and find that the relative high NBT stress triggers IG-RTN and ID-step. Through the analysis of the field dependence of emission constant and the carrier separation measurement, it is found that under the relative high NBT stress some traps keep charged state for very long time, as observing step-like behaviors in ID, while other traps emit charged holes to the gate side through TAT process, which originate both ID-step and ID-RTN.
Search for deeply bound pionic states in 208Pb via radiative atomic capture of negative pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raywood, K.J.; Lange, J.B.; Jones, G.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M.E.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D.; Yen, S.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, K.S.; Altman, A.; Friedman, E.; Trudel, A.
1997-01-01
A search for narrow, deeply bound pionic atom states via atomic radiative capture of negative pions in a target of 208 Pb was carried out for pion kinetic energies of 20 and 25 MeV. Although no clear signature of any such gamma ray emission could be observed in the data, fits of the gamma ray spectra between the energies of 12 and 42 MeV involving a quadratic background together with a pair of peaks (1s, 2p) whose relative intensity was taken from theory yielded an overall strength for the peaks which are consistent (to a 67% confidence level) with radiative capture whose integrated cross section is 20.0 ± 10.0 μb/sr at 90 degree for 20 MeV incident pions. A lower probability (40% confidence level) result was obtained when the fit was carried out without the peaks included, just the continuum background. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Widmann, E; Curceanu, C; Trento 2006; Trento06
2006-01-01
These are the miniproceedings of the workshop "Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results, future challenges," which was held at the European Centre for Theoretical Nuclear Physics and Related Studies (ECT*), Trento (Italy), June 19-24, 2006. The document includes a short presentation of the topics, the list of participants, and a short contribution from each speaker.
Black hole bound states and their quantization
de Boer, J.
2008-01-01
We briefly review the construction of multi-centered black hole solutions in type IIA string theory. We then discuss a decoupling limit which embeds these solutions in M-theory on AdS(3) x S-2 x CY, and discuss some aspects of their dual CFT interpretation. Finally, we consider the quantization of
Black-hole bombs and photon-mass bounds.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-09-28
Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (m(v) is black holes could further lower this bound to m(v) black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.
A search for deeply-bound kaonic nuclear states at J-PARC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakaguchi A.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The J-PARC E15 experiment will be performed to search for the simplest kaonic nuclear bound state, K− pp, by the in-ﬂight 3He(K−,n reaction. The exclusive measurement can be performed by a simultaneous measurement of the missing mass using the primary neutron and the invariant mass via the expected decay, K− pp → Λp → pπ− p. In this report, an overview of the experiment and the preparation status are presented.
Entropy bounds and the second law for black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1983-01-01
A counterexample to the entropy bound proposed by Unruh and Wald and by Page is described. The bound states that the entropy S of any system with energy E and volume V cannot exceed the entropy of an equal volume and energy of unconfined thermal radiation. The bound is found to be violated by thermal field systems whose various dimensions differ by an order of magnitude or more, the violation occurring at intermediate energies. Unruh and Wald used the bound in an argument establishing the validity of the generalized second law when a box containing some entropy is lowered to near a black hole, then opened, and withdrawn open. If the box is thin in one direction, the failure of the bound for its contents makes it appear that a violation of the second law is possible. We show that, in fact, for a thin box the buoyancy effects on which Unruh and Wald's argument relies cancel out. As a result, the second law is fulfilled despite the failure of the bound. It appears from the second law that the bound must nevertheless hold when applied to box plus contents, but a direct proof of this is still lacking. We also consider the alternative entropy bound S< or =2πER/hc (2R is the largest dimension of the system) proposed earlier. For field systems it is shown to fail at very low energies, but to be valid for complete systems (i.e., box plus confined fields). Further, we show S< or =22[ER/hc is a necessary condition for fulfillment of the second law when a thin system is dropped into a black hole (even in the face of buoyancy) in the sense that if the bound failed, the law would be violated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillitzer, A.
2001-01-01
The formation of the pionic 2p and 1s states in (d, 3 He) transfer reactions on 208 Pb and 206 Pb has been investigated at the GSI fragment separator. Due to the clear separation of the (1s) π and (2p) π peaks in the excitation energy spectrum measured in the 206 Pb(d, 3 He) reaction, stringent constraints to the pion-nucleus potential can be deduced from the binding energy and width of the (1s) π state in 205 Pb. The perspectives of an experimental study of pionic 1s states in Sn isotopes planned for the near future are discussed. (orig.)
The upper bound of radiation energy in the Myers-Perry black hole collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-01-01
We have investigated the upper bound of the radiation energy in the head-on collision of two Myers-Perry black holes. Initially, the two black holes are far away from each other, and they become one black hole after the collision. We have obtained the upper bound of the radiation energy thermodynamically allowed in the process. The upper bound of the radiation energy is obtained in general dimensions. The radiation bound depends on the alignments of rotating axes for a given initial condition due to spin-spin interaction. We have found that the collision may not be occurred for a initially ultra-spinning black hole.
CMB bounds on disk-accreting massive primordial black holes
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Calore, Francesca; Clesse, Sébastien; Kohri, Kazunori
2017-10-01
Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBH) have been recently reconsidered as a dark matter (DM) candidate after the aLIGO discovery of several binary black hole (BH) mergers with masses of tens of M⊙ . Matter accretion on such massive objects leads to the emission of high-energy photons, capable of altering the ionization and thermal history of the universe. This, in turn, affects the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Previous analyses have assumed spherical accretion. We argue that this approximation likely breaks down and that an accretion disk should form in the dark ages. Using the most up-to-date tools to compute the energy deposition in the medium, we derive constraints on the fraction of DM in PBH. Provided that disks form early on, even under conservative assumptions for accretion, these constraints exclude a monochromatic distribution of PBH with masses above ˜2 M⊙ as the dominant form of DM. The bound on the median PBH mass gets more stringent if a broad, log-normal mass function is considered. A deepened understanding of nonlinear clustering properties and BH accretion disk physics would permit an improved treatment and possibly lead to more stringent constraints.
Black hole entropy and viscosity bound in Horndeski gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Xing-Hui [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics,Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)
2015-11-25
Horndeski gravities are theories of gravity coupled to a scalar field, in which the action contains an additional non-minimal quadratic coupling of the scalar, through its first derivative, to the Einstein tensor or the analogous higher-derivative tensors coming from the variation of Gauss-Bonnet or Lovelock terms. In this paper we study the thermodynamics of the static black hole solutions in n dimensions, in the simplest case of a Horndeski coupling to the Einstein tensor. We apply the Wald formalism to calculate the entropy of the black holes, and show that there is an additional contribution over and above those that come from the standard Wald entropy formula. The extra contribution can be attributed to unusual features in the behaviour of the scalar field. We also show that a conventional regularisation to calculate the Euclidean action leads to an expression for the entropy that disagrees with the Wald results. This seems likely to be due to ambiguities in the subtraction procedure. We also calculate the viscosity in the dual CFT, and show that the viscosity/entropy ratio can violate the η/S≥1/(4π) bound for appropriate choices of the parameters.
Black hole entropy and viscosity bound in Horndeski gravity
Feng, Xing-Hui; Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.
2015-11-01
Horndeski gravities are theories of gravity coupled to a scalar field, in which the action contains an additional non-minimal quadratic coupling of the scalar, through its first derivative, to the Einstein tensor or the analogous higher-derivative tensors coming from the variation of Gauss-Bonnet or Lovelock terms. In this paper we study the thermodynamics of the static black hole solutions in n dimensions, in the simplest case of a Horndeski coupling to the Einstein tensor. We apply the Wald formalism to calculate the entropy of the black holes, and show that there is an additional contribution over and above those that come from the standard Wald entropy formula. The extra contribution can be attributed to unusual features in the behaviour of the scalar field. We also show that a conventional regularisation to calculate the Euclidean action leads to an expression for the entropy that disagrees with the Wald results. This seems likely to be due to ambiguities in the subtraction procedure. We also calculate the viscosity in the dual CFT, and show that the viscosity/entropy ratio can violate the η/S ≥ 1 /(4 π) bound for appropriate choices of the parameters.
Bounding the greybody factors for the Reissner-Nordström black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa
2013-01-01
A black hole can emit radiation called Hawking radiation. Such radiation seen by an observer outside the black hole differs from the original radiation near the horizon of the black hole by the so-called g reybody factor . In this paper, the bounds of the greybody factors for the Reissner-Nordström black holes are obtained. These bounds can be derived by using the 2 × 2 transfer matrices. It is found that the charges of black holes act as good barriers.
Universal bound on dynamical relaxation times and black-hole quasinormal ringing
Hod, Shahar
2007-03-01
From information theory and thermodynamic considerations a universal bound on the relaxation time τ of a perturbed system is inferred, τ≥ℏ/πT, where T is the system’s temperature. We show that black holes comply with the bound; in fact they may actually saturate it. Thus, when judged by their relaxation properties, black holes are the most extreme objects in nature, having the maximum relaxation rate which is allowed by quantum theory.
Evaporation of microscopic black holes in string theory and the bound on species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.; Luest, D.
2010-01-01
We address the question how string compactifications with D-branes are consistent with the black hole bound, which arises in any theory with number of particle species to which the black holes can evaporate. For the Kaluza-Klein particles, both longitudinal and transversal to the D-branes, it is relatively easy to see that the black hole bound is saturated, and the geometric relations can be understood in the language of species-counting. We next address the question of the black hole evaporation into the higher string states and discover, that contrary to the naive intuition, the exponentially growing number of Regge states does not preclude the existence of semi-classical black holes of sub-stringy size. Our analysis indicates that the effective number of string resonances to which such micro black holes evaporate is not exponentially large but is bounded by N = 1/g s 2 , which suggests the interpretation of the well-known relation between the Planck and string scales as the saturation of the black hole bound on the species number. In addition, we also discuss some other issues in D-brane compactifications with a low string scale of order TeV, such as the masses of light moduli fields. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Rotating black holes which saturate a Bogomol close-quote nyi bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Sen, A.
1996-01-01
We construct and study the electrically charged, rotating black hole solution in heterotic string theory compactified on a (10-D)-dimensional torus. This black hole is characterized by its mass, angular momentum, and a (36-2D)-dimensional electric charge vector. One of the features of this solution is that for D>5 its extremal limit saturates the Bogomol close-quote nyi bound. This is in contrast with the D=4 case where the rotating black hole solution develops a naked singularity before the Bogomol close-quote nyi bound is reached. The extremal black holes can be superposed, and by taking a periodic array in D>5, one obtains effectively four-dimensional solutions without naked singularities. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Entropy production, viscosity bounds and bumpy black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Santos, Jorge E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2016-03-24
The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, is computed in various holographic geometries that break translation invariance (but are isotropic). The shear viscosity does not have a hydrodynamic interpretation in such backgrounds, but does quantify the rate of entropy production due to a strain. Fluctuations of the metric components δg{sub xy} are massive about these backgrounds, leading to η/s<1/(4π) at all finite temperatures (even in Einstein gravity). As the temperature is taken to zero, different behaviors are possible. If translation symmetry breaking is irrelevant in the far IR, then η/s tends to a constant at T=0. This constant can be parametrically small. If the translation symmetry is broken in the far IR (which nonetheless develops emergent scale invariance), then η/s∼T{sup 2ν} as T→0, with ν≤1 in all cases we have considered. While these results violate simple bounds on η/s, we note that they are consistent with a possible bound on the rate of entropy production due to strain.
Black hole bound on the number of species and quantum gravity at CERN LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
In theories with a large number N of particle species, black hole physics imposes an upper bound on the mass of the species equal to M Planck /√(N). This bound suggests a novel solution to the hierarchy problem in which there are N≅10 32 gravitationally coupled species, for example 10 32 copies of the standard model. The black hole bound forces them to be at the weak scale, hence providing a stable hierarchy. We present various arguments, that in such theories the effective gravitational cutoff is reduced to Λ G ≅M Planck /√(N) and a new description is needed around this scale. In particular, black holes smaller than Λ G -1 are already no longer semiclassical. The nature of the completion is model dependent. One natural possibility is that Λ G is the quantum gravity scale. We provide evidence that within this type of scenarios, contrary to the standard intuition, micro-black-holes have a (slowly fading) memory of the species of origin. Consequently, the black holes produced at LHC will predominantly decay into the standard model particles, and negligibly into the other species
Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debnath, Ujjal
2016-01-01
We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.
Black hole bound on the number of species and quantum gravity at CERN LHC
Dvali, Gia
2008-01-01
In theories with a large number N of particle species, black hole physics imposes an upper bound on the mass of the species equal to M_{Planck}/\\sqrt{N}. This bound suggests a novel solution to the hierarchy problem in which there are N \\approx 10^{32} gravitationally coupled species, for example 10^{32} copies of the Standard Model. The black hole bound forces them to be at the weak scale, hence providing a stable hierarchy. We present various arguments, that in such theories the effective gravitational cutoff is reduced to \\Lambda_G \\approx M_{Planck}/\\sqrt{N} and a new description is needed around this scale. In particular black-holes smaller than \\Lambda_G^{-1} are already no longer semi-classical. The nature of the completion is model dependent. One natural possibility is that \\Lambda_G is the quantum gravity scale. We provide evidence that within this type of scenarios, contrary to the standard intuition, micro black holes have a (slowly-fading) memory of the species of origin. Consequently the black ho...
On the implications of the Bekenstein bound for black hole evaporation
Acquaviva, Giovanni; Iorio, Alfredo; Scholtz, Martin
2017-12-01
We elaborate on the possible impact of the Bekenstein bound on the unitarity of black hole evaporation. As such maximal bound on the entropy of any system may be regarded as due to the existence of entities more elementary than the ordinary ones, and since at our energy scales such fundamental degrees of freedom must organize themselves into quantum fields acting on classical spacetimes, we then propose that both, quantum fields and geometries, are emergent phenomena stemming from the same underlying dynamics. We investigate the kinematical and model independent effects of this "quasi-particle picture" on black hole evaporation within a simple toy model, that we construct. We conclude that the information associated to the quantum fields in the "phase" before the formation of the black hole is, in general, only partially recovered in the "phase" after the black hole has evaporated. This information loss is shown to be due to the entanglement between fields and geometry. Such modifications of the Page curve should be regarded as common features of any theory of quantumgravity.
Resolving the Spatial Structures of Bound Hole States in Black Phosphorus.
Qiu, Zhizhan; Fang, Hanyan; Carvalho, Alexandra; Rodin, A S; Liu, Yanpeng; Tan, Sherman J R; Telychko, Mykola; Lv, Pin; Su, Jie; Wang, Yewu; Castro Neto, A H; Lu, Jiong
2017-11-08
Understanding the local electronic properties of individual defects and dopants in black phosphorus (BP) is of great importance for both fundamental research and technological applications. Here, we employ low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (LT-STM) to probe the local electronic structures of single acceptors in BP. We demonstrate that the charge state of individual acceptors can be reversibly switched by controlling the tip-induced band bending. In addition, acceptor-related resonance features in the tunnelling spectra can be attributed to the formation of Rydberg-like bound hole states. The spatial mapping of the quantum bound states shows two distinct shapes evolving from an extended ellipse shape for the 1s ground state to a dumbbell shape for the 2p x excited state. The wave functions of bound hole states can be well-described using the hydrogen-like model with anisotropic effective mass, corroborated by our theoretical calculations. Our findings not only provide new insight into the many-body interactions around single dopants in this anisotropic two-dimensional material but also pave the way to the design of novel quantum devices.
Nonthreshold D-brane bound states and black holes with nonzero entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, M.S.; Cvetic, M.
1997-01-01
We start with Bogomol close-quote nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield- (BPS) saturated configurations of two (orthogonally) intersecting M-branes and use the electromagnetic duality or dimensional reduction along a boost, in order to obtain new p-brane bound states. In the first case the resulting configurations are interpreted as BPS-saturated nonthreshold bound states of intersecting p-branes, and in the second case as p-branes intersecting at angles and their duals. As a by-product we deduce the enhancement of supersymmetry as the angle approaches zero. We also comment on the D-brane theory describing these new bound states, and a connection between the angle and the world-volume gauge fields of the D-brane system. We use these configurations to find new embeddings of the four- and five-dimensional black holes with nonzero entropy, whose entropy now also depends on the angle and world-volume gauge fields. The corresponding D-brane configuration sheds light on the microscopic entropy of such black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror
Hod, Shahar
2016-10-01
The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over the last four decades. Previous numerical studies of this spinning black-hole bomb have revealed the interesting fact that the superradiant instability shuts down if the reflecting mirror is placed too close to the black-hole horizon. In the present study we use analytical techniques to explore the superradiant instability regime of this composed Kerr-black-hole-linearized-scalar-field-mirror system. In particular, it is proved that the lower bound rm/r+ >1/2 (√{ 1 +8M/r- } - 1) provides a necessary condition for the development of the exponentially growing superradiant instabilities in this composed physical system, where rm is the radius of the confining mirror and r± are the horizon radii of the spinning Kerr black hole. We further show that, in the linearized regime, this analytically derived lower bound on the radius of the confining mirror agrees with direct numerical computations of the superradiant instability spectrum which characterizes the spinning black-hole-mirror bomb.
The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Hod
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over the last four decades. Previous numerical studies of this spinning black-hole bomb have revealed the interesting fact that the superradiant instability shuts down if the reflecting mirror is placed too close to the black-hole horizon. In the present study we use analytical techniques to explore the superradiant instability regime of this composed Kerr-black-hole-linearized-scalar-field-mirror system. In particular, it is proved that the lower bound rmr+>12(1+8Mr−−1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the exponentially growing superradiant instabilities in this composed physical system, where rm is the radius of the confining mirror and r± are the horizon radii of the spinning Kerr black hole. We further show that, in the linearized regime, this analytically derived lower bound on the radius of the confining mirror agrees with direct numerical computations of the superradiant instability spectrum which characterizes the spinning black-hole-mirror bomb.
Deeply-bound protons in 208 Pb
van Batenburg, M. F.
2001-03-01
In this research project we use satellite measurements to infer the mean specific mass balance (Bm) of glaciers. Vatnajökull, the largest ice cap in Europe, is being used as a test-case because this ice cap has often been studied. Only one aspect of Vatnajökull has not been investigated so far, and that is the relation between its mass balance and climatological conditions. We therefore also construct a mass balance model, the results of which can be compared to the satellite images. On Vatnajökull an extensive meteorological experiment took place in the summer of 1996, and the dataset collected during this experiment can be used for validation of the model. The mass balance model is calibrated with in situ measurements. We find that the incoming longwave radiation is best modeled as a function of meteorological variables in the free atmosphere just above the relatively thin katabatic layer. Also, the ratio of changes in the 2 m temperature to changes in the free atmospheric temperature (the climate sensitivity) is smaller than 1. Horizontal precipitation gradients over Vatnajökull are large, which results in a strongly varying sensitivity to external temperature changes over the ice cap. Local climatic conditions thus highly determine the mass balance and its sensitivity. From the mass balance model we construct a Seasonal Sensitivity Characteristic (SSC) of Vatnajökull, which consists of the sensitivity of Bm to monthly perturbations in temperature and precipitation. Temperature sensitivities are high in summer and nearly zero in winter, while precipitation sensitivities are high in winter and low in summer. With the SSC we reconstruct the mass balance of Vatnajökull since 1825. The results for two Icelandic glaciers correlate very well with mass balance records that are extracted from length records with a linear inverse model. For the south of Vatnajökull we find that after 1900, the length record is well explained by temperature variations alone, while another Icelandic glacier (S¢lheimajökull) was also influenced by precipitation variations. Equilibrium Line Elevation at the end of the melting season (ELAe) is a proxy for Bm, but the Equilibrium Line (EL) is mostly not visible on AVHRR images when it is located above its position of the previous year(s). EL detection is further hindered by clouds and a gradual transition between ice and firn or snow. Consequently, detection of the ELAe on albedo images is not particularly useful for estimating Bm. Instead, we propose to study the mean albedo of the entire ice cap throughout the melting season, so that all available information about the surface albedo is taken into account. The mean net potential global radiation, which can be estimated from the mean surface albedo alone, is found to relate linearly to Bm. Like AVHRR images, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images only display the surface firn line as a distinct boundary and not the snow line (i.e. melting snow and firn have the same backscatter and albedo signatures). On the other hand, winter SAR images of Vatnajökull display sub-surface firn-ice transitions, but these do not correspond to the late summer surface firn line. Unlike albedo images, SAR images do not display inter-annual variations of the signal within the accumulation area that are clearly related to Bm and are therefore less usefull for mass balance retrieval. For the north-western part of Vatnajökull the indirect observations (satellite and modelled) correspond with the direct (in situ) observations. Only for one year the different estimates strongly diverge, probably due to a lack of satellite images and an erroneously modeled distribution of precipitation. We compute the best estimate of the mass balance of north-western Vatnajökull as the weighted mean of the individual estimates. For the part of Vatnajökull where the mass balance has not been measured, we can use the indirect methods to estimate relative variations in Bm.
Al-bound hole polarons in TiO{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stashans, Arvids, E-mail: arvids@utpl.edu.ec [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Instituto de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Bermeo, Sthefano [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Instituto de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)] [Escuela de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)
2009-09-18
Changes in the structural and electronic properties of TiO{sub 2} (anatase and rutile) due to the Al-doping are studied using a quantum-chemical approach based on the Hartree-Fock theory. The formation of hole polarons trapped at oxygen sites near the Al impurity has been discovered and their spatial configuration are discussed. The occurrence of well-localized one-center hole polarons in rutile may influence its photocatalytic activity. Optical absorption energy for this hole center is obtained, 0.4 eV, using the {Delta}SCF approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Visser, Matt
2016-01-01
Hawking radiation is the evidence for the existence of black hole. What an observer can measure through Hawking radiation is the transmission probability. In the laboratory, miniature black holes can successfully be generated. The generated black holes are, most commonly, Myers-Perry black holes. In this paper, we will derive the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for massless scalar fields of non-negative-angular-momentum modes emitted from a generated Myers-Perry black hole in six, seven, and eight dimensions. The results show that for low energy, the rigorous bounds increase with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. However, for high energy, the rigorous bounds decrease with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. When the black holes spin faster, the rigorous bounds decrease. For dimension dependence, the rigorous bounds also decrease with the increase in the number of extra dimensions. Furthermore, as comparison to the approximate transmission probability, the rigorous bound is proven to be useful.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngampitipan, Tritos, E-mail: tritos.ngampitipan@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Chandrakasem Rajabhat University, Ratchadaphisek Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Particle Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chatrabhuti, Auttakit, E-mail: dma3ac2@gmail.com [Particle Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)
2016-06-02
Hawking radiation is the evidence for the existence of black hole. What an observer can measure through Hawking radiation is the transmission probability. In the laboratory, miniature black holes can successfully be generated. The generated black holes are, most commonly, Myers-Perry black holes. In this paper, we will derive the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for massless scalar fields of non-negative-angular-momentum modes emitted from a generated Myers-Perry black hole in six, seven, and eight dimensions. The results show that for low energy, the rigorous bounds increase with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. However, for high energy, the rigorous bounds decrease with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. When the black holes spin faster, the rigorous bounds decrease. For dimension dependence, the rigorous bounds also decrease with the increase in the number of extra dimensions. Furthermore, as comparison to the approximate transmission probability, the rigorous bound is proven to be useful.
Page, Don N.
2018-01-01
In an asymptotically flat spacetime of dimension d >3 and with the Newtonian gravitational constant G , a spherical black hole of initial horizon radius rh and mass M ˜rhd -3/G has a total decay time to Hawking emission of td˜rhd -1/G ˜G2 /(d -3 )M(d -1 )/(d -3 ) which grows without bound as the radius rh and mass M are taken to infinity. However, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime with a length scale ℓ and with absorbing boundary conditions at infinity, the total Hawking decay time does not diverge as the mass and radius go to infinity but instead remains bounded by a time of the order of ℓd-1/G .
New X-ray bound on density of primordial black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: yinoue@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)
2017-10-01
We set a new upper limit on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBH) based on existing X-ray data. PBH interactions with interstellar medium should result in significant fluxes of X-ray photons, which would contribute to the observed number density of compact X-ray objects in galaxies. The data constrain PBH number density in the mass range from a few M {sub ⊙} to 2× 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}. PBH density needed to account for the origin of black holes detected by LIGO is marginally allowed.
The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Hod
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass μ and electric charge q to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner–Nordström black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the charged black-hole bomb. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality q/μ>1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound qμ>rm/r−−1rm/r+−1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability in this composed physical system (here r± are the horizon radii of the charged Reissner–Nordström black hole and rm is the radius of the confining mirror. This analytically derived lower bound on the superradiant instability regime of the composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the instability spectrum.
The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror
Hod, Shahar
2016-01-01
The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over t...
Itahashi, K.; Oyama, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Gilg, H.; Gillitzer, A.; Knülle, M.; Münch, M.; Schott, W.; Kienle, P.; Geissel, H.; Iwasa, N.; Münzenberg, G.; Hirenzaki, S.; Toki, H.; Yamazaki, T.
2000-08-01
We find a remarkable agreement of the excitation energy spectrum of the 208Pb(d,3He) reaction measured at Td=600 MeV near the π- production threshold with its theoretical prediction. Their comparison leads us to assign the distinct narrow peak observed at about 5 MeV below the threshold to the formation of bound pionic states π-⊗207Pb of the quasisubstitutional configurations (2p)π-(3p3/2,3p1/2)-1n. A small bump observed on the tail of the peak is assigned to the pionic 1s state. The binding energies (Bnl) and the widths (Γnl) of the pionic orbitals are deduced to be B2p=5.13+/-0.02 (stat)+/-0.12 (syst) MeV and Γ2p=0.43+/-0.06 (stat)+/-0.06 (syst) MeV by decomposing the experimental spectrum into the pionic 1s and 2p components. While B2p and Γ2p are determined with small ambiguity, B1s and Γ1s are strongly correlated with each other, and are affected by the relative 1s/2p cross section ratio assumed, since the 1s component is observed only as an unresolved bump. Thus, we have to allow large uncertainties 6.6 MeV
Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin
2007-03-01
We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.
A search for deeply bound kaonic nuclear states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Bhang, H.; Franklin, G.; Gomikawa, K.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Katayama, T.; Kondo, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Okada, S.; Outa, H.; Quinn, B.; Sato, M.; Shindo, M.; So, H.; Strasser, P.; Sugimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tomono, D.; Vinodkumar, A.M.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoneyama, T.
2005-01-01
We have measured proton and neutron energy spectra by means of time-of-flight (TOF) from 4 He(Kstopped-,p/n) reactions (KEK PS E471 experiment). In the proton spectrum, a clear mono-energetic peak was observed under semi-inclusive condition, which was assigned to the formation of a strange tribaryon S 0 (3115) with isospin T=1. The mass and width of the state were deduced to be 3117.7-2.0+3.8(syst.)+/-0.9(stat.) MeV/c2 and 21.6 MeV/c2, respectively, and its main decay mode was ΣNN. In the neutron spectrum, a mono-energetic peak was found as the result of a detailed analysis, which was assigned to the formation of another kind of strange tribaryon S + (3140). The mass and width of the state were deduced to be 3140.5-0.8+3.0(syst.)+/-2.3(stat.) MeV/c2 and 21.6 MeV/c2, respectively, and its main decay mode was Σ+/-NN. The isospin of the state is assigned to be 0. The results are compared with recent theoretical calculations
Shake-off of loosely bound electrons in Auger decays of Kr 2p core hole states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I.H.; Tamenori, Y.; Okada, K.; Oyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tabayashi, K.; Ibuki, T.
2005-01-01
Multicharged Kr ions have been measured using monochromatized undulator radiation combined with a coincidence technique. It has been found that a charge-state distribution of Kr ions being coincident with satellite peaks of Kr 2p 3/2 photoelectron is slightly different from that for the main line. Resonant Auger peaks for 2p -1 nl→ 1 G 4 nl transitions generated essentially Kr 4+ only, which differs from the charge-state distribution for the normal Auger peak. These findings suggest that loosely bound electrons in high Rydberg orbitals are easily shaken-off in electron emission processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.
2000-01-01
We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wald Robert M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
Hadronic final states in deeply inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhlen, M.
1995-08-01
Results on hadronic final states in deeply inelastic scattering are reviewed. They comprise jet production and its interpretation in perturbative QCD, signatures to distinguish conventional QCD dynamics from possible new features of QCD at small x, and measurements of inclusive charged particle production. Theoretical developments such as color dipole emission and instanton induced final states are reported on. (orig.)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voutier, Eric
2009-01-01
Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is the golden exclusive channel for the study of the partonic structure of hadrons, within the universal framework of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This paper presents the aim and general ideas of the DVCS experimental program off nuclei at the Jefferson Laboratory. The benefits of the study of the coherent and incoherent channels to the understanding of the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect are discussed, along with the case of nuclear targets to access neutron GPDs.
Deeply-Supervised CNN for Prostate Segmentation
Zhu, Qikui; Du, Bo; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L .; Yan, Pingkun
2017-01-01
Prostate segmentation from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images plays an important role in image guided interven- tion. However, the lack of clear boundary specifically at the apex and base, and huge variation of shape and texture between the images from different patients make the task very challenging. To overcome these problems, in this paper, we propose a deeply supervised convolutional neural network (CNN) utilizing the convolutional information to accurately segment the prostate from MR image...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Deep-hole and high-lying particle states in heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gales, S.
1985-01-01
Our present knowledge on single-particle strength functions from one nucleon transfer reactions is reviewed. Results on deeply-bound neutron hole states in the Sn and Pb region are discussed with emphasis on the investigation of a very large excitation energy range. The first measurements on the γ-decay of deeply-bound hole states in the Sn isotopes are reported. High energy neutron and proton stripping reactions are used to study the particle response function. These reactions are particularly well suited to the study of high-spin outer subshells. For the proton states, the behaviour of the 1hsub(11/2) and 1isub(13/2) strength distributions, as a function of deformation in the Sm region, is discussed. Strong transitions to high-lying neutron states are observed in the sup(112,116,118,120,122,124)Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. The empirical systematics for both proton and neutron particle strength distributions will be compared to the predictions from the quasi particle-phonon and the single-particle vibration coupling nuclear models
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattawy, M.
2015-01-01
The 4 He nucleus is of particular interest to study nuclear GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) as its partonic structure is described by only one chirally-even GPD. It is also a simple few-body system and has a high density that makes it the ideal target to investigate nuclear effects on partons. The experiment described in this thesis is JLab-E08-24, which was carried out in 2009 by the CLAS collaboration during the 'EG6' run. In this experiment, a 6 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered onto a 6 atm 4 He gaseous target. During this experiment, in addition to the CLAS detector, a Radial Time Projection Chamber (RTPC), to detect low-energy nuclear recoils, and an Inner Calorimeter (IC), to improve the detection of photons at very forward angles, were used. We carried out a full analysis on our 6 GeV dataset, showing the feasibility of measuring exclusive nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. The analysis included: the identification of the final-state particles, the DVCS event selection, the π 0 background subtraction. The beam-spin asymmetry was then extracted for both DVCS channels and compared to the ones of the free-proton DVCS reaction, and to theoretical predictions from two models. Finally, the real and the imaginary parts of the 4 He CFF (Compton Form Factor) HA have been extracted. Different levels of agreement were found between our measurements and the theoretical calculations. This thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 1, the available theoretical tools to study hadronic structure are presented, with an emphasis on the nuclear effects and GPDs. In chapter 2, the characteristics of the CLAS spectrometer are reviewed. In chapter 3, the working principle and the calibration aspects of the RTPC are discussed. In chapter 4, the identification of the final-state particles and the Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. In chapter 5, the selection of the DVCS events, the background subtraction, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feast, M.W.
1981-01-01
This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied
Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-03-01
This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
Widths of K-nuclear deeply bound states in a dynamical model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2005-01-01
Roč. 606, 3/4 (2005), s. 295-302 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1048305 Keywords : kaonic atoms * field-theory * (K) over-bar Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2005
Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David
2008-01-01
We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.
1994-01-01
A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection
Black-hole thermodynamics and Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, Kirill
2003-01-01
We use the analytic continuation procedure proposed in our earlier works to study the thermodynamics of black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions. A general black hole in 2 + 1 dimensions has g handles hidden behind h horizons. The result of the analytic continuation of a black-hole spacetime is a hyperbolic 3-manifold having the topology of a handlebody. The boundary of this handlebody is a compact Riemann surface of genus G = 2g + h - 1. Conformal moduli of this surface encode in a simple way the physical characteristics of the black hole. The moduli space of black holes of a given type (g, h) is then the Schottky space at genus G. The (logarithm of the) thermodynamic partition function of the hole is the Kaehler potential for the Weil-Peterson metric on the Schottky space. The Bekenstein bound on the black-hole entropy leads us to conjecture a new strong bound on this Kaehler potential
Meyer, B. K.
In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.
New JLab/Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Defurne, Maxime [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN/LSN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2015-08-01
New data points for unpolarized Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering cross sections have been extracted from the E00-110 experiment at Q^{2}=1.9 GeV^{2} effectively doubling the statistics available in the valence region. A careful study of systematic uncertainties has been performed.
Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural district hospital in South Africa. CB Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.3699 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
The third law of black hole mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, B.T.; Israel, W.
1980-01-01
By consideration of a simple example it is demonstrated that a third law of black hole mechanics cannot be valid unless the energy tensor of accreting matter is bounded and satisfies a positive energy condition outside apparent horizons. (orig.)
Compressibility of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
2011-01-01
Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).
Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.
1997-01-01
We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)
Climate change promotes hybridisation between deeply divergent species
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Canestrelli
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Rare hybridisations between deeply divergent animal species have been reported for decades in a wide range of taxa, but have often remained unexplained, mainly considered chance events and reported as anecdotal. Here, we combine field observations with long-term data concerning natural hybridisations, climate, land-use, and field-validated species distribution models for two deeply divergent and naturally sympatric toad species in Europe (Bufo bufo and Bufotes viridis species groups. We show that climate warming and seasonal extreme temperatures are conspiring to set the scene for these maladaptive hybridisations, by differentially affecting life-history traits of both species. Our results identify and provide evidence of an ultimate cause for such events, and reveal that the potential influence of climate change on interspecific hybridisations goes far beyond closely related species. Furthermore, climate projections suggest that the chances for these events will steadily increase in the near future.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J.P.
1998-01-01
We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.
Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G
2015-02-03
Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.
Quantum aspects of black hole entropy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramiﬁcation for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black ...
Slow relaxation of rapidly rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hod, Shahar
2008-01-01
We study analytically the relaxation phase of perturbed, rapidly rotating black holes. In particular, we derive a simple formula for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes. The formula is expressed in terms of the black hole physical parameters: ω=mΩ-i2πT BH (n+(1/2)), where T BH and Ω are the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole, and m is the azimuthal harmonic index of a corotating equatorial mode. This formula implies that the relaxation period τ∼1/ω of the black hole becomes extremely long as the extremal limit T BH →0 is approached. The analytically derived formula is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the black hole resonances. We use our results to demonstrate analytically the fact that near-extremal Kerr black holes saturate the recently proposed universal relaxation bound.
Seismic response analysis for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, W.W.H.; Chatterjee, M.; Day, S.M.
1979-01-01
One of the important aspect of the aseimic design of nuclear power plants is the evaluation of the seismic soil-structure interaction effect due to design earthquakes. The soil-structure interaction effect can initiate rocking and result in different soil motions compared to the free field motions, thus significantly affecting the structural response. Two methods are generally used to solve the seismic soil-structure interaction problems: the direct finite element method (FLUSH) and the substructure or impedance approach. This paper presents the results of the horizontal seismic soil-structure interaction analysis using the impedance aproach and the direct finite element method for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant. (orig.)
Beam-charge azimuthal asymmetry and deeply virtual Compton scattering
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.
2007-01-01
The first observation of an azimuthal cross section asymmetry with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam is reported from a study of hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, in which the HERA 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattered off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process. The interference term is sensitive to DVCS amplitudes, which provide the most direct access to generalized parton distributions.
Leptonic current structure and azimuthal asymmetry in deeply inelastic scattering
Zhang, Hong-Fei; Sun, Zhan
2017-08-01
We present a compact form of the leptonic currents for the computation of the processes involving an initial virtual boson (photon, W± , or Z0). For deeply inelastic scattering, once the azimuthal angle of the plane expanded by the initial- and final-state leptons is integrated over in the boson-proton center-of-mass frame, the azimuthal-asymmetric terms vanish, which, however, is not true when some physical quantities (such as the transverse momentum of the observed particle) are specified in the laboratory frame. The misuse of the symmetry may lead to wrong results.
ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H. NRC.
2005-01-01
Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.
1979-01-01
Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)
White holes and eternal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Stephen D H
2012-01-01
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)
Earthquake response of nuclear reactor buildings deeply embedded in soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masao, T.; Takasaki, Y.; Hirasawa, M.; Okajima, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Kawata, E.; Koori, Y.; Ochiai, S.; Shimizu, N.
1980-01-01
This paper is concerned with experimental and analytical studies to investigate dynamic behavior of deeply embedded structures such as nuclear reactor buildings. The principal points studied are as follows: (1) Examination of stiffness and radiation damping effects according to embedded depth, (2) verification for distributions of earth pressure according to embedded depth, (3) differences of response characteristics during oscillation according to embedded depth, and (4) proposal of an analytical method for seismic design. Experimental studies were performed by two ways: forced vibration test, and earthquake observation against a rigid body model embedded in soil. Three analytical procedures were performed to compare experimental results and to examine the relation between each procedure. Finally, the dynamic behavior for nuclear reactor buildings with different embedded depths were evaluated by an analytical method. (orig.)
Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amrath, D.; Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lansberg, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-07-15
We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)
Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machado, Magno V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)
2007-06-15
In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma}* p)/ Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma} p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven R. Cranmer
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.
1987-01-01
We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations
Mohri, Mehryar; Rostamizadeh, Afshin
2013-01-01
We present a brief survey of existing mistake bounds and introduce novel bounds for the Perceptron or the kernel Perceptron algorithm. Our novel bounds generalize beyond standard margin-loss type bounds, allow for any convex and Lipschitz loss function, and admit a very simple proof.
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-01-01
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.582, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, Gordon D.
2008-08-01
The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Gordon D.
2008-10-15
The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
Mechanical compaction of deeply buried sandstones of the North Sea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, Quentin J.; Casey, Martin; Clennell, M. Ben; Knipe, Robert J. [Leeds Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Leeds (United Kingdom)
1999-11-01
Sandstones experience mechanical compaction when the overburden load exceeds the compressive strength. Petrographic evidence is rarely sufficient to determine the timing of mechanical compaction. It is often assumed from indirect evidence, such as regional porosity-depth trends, that mechanical compaction is a process that occurs exclusively during shallow or intermediate burial ( < 2.5 km). However, mechanical compaction, with or without extensive grain fracturing, may also affect more deeply buried sediments. Mechanical compaction without grain fracturing may occur at depth following pervasive framework grain dissolution and/or if anomalously high porosity has been preserved due to the presence of small amounts of cement. We describe examples from the Fulmar Sandstone Formation of the Central Graben, North Sea that experienced late stage mechanical compaction following sponge spicule dissolution and microcrystalline quartz cementation. Deep burial mechanical compaction involving grain crushing may occur if the rate of grain-contact quartz dissolution and/or quartz overgrowth development cannot compete with the rate of stress increase at grain contacts. Some Rotliegendes sandstones of the Southern North Sea that have been buried to > 4.5 km offer a good example where the suppression of chemical compaction, due to the presence of grain-coating clays, resulted in pervasive grain fracturing. Mineral veins are frequently associated with sandstones that have experienced pervasive mechanical compaction during deep burial. These may reflect the sudden development of overpressure resulting from the transfer of load to the fluid during collapse of the sandstone framework. (Author)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-03-01
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
Quantum chaos and the black hole horizon
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Thanks to AdS/CFT, the analogy between black holes and thermal systems has become a practical tool, shedding light on thermalization, transport, and entanglement dynamics. Continuing in this vein, recent work has shown how chaos in the boundary CFT can be analyzed in terms of high energy scattering right on the horizon of the dual black hole. The analysis revolves around certain out-of-time-order correlation functions, which are simple diagnostics of the butterfly effect. We will review this work, along with a general bound on these functions that implies black holes are the most chaotic systems in quantum mechanics. (NB Room Change to Main Auditorium)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manna, S.; Ladola, Y.S.; Sharma, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.
2009-01-01
Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) of BARC had first time experience on production of three Depleted Uranium Metal (DUM) ingots of 76kg, 152kg and 163kg during March 1991. These ingots were produced by processing depleted uranyl nitrate solution produced at Plutonium Plant (PP), Trombay. In recent past Uranium Metal Plant (UMP), Uranium Extraction Division (UED), has been assigned to produce tonnage quantity of Deeply DUM (DDUM) from its oxide obtained from PP, PREFRE and RMP, BARC. This is required for shielding the high radioactive source of BHABHATRON Tele-cobalt machine, which is used for cancer therapy. The experience obtained in processing of various DDU oxides is being utilized for design of large scale DDU-metal plant under XIth plan project. The physico- chemical characteristics like morphology, density, flowability, reactivity, particle size distribution, which are having direct effect on reactivity of the powders of the DDU oxide powder, were studied and the shop-floor operational experience in processing of different oxide powder were obtained and recorded. During campaign trials utmost care was taken to standardized all operating conditions using the same equipment which are in use for natural uranium materials processing including safety aspects both with respect to radiological safety and industrial safety. Necessary attention and close monitoring were specially arranged and maintained for the safety aspects during the trial period. In-house developed pneumatic transport system was used for powder transfer and suitable dust arresting system was used for reduction of powder carry over
Quantum black holes: the event horizon as a fuzzy sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
2005-01-01
Modeling the event horizon of a black hole by a fuzzy sphere leads us to modify some suggestions in the literature concerning black hole mass spectra. We derive a formula for the mass spectrum of quantum black holes in terms of four integers which define the area, angular momentum, electric and magnetic charge of the black hole. Although the event horizon becomes a commutative sphere in the classical limit a vestige of the quantum theory still persists in that the event horizon stereographically projects onto the non-commutative plane. We also suggest how the classical bounds on extremal black holes might be modified in the quantum theory. (author)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-06-15
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1980-01-01
In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr
Black Holes in Supergravity: the non-BPS Branch
Gimon, Eric G; Simon, Joan; PH-TH
2008-01-01
We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.
Black holes in supergravity: the non-BPS branch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan
2007-10-25
We construct extremal, spherically symmetric black hole solutions to 4D supergravity with charge assignments that preclude BPS-saturation. In particular, we determine the ground state energy as a function of charges and moduli. We find that the mass of the non-BPS black hole remains that of a marginal bound state of four basic constituents throughout the entire moduli space and that there is always a non-zero gap above the BPS bound.
Extreme black hole with an electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Tada, T.
1996-01-01
We construct a new extreme black hole solution in a toroidally compactified heterotic string theory. The black hole saturates the Bogomol close-quote nyi bound, has zero angular momentum, but a nonzero electric dipole moment. It is obtained by starting with a higher-dimensional rotating charged black hole, and compactifying one direction in the plane of rotation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...
Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions
Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián
2018-01-01
A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
The Nonlinear Changes of Temperature Response Birefringence of Side-Hole Fiber
Wang, Ning; Fu, Jianbo; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Wang, Tao
2017-10-01
For deeply investigate the birefringence responding of side-hole fiber caused by temperature, the response performance are analyzed by finite element method and elastic-optic theory, especially the nonlinear changes. The simulation results showed that the response birefringence is linear with temperature no matter how the geometry changed, but the response sensitivity is nonlinear with geometry parameters. The hole radius and hole-core distance both have their limit value to get obvious temperature sensitivity. Large hole radius and small hole-core distance is good to get high response sensitivity. Furthermore some interesting results are discussed about the response sensitivity changed with the square value of hole-core separation angle. The sensitivity is nonlinear with the square of hole-core separation angle for temperature, which is different to pressure response sensitivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk
2008-01-01
Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g tt =g rr =0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes
Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?; erdbeben: eine gefahr fuer tiefenlager?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-03-15
This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2007-01-01
In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... when simulating reservoir conditions using outcrop chalks as models. In general deeply buried reservoir chalks show significant overgrowth as witnessed by reshaping of particles together with strengthening of particle contacts. Most outcrop chalks are moderately affected with looser inter...... has been replaced by kaolinite. These diagenetic variations are explained by higher temperatures and pressures in the deeply buried reservoir chalks....
Collins, Frank A.; Saude, Frank; Sep, Martin J.
1996-01-01
Tool designed for use in aligning holes in plates or other structural members to be joined by bolt through holes. Holes aligned without exerting forces perpendicular to planes of holes. Tool features screw-driven-wedge design similar to (but simpler than) that of some automotive exhaust-pipe-expanding tools.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1980-01-01
Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)
Deburring small intersecting holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillespie, L.K.
1980-08-01
Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (DMM), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) re...
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...
Uniqueness of bounded observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navara, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Praha (Czech Republic). Dept. of Math.
1995-09-01
By an application of a new construction technique we construct a {sigma}-orthomodular lattice with a strongly order-determining set of states and two bounded observables whose expectations are equal at each state. This answers negatively the uniqueness problem for bounded observables, formulated by S. Gudder. (orig.).
Quantum Bounded Symmetric Domains
Vaksman, L. L.
2008-01-01
This is Leonid Vaksman's monograph "Quantum bounded symmetric domains" (in Russian), preceded with an English translation of the table of contents and (a part) of the introduction. Quantum bounded symmetric domains are interesting from several points of view. In particular, they provide interesting examples for noncommutative complex analysis (i.e., the theory of subalgebras of C^*-algebars) initiated by W. Arveson.
Universality of black hole quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico
2017-01-15
By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M
2003-01-01
Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in
2016-04-10
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta
2016-01-01
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Black Hole Mergers in the Universe.
Portegies Zwart SF; McMillan
2000-01-01
Mergers of black hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates that are too low to be of observational interest. In this Letter, we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation then causes them to sink to the cluster core, where they form binaries. These black hole binaries become more tightly bound by superelastic encounters with other cluster members and are ultimately ejected from the cluster. The majority of escaping black hole binaries have orbital periods short enough and eccentricities high enough that the emission of gravitational radiation causes them to coalesce within a few billion years. We predict a black hole merger rate of about 1.6x10-7 yr-1 Mpc-3, implying gravity-wave detection rates substantially greater than the corresponding rates from neutron star mergers. For the first-generation Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-I), we expect about one detection during the first 2 years of operation. For its successor LIGO-II, the rate rises to roughly one detection per day. The uncertainties in these numbers are large. Event rates may drop by about an order of magnitude if the most massive clusters eject their black hole binaries early in their evolution.
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kinjalk Lochan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.
2006-06-26
PAPER DISCUSSES COMPUTATIONS OF SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED AND OR BURIED STIFF STRUCTURES SUCH AS THOSE APPEARING IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS OF STRUCTURES FOR ADVANCED REACTORS.
Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Sheykhi, A.
2017-01-01
Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-01-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
Star formation around supermassive black holes.
Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M
2008-08-22
The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B; Teo, Mae
2017-01-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field. (topical review)
Politzer, David
2015-01-01
The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alte...
Hayward, Sean A.
2008-01-01
This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G.
1976-01-01
Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)
Coexistence of black holes and a long-range scalar field in cosmology.
Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G
2005-04-01
The exactly solvable scalar hairy black hole model (originated from the modern high-energy theory) is proposed. It turns out that the existence of black holes is strongly correlated to global scalar field, in a sense that they mutually impose bounds upon their physical parameters like the black hole mass (lower bound) or the cosmological constant (upper bound). We consider the same model also as a cosmological one and show that it agrees with recent experimental data; additionally, it provides a unified quintessence-like description of dark energy and dark matter.
Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.
2000-01-01
Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...
Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy
Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.
2005-01-01
A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Massive Galileon positivity bounds
de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2017-09-01
The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.
Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beane, S. R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S. D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-06-11
Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.
Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion
Paik, Biplab
2018-01-01
Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Hoyer, Paul
2017-05-01
Bound state poles in the S-matrix of perturbative QED are generated by the divergence of the expansion in α . The perturbative corrections are necessarily singular when expanding around free, {O}( α ^0 ) in and out states that have no overlap with finite-sized atomic wave functions. Nevertheless, measurables such as binding energies do have well-behaved expansions in powers of α (and log α ). It is desirable to formulate the concept of "lowest order" for gauge theory bound states such that higher order corrections vanish in the α → 0 limit. This may allow to determine a lowest order term for QCD hadrons which incorporates essential features such as confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, and thus can serve as the starting point of a useful perturbative expansion. I discuss a "Born" (no loop, lowest order in \\hbar ) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. Gauss' law determines a distinct field A^0({\\varvec{x}}) for each instantaneous position of the charges. A Poincaré covariant boundary condition for the gluon field leads to a confining potential for q\\bar{q} and qqq states. In frames where the bound state is in motion the classical gauge field is obtained by a Lorentz boost of the rest frame field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Carr
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Diffusions are widely used in finance due to their tractability. Driftless diffusions are needed to describe ratios of asset prices under a martingale measure. We provide a simple example of a tractable driftless diffusion which also has a bounded state space.
Black hole quantum mechanics in the presence of species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.; Luest, D.
2013-01-01
Recently within the context of a microscopic quantum theory, the Black Hole's Quantum N-Portrait, it was shown that continuous global symmetries are compatible with quantum black hole physics. In the present paper we revise within the same framework the semi-classical black hole bound on the number of particle species N species . We show that unlike the bound on global charge, the bound on species survives in the quantum picture and gives rise to a new fundamental length-scale, L species = √(N species ) L P , beyond which the resolution of species identities is impossible. This finding nullifies the so-called species problem. This scale sets the size of the lightest quantum black hole in the theory, Planckion. A crucial difference between the gravitational and non-gravitational species emerges. For gravitational species, the lightest black holes are exactly at the scale of perturbative unitarity violation, which is a strong indication for self-UV-completion of gravity. However, non-gravitational species create a gap between the perturbative unitarity scale and the lightest black holes, which must be filled by some unitarity-restoring physics. Thus, self-UV-completion of gravity implies that the number of non-gravitational species must not exceed the gravitational ones. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, Yutaka
1995-03-01
This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
Leary, Heather; Severance, Samuel; Penuel, William R.; Quigley, David; Sumner, Tamara; Devaul, Holly
2016-01-01
This paper examines the impacts of technology (e.g., Chromebooks, Google Drive) on teacher learning and student activity in the development and implementation of a deeply digital high school biology unit. Using design-based implementation research, teachers co-designed with researchers and curriculum specialists a student-centered unit aligned to…
Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1035 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei
2016-01-01
We report on theoretical analysis and experimental validation of the applicability of the effective medium approximation to deeply subwavelength (period ⩽λ/30) all-dielectric multilayer structures. Following the theoretical prediction of the anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximati...
Quantum corrections to thermodynamics of quasitopological black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhaker Upadhyay
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Based on the modification to area-law due to thermal fluctuation at small horizon radius, we investigate the thermodynamics of charged quasitopological and charged rotating quasitopological black holes. In particular, we derive the leading-order corrections to the Gibbs free energy, charge and total mass densities. In order to analyze the behavior of the thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of small black holes, we draw a comparative analysis between the first-order corrected and original thermodynamical quantities. We also examine the stability and bound points of such black holes under effect of leading-order corrections.
On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2007-05-15
Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition.
On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter
2007-01-01
Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition
Gauss-Bonnet black holes in dS spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Guo Qi
2004-01-01
We study the thermodynamic properties associated with the black hole horizon and cosmological horizon for the Gauss-Bonnet solution in de Sitter space. When the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is positive, a locally stable small black hole appears in the case of spacetime dimension d=5, the stable small black hole disappears, and the Gauss-Bonnet black hole is always unstable quantum mechanically when d≥6. On the other hand, the cosmological horizon is found to be always locally stable independent of the spacetime dimension. But the solution is not globally preferred; instead, the pure de Sitter space is globally preferred. When the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is negative, there is a constraint on the value of the coefficient, beyond which the gravity theory is not well defined. As a result, there is not only an upper bound on the size of black hole horizon radius at which the black hole horizon and cosmological horizon coincide with each other, but also a lower bound depending on the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and spacetime dimension. Within the physical phase space, the black hole horizon is always thermodynamically unstable and the cosmological horizon is always stable; furthermore, as in the case of the positive coefficient, the pure de Sitter space is still globally preferred. This result is consistent with the argument that the pure de Sitter space corresponds to an UV fixed point of dual field theory
On the nature of black holes in loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Röken, Christian
2013-01-01
A genuine notion of black holes can only be obtained in the fundamental framework of quantum gravity resolving the curvature singularities and giving an account of the statistical mechanical, microscopic degrees of freedom able to explain the black hole thermodynamical properties. As for all quantum systems, a quantum realization of black holes requires an operator algebra of the fundamental observables of the theory which is introduced in this study based on aspects of loop quantum gravity. From the eigenvalue spectra of the quantum operators for the black hole area, charge and angular momentum, it is demonstrated that a strict bound on the extensive parameters, different from the relation arising in classical general relativity, holds, implying that the extremal black hole state can neither be measured nor can its existence be proven. This is, as turns out, a result of the specific form of the chosen angular momentum operator and the corresponding eigenvalue spectrum, or rather the quantum measurement process of angular momentum. Quantum-mechanical considerations and the lowest, non-zero eigenvalue of the loop quantum gravity black hole mass spectrum indicate, on the one hand, a physical Planck scale cutoff of the Hawking temperature law and, on the other hand, give upper and lower bounds on the numerical value of the Immirzi parameter. This analysis provides an approximative description of the behavior and the nature of quantum black holes. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay
2013-01-01
-free information) which can be used to refresh the secret key. We believe that bounded tampering is a meaningful and interesting alternative to avoid known impossibility results and can provide important insights into the security of existing standard cryptographic schemes.......Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary...
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.
1997-01-01
It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Nonextremal stringy black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, K.
1997-01-01
We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Holes help control temperature
Chhatpar, C. K.
1981-01-01
Study of passive thermal control for the Solar Terrestrial Subsatellite (STSS) has found that array of "see through" holes substantially improves performance of system. Holes in payload mounting plates allow line of sight radiative heat transfer between hot and cold ends of spacecraft and between mounting plates and ends. Temperature gradients between plates are thereby reduced, as is temperature of each plate. Holes and selected exterior paints and finishes keep payload cool for all orientations and operating modes of STSS.
INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION AND CORONAL HOLE DYNAMICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2010-01-01
We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed fields, often referred to as 'interchange' reconnection, on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent three-dimensional topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully three-dimensional MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases, we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed fields. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary and find that the field remains well connected throughout this process. Our results, therefore, provide essential support for the quasi-steady models of the open field, because in these models the open and closed flux are assumed to remain topologically distinct as the photosphere evolves. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. On the other hand, the results argue against models in which open flux is assumed to diffusively penetrate deeply inside the closed field region under a helmet streamer. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations.
O{sup -} bound small polarons in oxide materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirmer, O F [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, D-49076 Osnabrueck (Germany)
2006-11-01
Holes bound to acceptor defects in oxide crystals are often localized by lattice distortion at just one of the equivalent oxygen ligands of the defect. Such holes thus form small polarons in symmetric clusters of a few oxygen ions. An overview on mainly the optical manifestations of those clusters is given. The article is essentially divided into two parts: the first one covers the basic features of the phenomena and their explanations, exemplified by several paradigmatic defects; in the second part numerous oxide materials are presented which exhibit bound small polaron optical properties. The first part starts with summaries on the production of bound hole polarons and the identification of their structure. It is demonstrated why they show strong, wide absorption bands, usually visible, based on polaron stabilization energies of typically 1 eV. The basic absorption process is detailed with a fictitious two-well system. Clusters with four, six and twelve equivalent ions are realized in various oxide compounds. In these cases several degenerate optically excited polaron states occur, leading to characteristic final state resonance splittings. The peak energies of the absorption bands as well as the sign of the transfer energy depend on the topology of the clusters. A special section is devoted to the distinction between interpolaron and intrapolaron optical transitions. The latter are usually comparatively weak. The oxide compounds exhibiting bound hole small polaron absorptions include the alkaline earth oxides (e.g. MgO), BeO and ZnO, the perovskites BaTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}, quartz, the sillenites (e.g. Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LiNbO{sub 3}, topaz and various other materials. There are indications that the magnetic crystals NiO, doped with Li, and LaMnO{sub 3}, doped with Sr, also show optical features caused by bound hole polarons. Beyond being elementary paradigms for the properties of small polarons in general, the defect species treated
Steinberg, Peter
2008-06-01
Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli–......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravndal, F.
1978-01-01
Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...
de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.
2009-01-01
Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...
Black Hole Quantum Mechanics in the Presence of Species
Dvali, Gia; Lust, Dieter
2013-01-01
Recently within the context of a microscopic quantum theory, the Black Hole's Quantum N-Portrait, it was shown that continuous global symmetries are compatible with quantum black hole physics. In the present paper we revise within the same framework the semi-classical black hole bound on the number of particle species N_{species}. We show that unlike the bound on global charge, the bound on species survives in the quantum picture and gives rise to a new fundamental length-scale, L_{species} = sqrt{N_{species}} L_P$, beyond which the resolution of species identities is impossible. This finding nullifies the so-called species problem. This scale sets the size of the lightest quantum black hole in the theory, Planckion. A crucial difference between the gravitational and non-gravitational species emerges. For gravitational species, the lightest black holes are exactly at the scale of perturbative unitarity violation, which is a strong indication for self-UV-completion of gravity. However, non-gravitational specie...
Lifshitz topological black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, R.B.
2009-01-01
I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.
Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering on Deuterium and Neon at HERMES
Ellinghaus, F.; Shanidze, R.; Volmer, J.; collaboration, for the HERMES
2002-01-01
We report the first observation of azimuthal beam-spin asymmetries in hard electroproduction of real photons off nuclei. Attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply-virtual Compton scattering process, the asymmetry gives access to the latter at the amplitude level. This process appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access generalized parton distributions. The data presented here have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, scattering th...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...
Collisional Dynamics around Binary Black Holes in Galactic Centers
Hemsendorf, Marc; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Spurzem, Rainer
2002-12-01
We follow the sinking of two massive black holes in a spherical stellar system where the black holes become bound under the influence of dynamical friction. Once bound, the binary hardens by three-body encounters with surrounding stars. We find that the binary wanders inside the core, providing an enhanced supply of reaction partners for the hardening. The binary evolves into a highly eccentric orbit leading to coalescence well beyond a Hubble time. These are the first results from a hybrid ``self-consistent field'' (SCF) and direct Aarseth N-body integrator (NBODY6), which combines the advantages of the direct force calculation with the efficiency of the field method. The code is designed for use on parallel architectures and is therefore applicable to collisional N-body integrations with extraordinarily large particle numbers (>105). This creates the possibility of simulating the dynamics of both globular clusters with realistic collisional relaxation and stellar systems surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei.
Yu, Jingbo; Li, Zhong; Yang, Liu; Han, Yinxue
2018-04-01
The paleokarst reservoirs of the Ordovician Yingshan formation, rich in oil and gas, are deeply buried in the central Tarim Basin, northwest China. Dozens of imaging well-logs in this region reveal five typical paleokarst features, including solution vugs, solution-enlarged fractures, filled caves, unfilled caves and collapsed caves, as well as two typical paleokarst structures located in different paleotopographic sites, including paleokarst vadose and phreatic zones. For seismic data, the large wave impedance contrast between the paleocave system and the surrounding rocks leads to a strong seismic reflection, which is highlighted as a bead-like ‘bright spot’ in a seismic section. By quantitatively estimating the seismic resolution limits of deep seismic reflections, a single paleocave cannot be identified from a seismic profile, and the bead-like reflection represents an entire paleocave complex. The spectral decomposition technique was employed to depict the planar shape and semi-quantitatively measure the size of the paleocave complexes. The results indicate that the sizes of the paleokarst caves are all small, and most of the karst caves are nearly completely filled by clay and calcite. The small cave size and the effective support of cave fills for the overlying strata mean that some individual paleocaves in a paleocave complex are preserved at a burial depth of more than 6000 m. Paleotopography and faults strongly impact the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs. Well-developed paleokarst reservoirs are generally located in paleotopographic highlands and on slopes, and for a specific paleotopographic site, the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs is obviously controlled by NW-SE trending faults. The most favorable area for paleokarst development is the Tazhong No. 10 fault zone, a faulted anticline bounded by two NW-SE trending back thrusts.
Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes
Rinne, Oliver
2014-12-01
We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.
Six-dimensional localized black holes: Numerical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudoh, Hideaki
2004-01-01
To test the strong-gravity regime in Randall-Sundrum braneworlds, we consider black holes bound to a brane. In a previous paper, we studied numerical solutions of localized black holes whose horizon radii are smaller than the AdS curvature radius. In this paper, we improve the numerical method and discuss properties of the six-dimensional (6D) localized black holes whose horizon radii are larger than the AdS curvature radius. At a horizon temperature T≅1/2πl, the thermodynamics of the localized black hole undergo a transition with its character changing from a 6D Schwarzschild black hole type to a 6D black string type. The specific heat of the localized black holes is negative, and the entropy is greater than or nearly equal to that of the 6D black strings with the same thermodynamic mass. The large localized black holes show flattened horizon geometries, and the intrinsic curvature of the horizon four-geometry becomes negative near the brane. Our results indicate that the recovery mechanism of lower-dimensional Einstein gravity on the brane works even in the presence of the black holes
Entropy of localized states and black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olum, K.D.
1997-01-01
We call a state 'vacuum bounded' if every measurement performed outside a specified interior region gives the same result as in the vacuum. We compute the maximum entropy of a vacuum-bounded state with a given energy for a one-dimensional model, with the aid of numerical calculations on a lattice. The maximum entropy is larger than it would be for rigid wall boundary conditions by an amount δS, which for large energies is approx-lt(1)/(6)ln(L in T), where L in is the length of the interior region. Assuming that the state resulting from the evaporation of a black hole is similar to a vacuum-bounded state, and that the similarity between vacuum-bounded and rigid-wall-bounded problems extends from 1 to 3 dimensions, we apply these results to the black hole information paradox. Under these assumptions we conclude that large amounts of information cannot be emitted in the final explosion of a black hole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2010-01-01
We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter
2015-01-01
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Distelmaier
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods: We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results: We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions: So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
Evolution of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries
Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.
2000-10-01
Binary supermassive black holes are expected to form in galactic nuclei following galaxy mergers. We report large-scale N-body simulations using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel code NBODY6++ of the formation and evolution of such binaries. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies with ρ ~ r-2 density cusps (Cruz & Merritt, AAS Poster). Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Its exact force calculations generate faithful binary dynamics until the onset of gravity wave-dominated dissipation. We discuss the binary hardening rate, the amplitude of the binary's wandering, and the evolution of the structure of the galactic stellar nucleus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)
2017-10-15
The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Ultraspinning limits and super-entropic black holes
Hennigar, Robie A.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Musoke, Nathan
2015-06-01
By employing the new ultraspinning limit we construct novel classes of black holes with non-compact event horizons and finite horizon area and study their thermo-dynamics. Our ultraspinning limit can be understood as a simple generating technique that consists of three steps: i) transforming the known rotating AdS black hole solution to a special coordinate system that rotates (in a given 2-plane) at infinity ii) boosting this rotation to the speed of light iii) compactifying the corresponding azimuthal direction. In so doing we qualitatively change the structure of the spacetime since it is no longer pos-sible to return to a frame that does not rotate at infinity. The obtained black holes have non-compact horizons with topology of a sphere with two punctures. The entropy of some of these exceeds the maximal bound implied by the reverse isoperimetric inequality, such black holes are super-entropic.
Tensile strength and the mining of black holes.
Brown, Adam R
2013-11-22
There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This Letter looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta, and puts a severe constraint on the operation of "space elevators" near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation, and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed. As a consequence of this limitation, the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.
Bose-Einstein condensates in charged black-hole spacetimes
Castellanos, Elías; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo; Perlick, Volker
2018-01-01
We analyze Bose-Einstein condensates on three types of spherically symmetric and static charged black-hole spacetimes: the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, Hoffmann's Born-Infeld black-hole spacetime, and the regular Ayón-Beato-García spacetime. The Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled in terms of a massive scalar field that satisfies a Klein-Gordon equation with a self-interaction term. The scalar field is assumed to be uncharged and not self-gravitating. If the mass parameter of the scalar field is chosen sufficiently small, there are quasi-bound states of the scalar field that may be interpreted as dark matter clouds. We estimate the size and the total energy of such clouds around charged supermassive black holes and we investigate if their observable features can be used for discriminating between the different types of charged black holes.
Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-05-15
In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes. (orig.)
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Mainuddin
2005-01-01
A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara
2018-02-01
We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
't Hooft, G.
1987-01-01
No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabowska-Bold, I.
2004-08-01
The cross sections for deeply virtual compton scattering in the reaction ep → e'γp' has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95 pb -1 of e + p and 17 pb -1 of e - p collisions. Cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the γ * p system in the region 5 2 2 and 40 < W < 140 GeV. The obtained results are compared to QCD-based calculations. (orig.)
DISH CODE A deeply simplified hydrodynamic code for applications to warm dense matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2007-08-22
DISH is a 1-dimensional (planar) Lagrangian hydrodynamic code intended for application to experiments on warm dense matter. The code is a simplified version of the DPC code written in the Data and Planning Center of the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Japan. DPC was originally intended as a testbed for exploring equation of state and opacity models, but turned out to have a variety of applications. The Dish code is a "deeply simplified hydrodynamic" code, deliberately made as simple as possible. It is intended to be easy to understand, easy to use and easy to change.
Rotating Hayward’s regular black hole as particle accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-01-01
Recently, Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) demonstrated that the extremal Kerr black hole can act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy (E CM ) when the collision takes place near the horizon. The rotating Hayward’s regular black hole, apart from Mass (M) and angular momentum (a), has a new parameter g (g>0 is a constant) that provides a deviation from the Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that for each g, with M=1, there exist critical a E and r H E , which corresponds to a regular extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, and a E decreases whereas r H E increases with increase in g. While ahole with outer and inner horizons. We apply the BSW process to the rotating Hayward’s regular black hole, for different g, and demonstrate numerically that the E CM diverges in the vicinity of the horizon for the extremal cases thereby suggesting that a rotating regular black hole can also act as a particle accelerator and thus in turn provide a suitable framework for Plank-scale physics. For a non-extremal case, there always exist a finite upper bound for the E CM , which increases with the deviation parameter g.
Exponential fading to white of black holes in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J
2017-01-01
Quantization of the gravitational field may allow the existence of a decay channel of black holes into white holes with an explicit time-reversal symmetry. The definition of a meaningful decay probability for this channel is studied in spherically symmetric situations. As a first nontrivial calculation, we present the functional integration over a set of geometries using a single-variable function to interpolate between black-hole and white-hole geometries in a bounded region of spacetime. This computation gives a finite result which depends only on the Schwarzschild mass and a parameter measuring the width of the interpolating region. The associated probability distribution displays an exponential decay law on the latter parameter, with a mean lifetime inversely proportional to the Schwarzschild mass. In physical terms this would imply that matter collapsing to a black hole from a finite radius bounces back elastically and instantaneously, with negligible time delay as measured by external observers. These results invite to reconsider the ultimate nature of astrophysical black holes, providing a possible mechanism for the formation of black stars instead of proper general relativistic black holes. The existence of both this decay channel and black stars can be tested in future observations of gravitational waves. (paper)
``Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries in Merging Cusps''
Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.
2000-12-01
We present N-body simulations of the formation and evolution of supermassive black-hole binaries in galactic nuclei. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies containing central point masses and ρ ~ r-2 central density cusps. Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel tree code NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Immediately following the formation of a hard black-hole binary, the density cusp of the merged galaxies is nearly homologous to the cusps in the initial galaxies. However the central density decreases rapidly as the binary black hole ejects stars which pass near to it, reducing the slope of the cusp from ~ r-2 to ~ r-1. When the distance between the black holes becomes comparable to the average stellar separation in the cusp, the binary begins to wander about the center while engaging in hard encounters with stars on radial orbits that are ejected at high speed. Ejection induces further shrinking of the binary at a decreasing rate. We discuss the dynamics of black hole binaries in the limit of large N, appropriate to real galactic nuclei, and discuss the possibility that supermassive black hole binaries can survive over cosmological times.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
Transformation of Black-Hole Hair under Duality and Supersymmetry
Alvarez, Enrique; Ortín, Tomas; Alvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick; Ortin, Tomas
1997-01-01
We study the transformation under the String Theory duality group of the observable charges (mass, angular momentum, NUT charge, electric, magnetic and different scalar charges) of four dimensional point-like objects whose asymptotic behavior constitutes a subclass closed under duality. The charges fall into two complex four-dimensional representations of the duality group. T duality (including Buscher's) has an O(1,2) action on them and S duality a U(1) action. The generalized Bogomol'nyi bound is an U(2,2)-invariant built out of one representations while the other representation (which includes the angular momentum) never appears in it. The bound is manifestly duality-invariant. Consistency between T duality and supersymmetry requires that primary scalar hair is included in the Bogomol'nyi bound. Four-dimensional supersymmetric massless black holes are the T duals in time of massive supersymmetric black holes. Non-extreme massless ``black holes'' are the T duals of the non-extreme black holes and have prima...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Hanada, Kazutake; Sawada, Makoto.
1987-01-01
In order to examine aseismicity of embedded structure and to clarify embedment effect, earthquake observations of the large structure 'JOYO' are carried out which is deeply embedded in quaternary ground, and the results are summarized as follows. (1) Amplification factors of horizontal component in ground surface is about 3 to 4 times against the bedrock. Contrastively on the structure, any amplification is not observed at the underground portion, however, little amplification exists at the ground portion of structure. (2) Transfer function of structure has several predominant peaks at frequencies of 4.3 Hz and 8.0 Hz which are well coincided with values obtained from force excitation tests. It is shown that transfer function between basement and ground surface is similar to that between ground of same level to basement and ground surface, suggesting the behavior of basement to be able to estimate by these under ground earthquake motion. (3) According to earthquake motion analysis using S-R models, without regard to consider or not the side ground stiffness, the calculated response values do not so much differ in each model and mostly correspond with observation data, provided that the underground earthquake motion at same level to basement is used as a input wave. Consequently, the behavior of these deeply embedded structure is subject to setting method of input wave rather than modeling method, and it is very useful in design that the most simple model without side ground stiffness can roughly represent the embedment effect. (author)
Kinematics of current region fragmentation in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Different kinematical regions of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes correspond to different underlying partonic pictures, and it is important to understand the transition between them. We find criteria in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS) for identifying the current fragmentation region — the kinematical region where a factorization picture with fragmentation functions is appropriate, especially for studies of transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) functions. This region is distinguished from the central (soft) and target fragmentation regions. The basis of our argument is in the errors in approximations used in deriving factorization. As compared with previous work, we show that it is essential to take account of the transverse momentum of the detected hadron, and we find a much more restricted range for genuine current fragmentation. We show that it is important to develop an extended factorization formulation to treat hadronization in the central region, as well as the current and target fragmentation regions, and to obtain a unified formalism spanning all rapidities for the detected hadron.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Movsisyan, Aram
2011-05-01
Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5) 2 GeV 2 2 X 2 GeV 2 of the squared missing mass. The dependences of these asymmetries on -t, x N , or Q 2 are investigated. The results include the coherent process ed→edγ and the incoherent process ed→epnγ where in addition a nucleon may be excited to a resonance. For an unpolarized deuterium target, the leading Fourier amplitude of the beam-helicity asymmetry that is sensitive to the interference term is found to be substantial, but no significant t dependence is observed. The leading amplitude of the beam-charge asymmetry is substantial at large -t, but becomes small at small values of -t. The amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry that are sensitive to the squared DVCS term are found to be consistent with zero. The deuteron Compton form factor H 1 appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)
REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
XU, J.; HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; GRAVES, H.
2004-01-01
Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research
Yimer, Solomon A; Namouchi, Amine; Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Holm-Hansen, Carol; Norheim, Gunnstein; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham; Tønjum, Tone
2016-06-30
A deeply rooted phylogenetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) termed lineage 7 was discovered in Ethiopia. Whole genome sequencing of 30 lineage 7 strains from patients in Ethiopia was performed. Intra-lineage genome variation was defined and unique characteristics identified with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair, recombination and replication (3R genes). More than 800 mutations specific to M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strains were identified. The proportion of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 3R genes was higher after the recent expansion of M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strain started. The proportion of nsSNPs in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism was significantly higher before the expansion began. A total of 22346 bp deletions were observed. Lineage 7 strains also exhibited a high number of mutations in genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, transcription, energy production and conversion. We have identified unique genomic signatures of the lineage 7 strains. The high frequency of nsSNP in 3R genes after the phylogenetic expansion may have contributed to recent variability and adaptation. The abundance of mutations in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism before the expansion period may indicate an adaptive response of lineage 7 strains to enable survival, potentially under environmental stress exposure. As lineage 7 strains originally were phylogenetically deeply rooted, this may indicate fundamental adaptive genomic pathways affecting the fitness of M. tuberculosis as a species.
Time-Domain Sub-mm Astronomy. Measuring the Accretion Variability of Deeply Embedded Protostars.
Johnstone, Douglas
2018-01-01
During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion is expected to be variable, but this variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. We have undertaken a 3-year dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions (Herczeg et al. 2017) to search for sub-mm brightness variations as a proxy of episodic accretion. Here, we describe a sub-mm luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main (Yoo et al. 2017). The change in sub-mm brightness of EC 53 is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar. The sub-mm lightcurve resembles the historical K-band lightcurve, which varies by a factor of ˜6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. We further compare archival SCUBA-2 observations against the first year of our survey (Mairs et al. 2017) and perform a statistical analysis of the first eighteen months of the survey (Johnstone et al. 2017). We conclude that greater than 5% of the known deeply embedded protostars are found to vary in the sub-mm.
Subarcsecond resolution observations of warm water towards three deeply embedded low-mass protostars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.
2012-01-01
and shocks. In this paper we probe the mechanism regulating the warm gas-phase water abundance in the innermost hundred AU of deeply embedded (Class~0) low-mass protostars, and investigate its chemical relationship to other molecular species during these stages. Millimeter wavelength thermal emission from...... the para-H2-18O 3(1,3)-2(2,0) (Eu=203.7 K) line is imaged at high angular resolution (0.75"; 190 AU) with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer towards the deeply embedded low-mass protostars NGC 1333-IRAS2A and NGC 1333-IRAS4A. Compact H2-18O emission is detected towards IRAS2A and one of the components...... in the IRAS4A binary; in addition CH3OCH3, C2H5CN, and SO2 are detected. Extended water emission is seen towards IRAS2A, possibly associated with the outflow. The detections in all systems suggests that the presence of water on 96 %) is frozen out on dust grains at these scales. The derived abundances of CH3...
Generating primordial black holes via hilltop-type inflation models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alabidi, Laila; Kohri, Kazunori
2009-01-01
It has been shown that black holes would have formed in the early Universe if, on any given scale, the spectral amplitude of the cosmic microwave background exceeds P ζ ∼10 -4 . This value is within the bounds allowed by astrophysical phenomena for the small scale spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, corresponding to scales which exit the horizon at the end of slow-roll inflation. Previous work by Kohri et al. (2007) showed that for black holes to form from a single field model of inflation, the slope of the potential at the end of inflation must be flatter than it was at horizon exit. In this work we show that a phenomenological hilltop model of inflation, satisfying the Kohri et al. criteria, could lead to the production of black holes, if the power of the inflaton self-interaction is less than or equal to 3, with a reasonable number or e-folds. We extend our analysis to the running mass model, and confirm that this model results in the production of black holes, and by using the latest WMAP year 5 bounds on the running of the spectral index, and the black hole constraint we update the results of Leach et al. (2000) excluding more of parameter space.
Constraints from microlensing experiments on clustered primordial black holes
García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien
2018-03-01
It has recently been proposed that massive primordial black holes (PBH) could constitute all of the dark matter, providing a novel scenario of structure formation, with early reionization and a rapid growth of the massive black holes at the center of galaxies and dark matter halos. The scenario arises from broad peaks in the primordial power spectrum that give both a spatially clustered and an extended mass distribution of PBH. The constraints from the observed microlensing events on the extended mass function have already been addressed. Here we study the impact of spatial clustering on the microlensing constraints. We find that the bounds can be relaxed significantly for relatively broad mass distributions if the number of primordial black holes within each cluster is typically above one hundred. On the other hand, even if they arise from individual black holes within the cluster, the bounds from CMB anisotropies are less stringent due to the enhanced black hole velocity in such dense clusters. This way, the window between a few and ten solar masses has opened up for PBH to comprise the totality of the dark matter.
Non-linear Q-clouds around Kerr black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Herdeiro
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Q-balls are regular extended ‘objects’ that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. We focus on a complex massive scalar field with quartic plus hexic self-interactions. Without the self-interactions, linear clouds have been shown to exist, in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon, along 1-dimensional subspaces – existence lines – of the Kerr 2-dimensional parameter space. They are zero modes of the superradiant instability. Non-linear Q-clouds, on the other hand, are also in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon; but they exist on a 2-dimensional subspace, delimited by a minimal horizon angular velocity and by an appropriate existence line, wherein the non-linear terms become irrelevant and the Q-cloud reduces to a linear cloud. Thus, Q-clouds provide an example of scalar bound states around Kerr black holes which, generically, are not zero modes of the superradiant instability. We describe some physical properties of Q-clouds, whose backreaction leads to a new family of hairy black holes, continuously connected to the Kerr family.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geissel, H.; Gilg, H.; Gillitzer, A.
2001-06-01
We observed well separated 1s and 2p π - states in 205 Pb in the 206 Pb(d, 3 He) reaction at T d = 604.3 MeV. The binding energies and the widths determined are: B 1s = 6.768 ± 0.044 (stat) ± 0.041 (syst) MeV, Γ 1s = 0.778 -0.130 +0.150 (stat) ± 0.055 (syst) MeV, B 2p = 5.110 ± 0.015 (stat) ± 0.042 (syst) MeV, and Γ 2p = 0.371 ± 0.037 (stat) ± 0.048 (syst) MeV. They are used to deduce the real and imaginary strengths of the s-wave part of the pion-nucleus interaction, yielding 26.1 -1.5 +1.7 MeV as a pion mass shift in the center of 205 Pb. (orig.)
Geissel, H.; Gilg, H.; Gillitzer, A.; Hayano, R. S.; Hirenzaki, S.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Münch, M.; Münzenberg, G.; Schott, W.; Suzuki, K.; Tomono, D.; Weick, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoneyama, T.
2002-03-01
We observed well-separated 1s and 2p π- states in 205Pb in the 206Pb(d,3He) reaction at Td = 604.3 MeV. The binding energies and the widths determined are B1s = 6.762+/-0.061 MeV, Γ1s = 0.764+0.171-0.154 MeV, B2p = 5.110+/-0.045 MeV, and Γ2p = 0.321+0.060-0.062 MeV. They are used to deduce the real and imaginary strengths of the s-wave part of the pion-nucleus interaction, which translates into a positive mass shift of π- in 205Pb.
Kucera, Antonin; Slaman, Theodore A.
2007-01-01
We show that there is a low T-upper bound for the class of K-trivial sets, namely those which are weak from the point of view of algorithmic randomness. This result is a special case of a more general characterization of ideals in Δ02 T-degrees for which there is a low T-upper bound.
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Tight bounds for break minimization
Brouwer, Andries E.; Post, Gerhard F.; Woeginger, Gerhard
We consider round-robin sports tournaments with n teams and n − 1 rounds. We construct an infinite family of opponent schedules for which every home-away assignment induces at least 1/4 n(n−2) breaks. This construction establishes a matching lower bound for a corresponding upper bound from the
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...
Metabolism of organically bound tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, C.C.
1984-01-01
The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables
Black holes, bandwidths and Beethoven
Kempf, Achim
2000-04-01
It is usually believed that a function φ(t) whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component ωmax. This is, in fact, not the case, as Aharonov, Berry, and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counterexamples, so-called superoscillations. It has been claimed that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with a 1 Hz bandwidth. Bandlimited functions also occur as ultraviolet regularized fields. Their superoscillations have been suggested, for example, to resolve the trans-Planckian frequencies problem of black hole radiation. Here, we give an exact proof for generic superoscillations. Namely, we show that for every fixed bandwidth there exist functions that pass through any finite number of arbitrarily prespecified points. Further, we show that, in spite of the presence of superoscillations, the behavior of bandlimited functions can be characterized reliably, namely through an uncertainty relation: The standard deviation ΔT of samples φ(tn) taken at the Nyquist rate obeys ΔT>=1/4ωmax. This uncertainty relation generalizes to variable bandwidths. For ultraviolet regularized fields we identify the bandwidth as the in general spatially variable finite local density of degrees of freedom.
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio
2018-01-01
The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics
Punsly, Brian
2008-01-01
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-01-01
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin
2015-02-01
A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Hawking, Stephen W.
1995-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.
Growth of Primordial Black Holes
Harada, Tomohiro
Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
2010-01-01
around each other in a diabolic waltz, with a period of about 32 hours. The astronomers also found that the black hole is stripping matter away from the star as they orbit each other. "This is indeed a very 'intimate' couple," notes collaborator Robin Barnard. "How such a tightly bound system has been formed is still a mystery." Only one other system of this type has previously been seen, but other systems comprising a black hole and a companion star are not unknown to astronomers. Based on these systems, the astronomers see a connection between black hole mass and galactic chemistry. "We have noticed that the most massive black holes tend to be found in smaller galaxies that contain less 'heavy' chemical elements," says Crowther [2]. "Bigger galaxies that are richer in heavy elements, such as the Milky Way, only succeed in producing black holes with smaller masses." Astronomers believe that a higher concentration of heavy chemical elements influences how a massive star evolves, increasing how much matter it sheds, resulting in a smaller black hole when the remnant finally collapses. In less than a million years, it will be the Wolf-Rayet star's turn to go supernova and become a black hole. "If the system survives this second explosion, the two black holes will merge, emitting copious amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves as they combine [3]," concludes Crowther. However, it will take some few billion years until the actual merger, far longer than human timescales. "Our study does however show that such systems might exist, and those that have already evolved into a binary black hole might be detected by probes of gravitational waves, such as LIGO or Virgo [4]." Notes [1] Stellar-mass black holes are the extremely dense, final remnants of the collapse of very massive stars. These black holes have masses up to around twenty times the mass of the Sun, as opposed to supermassive black holes, found in the centre of most galaxies, which can weigh a million to a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiaschetti, Valeria; Crusco, Sonia; Meschini, Alessandro; Cama, Valentina; Di Vito, Livio; Marziali, Massimiliano; Piccione, Emilio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Simonetti, Giovanni
2012-01-01
Objectives: To prospectively investigate diagnostic value and tolerability of MRI after intra-vaginal gel opacification for diagnosis and preoperative assessment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Methods: Sixty-three women with clinical suspicion of deeply infiltrating endometriosis were previously examined with trans-vaginal ultrasonography and then with MRI pre and post administration of vaginal gel. We evaluated the tolerability of this procedure with a scoring scale from 0 to 3. We also assessed with a score from 1 to 4 the visibility of four regions: Douglas-pouch, utero-sacral-ligaments, posterior-vaginal-fornix and recto-vaginal-septum. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery after MRI. Results: Five patients considered procedure intolerable. Visibility of utero-sacral-ligaments and posterior-vaginal-fornix showed to be increased with gel (p < 0.001). In 57 out of 80 patients the MRI has allowed us to diagnose deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Overall, the percentages of MRI-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respectively 67.8%, 95.3%, 89.4 and 83.5% without gel, and 90.8%, 94.6%, 90.8% and 94.6% with gel; trans-vaginal ultrasonography sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 57.5%, 96.6%, 90.9% and 79.5%. In evaluation of utero-sacral-ligaments trans-vaginal ultrasonography, MRI without gel and with gel sensitivity was respectively 61.9%, 47.6% and 81%; for recto-vaginal-septum these values were 12.5%, 68.7% and 93.7%; for pouch of Douglas 82%, 87% and 97.4%; finally for posterior-vaginal-fornix 27.3%, 36.4% and 81.8%. Conclusions: MRI with gel opacification of vagina should be recommended for suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis, in particular for the added value in evaluation of recto-vaginal septum, utero-sacral ligaments and posterior vaginal fornix.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiaschetti, Valeria; Crusco, Sonia [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Meschini, Alessandro, E-mail: a.mesko@libero.it [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Cama, Valentina; Di Vito, Livio [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Marziali, Massimiliano; Piccione, Emilio [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy)
2012-11-15
Objectives: To prospectively investigate diagnostic value and tolerability of MRI after intra-vaginal gel opacification for diagnosis and preoperative assessment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Methods: Sixty-three women with clinical suspicion of deeply infiltrating endometriosis were previously examined with trans-vaginal ultrasonography and then with MRI pre and post administration of vaginal gel. We evaluated the tolerability of this procedure with a scoring scale from 0 to 3. We also assessed with a score from 1 to 4 the visibility of four regions: Douglas-pouch, utero-sacral-ligaments, posterior-vaginal-fornix and recto-vaginal-septum. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery after MRI. Results: Five patients considered procedure intolerable. Visibility of utero-sacral-ligaments and posterior-vaginal-fornix showed to be increased with gel (p < 0.001). In 57 out of 80 patients the MRI has allowed us to diagnose deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Overall, the percentages of MRI-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respectively 67.8%, 95.3%, 89.4 and 83.5% without gel, and 90.8%, 94.6%, 90.8% and 94.6% with gel; trans-vaginal ultrasonography sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 57.5%, 96.6%, 90.9% and 79.5%. In evaluation of utero-sacral-ligaments trans-vaginal ultrasonography, MRI without gel and with gel sensitivity was respectively 61.9%, 47.6% and 81%; for recto-vaginal-septum these values were 12.5%, 68.7% and 93.7%; for pouch of Douglas 82%, 87% and 97.4%; finally for posterior-vaginal-fornix 27.3%, 36.4% and 81.8%. Conclusions: MRI with gel opacification of vagina should be recommended for suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis, in particular for the added value in evaluation of recto-vaginal septum, utero-sacral ligaments and posterior vaginal fornix.
Noether charge, black hole volume, and complexity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couch, Josiah; Fischler, Willy; Nguyen, Phuc H. [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, TX 78712-1192 (United States)
2017-03-23
In this paper, we study the physical significance of the thermodynamic volumes of AdS black holes using the Noether charge formalism of Iyer and Wald. After applying this formalism to study the extended thermodynamics of a few examples, we discuss how the extended thermodynamics interacts with the recent complexity = action proposal of Brown et al. (CA-duality). We, in particular, discover that their proposal for the late time rate of change of complexity has a nice decomposition in terms of thermodynamic quantities reminiscent of the Smarr relation. This decomposition strongly suggests a geometric, and via CA-duality holographic, interpretation for the thermodynamic volume of an AdS black hole. We go on to discuss the role of thermodynamics in complexity = action for a number of black hole solutions, and then point out the possibility of an alternate proposal, which we dub “complexity = volume 2.0'. In this alternate proposal the complexity would be thought of as the spacetime volume of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. Finally, we provide evidence that, in certain cases, our proposal for complexity is consistent with the Lloyd bound whereas CA-duality is not.
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Study on vertical seismic response characteristics of deeply embedded reactor building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morishita, H.; Nakamura, N.; Uchiyama, S.; Fukuoka, A.; Ishizaki, M.
1993-01-01
This paper describes vertical response characteristics, especially effects of embedment, and analytical methods for seismic design of a deeply embedded reactor building. The influence of embedment on vertical response was found to be minimal by evaluating results of forced vibration tests of a reactor building model and performing simplified analyses. Subsequently, simulation analyses of the forced vibration test and actual earthquake induced response were performed using both the axisymmetric FEM model and the simplified mass and spring model. It was concluded that the analytical models taking the embedment into the consideration closely simulated the observation records, and the omission of embedment in the analyses tended to increase the predicted response which was conservative in respect an actual design consideration. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)
2012-06-15
The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep{yields}ep{gamma} events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054{+-}0.016 to -0.328{+-}0.027(stat.){+-}0.045(syst.).
Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.
Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis
2012-01-01
We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.
One-particle inclusive processes in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering
Graudenz, Dirk
1994-01-01
Abstract: The one-particle inclusive cross section in deeply inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering, expressed in terms of parton densities and fragmentation functions being differential in the invariant mass of the observed hadron and of the incoming nucleon, diverges if this invariant mass vanishes. This divergence can be traced back to the kinematical configuration where the parent parton of the observed hadron is emitted collinearly from the incoming parton of the QCD subprocess. By using the concept of ``fracture functions'', which has recently been introduced by Trentadue and Veneziano, it is possible to absorb this divergence in these new distribution functions as long as the observed hadron is not soft. This procedure allows the determination of a finite one-particle inclusive cross section in next-to-leading order QCD perturbation theory. We give details of the calculation and the explicit form of the bare fracture functions in terms of the renormalized ones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ball, B. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boettcher, H. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy)
2010-04-11
Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from an unpolarized deuterium target are measured with respect to beam helicity and charge. They appear in the distribution of these photons in the azimuthal angle phi around the virtual-photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted asymmetries are attributed to either the deeply virtual Compton scattering process or its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are compared with earlier results on the proton target. In the measured kinematic region, the beam-charge asymmetry amplitudes and the leading amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetries on an unpolarized deuteron target are compatible with the results from unpolarized protons.
Radial confinement of deeply trapped particles in a non-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium
Sengupta, Wrick; Weitzner, Harold
2018-02-01
Quasisymmetry and omnigeneity of an equilibrium magnetic field are two distinct properties proposed to ensure radial localization of collisionless trapped particles in any stellarator. These constraints are incompletely explored, but have stringent restrictions on a magnetic geometry. This work employs an analytical approach to understand the implications of the constraints. The particles move in an intrinsically three dimensional equilibrium whose representation is given by the earlier work of Weitzner and its extension here. For deeply trapped particles, a local equilibrium expansion around a minimum of the magnetic field strength along a magnetic line suffices. This analytical non-symmetric equilibrium solution enables explicit representation of the constraints. The results show that it is far easier to satisfy the omnigeneity condition than the quasisymmetry requirement. Correspondingly, there exists a large class of equilibrium close to quasisymmetry that remains omnigeneous while allowing inclusion of error fields, which may destroy quasisymmetry.
Jet shapes in charm photoproduction and deeply inelastic scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grell, Brian Rosenvold
2010-09-15
This analysis investigates charm production processes in photoproduction and deeply inelastic scattering. The analysed data was collected with the H1 detector at the HERA accelerator in the years 1999-2000 for photoproduction and 2004-2007 for deeply inelastic scattering, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 83 pb{sup -1}, respectively 348 pb{sup -1}. Dijet events are selected with jet transverse momenta of at least 5 GeV, respectively 4 GeV, in the central rapidity region. One jet is tagged by a D{sup *} meson to be initiated by a charm quark. The other is studied with respect to its mean integrated jet shape in order to deduce to which fraction it is initiated by a quark or a gluon. The jet shape is described by the fraction {psi}(r) of the jet energy inside a cone of radius r around the jet axis; it is found that for r=0:6, {psi}(r) is most sensitive to differences between charm and light quark or gluon jets. The shape is measured as a function of various kinematic variables such as the jet energy and pseudorapidity, photon virtuality and x{sub {gamma}}{sup obs}, the fraction of the photon momentum entering the hard interaction. The photoproduction data is compared to Pythia, the DIS data to RapGap Monte Carlo simulations. In the Monte Carlo calculation, direct and resolved photon processes are simulated separately to compare samples with an enriched fraction of quark, respectively gluon initiated jets. Deviations at low x{sub {gamma}}{sup obs} are observed for higher values of Q{sup 2}, where direct and resolved expectations are nearly identical, hinting at an overestimation of gluon initiated jets. In most regions of phase space though, the resolution of the measurement excels the difference between direct and resolved predictions, allowing a distinction of such event samples. (orig.)
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Movsisyan, Aram
2011-05-15
Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}
Lengger, Sabine K; Hopmans, Ellen C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan
2014-05-01
Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids are part of the cellular membranes of Thaumarchaeota, an archaeal phylum composed of aerobic ammonia oxidizers, and are used in the paleotemperature proxy TEX86 . GDGTs in live cells possess polar head groups and are called intact polar lipids (IPL-GDGTs). Their transformation to core lipids (CL) by cleavage of the head group was assumed to proceed rapidly after cell death, but it has been suggested that some of these IPL-GDGTs can, just like the CL-GDGTs, be preserved over geological timescales. Here, we examined IPL-GDGTs in deeply buried (0.2-186 mbsf, ~2.5 Myr) sediments from the Peru Margin. Direct measurements of the most abundant IPL-GDGT, IPL-crenarchaeol, specific for Thaumarchaeota, revealed depth profiles, which differed per head group. Shallow sediments (1 m) marine sediments, which only reported glycosidic and no phosphate-containing IPL-GDGTs. TEX86 values of CL-GDGTs did not markedly change with depth, and the TEX86 of IPL-derived GDGTs decreased only when the proportions of monohexose- to dihexose-GDGTs changed, likely due to the enhanced preservation of the monohexose GDGTs. Our results support the hypothesis that in situ GDGT production and differential IPL degradation in sediments is not substantially affecting TEX86 paleotemperature estimations based on CL-GDGTs and indicates that likely only a small amount of IPL-GDGTs present in deeply buried sediments is part of cell membranes of active archaea. The amount of archaeal biomass in the deep biosphere based on these IPLs may have been substantially overestimated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi
2013-01-01
Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. - Highlights: • We visualized subsurface features buried in soft matrix, and investigated its imaging mechanism. • AFM techniques; UAFM, FMM, HFM and 2nd-harmonic UAFM were applied to elucidate the mechanism. • Au nanoparticles buried under 960 nm from surface were visualized, which has never been achieved. • Imaging at contact resonance using a cantilever of suitable stiffness is important. • Subsurface features in a soft matrix affect surface viscoelasticity, which are detected by AFM
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.
2007-01-01
Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.
2011-01-01
An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.
Borsten, L.
2011-07-01
An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanish, L F; McKnight, D M; Bagshaw, E A; Tranter, M; Fountain, A G
2013-01-01
Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze–thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition. (letter)
On functions of bounded semivariation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes
2015-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-276 ISSN 0147-1937 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : semivariation * functions of bounded variation * regulated functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://projecteuclid.org/euclid. rae /1491271216
Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...
Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderfer, M.
1982-01-01
Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
most sensitive scientific instrument ever ... sion, expelling a lot of the mass, but leaving behind a black hole that is at least ... hole, and indeed such a phenomenon may explain the disappear- ance of a star in the galaxy N6946 [21]. The collapse of stars into black holes might account for some of the extraordinarily powerful ...
Warped products and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Soon-Tae
2005-01-01
We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes
Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime
Kohler, Susanna
2017-08-01
When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then
Collisions in black-hole ergospheres and the Penrose process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.; Shaham, J.
1978-01-01
Some of the collision processes that occur deep in the ergosphere of fastly rotating black holes with a less than or equal to M are described. This is mainly in the region which is inside of the marginally stable circular orbit and outside of the marginally bound circular orbit. The general formalism needed to discuss the four-body Penrose process is given and some examples of possible astrophysical relevance are discussed. (C.F.)
BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2012-04-20
We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.
Stability analysis of f(R)-AdS black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Taeyoon; Son, Edwin J. [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Space-time, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Yun Soo [Inje University, Institute of Basic Sciences and School of Computer Aided Science, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-15
We study the stability of the f(R)-AdS (Schwarzschild-AdS) black hole obtained from f(R) gravity. In order to resolve the difficulty of solving fourth-order linearized equations, we transform f(R) gravity into scalar-tensor theory by introducing two auxiliary scalars. In this case, the linearized curvature scalar becomes a dynamical scalaron, showing that all linearized equations are second order. Using the positivity of gravitational potentials and S-deformed technique allows us to guarantee the stability of f(R)-AdS black hole if the scalaron mass squared satisfies the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. This is confirmed by computing quasinormal frequencies of the scalaron for the f(R)-AdS black hole. (orig.)
The Distribution and Annihilation of Dark Matter Around Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2015-01-01
We use a Monte Carlo code to calculate the geodesic orbits of test particles around Kerr black holes, generating a distribution function of both bound and unbound populations of dark matter (DM) particles. From this distribution function, we calculate annihilation rates and observable gamma-ray spectra for a few simple DM models. The features of these spectra are sensitive to the black hole spin, observer inclination, and detailed properties of the DM annihilation cross-section and density profile. Confirming earlier analytic work, we find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the collisional Penrose process can reach efficiencies exceeding 600%, leading to a high-energy tail in the annihilation spectrum. The high particle density and large proper volume of the region immediately surrounding the horizon ensures that the observed flux from these extreme events is non-negligible.
Black hole formation and slow-roll inflation
Kohri, Kazunori; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2008-01-01
Black hole formation may occur if the spectrum of the curvature perturbation \\zeta increases strongly as the scale decreases. As no such increase is observed on cosmological scales, black hole formation requires strongly positive running n' of the spectral index n, though the running might only kick in below the `cosmological scales' probed by the CMB anisotropy and galaxy surveys. The most obvious way of producing this running is through the running mass model of slow roll inflation. We obtain a new observational bound n'<0.026 on the running provided by this model, improving an earlier result by a factor two. We also discuss black hole production in more general scenarios. We show that the usual conditions \\epsilon \\ll 1 and |\\eta| \\ll 1 are enough to derive the spectrum P_{\\zeta}(k), the introduction of higher order parameters \\xi^{2} etc. being optional.
Effective photon mass from black-hole formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slava Emelyanov
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We compute the value of effective photon mass mγ at one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010 g≲M≪1016 g spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on mγ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass me and fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime.
Statistical mechanics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.
1992-01-01
We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed
Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.
2011-01-01
We study the $f(R)$-Maxwell black hole imposed by constant curvature and its all thermodynamic quantities, which may lead to the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole by redefining Newtonian constant and charge. Further, we obtain the $f(R)$-Yang-Mills black hole imposed by constant curvature, which is related to the Einstein-Yang-Mills black hole in AdS space. Since there is no analytic black hole solution in the presence of Yang-Mills field, we obtain asymptotic solutions. Then, we confirm th...
The compressibility of rotating black holes in D-dimensions
Dolan, Brian P.
2014-02-01
Treating the cosmological constant as a pressure, in the context of black hole thermodynamics, a thermodynamic volume for the black hole can be defined as being the thermodynamic variable conjugate to the pressure, in the sense of a Legendre transform. The thermodynamic volume is explicitly calculated, as the Legendre transform of the pressure in the enthalpy, for a rotating asymptotically anti-de Sitter Myers-Perry black hole in D space-time dimensions. The volume obtained is shown to agree with previous calculations using the Smarr relation. The compressibility is calculated and shown to be non-negative and bounded. Taking the limit of zero cosmological constant, the compressibility of a rotating black hole in asymptotically flat space-times is determined and the corresponding speed of sound computed. The latter is bounded above and has an elegant expression purely in terms of the angular momenta, in the form of quartic and quadratic Casimirs of the rotation group, SO(D - 1).
The compressibility of rotating black holes in D-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P
2014-01-01
Treating the cosmological constant as a pressure, in the context of black hole thermodynamics, a thermodynamic volume for the black hole can be defined as being the thermodynamic variable conjugate to the pressure, in the sense of a Legendre transform. The thermodynamic volume is explicitly calculated, as the Legendre transform of the pressure in the enthalpy, for a rotating asymptotically anti-de Sitter Myers–Perry black hole in D space-time dimensions. The volume obtained is shown to agree with previous calculations using the Smarr relation. The compressibility is calculated and shown to be non-negative and bounded. Taking the limit of zero cosmological constant, the compressibility of a rotating black hole in asymptotically flat space-times is determined and the corresponding speed of sound computed. The latter is bounded above and has an elegant expression purely in terms of the angular momenta, in the form of quartic and quadratic Casimirs of the rotation group, SO(D − 1). (paper)
Zimmermann, Kerstin; Eells, Rebecca; Heinrich, Frank; Rintoul, Stefanie; Josey, Brian; Shekhar, Prabhanshu; Lösche, Mathias; Stern, Lawrence J
2017-10-27
Interactions between lipid bilayers and the membrane-proximal regions of membrane-associated proteins play important roles in regulating membrane protein structure and function. The T-cell antigen receptor is an assembly of eight single-pass membrane-spanning subunits on the surface of T lymphocytes that initiates cytosolic signaling cascades upon binding antigens presented by MHC-family proteins on antigen-presenting cells. Its ζ-subunit contains multiple cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs involved in signal transduction, and this subunit by itself is sufficient to couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. Interactions of the cytosolic domain of ζ (ζ cyt ) with acidic lipids have been implicated in the initiation and regulation of transmembrane signaling. ζ cyt is unstructured in solution. Interaction with acidic phospholipids induces structure, but its disposition when bound to lipid bilayers is controversial. Here, using surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflection, we characterized the interaction of ζ cyt with planar lipid bilayers containing mixtures of acidic and neutral lipids. We observed two binding modes of ζ cyt to the bilayers in dynamic equilibrium: one in which ζ cyt is peripherally associated with lipid headgroups and one in which it penetrates deeply into the bilayer. Such an equilibrium between the peripherally bound and embedded forms of ζ cyt apparently controls accessibility of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation signal transduction pathway. Our results reconcile conflicting findings of the ζ structure reported in previous studies and provide a framework for understanding how lipid interactions regulate motifs to tyrosine kinases and may regulate the T-cell antigen receptor biological activities for this cell-surface receptor system.
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
Rotating black hole and quintessence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-01-01
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)
Internal structure of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, Mirjam
2013-01-01
Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boslough, J.
1985-01-01
This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)
Deeply Virtual Compton scattering at CERN. What is the size of the proton?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joerg, Philipp
2017-04-27
Tremendous efforts have been made to understand the Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism, which led to the successful discovery of the Higgs Boson and the clarification of the origin of the mass of fundamental particles. However, it is often forgotten that the vast majority of visible matter is given by baryons, which gain most of their mass dynamically within poorly known non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics processes. The best laboratory to study the underlying mechanisms of non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics is still given by the nucleon and the central question of how the macroscopic properties of a nucleon like its mass, spin and size can be comprehensively decomposed into the microscopic description in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains still open. A major part of the COMPASS-II program is dedicated to the investigation of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), which aim for the most complete description of the partonic structure of the nucleon, comprising both, spacial and kinematic distributions. By including transverse degrees of freedom, a three dimensional picture of baryonic matter is created, which will revolutionise our understanding of what comprises 99 percent of the visible matter. GPDs are experimentally accessible via lepton-induced exclusive reactions, in particular the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). At COMPASS, those processes are investigated using a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV/c together with a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target and an open field two stage spectrometer, to detect and identify charged and neutral particles. In order to optimize the selection of exclusive reactions at those energies, the target is surrounded by a new barrel-shaped time-of-flight system, which detects the recoiling target particles. A pilot run dedicated to the measurement of Generalized Parton distributions performed in 2012 allows for detailed performance studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, Samir D
2012-01-01
The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
The Problem of Embedded Eigenvalues for the Dirac Equation in the Schwarzschild Black Hole Metric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Batic
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We use the Dirac equation in a fixed black hole background and different independent techniques to demonstrate the absence of fermionic bound states around a Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we show that no embedded eigenvalues exist which has been claimed for the case when the energy is less than the particle’s mass. We explicitly prove that the claims regarding the embedded eigenvalues can be traced back to an oversimplified approximation in the calculation. We conclude that no bound states exist regardless of the value of the mass.
Simulation bounds for system availability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tietjen, G.L.; Waller, R.A.
1976-01-01
System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed
Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan
2009-01-01
Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p T hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p T spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.
Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses of a Deeply Embedded Model Reactor – SASSI Analyses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nie J.; Braverman J.; Costantino, M.
2013-10-31
This report summarizes the SASSI analyses of a deeply embedded reactor model performed by BNL and CJC and Associates, as part of the seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) simulation capability project for the NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) Program of the Department of Energy. The SASSI analyses included three cases: 0.2 g, 0.5 g, and 0.9g, all of which refer to nominal peak accelerations at the top of the bedrock. The analyses utilized the modified subtraction method (MSM) for performing the seismic SSI evaluations. Each case consisted of two analyses: input motion in one horizontal direction (X) and input motion in the vertical direction (Z), both of which utilized the same in-column input motion. Besides providing SASSI results for use in comparison with the time domain SSI results obtained using the DIABLO computer code, this study also leads to the recognition that the frequency-domain method should be modernized so that it can better serve its mission-critical role for analysis and design of nuclear power plants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Wei; Cheng Yongde
2007-01-01
Many details concerning the interventional diagnosis and therapy of thyroid disease need to be studied deeply and carefully; for example, the thyroid applied anatomy, especially the anatomical imageology study of the thyroid arterial anastomosis involving the therapeutic effects and complications, the thyroid artery embolization treatment, presently as a substitution or the supplement therapy for the traditional classical therapy of Graves disease. There are many exploration to extend the indication scope, the therapeutic effect, embolization scope in intervention for Graves disease due to having no accurate individual quantification standard, and so on. The thyroid arterial embolization for Graves disease is to reduce the main cause of thyroxin secretion. Simultaneously, the comprehensive therapeutic effects might have possibly produce the thyroidcytic apoptosis and immune adjustments. Serious complications such as the cerebral infarction, the hyperthyroidism crisis, the hypocalcemia, the periodic paralysis, and so on commonly occured in thyroid arterial embolization. It is necessary to keep strictly the procedure rule and the indication. The mid-and long- term therapeutic effect of thyroid artery embolization for Graves disease is good, but still need more extensive and prudent research for the prospective achievement. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camsonne, A.
2005-11-01
The Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment used the 5.757 GeV polarized electron beam available at Jefferson Laboratory and ran from september until december 2004. Using the standard Hall A left high resolution spectrometer three kinematical points were taken at a fixed x b (jorken) = 0.32 value for three Q 2 values: 1.5 GeV 2 , 1.91 GeV 2 , 2.32 GeV 2 . An electromagnetic Lead Fluoride calorimeter and a proton detector scintillator array designed to work at a luminosity of 10 37 cm -2 s -1 were added to ensure the exclusivity of the DVCS reaction. In addition to the new detectors new custom electronics was used: a calorimeter trigger module which determines if an electron photon coincidence has occurred and a sampling system allowing to deal with pile-up events during the offline analysis. Finally the data from the kinematic at Q 2 = 2.32 GeV 2 and s = 5.6 GeV 2 allowed to get a preliminary result for the exclusive π 0 electroproduction on the proton. (author)
Coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off 3He and neutron generalized parton distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rinaldi Matteo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available It has been recently proposed to study coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS off 3He nuclei to access neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs. In particular, it has been shown that, in Impulse Approximation (IA and at low momentum transfer, the sum of the quark helicity conserving GPDs of 3He, H and E, is dominated by the neutron contribution. This peculiar result makes the 3He target very promising to access the neutron information. We present here the IA calculation of the spin dependent GPD H See Formula in PDF of 3He. Also for this quantity the neutron contribution is found to be the dominant one, at low momentum transfer. The known forward limit of the IA calculation of H See Formula in PDF , yielding the polarized parton distributions of 3He, is correctly recovered. The extraction of the neutron information could be anyway non trivial, so that a procedure, able to take into account the nuclear effects encoded in the IA analysis, is proposed. These calculations, essential for the evaluation of the coherent DVCS cross section asymmetries, which depend on the GPDs H,E and H See Formula in PDF , represent a crucial step for planning possible experiments at Jefferson Lab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girod, F.X.
2006-12-01
The structure of the nucleon, among the first fundamental problems in hadronic physics, is the subject of a renewed interest. The lightest baryonic state has historically been described in two complementary approaches: through elastic scattering, measuring form factors which reflect the spatial shape of charge distributions, and through deep inelastic scattering, providing access to parton distribution functions which encode the momentum content carried by the constituents. The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions unifies those approaches and provides access to new informations. The cleanest process sensitive to GPDs is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) contributing to the ep → epγ reaction. This work deals with a dedicated experiment accomplished with the CLAS detector, completed with two specific equipments: a lead tungstate calorimeter covering photon detection at small angles, and a superconducting solenoid actively shielding the electromagnetic background. The entire project is covered: from the upgrade of the experimental setup, through the update of the software, data taking and analysis, up to a first comparison of the beam spin asymmetry to model predictions. (author)
Reed, P. M.
2013-12-01
Water resources planning and management has always required the consideration of uncertainties and the associated system vulnerabilities that they may cause. Despite the long legacy of these issues, our decision support frameworks that have dominated the literature over the past 50 years have struggled with the strongly multiobjective and deeply uncertain nature of water resources systems. The term deep uncertainty (or Knightian uncertainty) refers to factors in planning that strongly shape system risks that maybe unknown and even if known there is a strong lack of consensus on their likelihoods over decadal planning horizons (population growth, financial stability, valuation of resources, ecosystem requirements, evolving water institutions, regulations, etc). In this presentation, I will propose and demonstrate the many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework for water resources management under deep uncertainty. The MORDM framework will be demonstrated using an urban water portfolio management test case. In the test case, a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley managing population and drought pressures must cost effectively maintain the reliability of its water supply by blending permanent rights to reservoir inflows with alternative strategies for purchasing water within the region's water market. The case study illustrates the significant potential pitfalls in the classic Cost-Reliability conception of the problem. Moreover, the proposed MORDM framework exploits recent advances in multiobjective search, visualization, and sensitivity analysis to better expose these pitfalls en route to identifying highly robust water planning alternatives.
Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its t-dependence at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2008-01-01
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e-p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb^-1. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma*p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. The measurements are compared to a NLO QCD calculation based on generalised parton distributions. In the context of the dipole approach, the geometric scaling property of the DVCS cross section is studied for different values of t.
Hebert, Laura B.; Montési, Laurent G. J.
2013-11-01
transport of water into the mantle has significant dynamical and geochemical implications. Dehydration of hydrous phases within the slab can introduce water into the transition zone and lower mantle, potentially hydrating nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) and impacting the viscosity and density structure of the mantle over a wide area. We present models of fluid transport and mantle hydration in the vicinity of a deeply subducting slab, focusing on the fate of water released by deep dehydration reaction in the subducted serpentinized mantle. A sharp decrease in water storage capacity across the lower boundary of the transition zone may produce "secondary dehydration" of hydrated NAM, leading to precipitation of a hydrous fluid and heterogeneous hydration of the transition zone. Rapid fluid migration relative to the solid flow field can lead to a broad region of diffuse hydration within the upper mantle wedge and the potential for localized melt regions at the top of the transition zone coincident with fluid pathways. Slower fluid migration instead implies that the fluid phase can be transported deep into the lower mantle. Water stabilized in NAM and as a free fluid can initiate upwelling within and above the transition zone. A less abrupt change in water storage capacity across the base of the transition zone leads to high NAM water contents in a channel adjacent to the slab where viscosity is reduced. However, seismic and electromagnetic observations of hydration in the transition zone are most compatible with a sudden drop of water storage capacity.
Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaron, F.D. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aktas, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)
2007-09-15
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering {gamma}{sup *}p {yields} {gamma}p using e{sup -}p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb{sup -1}. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q{sup 2} of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the {gamma}{sup *}p system in the kinematic domain 6.5
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off an unpolarised hydrogen target at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burns, Jonathan R.T.
2010-08-15
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) i.e. ep {yields} ep{gamma} is the simplest interaction that allows access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), a theoretical framework describing nucleon structure. The strong interest in GPDs results from the fact that they can be used to determine the total angular momentum of quarks inside the nucleon and provide a 3-dimensional picture of nucleon structure. The measurement of the DVCS process is facilitated by the interference with a competing interaction known as the Bethe-Heitler process which has the same nal state. DVCS information is obtained from the asymmetrical in distribution of the real photon around the azimuthal angle {phi} at HERMES. Beam charge and beam helicity asymmetries, extracted from DVCS events with an unpolarised hydrogen target recorded during the 2006-2007 and 1996-2007 data taking periods, are presented in this thesis. The asymmetry amplitudes are presented over the range of HERMES kinematic acceptance, with their dependence on kinematic variables t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} also shown and compared to a phenomenological model. (orig.)
The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulse, Charlotte van
2011-03-15
The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)
Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China.
Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin
2014-12-17
We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U-Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust.
Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias
2016-03-31
Multiple anthropogenic stressors cause worldwide amphibian declines. Among several poorly investigated causes is global pollution of aquatic ecosystems with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These substances interfere with the endocrine system and can affect the sexual development of vertebrates including amphibians. We test the susceptibility to an environmentally relevant contraceptive, the artificial estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), simultaneously in three deeply divergent systematic anuran families, a model-species, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), and two non-models, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae). Our new approach combines synchronized tadpole exposure to three EE2-concentrations (50, 500, 5,000 ng/L) in a flow-through-system and pioneers genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in non-model anurans for EDC-studies. This novel methodology reveals striking quantitative differences in genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversal in non-model vs. model species. Our findings qualify molecular sexing in EDC-analyses as requirement to identify sex reversals and state-of-the-art approaches as mandatory to detect species-specific vulnerabilities to EDCs in amphibians.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Márcia Mendonça Carneiro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Endometriosis is a chronic benign gynecologic disease that can cause pelvic pain and infertility affecting almost 10% of reproductive-age women. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE is a specific entity responsible for painful symptoms which are related to the anatomic location of the lesions. Definitive diagnosis requires surgery, and histological confirmation is advisable. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the possibility of diagnosing DIE accurately before surgery. Despite its low sensitivity and specificity, vaginal examination and evaluation of specific symptoms should not be completely omitted as a basic diagnostic tool in detecting endometriosis and planning further therapeutic interventions. Recently, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS has been reported as an excellent tool to diagnose DIE lesions in different locations (rectovaginal septum, retrocervical and paracervical areas, rectum and sigmoid, and vesical wall with good accuracy. Conclusion. There are neither sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms nor diagnostic tests for the clinical diagnosis of DIE, resulting in a great delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Digital examination, in addition to TVS, may help to gain better understanding of the anatomical extent and dimension of DIE which is of crucial importance in defining the best surgical approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Roma 1, Gruppo Sanita and Physics Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Roma (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)
2011-01-21
Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero.
Transverse Extension of Partons in the Proton probed by Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Juraskova, K.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.
2018-01-01
We report on the first measurement of exclusive single-photon muoproduction on the proton by COMPASS using 160 GeV/$c$ polarized $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ beams of the CERN SPS impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. We determine the dependence of the average of the measured $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ cross sections for deeply virtual Compton scattering on the squared four-momentum transfer $t$ from the initial to the final final proton. The slope $B$ of the $t$-dependence is fitted with a single exponential function, which yields $B=(4.3 \\ \\pm \\ 0.6_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.3}^{+ \\ 0.1}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}})\\,(\\text{GeV}/c)^{-2}$. This result can be converted into an average transverse extension of partons in the proton, $\\sqrt{\\langle r_{\\perp}^2 \\rangle} = (0.58 \\ \\pm \\ 0.04_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.02}^{+ \\ 0.01}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}}) \\text{fm}$. For this measurement, the average virtuality of the photon mediating the interaction is $\\langle Q^2 \\rangle = 1.8\\,(\\text{GeV/}c)^2$ and the average value of the Bjorken va...
Inductive and ultrasonic multi-tier interface for low-power, deeply implantable medical devices.
Sanni, Ayodele; Vilches, Antonio; Toumazou, C
2012-08-01
We report the development of a novel multi-tier interface which enables the wireless, noninvasive transfer of sufficient amounts of power as well as the collection and transmission of data from low-power, deeply implantable analog sensors. The interface consists of an inductive coupling subsystem and an ultrasonic subsystem. The designed and experimentally verified inductive subsystem ensures that 5 W of power is transferred across 10 mm of air gap between a single pair of PCB spiral coils with an efficiency of 83% using our prototype CMOS logic gate-based driver circuit. The implemented ultrasonic subsystem, based on ultrasonic PZT ceramic discs driven in their low-frequency, radial/planar-excitation mode, further ensures that 29 μW of power is delivered 70 mm deeper inside a homogenous liquid environment-with no acoustic matching layer employed-with an efficiency of 1%. Overall system power consumption is 2.3 W. The implant is intermittently powered every 800 msec; charging a capacitor which provides sufficient power for a duration of ~ 18 msec; sufficient for an implant μC operating at a frequency of 500 KHz to transmit a nibble (4 bits) of digitized sensed data.
Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forster, Manuel
2011-01-01
Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.
2013-01-01
In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...
Bound entanglement and local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr
2002-01-01
We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp
2010-01-01
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...
Statistical black-hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1975-01-01
Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole
Barausse, Enrico; Yunes, Nicolás; Chamberlain, Katie
2016-06-17
The aLIGO detection of the black-hole binary GW150914 opens a new era for probing extreme gravity. Many gravity theories predict the emission of dipole gravitational radiation by binaries. This is excluded to high accuracy in binary pulsars, but entire classes of theories predict this effect predominantly (or only) in binaries involving black holes. Joint observations of GW150914-like systems by aLIGO and eLISA will improve bounds on dipole emission from black-hole binaries by 6 orders of magnitude relative to current constraints, provided that eLISA is not dramatically descoped.
Mueller, Tim; Johlin, Eric; Grossman, Jeffrey C.
2014-03-01
Genetic programming is used to identify the structural features most strongly associated with hole traps in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon with very low crystalline volume fraction. The genetic programming algorithm reveals that hole traps are most strongly associated with local structures within the amorphous region in which a single hydrogen atom is bound to two silicon atoms (bridge bonds), near fivefold coordinated silicon (floating bonds), or where there is a particularly dense cluster of many silicon atoms. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism by which deep hole traps associated with bridge bonds may contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect.
Abundant stable gauge field hair for black holes in anti-de Sitter space.
Baxter, J E; Helbling, Marc; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2008-01-11
We present new hairy black hole solutions of SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. These black holes are described by N+1 independent parameters and have N-1 independent gauge field degrees of freedom. Solutions in which all gauge field functions have no zeros exist for all N, and for a sufficiently large (and negative) cosmological constant. At least some of these solutions are shown to be stable under classical, linear, spherically symmetric perturbations. Therefore there is no upper bound on the amount of stable gauge field hair with which a black hole in AdS can be endowed.
Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion
Barret, Chris
2000-01-01
NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.
Black holes and neutron stars in vector Galileons
Chagoya, Javier; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2017-08-01
The direct detection of gravitational waves opens new perspectives for measuring properties of gravitationally bound compact objects. It is then important to investigate black holes and neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, since they can have features that make them observationally distinguishable from their general relativity (GR) counterparts. In this work, we examine a special case of vector Galileons, a vector-tensor theory of gravity with interesting cosmological properties, which consists of a one parameter modification of the Einstein-Maxwell action. Within this theory, we study configurations describing asymptotically flat, spherically symmetric black holes and neutron stars. The set of black hole solutions in this theory is surprisingly rich, generalising results found in GR or in related scalar-tensor theories. We investigate the properties and conserved charges of black holes, using both analytical and numerical techniques, highlighting configurations that are more compact than in GR. We then study properties of neutron stars, showing how the vector profile can influence the star internal structure. Depending on properties of matter and fields inside the star, neutron stars can be more massive than in GR, and they can be even more compact than Schwarzschild black holes, making these objects observationally interesting. We also comment on possible extensions of our configurations to magnetically charged or rotating configurations.
Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83
Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.
2014-01-01
Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.
Boundary causality versus hyperbolicity for spherical black holes in Gauss–Bonnet gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Tomás; Cáceres, Elena; Keeler, Cynthia
2017-01-01
We explore the constraints boundary causality places on the allowable Gauss–Bonnet gravitational couplings in asymptotically AdS spaces, specifically considering spherical black hole solutions. We additionally consider the hyperbolicity properties of these solutions, positing that hyperbolicity-violating solutions are sick solutions whose causality properties provide no information about the theory they reside in. For both signs of the Gauss–Bonnet coupling, spherical black holes violate boundary causality at smaller absolute values of the coupling than planar black holes do. For negative coupling, as we tune the Gauss–Bonnet coupling away from zero, both spherical and planar black holes violate hyperbolicity before they violate boundary causality. For positive coupling, the only hyperbolicity-respecting spherical black holes which violate boundary causality do not do so appreciably far from the planar bound. Consequently, eliminating hyperbolicity-violating solutions means the bound on Gauss–Bonnet couplings from the boundary causality of spherical black holes is no tighter than that from planar black holes. (paper)
Boundary causality versus hyperbolicity for spherical black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Andrade, Tomás; Cáceres, Elena; Keeler, Cynthia
2017-07-01
We explore the constraints boundary causality places on the allowable Gauss-Bonnet gravitational couplings in asymptotically AdS spaces, specifically considering spherical black hole solutions. We additionally consider the hyperbolicity properties of these solutions, positing that hyperbolicity-violating solutions are sick solutions whose causality properties provide no information about the theory they reside in. For both signs of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling, spherical black holes violate boundary causality at smaller absolute values of the coupling than planar black holes do. For negative coupling, as we tune the Gauss-Bonnet coupling away from zero, both spherical and planar black holes violate hyperbolicity before they violate boundary causality. For positive coupling, the only hyperbolicity-respecting spherical black holes which violate boundary causality do not do so appreciably far from the planar bound. Consequently, eliminating hyperbolicity-violating solutions means the bound on Gauss-Bonnet couplings from the boundary causality of spherical black holes is no tighter than that from planar black holes.
Entropy Bounds and Field Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Pesci
2015-08-01
Full Text Available For general metric theories of gravity, we compare the approach that describes/derives the field equations of gravity as a thermodynamic identity with the one which looks at them from entropy bounds. The comparison is made through the consideration of the matter entropy flux across (Rindler horizons, studied by making use of the notion of a limiting thermodynamic scale l* of matter, previously introduced in the context of entropy bounds. In doing this: (i a bound for the entropy of any lump of matter with a given energy-momentum tensor Tab is considered, in terms of a quantity, which is independent of the theory of gravity that we use; this quantity is the variation of the Clausius entropy of a suitable horizon when the element of matter crosses it; (ii by making use of the equations of motion of the theory, the same quantity is then expressed as the variation of Wald’s entropy of that horizon (and this leads to a generalized form of the generalized covariant entropy bound, applicable to general diffeomorphism-invariant theories of gravity; and (iii a notion of l* for horizons, as well as an expression for it, is given.
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...
Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002 ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2016
Positivity bounds for Sivers functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques
2011-01-01
We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.
Moderate deviations for bounded subsequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Stoica
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We study Davis' series of moderate deviations probabilities for Lp-bounded sequences of random variables (p>2. A certain subseries therein is convergent for the same range of parameters as in the case of martingale difference or i.i.d. sequences.
Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."
Shoemaker, Marla K.
1986-01-01
Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)
Upward Bound: In the Beginning.
Groutt, John; Hill, Calvin
2001-01-01
Describes the early history of the Upward Bound program, including the role of President Johnson's vision, the Task Force on Poverty, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and Community Action Programs; influences on the development of the program; establishment of the program's administrative structure; pilot programs; and early problems leading to…
2004-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This approximately true-color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches). Data on the graph (Figure 1) from the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer instrument on the robotic arm of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reveal the elemental chemistry of two rocks, 'Ebenezer' and 'Clovis,' (see PIA06914) in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists found, through comparison of the rocks' chemistry, that Ebenezer and Clovis have very different compositions from the rocks on the Gusev plains.
A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Mirel Stoian
2006-12-01
Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Quantum effects in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1979-01-01
A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered
Particle creation by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1975-01-01
In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de
Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E
2009-01-01
Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.
Origin of supermassive black holes
Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.
2007-01-01
The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Destroying extremal magnetized black holes
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2017-07-01
The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Risterucci, P., E-mail: paul.risterucci@gmail.com [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Zborowski, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bertrand, D.; Torres, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Ceolin, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grenet, G. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)
2017-04-30
Highlights: • An effective approach for quantitative background analysis in HAXPES spectra of buried layer underneath complex overlayer structures is proposed. • The approach relies on using a weighted sum of inelastic scattering cross section of the pure layers. • The method is validated by the study of an advanced power transistor stack after successive annealing steps. • The depth distribution of crucial elements (Ti, Ga) is determined reliably at depths up to nearly 50 nm. - Abstract: Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard’s practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25–40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.
Hecht, J. S.; Kirshen, P. H.; Vogel, R. M.
2016-12-01
Making long-term floodplain management decisions under uncertain climate change is a major urban planning challenge of the 21stcentury. To support these efforts, we introduce a screening-level optimization model that identifies adaptation portfolios by minimizing the regrets associated with their flood-control and damage costs under different climate change trajectories that are deeply uncertain, i.e. have probabilities that cannot be specified plausibly. This mixed integer program explicitly considers the coupled damage-reduction impacts of different floodwall designs and property-scale investments (first-floor elevation, wet floodproofing of basements, permanent retreat and insurance), recommends implementation schedules, and assesses impacts to stakeholders residing in three types of homes. An application to a stylized municipality illuminates many nonlinear system dynamics stemming from large fixed capital costs, infrastructure design thresholds, and discharge-depth-damage relationships. If stakeholders tolerate mild damage, floodwalls that fully protect a community from large design events are less cost-effective than portfolios featuring both smaller floodwalls and property-scale measures. Potential losses of property tax revenue from permanent retreat motivate municipal property-tax initiatives for adaptation financing. Yet, insurance incentives for first-floor elevation may discourage locally financed floodwalls, in turn making lower-income residents more vulnerable to severe flooding. A budget constraint analysis underscores the benefits of flexible floodwall designs with low incremental expansion costs while near-optimal solutions demonstrate the scheduling flexibility of many property-scale measures. Finally, an equity analysis shows the importance of evaluating the overpayment and under-design regrets of recommended adaptation portfolios for each stakeholder and contrasts them to single-scenario model results.
CXOGBS J174954.5-294335: a new deeply eclipsing intermediate polar
Johnson, Christopher B.; Torres, M. A. P.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Heinke, C.; Maccarone, T.; Britt, C. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wevers, T.; Wu, J.
2017-04-01
We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray source CXOGBS J174954.5-294335 (hereafter, referred to as CX19). CX19 is a long period, eclipsing intermediate polar-type cataclysmic variable with broad, single-peaked Balmer and Paschen emission lines along with He II λ4686 and Bowen blend emission features. With coverage of one full and two partial eclipses and archival photometry, we determine the ephemeris for CX19 to be HJD(eclipse) = 2455691.8581(5) + 0.358704(2) × N. We also recovered the white dwarf spin period of Pspin = 503.32(3) s that gives a Pspin/Porb = 0.016(6), comparable to several confirmed, long-period intermediate polars. CX19 also shows a clear X-ray eclipse in the 0.3-8.0 keV range observed with Chandra. Two optical outbursts were observed lasting between 6 and 8 h (lower limits) reaching ˜1.3 mag in amplitude. The outbursts, both in duration and magnitude, the accretion disc-dominated spectra and hard X-ray emission are reminiscent of the intermediate polar V1223 Sgr sharing many of the same characteristics. If we assume a main-sequence companion, we estimate the donor to be an early G-type star and find a minimum distance of d ≈ 2.1 kpc and a 0.5-10.0 keV X-ray luminosity upper limit of 2.0 × 1033 erg s-1. Such an X-ray luminosity is consistent with a white dwarf accretor in a magnetic cataclysmic variable system. To date, CX19 is only the second deeply eclipsing intermediate polar with X-ray eclipses and the first that is optically accessible.
OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.
2007-01-01
A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil
Statistical Hair on Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1996-01-01
The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
On black hole horizon fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuchin, K.L.
1999-01-01
A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken
Black holes and the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Jun
2017-01-01
A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov–Melnikov–Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio–Fabbri–Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. (paper)
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S. N.
2005-03-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
How black holes saved relativity
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
Nariai black holes with quintessence
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence matter. The main objective of the paper is to show the existence of Nariai type black hole for special values of the parameters in the theory. The Nariai black hole with the quintessence has the topology $dS_2 \\times S_2$ with $dS_2$ with a different scalar curvature than what would be expected for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter degenerate black hole. Temperature and the entropy for the Schwarzschild-de ...
Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Inagaki, Fumio
2011-01-01
Subseafloor sedimentary environments harbor remarkably diverse microbial communities. However, it remains unknown if the deeply buried fossils in these sediments play ecological roles in deep microbial habitats, or whether the microbial communities inhabiting such fossils differ from those in the surrounding sediment matrix. Here we compare the community structures of subseafloor microbes in cold-water coral carbonates (Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa) and the clay matrix. Samples were obtained from the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight at Site U1317 Hole A during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. DNA was extracted from coral fossils and the surrounding sedimentary matrix at 4, 20, and 105 m below the seafloor. 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea were amplified by PCR, and a total of 213,792 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequences were analyzed. At the phylum level, dominant microbial components in both habitats consisted of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group (MCG) at all three of the depths examined. However, at the genus and/or species level (similarity threshold 97.0%), the community compositions were found to be very different, with 69-75 and 46-57% of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes not overlapping in coral fossils and the clay matrix, respectively. Species richness analysis revealed that bacterial communities were generally more diverse than archaea, and that the diversity scores of coral fossils were lower than those in sediment matrix. However, the evenness of microbial communities was not significantly different in all the samples examined. No eukaryotic DNA sequences, such as 18S rRNA genes, were obtained from the corals. The findings suggested that, even at the same or similar depths, the sedimentological characteristics of a habitat are important factors affecting microbial diversity and community structure in deep subseafloor sedimentary habitats.
Computer simulation of bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1987-01-01
The problems of simulating a one-dimensional bounded plasma system using particles in a gridded space are systematically explored and solutions to them are given. Such problems include the injection of particles at the boundaries, the solution of Poisson's equation, and the inclusion of an external circuit between the confining boundaries. A recently discovered artificial cooling effect is explained as being a side-effect of quiet injection, and its potential for causing serious but subtle errors in bounded simulation is noted. The methods described in the first part of the thesis are then applied to the simulation of an extension of the Pierce diode problem, specifically a Pierce diode modified by an external circuit between the electrodes. The results of these simulations agree to high accuracy with theory when a theory exists, and also show some interesting chaotic behavior in certain parameter regimes. The chaotic behavior is described in detail
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...
2013-03-26
...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...
Complexity Bounds for Quantum Computation
2007-06-22
iently thanin lassi al omputation, onstru tion of small ir uits whi h an arry out phase estimation, show-ing that the quantum ontent of strong...on lower bounds for omputing parity or fanout using onstant or log depth quantum ir uits, quantum simulations of lassi al ir uit elements and...lasses, su h as thresh-old and mod fun tions, and the general relationships between quantum omplexity lasses and orre-sponding lassi al lasses
Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopytin, M.
2006-08-22
As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to
Serum and peritoneal interleukin-33 levels are elevated in deeply infiltrating endometriosis.
Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel; Borderie, Didier; Streuli, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; de Ziegler, Dominique; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric; Chapron, Charles
2012-07-01
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in fibrotic disorders. We have analyzed IL-33 levels in the sera and peritoneal fluids of women with various forms of endometriosis and investigated the correlation with disease activity. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2005 and December 2010. Five hundred and ten women with histologically proven endometriosis and 132 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Blood samples and peritoneal fluids were obtained before and during surgical procedures, respectively. IL-33 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera and peritoneal fluids, and the concentrations correlated with the extent and the severity of endometriotic lesions. IL-33 was detectable in 23.1% of serum samples from all 642 women studied and 75.0% of peritoneal fluid samples studied (44 women with endometriosis and 36 controls). Serum IL-33 was higher in deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (median, 104.9 pg/ml; range, 8.0-104.9) than in endometriosis-free women (median, 61.3 pg/ml; range, 7.5-526.0; P = 0.022) or in women affected by superficial endometriosis (median, 36.8 pg/ml; range, 7.5-179.0; P Peritoneal IL-33 was higher in DIE than in endometriosis-free women (median, 642.0 pg/ml; range, 25.9-3350.6 versus median, 194.2 pg/ml; range, 12.7-1818.2, respectively; P = 0.003). We found positive correlations between serum IL-33 concentration and intensity of dysmenorrhea (r = 0.174; P = 0.028) and gastrointestinal symptoms (r = 0.199; P = 0.027), total number of DIE lesions (r = 0.224; P = 0.016) and the worst DIE lesion (r = 0.299; P endometriosis and principally in DIE. Elevated serum IL-33 is correlated with the intensity of preoperative painful symptoms, and with the extent and severity of the DIE. IL-33 may be considered as a novel cytokine involved in the
Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopytin, M.
2006-01-01
As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x B and Q 2 are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to detect the
Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saperstein, L.W.; Mishra, R.
1970-01-01
Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
was discovered in the constellation Cygnus; a bright X-ray emit- ter associated with a twin-star system, and christened Cygnus X-. 1. It has a massive star and a black hole orbiting each other. With an optical telescope it is the companion star of the black hole which is visible, which produces stellar winds blowing away from.
Black holes and quantum mechanics
t Hooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074127888
2010-01-01
After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
ATLAS simulated black hole event
Pequenão, J
2008-01-01
The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).
Drilling miniature holes, Part III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillespie, L.K.
1978-07-01
Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.
What, no black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.
1980-01-01
Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)
Magnetic fields around black holes
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Cabrera-Munguia
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.
Joyce, Geoffrey F; Zissimopoulos, Julie; Goldman, Dana P
2013-12-01
Despite its success, Medicare Part D has been widely criticized for the gap in coverage, the so-called "doughnut hole". We compare the use of prescription drugs among beneficiaries subject to the coverage gap with usage among beneficiaries who are not exposed to it. We find that the coverage gap does, indeed, disrupt the use of prescription drugs among seniors with diabetes. But the declines in usage are modest and concentrated among higher cost, brand-name medications. Demand for high cost medications such as antipsychotics, antiasthmatics, and drugs of the central nervous system decline by 8-18% in the coverage gap, while use of lower cost medications with high generic penetration such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and antidepressants decline by 3-5% after reaching the gap. More importantly, lower adherence to medications is not associated with increases in medical service use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C
2006-06-30
We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.
Testing holographic conjectures of complexity with Born-Infeld black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang [Sichuan University, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China)
2017-12-15
In this paper, we use Born-Infeld black holes to test two recent holographic conjectures of complexity, the ''Complexity = Action'' (CA) duality and ''Complexity = Volume 2.0'' (CV) duality. The complexity of a boundary state is identified with the action of the Wheeler-deWitt patch in CA duality, while this complexity is identified with the spacetime volume of the WdW patch in CV duality. In particular, we check whether the Born-Infeld black holes violate the generalized Lloyd bound: C ≤ (2)/(πℎ) [(M - QΦ) - (M - QΦ){sub gs}], where gs stands for the ground state for a given electrostatic potential. We find that the ground states are either some extremal black hole or regular spacetime with nonvanishing charges. For Born-Infeld black holes, we compute the action growth rate at the late-time limit and obtain the complexities in CA and CV dualities. Near extremality, the generalized Lloyd bound is violated in both dualities. Near the charged regular spacetime, this bound is satisfied in CV duality but violated in CA duality. When moving away from the ground state on a constant potential curve, the generalized Lloyd bound tends to be saturated from below in CA duality. (orig.)
Charge and/or spin limits for black holes at a non-commutative scale
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biplab Paik
2017-07-12
Q) and/or the total angular momentum (J) of a generalized black hole of mass M to be bounded by the condition Q2 + (J/M)2 ≤ M2, whereas the inclusion of the concept of non-commutativity in geometry leads to a much more ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubeny, V.
2005-01-12
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torn, K.
1976-01-01
Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications
Envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Serpens Molecular Cloud
Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Salverda, J. M.; Blake, G. A.
1999-01-01
Aperture-synthesis and single-dish (sub-) millimeter molecular-line and continuum observations reveal in great detail the envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects (SMM 1 = FIRS 1, SMM 2, SMM 3, SMM 4) in the densely star-forming Serpens Molecular Cloud. SMM 1, 3, and 4 show partially resolved (>2" = 800 AU) continuum emission in the beam of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array at lambda = 3.4-1.4 mm. The continuum visibilities accurately constrain the density structure in the envelopes, which can be described by a radial power law with slope -2.0 +/- 0.5 on scales of 300 to 8000 AU. Inferred envelope masses within a radius of 8000 AU are 8.7, 3.0, and 5.3 Msolar for SMM 1, 3, and 4, respectively. A point source with 20%-30% of the total flux at 1.1 mm is required to fit the observations on long baselines, corresponding to warm envelope material within approximately 100 AU or a circumstellar disk. No continuum emission is detected interferometrically toward SMM 2, corresponding to an upper limit of 0.2 Msolar assuming Td = 24 K. The lack of any compact dust emission suggests that the SMM 2 core does not contain a central protostar. Aperture-synthesis observations of the 13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN, H13CN, N2H+ 1-0, SiO 2-1, and SO 2(2)-1(1) transitions reveal compact emission toward SMM 1, 3, and 4. SMM 2 shows only a number of clumps scattered throughout the primary field of view, supporting the conclusion that this core does not contain a central star. The compact molecular emission around SMM 1, 3, and 4 traces 5"-10" (2000-4000 AU) diameter cores that correspond to the densest regions of the envelopes, as well as material directly associated with the molecular outflow. Especially prominent are the optically thick HCN and HCO+ lines that show up brightly along the walls of the outflow cavities. SO and SiO trace shocked material, where their abundances may be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude over dark-cloud values. A total of 31 molecular
Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2010-01-01
We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.
Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?
Kohler, Susanna
2017-05-01
The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that
Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi
2004-01-01
In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes
Black hole decay as geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha
2003-01-01
We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes
Black holes and quantum processes in them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1976-01-01
The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them
Cosmic black-hole hair growth and quasar OJ287
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horbatsch, M.W.; Burgess, C.P., E-mail: horbatm@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 Canada (Canada)
2012-05-01
An old result (astro-ph/9905303) by Jacobson implies that a black hole with Schwarzschild radius r{sub s} acquires scalar hair, Q∝r{sub s}{sup 2}μ, when the (canonically normalized) scalar field in question is slowly time-dependent far from the black hole, ∂{sub t}φ ≅ μM{sub p} with μr{sub s} << 1 time-independent. Such a time dependence could arise in scalar-tensor theories either from cosmological evolution, or due to the slow motion of the black hole within an asymptotic spatial gradient in the scalar field. Most remarkably, the amount of scalar hair so induced is independent of the strength with which the scalar couples to matter. We argue that Jacobson's Miracle Hair-Growth Formula{sup ©} implies, in particular, that an orbiting pair of black holes can radiate dipole radiation, provided only that the two black holes have different masses. Quasar OJ287, situated at redshift z ≅ 0.306, has been argued to be a double black-hole binary system of this type, whose orbital decay recently has been indirectly measured and found to agree with the predictions of General Relativity to within 6%. We argue that the absence of observable scalar dipole radiation in this system yields the remarkable bound |μ| < (16 days){sup −1} on the instantaneous time derivative at this redshift (as opposed to constraining an average field difference, Δφ, over cosmological times), provided only that the scalar is light enough to be radiated — i.e. m∼<10{sup −23} eV — independent of how the scalar couples to matter. This can also be interpreted as constraining (in a more model-dependent way) the binary's motion relative to any spatial variation of the scalar field within its immediate vicinity within its host galaxy.
Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls
Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander
2017-04-01
In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ``supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.
Primordial black hole and wormhole formation by domain walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Heling; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander
2017-01-01
In theories with a broken discrete symmetry, Hubble sized spherical domain walls may spontaneously nucleate during inflation. These objects are subsequently stretched by the inflationary expansion, resulting in a broad distribution of sizes. The fate of the walls after inflation depends on their radius. Walls smaller than a critical radius fall within the cosmological horizon early on and collapse due to their own tension, forming ordinary black holes. But if a wall is large enough, its repulsive gravitational field becomes dominant much before the wall can fall within the cosmological horizon. In this ''supercritical'' case, a wormhole throat develops, connecting the ambient exterior FRW universe with an interior baby universe, where the exponential growth of the wall radius takes place. The wormhole pinches off in a time-scale comparable to its light-crossing time, and black holes are formed at its two mouths. As discussed in previous work, the resulting black hole population has a wide distribution of masses and can have significant astrophysical effects. The mechanism of black hole formation has been previously studied for a dust-dominated universe. Here we investigate the case of a radiation-dominated universe, which is more relevant cosmologically, by using numerical simulations in order to find the initial mass of a black hole as a function of the wall size at the end of inflation. For large supercritical domain walls, this mass nearly saturates the upper bound according to which the black hole cannot be larger than the cosmological horizon. We also find that the subsequent accretion of radiation satisfies a scaling relation, resulting in a mass increase by about a factor of 2.
The algebras of bounded and essentially bounded Lebesgue measurable functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mortini Raymond
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Let X be a set in ℝn with positive Lebesgue measure. It is well known that the spectrum of the algebra L∞(X of (equivalence classes of essentially bounded, complex-valued, measurable functions on X is an extremely disconnected compact Hausdorff space.We show, by elementary methods, that the spectrum M of the algebra ℒb(X, ℂ of all bounded measurable functions on X is not extremely disconnected, though totally disconnected. Let ∆ = { δx : x ∈ X} be the set of point evaluations and let g be the Gelfand topology on M. Then (∆, g is homeomorphic to (X, Τdis,where Tdis is the discrete topology. Moreover, ∆ is a dense subset of the spectrum M of ℒb(X, ℂ. Finally, the hull h(I, (which is homeomorphic to M(L∞(X, of the ideal of all functions in ℒb(X, ℂ vanishing almost everywhere on X is a nowhere dense and extremely disconnected subset of the Corona M \\ ∆ of ℒb(X, ℂ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald Kerwin
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Obama administration has developed two broad programs to defer immigration enforcement actions against undocumented persons living in the United States: (1 Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA; and (2 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA. The DACA program, which began in August 2012, was expanded on November 20, 2014. DAPA and the DACA expansion (hereinafter referred to as “DACA-plus” are currently under review by the US Supreme Court and subject to an active injunction.This paper offers a statistical portrait of the intended direct beneficiaries of DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus. It finds that potential DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus recipients are deeply embedded in US society, with high employment rates, extensive US family ties, long tenure, and substantial rates of English-language proficiency. The paper also notes various groups that would benefit indirectly from the full implementation of DAPA and DACA or, conversely, would suffer from the removal of potential beneficiaries of these programs. For example, all those who would rely on the retirement programs of the US government will benefit from the high employment rates and relative youth of the DACA population, while many US citizens who rely on the income of a DAPA-eligible parent would fall into poverty or extreme poverty should that parent be removed from the United States.This paper offers an analysis of potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries. In an earlier study, the authors made the case for immigration reform based on long-term trends related to the US undocumented population, including potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries (Warren and Kerwin 2015. By contrast, this paper details the degree to which these populations have become embedded in US society. It also compares persons eligible for the original DACA program with those eligible for DACA-plus.As stated, the great majority of potential DAPA and DACA recipients enjoy strong family
Black holes: the membrane paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.
1986-01-01
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
A nonsingular rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-01-01
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
A Lovelock black hole bestiary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camanho, Xián O; Edelstein, José D
2013-01-01
We revisit the study of (A)dS black holes in Lovelock theories. We present a new tool that allows to attack this problem in full generality. In analyzing maximally symmetric Lovelock black holes with non-planar horizon topologies, many distinctive and interesting features are observed. Among them, the existence of maximally symmetric vacua does not support black holes in vast regions of the space of gravitational couplings, multi-horizon black holes and branches of solutions that suggest the existence of a rich diagram of phase transitions. The appearance of naked singularities seems unavoidable in some cases, raising the question about the fate of the cosmic censorship conjecture in these theories. There is a preferred branch of solutions for planar black holes, as well as for non-planar black holes with high enough mass or temperature. Our study clarifies the role of all branches of solutions, including asymptotically dS black holes, and whether they should be considered when studying these theories in the context of AdS/CFT. (paper)
Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes
Sang, E. T. K.
2015-10-01
We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).
Sensitivity analysis using probability bounding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferson, Scott; Troy Tucker, W.
2006-01-01
Probability bounds analysis (PBA) provides analysts a convenient means to characterize the neighborhood of possible results that would be obtained from plausible alternative inputs in probabilistic calculations. We show the relationship between PBA and the methods of interval analysis and probabilistic uncertainty analysis from which it is jointly derived, and indicate how the method can be used to assess the quality of probabilistic models such as those developed in Monte Carlo simulations for risk analyses. We also illustrate how a sensitivity analysis can be conducted within a PBA by pinching inputs to precise distributions or real values
Black branes in AdS: BPS bounds and asymptotic charges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hristov, K. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Toldo, C.; Vandoren, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2012-09-15
We focus on black branes and toroidal black holes in N = 2 gauged supergravities that asymptote to AdS{sub 4}, and derive formulas for the mass and central charge densities. We derive the corresponding BPS bound from the superalgebra of the asymptotic vacuum and illustrate our procedure with explicit examples of genuine black brane solutions with non-trivial scalars. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, J. B.
2016-01-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36(+5/-4) solar mass and 29(+4/-4) solar mass; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be less than 0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 410(+160/-180) Mpc, corresponding to a redshift 0.09(+0.03/-0.04) assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 sq deg, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 62(+4/-4) solar mass and spin 0.67(+0.05/-0.07). This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J V; Vañó-Viñuales, A; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Campanelli, M; Clark, M; Hamberger, D; Kidder, L E; Kinsey, M; Laguna, P; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y
2016-06-17
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4}^{+5}M_{⊙} and 29_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙}; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 410_{-180}^{+160} Mpc, corresponding to a redshift 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03} assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg^{2}, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 62_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙} and spin 0.67_{-0.07}^{+0.05}. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes
Gribbin, John
1992-01-01
Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.
Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically
Mezzacappa, M. A.
1983-01-01
Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.
Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes
Witten, Edward
2012-08-01
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Tunnelling from Goedel black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.
2007-01-01
We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons
Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide
Pickover, Clifford A.
1998-03-01
BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Vacuum metastability with black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd
2015-01-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-01-01
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Model problems for gravitationally perturbed black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Macdonald, D.A.; Crowley, R.J.; Redmount, I.H.
1986-01-01
The membrane formalism is applied to various types of gravitational perturbations of a black hole. Attention is given to the disturbance of the horizon of a black hole by compact masses lowered toward a nonrotating hole and the deformations experienced by a rotating hole. Nonaxisymmetric gravitational tidal fields in rigid motion about a rotating hole are considered, along with the behavior of massive particle moving along the equator of a rotating hole, and the spindown of a rotating hole in an external tidal field. The extraction of rotational energy from a black hole by orbiting bodies is examined, as are superradiant scattering of gravitational waves and the quasi-normal modes of a black hole. The perturbations imparted to a black hole by a compact body plunging into the membrane (a stretched horizon) at a velocity close to the local light speed and by a radially accelerated particle above the horizon of a nonrotating hole are also explored
Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shmakova, Marina
2003-07-11
Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.
Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás
2009-02-01
We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.
Parker, E. N.
1991-01-01
It has been shown that the coronal hole, and the associated high-speed stream in the solar wind, are powered by a heat input of the order of 500,000 ergs/sq cm s, with most of the heat injected in the first 1-2 solar radii, and perhaps 100,000 ergs/sq cm s introduced at distances of several solar radii to provide the high speed of the issuing solar wind. The traditional view has been that this energy is obtained from Alfven waves generated in the subphotospheric convection, which dissipate as they propagate outward, converting the wave energy into heat. This paper reviews the generation of waves and the known wave dissipation mechanisms, to show that the necessary Alfven waves are not produced under the conditions presently understood to exist in the sun, nor would such waves dissipate significantly in the first 1-2 solar radii if they existed. Wave dissipation occurs only over distances of the order of 5 solar radii or more.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayan, Ramesh
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the current status of black hole (BH) astrophysics, focusing on topics of interest to a physics audience. Astronomers have discovered dozens of compact objects with masses greater than 3M o-dot , the likely maximum mass of a neutron star. These objects are identified as BH candidates. Some of the candidates have masses ∼5M o-dot -20M o-dot and are found in x-ray binaries, while the rest have masses ∼10 6 M o-dot -10 9.5 M o-dot and are found in galactic nuclei. A variety of methods are being tried to estimate the spin parameters of the candidate BHs. There is strong circumstantial evidence that many of the objects have event horizons, so there is good reason to believe that the candidates are true BHs. Recent MHD simulations of magnetized plasma accreting on rotating BHs seem to hint that relativistic jets may be produced by a magnetic analogue of the Penrose process
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-01-01
We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by usi...
Surface plasmon oscillations in a semi-bounded semiconductor plasma
M, SHAHMANSOURI; A, P. MISRA
2018-02-01
We study the dispersion properties of surface plasmon (SP) oscillations in a semi-bounded semiconductor plasma with the effects of the Coulomb exchange (CE) force associated with the spin polarization of electrons and holes as well as the effects of the Fermi degenerate pressure and the quantum Bohm potential. Starting from a quantum hydrodynamic model coupled to the Poisson equation, we derive the general dispersion relation for surface plasma waves. Previous results in this context are recovered. The dispersion properties of the surface waves are analyzed in some particular cases of interest and the relative influence of the quantum forces on these waves are also studied for a nano-sized GaAs semiconductor plasma. It is found that the CE effects significantly modify the behaviors of the SP waves. The present results are applicable to understand the propagation characteristics of surface waves in solid density plasmas.
Holography, Dimensional Reduction and the Bekenstein Bound
Bak, Dongsu; Yee, Ho-Ung
2004-04-01
We consider dimensional reduction of the lightlike holography of the covariant entropy bound from D+1 dimensional geometry of M × S1 to the D dimensional geometry M. With a warping factor, the local Bekenstein bound in D+1 dimensions leads to a more refined form of the bound from the D dimensional view point. With this new local Bekenstein bound, it is quite possible to saturate the lightlike holography even with nonvanishing expansion rate. With a Kaluza-Klein gauge field, the dimensional reduction implies a stronger bound where the energy momentum tensor contribution is replaced by the energy momentum tensor with the electromagnetic contribution subtracted.
Spin Interaction under the Collision of Two Kerr-(Anti-de Sitter Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogeun Gwak
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate herein the spin interaction during collisions between Kerr-(anti-de Sitter black holes. The spin interaction potential depends on the relative rotation directions of the black holes, and this potential can be released as gravitational radiation upon collision. The energy of the radiation depends on the cosmological constant and corresponds to the spin interaction potential in the limit that one of the black holes has negligibly small mass and angular momentum. We then determine the approximate overall behaviors of the upper bounds on the radiation using thermodynamics. The results indicate that the spin interaction can consistently contribute to the radiation. In addition, the radiation depends on the stability of the black hole produced by the collision.
Instability of hairy black holes in spontaneously broken Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs systems
Winstanley, E.; Mavromatos, N. E.
1995-02-01
The stability of a new class of hairy black-hole solutions in the coupled system of Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs is examined, generalising a method suggested by Brodbeck and Straumann and collaborators, and Volkov and Gal'tsov. The method maps the algebraic system of linearised radial perturbations of the various field modes around the black-hole solution into a coupled system of radial equations of Schrödinger type. No detailed knowledge of the black-hole solution is required, except from the fact that the boundary conditions at the physical space-time boundaries (horizons) must be such so as to guarantee thefiniteness of the various expressions involved. In this way, it is demonstrated that the above Schrödinger equations have bound states, which implies the instability of the associated black-hole solution.
Black holes and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooft, G. ' t, E-mail: g.thooft@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute, P.O. Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-07-15
After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these interactions generate a Hilbert space of states on the black hole horizon, which can be investigated, displaying interesting systematics by themselves. To make such approaches more powerful, a study is made of the black hole complementarity principle, from which one may deduce the existence of a hidden form of local conformal invariance. Finally, the question is raised whether the principles underlying Quantum Mechanics are to be sharpened in this domain of physics as well. There are intriguing possibilities.
Black hole evaporation: a paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin
2005-01-01
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.
Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho
2017-11-01
We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.
Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?
2009-11-01
equivalent to about 350 Suns per year, one hundred times more than rates for typical galaxies in the local Universe. Earlier observations had shown that the companion galaxy is, in fact, under fire: the quasar is spewing a jet of highly energetic particles towards its companion, accompanied by a stream of fast-moving gas. The injection of matter and energy into the galaxy indicates that the quasar itself might be inducing the formation of stars and thereby creating its own host galaxy; in such a scenario, galaxies would have evolved from clouds of gas hit by the energetic jets emerging from quasars. "The two objects are bound to merge in the future: the quasar is moving at a speed of only a few tens of thousands of km/h with respect to the companion galaxy and their separation is only about 22 000 light-years," says Elbaz. "Although the quasar is still 'naked', it will eventually be 'dressed' when it merges with its star-rich companion. It will then finally reside inside a host galaxy like all other quasars." Hence, the team have identified black hole jets as a possible driver of galaxy formation, which may also represent the long-sought missing link to understanding why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars [3]. "A natural extension of our work is to search for similar objects in other systems," says Jahnke. Future instruments, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the European Extremely Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will be able to search for such objects at even larger distances from us, probing the connection between black holes and the formation of galaxies in the more distant Universe. Notes [1] Supermassive black holes are found in the cores of most large galaxies; unlike the inactive and starving one sitting at the centre of the Milky Way, a fraction of them are said to be active, as they eat up enormous amounts of material. These frantic actions produce a copious release of energy
Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array
Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili
2010-01-01
We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applicatio...
Black holes from extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)
Frampton, Paul H.
2009-01-01
While the energy of the universe has been established to be about 0.04 baryons, 0.24 dark matter and 0.72 dark energy, the cosmological entropy is almost entirely, about $(1 - 10^{-15})$, from black holes and only $10^{-15}$ from everything else. This identification of all dark matter as black holes is natural in statistical mechanics. Cosmological history of dark matter is discussed.
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.
2003-01-01
Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camenzind, M.
2005-01-01
While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)
Black Hole Spin Measurement Uncertainty
Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2018-01-01
Angular momentum, or spin, is one of only two fundamental properties of astrophysical black holes, and measuring its value has numerous applications. For instance, obtaining reliable spin measurements could constrain the growth history of supermassive black holes and reveal whether relativistic jets are powered by tapping into the black hole spin reservoir. The two well-established techniques for measuring black hole spin can both be applied to X-ray binaries, but are in disagreement for cases of non-maximal spin. This discrepancy must be resolved if either technique is to be deemed robust. We show that the technique based on disc continuum fitting is sensitive to uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere, which are observationally unconstrained. By incorporating reasonable uncertainties into black hole spin probability density functions, we demonstrate that the spin measured by disc continuum fitting can become highly uncertain. Future work toward understanding how the observed disc continuum is altered by atmospheric physics, particularly magnetic fields, will further strengthen black hole spin measurement techniques.
Atomic structure in black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagatani, Yukinori
2006-01-01
We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)
Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.
1979-01-01
Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...
Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Ren
2006-01-01
In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...
Black holes as parts of entangled systems
Basini, G.; Capozziello, S.; Longo, G.
A possible link between EPR-type quantum phenomena and astrophysical objects like black holes, under a new general definition of entanglement, is established. A new approach, involving backward time evolution and topology changes, is presented bringing to a definition of the system black hole-worm hole-white hole as an entangled system.
On order bounded subsets of locally solid Riesz spaces | Hong ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In a topological Riesz space there are two types of bounded subsets: order bounded subsets and topologically bounded subsets. It is natural to ask (1) whether an order bounded subset is topologically bounded and (2) whether a topologically bounded subset is order bounded. A classical result gives a partial answer to (1) ...
Corda, Christian
2013-12-01
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.
VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. T. K. Sang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.
Cosmological bounds on neutrino statistics
de Salas, P. F.; Gariazzo, S.; Laveder, M.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Truong, N.
2018-03-01
We consider the phenomenological implications of the violation of the Pauli exclusion principle for neutrinos, focusing on cosmological observables such as the spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and the primordial abundances of light elements. Neutrinos that behave (at least partly) as bosonic particles have a modified equilibrium distribution function that implies a different influence on the evolution of the Universe that, in the case of massive neutrinos, can not be simply parametrized by a change in the effective number of neutrinos. Our results show that, despite the precision of the available cosmological data, only very weak bounds can be obtained on neutrino statistics, disfavouring a more bosonic behaviour at less than 2σ.
Fundamental Bounds on MIMO Antennas
Ehrenborg, Casimir; Gustafsson, Mats
2018-01-01
Antenna current optimization is often used to analyze the optimal performance of antennas. Antenna performance can be quantified in e.g., minimum Q-factor and efficiency. The performance of MIMO antennas is more involved and, in general, a single parameter is not sufficient to quantify it. Here, the capacity of an idealized channel is used as the main performance quantity. An optimization problem in the current distribution for optimal capacity, measured in spectral efficiency, given a fixed Q-factor and efficiency is formulated as a semi-definite optimization problem. A model order reduction based on characteristic and energy modes is employed to improve the computational efficiency. The performance bound is illustrated by solving the optimization problem numerically for rectangular plates and spherical shells.
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; Leo, R. De; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Diefenthaler, M.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Guzey, V.; Haan, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Haarlem, Y. Van; Hulse, C. Van; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; sHERMES Collaboration
2010-03-01
The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)
2009-11-15
The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)
Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes
Graber, James S.
1999-01-01
A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.
Black holes from fluid mechanics
Lahiri, Subhaneil
2009-12-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence in a regime where the field theory is well described by fluid mechanics to study large black holes in asymptotically locally anti de Sitter spaces. In particular, we use the fluid description to study the thermodynamics of the black holes and the existence of exotic horizon topologies in higher dimensions. First we test this method by comparing large rotating black holes in global AdSD spaces to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on SD-2. Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, IIB string theory on AdS5 x S 5 and M theory on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S 4. We then construct solutions to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations that describe the long wavelength collective dynamics of the deconfined plasma phase of N = 4 Yang Mills theory compactified down to d = 3 on a Scherk-Schwarz circle. Our solutions are stationary, axially symmetric spinning balls and rings of plasma. These solutions, which are dual to (yet to be constructed) rotating black holes and black rings in Scherk-Schwarz compactified AdS 5, and have properties that are qualitatively similar to those of black holes and black rings in flat five dimensional gravity. We also study the stability of these solutions to small fluctuations, which provides an indirect method for studying Gregory-Laflamme instabilities. We also extend the construction to higher dimensions, allowing one to study the existence of new black hole topologies and their phase diagram.
Primordial black holes formation from particle production during inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erfani, Encieh
2016-01-01
We study the possibility that particle production during inflation can source the required power spectrum for dark matter (DM) primordial black holes (PBH) formation. We consider the scalar and the gauge quanta production in inflation models, where in the latter case, we focus in two sectors: inflaton coupled i) directly and ii) gravitationally to a U(1) gauge field. We do not assume any specific potential for the inflaton field. Hence, in the gauge production case, in a model independent way we show that the non-production of DM PBHs puts stronger upper bound on the particle production parameter. Our analysis show that this bound is more stringent than the bounds from the bispectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio derived by gauge production in these models. In the scenario where the inflaton field coupled to a scalar field, we put an upper bound on the amplitude of the generated scalar power spectrum by non-production of PBHs. As a by-product we also show that the required scalar power spectrum for PBHs formation is lower when the density perturbations are non-Gaussian in comparison to the Gaussian density perturbations
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Thermodynamics of Horava-Lifshitz black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan
2010-01-01
We study black holes in the Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a parameter λ. For 1/3≤λ 3, the black holes behave the Reissner-Nordstroem type black hole in asymptotically flat spacetimes. Hence, these all are quite different from the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole of Einstein gravity. The temperature, mass, entropy, and heat capacity are derived for investigating thermodynamic properties of these black holes. (orig.)
Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia
Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi
2017-01-01
We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...
ENHANCED TIDAL DISRUPTION RATES FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xian; Liu, F. K.; Madau, Piero; Sesana, Alberto
2009-01-01
'Hard' massive black hole (MBH) binaries embedded in steep stellar cusps can shrink via three-body slingshot interactions. We show that this process will inevitably be accompanied by a burst of stellar tidal disruptions, at a rate that can be several orders of magnitude larger than that appropriate for a single MBH. Our numerical scattering experiments reveal that (1) a significant fraction of stars initially bound to the primary hole are scattered into its tidal disruption loss cone by gravitational interactions with the secondary hole, an enhancement effect that is more pronounced for very unequal mass binaries; (2) about 25% (40%) of all strongly interacting stars are tidally disrupted by an MBH binary of mass ratio q = 1/81 (q = 1/243) and eccentricity 0.1; and (3) two mechanisms dominate the fueling of the tidal disruption loss cone, a Kozai nonresonant interaction that causes the secular evolution of the stellar angular momentum in the field of the binary, and the effect of close encounters with the secondary hole that change the stellar orbital parameters in a chaotic way. For a hard MBH binary of 10 7 M sun and mass ratio 10 -2 , embedded in an isothermal stellar cusp of velocity dispersion σ * = 100 km s -1 , the tidal disruption rate can be as large as N-dot * ∼1 yr -1 . This is 4 orders of magnitude higher than estimated for a single MBH fed by two-body relaxation. When applied to the case of a putative intermediate-mass black hole inspiraling onto Sgr A*, our results predict tidal disruption rates N-dot * ∼0.05-0.1 yr -1 .
Deeply virtual Compton scattering and its beam charge asymmetry in e{sup {+-}}p collisions at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)
2009-07-15
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering {gamma}{sup *}p{yields}{gamma}p using e{sup +}p and e{sup -}p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb{sup -1}, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q{sup 2} of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the {gamma}{sup *}p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q{sup 2} < 80 GeV{sup 2}, 30
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its Beam Charge Asymmetry in $e^{\\pm} p$ Collisions at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.
2009-01-01
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e^+ p and e^- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb^-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma* p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. Using e^+ p and e^- p data samples, a beam charge asymmetry is extracted for the first time in the low Bjorken x kinematic domain. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are dis...
Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei
2015-07-01
In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.
Bound anionic states of adenine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
Scattering of Hawking photons as a barrier to particle absorption by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Funkhouser, Scott
2011-01-01
Electromagnetic scattering interactions between photons emanating from a Schwarzschild black hole and an incident charged particle should generate a repulsive force between the particle and black hole. The net scattering cross-section is calculated here as a function of the mass M of the black hole and the mass m of the particle for scenarios in which the particle is point-like and initially stationary, with proper energy ε=m, at some location far from the black hole. It follows from comparing the repulsive scattering force to the corresponding gravitational force that, in order for the particle to be drawn to the black hole, ε/T bh must be greater than a certain lower bound that is of the order 10 -3 for spin-1/2 or spin-0 particles with unit-charge. Although the scattering restriction is weaker than the requirement ε/T bh >>1 obtained independently from field-theoretic and thermodynamic treatments, the recurrence of a lower bound on the Boltzmann factor ε/T bh in limitations on particle absorption suggests a physical unity whose nature is fundamentally thermodynamic.
Violent flickering in Black Holes
2008-10-01
Unique observations of the flickering light from the surroundings of two black holes provide new insights into the colossal energy that flows at their hearts. By mapping out how well the variations in visible light match those in X-rays on very short timescales, astronomers have shown that magnetic fields must play a crucial role in the way black holes swallow matter. Flickering black hole ESO PR Photo 36/08 Flickering black hole Like the flame from a candle, light coming from the surroundings of a black hole is not constant -- it flares, sputters and sparkles. "The rapid flickering of light from a black hole is most commonly observed at X-ray wavelengths," says Poshak Gandhi, who led the international team that reports these results. "This new study is one of only a handful to date that also explore the fast variations in visible light, and, most importantly how these fluctuations relate to those in X-rays." The observations tracked the shimmering of the black holes simultaneously using two different instruments, one on the ground and one in space. The X-ray data were taken using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The visible light was collected with the high speed camera ULTRACAM, a visiting instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), recording up to 20 images a second. ULTRACAM was developed by team members Vik Dhillon and Tom Marsh. "These are among the fastest observations of a black hole ever obtained with a large optical telescope," says Dhillon. To their surprise, astronomers discovered that the brightness fluctuations in the visible light were even more rapid than those seen in X-rays. In addition, the visible-light and X-ray variations were found not to be simultaneous, but to follow a repeated and remarkable pattern: just before an X-ray flare the visible light dims, and then surges to a bright flash for a tiny fraction of a second before rapidly decreasing again. None of this radiation emerges directly from the black hole, but from the
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Black holes, qubits and octonions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.
2009-01-01
We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems
Black holes: a slanted overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishveshwara, C.V.
1988-01-01
The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)
Cosmology with primordial black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindley, D.
1981-09-01
Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)
Bounded elements in Locally C*-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Harti, Rachid
2001-09-01
In order to get more useful information about Locally C*-algebras, we introduce in this paper the notion of bounded elements. First, we study the connection between bounded elements and spectrally bounded elements. Some structural results of Locally C*-algebras are established in Theorems 1 , 2 and 3. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 3, we give a characterization of the connected component of the identity in the group of unitary elements for a Locally C*-algebra. (author)
Boundedly UC spaces: characterisations and preservation | Jain ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A metric space (X, d) is called a boundedly UC space if every closed and bounded subset of X is a UC space. A metric space (X, d) is called a UC space if each real-valued continuous function on (X, d) is uniformly continuous. In this paper, we study twenty-two equivalent conditions for a metric space to be a boundedly UC ...
Bounded cohomology of discrete groups
Frigerio, Roberto
2017-01-01
The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...
Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2016-06-15
We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds......We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...... in a consistent way. Finally, we numerically analyse the behaviour of the good deal pricing bounds....
Modifications of the Bekenstein Bound from Dimensional Reduction of Covariant Entropy Bound
Yee, Ho-Ung
2005-12-01
We consider dimensional reduction of the covariant entropy bound from D + 1 dimensional geometry of M × S1 to the D dimensional geometry M. With a warping factor, the local Bekenstein bound in D + 1 dimensions leads to a more refined form of the local Bekenstein bound from the D dimensional view point. With this new local Bekenstein bound, it is possible to saturate the lightlike holography bound even with nonvanishing expansion rate. With a Kaluza-Klein gauge field, the dimensional reduction implies a stronger bound where the energy momentum tensor contribution is replaced by the energy momentum tensor with the electromagnetic contribution subtracted.
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Inside black holes with synchronized hair
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yves Brihaye
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1 the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2 before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.
Inside black holes with synchronized hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: yves.brihaye@umons.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and Centre for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications (CIDMA), Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)
2016-09-10
Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers–Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers–Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1) the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2) before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.
A Two-Temperature Photothermal Interaction in a Semiconductor Medium Containing a Cylindrical Hole
Abbas, Ibrahim A.; Hobiny, Aatef
2018-01-01
Photothermoelastic interactions in an infinite semiconductor medium containing a cylindrical hole with two temperatures are studied using mathematical method under the purview of the coupled theory of thermal, plasma and elastic waves. The internal surface of the hole is constrained and the carrier density is photogenerated by bound heat flux with an exponentially decaying pulse. Based on Laplace transform and the eigenvalue approach methodology, the solutions of all variables have been obtained analytically. The numerical computations for silicon-like semiconductor material have been obtained. The results further show that the analytical scheme can overcome mathematical problems to analyze these problems.
Observational Signatures of Binary Black Holes Mergers in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravity
Healy, James; Laguna, Pablo; Pazos, Enrique; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Yunes, Nicolas
2011-04-01
Gravitational wave observations can be used to probe non-linear gravitational interactions and thus provide strong tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Using the tools of numerical relativity, we present results from the late inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system in Jordan-Brans-Dicke-Fierz theory. In particular, we address whether in this theory the gravitational waves produced during the coalescence differ from those from general relativity. We discuss how future gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers could be used to place bounds on such scalar-tensor theories.
Instability in near-horizon geometries of even-dimensional Myers–Perry black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanahashi, Norihiro; Murata, Keiju
2012-01-01
We study the gravitational, electromagnetic and scalar field perturbations on the near-horizon geometries of the even-dimensional extremal Myers–Perry black holes. By dimensional reduction, the perturbation equations are reduced to effective equations of motion in AdS 2 . We find that some modes in the gravitational perturbations violate the Breitenlöhner–Freedman bound in AdS 2 . This result suggests that the even-dimensional (near-)extremal Myers–Perry black holes are unstable against gravitational perturbations. We also discuss implications of our results to the Kerr–CFT correspondence. (paper)
Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics.
Kovtun, P K; Son, D T; Starinets, A O
2005-03-25
The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of variant Planck's over 2pi/4pik(B) for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti-de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.
Cardy-Verlinde Formula and Its Self-Gravitational Corrections for Regular Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleem, Rabia; Sharif, M.
2014-01-01
We check the consistency of the entropy of Bardeen and Ayón Beato-García-Bronnikov black holes with the entropy of particular conformal field theory via Cardy-Verlinde formula. We also compute the first-order semiclassical corrections of this formula due to self-gravitational effects by modifying pure extensive and Casimir energy in the context of Keski-Vakkuri, Kraus and Wilczek analysis. It is concluded that the correction term remains positive for both black holes, which leads to the violation of the holographic bound
Black holes and galaxy formation
Propst, Raphael J
2010-01-01
Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele
2017-11-01
Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramit Dey
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip M. Ligrani
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Geometric inequalities for black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2013-01-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Black holes a very short introduction
Blundell, Katherine
2015-01-01
Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.
Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Andrew J. S.
2011-01-01
This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.
Isoperimetric upper bounds for the first eigenvalue
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
[5] Buser P and Karcher H, Gromov's almost flat manifolds, Société mathématique de. France (1981). [6] Grosjean J F, Upper bounds for the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian on compact submanifolds, Pacific. J. Math. 206 (2002) 93–112. [7] Heintze Ernst, Extinsic upper bounds for λ1, Math. Ann. 280 (1988) 389–402.
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...
Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BASUDEB DATTA
2011-11-20
Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...
Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration
Fearnley, John
2010-01-01
We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...
Bounds in the location-allocation problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....
New bounds for multi-dimensional packing
S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)
2001-01-01
textabstractNew upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The
Impedance, zero energy wavefunction, and bound states
Martin, A
1977-01-01
The authors show that for the three-dimensional Schrodinger equation without spherical symmetry the existence of a bound state is related to the impossibility of solving a certain equation; it is further shown that some general conditions for the absence of bound states are readily obtained from this property. (13 refs).
Wallace, Rodrick
2015-08-01
The stabilization of human cognition via feedback from embedding social and cultural contexts is a dynamic process deeply intertwined with it, constituting, in a sense, the riverbanks directing the flow of a stream of generalized consciousness at different scales: Cultural norms and social interaction are synergistic with individual and group cognition and their disorders. A canonical failure mode in atomistic cultures is found to be a 'ground state' collapse well represented by atomistic models of economic interaction that are increasingly characterized as divorced from reality by heterodox economists. That is, high rates of psychopathic and antisocial personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder emerge as culture-bound syndromes particular to Western or Westernizing societies, or to those undergoing social disintegration.
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2006-01-01
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD
A measurement of the Q{sup 2}, W and t dependences of deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2008-12-15
Deeply virtual Compton scattering, {gamma}{sup *}p{yields}{gamma}p, has been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 61.1 pb{sup -1}. Cross sections are presented as a function of the photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}, and photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, W, for a wide region of the phase space, Q{sup 2}>1.5 GeV{sup 2} and 40
Qi, K.; Qingfeng, G.
2017-12-01
With the popular use of High-Resolution Satellite (HRS) images, more and more research efforts have been placed on land-use scene classification. However, it makes the task difficult with HRS images for the complex background and multiple land-cover classes or objects. This article presents a multiscale deeply described correlaton model for land-use scene classification. Specifically, the convolutional neural network is introduced to learn and characterize the local features at different scales. Then, learnt multiscale deep features are explored to generate visual words. The spatial arrangement of visual words is achieved through the introduction of adaptive vector quantized correlograms at different scales. Experiments on two publicly available land-use scene datasets demonstrate that the proposed model is compact and yet discriminative for efficient representation of land-use scene images, and achieves competitive classification results with the state-of-art methods.
Othman, Muhammad A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Sadek, Mohamed; Nassar, Ismail M.; Khalil, Diaa A.
2016-03-01
In this work we report a novel optical MEMS deeply-etched mirror with metallic coating and vertical slot, where the later allows reflection and transmission by the micromirror. The micromirror as well as fiber grooves are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology, where the optical axis is in-plane and the components are self-aligned. The etching depth is 150 μm chosen to improve the micromirror optical throughput. The vertical optical structure is Al metal coated using the shadow mask technique. A fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot filter is successfully realized using the fabricated structure. Experimental measurements were obtained based on a dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a fiber groove facing the slotted micromirror. A versatile performance in terms of the free spectral range and 3-dB bandwidth is achieved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, gruppo Sanita and Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)
2011-10-05
Double-spin asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of real photons from a transversely polarized hydrogen target are measured with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity and beam charge, and with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity alone. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are related to the real part of the same combination of Compton form factors as that determining the previously published transverse target single-spin asymmetries through the imaginary part. The results for the double-spin asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within the uncertainties of the measurement, and are not incompatible with the predictions of the only available GPD-based calculation.
On long time unitarity restoring processes in the presence of eternal black holes
Barbón, José L F; 10.1002/prop.200410157
2004-01-01
We discuss the various scales determining the temporal behaviour of correlation functions in the presence of eternal black holes. We point out the origins of the failure of the semiclassical gravity approximation to respect a unitarity-based bound suggested by Maldacena. We find that the presence of a subleading (in the large-N approximation involved) master field does restore the compliance with one bound but additional configurations are needed to explain the more detailed expected time dependence of the Poincare recurrences and their magnitude.
Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.
2017-01-01
Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Current technologies have enabled glimpses at the many facetsof black holes, which we know to be plentiful in our cosmos.A panoramic view of the evidence for them is presented hereacross the large range of masses that they span. Author Affiliations. Prajval Shastri. Resonance – Journal of Science Education.
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Stellar dynamics and black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stellar dynamics and black holes. DAVID MERRITT. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester,. NY 14623, USA. E-mail: merritt@astro.rit.edu. Abstract. Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Hoff da Silva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
It is a common wisdom that properties of macroscopic bodies are well described by (semi)classical physics. As we have suggested this wisdom is not applicable to black holes. Despite being macroscopic, black holes are quantum objects. They represent Bose-Einstein condensates of N-soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, where N Bogoliubov modes become gapless. As a result, physics governing arbitrarily-large black holes (e.g., of galactic size) is a quantum physics of the collective Bogoiliubov modes. This fact introduces a new intrinsically-quantum corrections in form of 1/N, as opposed to exp(-N). These corrections are unaccounted by the usual semiclassical expansion in h and cannot be recast in form of a quantum back-reaction to classical metric. Instead the metric itself becomes an approximate entity. These 1/N corrections abolish the presumed properties of black holes, such as non existence of hair, and are the key to nullifying the so-called information paradox.
Improving accuracy of holes honing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan М. Buykli
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Currently, in precision engineering industry tolerances for linear dimensions and tolerances on shape of surfaces of processing parts are steadily tightened These requirements are especially relevant in processing of holes. Aim of the research is to improve accuracy and to enhance the technological capabilities of holes honing process and, particularly, of blind holes honing. Based on formal logic the analysis of formation of processing errors is executed on the basis of consideration of schemes of irregularity of dimensional wear and tear along the length of the cutting elements. With this, the possibilities of compensating this irregularities and, accordingly, of control of accuracy of processing applied to the honing of both throughout and blind holes are specified. At the same time, a new method of honing is developed, it is protected by the patent of Ukraine for invention. The method can be implemented both on an existing machine tools at insignificant modernization of its system of processing cycle control and on newly designed ones.
Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.
Fraknoi, Andrew
1991-01-01
Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…
Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules
Schwenke, David W.
2012-01-01
It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.
A Black Hole Spectral Signature
Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe
2000-03-01
An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be
Circuit board hole coordinate locator concept
Samuel, L. W.
1969-01-01
Fixed light source registers the x and y coordinates of holes in a fixed opaque template. A first surface parabolic mirror and a set of photocells are used to detect the passage of light through the individual holes.
Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons
He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren
2018-05-01
We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.
Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir
2013-01-01
We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)
A rotating hairy AdS{sub 3} black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iizuka, Norihiro [Department of Physics, Osaka University,Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ishibashi, Akihiro [Department of Physics, Kinki University,Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Maeda, Kengo [Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology,Saitama 330-8570 (Japan)
2015-08-24
We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against scalar field perturbations under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude ϵ of the scalar field, up to O(ϵ{sup 4}). Our hairy black hole is stationary and exhibits no dissipation, but the lumps of the non-linearly perturbed geometry break axial symmetry, thus providing the first example of a rotating black hole whose metric admits only one Killing vector field. Furthermore, we numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. We briefly discuss if our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry could be the endpoint of the instability.
Residual stress field of ballised holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Man On; He, Zhimin
2012-01-01
Ballising, involving pushing a slightly over-sized ball made of hard material through a hole, is a kind of cold working process. Applying ballising process to fastener holes produces compressive residual stress on the edge of the holes, and therefore increases the fatigue life of the components or structures. Quantification of the residual stress field is critical to define and precede the ballising process. In this article, the ballised holes are modeled as cold-expanded holes. Elastic-perfectly plastic theory is employed to analyze the holes with cold expansion process. For theoretical simplification, an axially symmetrical thin plate with a cold expanded hole is assumed. The elasticplastic boundaries and residual stress distribution surrounding the cold expanded hole are derived. With the analysis, the residual stress field can be obtained together with actual cold expansion process in which only the diameters of hole before and after cold expansion need to be measured. As it is a non-destructive method, it provides a convenient way to estimate the elastic-plastic boundaries and residual stresses of cold worked holes. The approach is later extended to the case involving two cold-worked holes. A ballised hole is looked upon as a cold expanded hole and therefore is investigated by the approach. Specimens ballised with different interference levels are investigated. The effects of interference levels and specimen size on residual stresses are studied. The overall residual stresses of plates with two ballised holes are obtained by superposing the residual stresses induced on a single ballised hole. The effects of distance between the centers of the two holes with different interference levels on the residual stress field are revealed
Bosonic instability of charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.
1986-01-01
The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole