WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep tissue defect

  1. Flap reconstruction for soft-tissue defects with exposed hardware following deep infection after internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovaska, Mikko T; Madanat, Rami; Tukiainen, Erkki; Pulliainen, Lea; Sintonen, Harri; Mäkinen, Tatu J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the outcome for patients treated with flap reconstruction following deep ankle fracture infection with exposed hardware. Out of 3041 consecutive ankle fracture operations in 3030 patients from 2006 to 2011, we identified 56 patients requiring flap reconstruction following deep infection. Thirty-two of these patients could be examined at a follow-up visit. Olerud-Molander Ankle (OMA) score, 15D score, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and clinical examination were used to assess the outcome. A total of 58 flap reconstructions were performed in 56 patients with a mean age of 57 years (range 25–93 years) and mean follow-up time of 52 months. The most commonly used reconstruction was a distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap with a split-thickness skin graft. A microvascular free flap was required in only one patient. 22 (39%) patients required subsequent surgical interventions because of a flap-related complication. With flap reconstruction, hardware could eventually be salvaged in 53% of patients with a non-consolidated fracture. The mean OMA score was fair or poor in 53% of the patients, and only 56% had recovered their pre-injury level of function. Half of the patients had shoe wear limitations. The 15D score showed a significantly poorer health-related quality of life compared to an age-standardised sample of the general population. The mean pain NRS was 2.1 (range 0–6), and the mean satisfaction NRS was 6.6 (range 0–10). Our study showed that successful treatment of a soft-tissue defect with exposed hardware following ankle fracture infections can be achieved with local flaps. Despite eventual reconstructive success, complications are common. Patients perceive a poorer health-related quality of life, have shoe wear limitations, and only half of them achieve their pre-injury level of function.

  2. Effectiveness of Acellular Dermal Matrix on Autologous Split-Thickness Skin Graft in Treatment of Deep Tissue Defect: Esthetic Subjective and Objective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jung; Park, Myong Chul; Park, Dong Ha; Hahn, Hyung Min; Kim, Sue Min; Lee, Il Jae

    2017-10-01

    A split-thickness skin graft (STSG) is performed to cover a large full-thickness skin defect. Esthetic and functional deficits can result, and many studies have sought to overcome them. This study compared the effectiveness of the acellular dermal matrix (ADM) graft and STSG concerning esthetic and functional effectiveness of ADM on scar quality. Of the patients who underwent anterolateral thigh free flap from 2011 to 2015, patients who received skin graft only (n = 10) or skin graft with ADM (n = 20) for coverage of the donor site were enrolled. In all cases, autologous STSG was performed with 1:1.5 meshed 0.008-0.010-inch-thick skin. In the skin graft with ADM group, 0.008-0.013-inch-thick meshed ADM (CGderm ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was co-grafted. Negative-pressure wound therapy (CuraVAC ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was applied to both groups in continuous mode at -120 mmHg. We investigate early outcomes (skin loss rate, duration of negative-pressure wound therapy, days to removal of stitches, days to achieve complete healing, and complications) and late outcomes in terms of scar quality (vascularity, pigmentation, pliability and height) and graft-related symptoms (itching sensation and pain). Assessments used the Vancouver Scar Scale and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Skin fold was measured to evaluate the elasticity of scar tissue. In the Vancouver Scar Scale, vascularity subscore (p = 0.003) and total score (p = 0.016) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. In Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the pain (p = 0.037) and stiffness subscores (p = 0.002), and total score (p = 0.017) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. Skin graft with ADM results in better scar quality in objective and subjective aspects. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to

  3. Pressure induced deep tissue injury explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Bader, D.L.; Loerakker, S.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    The paper describes the current views on the cause of a sub-class of pressure ulcers known as pressure induced deep tissue injury (DTI). A multi-scale approach was adopted using model systems ranging from single cells in culture, tissue engineered muscle to animal studies with small animals. This

  4. Electronic structure properties of deep defects in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Pratibha; Prdm Collaboration

    In recent years, the search for room-temperature solid-state qubit (quantum bit) candidates has revived interest in the study of deep-defect centers in semiconductors. The charged NV-center in diamond is the best known amongst these defects. However, as a host material, diamond poses several challenges and so, increasingly, there is an interest in exploring deep defects in alternative semiconductors such as hBN. The layered structure of hBN makes it a scalable platform for quantum applications, as there is a greater potential for controlling the location of the deep defect in the 2D-matrix through careful experiments. Using density functional theory-based methods, we have studied the electronic and structural properties of several deep defects in hBN. Native defects within hBN layers are shown to have high spin ground states that should survive even at room temperature, making them interesting solid-state qubit candidates in a 2D matrix. Partnership for Reduced Dimensional Material (PRDM) is part of the NSF sponsored Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (PREM).

  5. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A.; Sandison, A.

    1999-01-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.)

  6. Deep convolutional neural networks for detection of rail surface defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Estevez, Pablo A.; Angelov, Plamen P.; Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network solution to the analysis of image data for the detection of rail surface defects. The images are obtained from many hours of automated video recordings. This huge amount of data makes it impossible to manually inspect the images and

  7. Reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the ankle and foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan Dogra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soft tissue defects over ankle and foot region are encountered quite frequently following road traffic trauma and surgery. Management of such cases is a challenging task for any reconstructive surgeon because of paucity of skin and relative poor vascular status of skin in this region. Hence, invariably such cases require microsurgical free flap coverage, expertise for which may not be available at all the centers, such procedures require long operating hours and suitable recipient vessel may not be available in crush injuries. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients having soft tissue defects around ankle and foot region who underwent various reconstructive procedures in a medical college hospital during last 2 years form the basis of this study. This study was carried out to enlist various etiological factors and reconstructive surgical procedures employed to manage such cases without microsurgery. Results: The age of these patients ranged from 9 to 72 years. Twenty-five patients were males while 05 were females, with a mean age of 25 years. Road traffic accidents happened to be the primary cause of such defects in as many as 15 patients, cycle spoke trauma in 02 patients, implant exposure following orthopedic surgery in 6 patients, diabetic angiopathy in 4 patients and chronic osteomyelitis in 3 patients. The site of the defect was lower fourth of tibia in 16 patients, dorsum of foot in 2 patients, sole in 5 patients, medial aspect of ankle in 02 cases, lateral aspect in 02 cases and retro calcaneal region in 03 cases. In 10 cases distally based superficial sural artery flap was used to reconstruct the defect. In step rotation flap was used to provide sensory flap cover in the weight bearing heel in 04 cases. Inferiorly based fasciocutanenous flaps in 09 cases and muscle flaps were used in 07 cases. Conclusion: Distally based sural artery based flaps are very handy to provide skin cover around ankle and malleolar

  8. Deep soft tissue leiomyoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, G.M.T.; Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Brockley Hill (United Kingdom); Sandison, A. [Department of Pathology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A case of ossified leiomyoma of the deep soft tissues of the left thigh is presented. The radiographic appearance suggested a low-grade chondrosarcoma. MRI of the lesion showed signal characteristics similar to muscle on both T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with linear areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images consistent with medullary fat in metaplastic bone. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign ossified soft tissue leiomyoma. (orig.) With 3 figs., 13 refs.

  9. Microvascular free flaps in the management of war wounds with tissue defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Jefta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. War wounds caused by modern infantry weapons or explosive devices are very often associated with the defects of soft and bone tissue. According to their structure, tissue defects can be simple or complex. In accordance with war surgical doctrine, at the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns of the Military Medical Academy, free flaps were used in the treatment of 108 patients with large tissue defects. With the aim of closing war wounds, covering deep structures, or making the preconditions for reconstruction of deep structures, free flaps were applied in primary, delayed, or secondary term. The main criteria for using free flaps were general condition of the wounded, extent, location, and structure of tissue defects. The aim was also to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the application of free flaps in the treatment of war wounds. Methods. One hundred and eleven microvascular free flaps were applied, both simple and complex, for closing the war wounds with extensive tissue defects. The main criteria for the application of free flaps were: general condition of the wounded, size, localization, and structure of tissue defects. For the extensive defects of the tissue, as well as for severely contaminated wounds latissimus dorsi free flaps were used. For tissue defects of distal parts of the lower extremities, scapular free flaps were preferred. While using free tissue transfer for recompensation of bone defects, free vascularized fibular grafts were applied, and in skin and bone defects complex free osteoseptocutaneous fibular, free osteoseptocutaneous radial forearm, and free skin-bone scapular flaps were used. Results. After free flap transfer 16 (14,4% revisions were performed, and after 8 unsuccessful revisions another free flaps were utilized in 3 (37,5% patients, and cross leg flaps in 5 (62,5% patients. Conclusion. The treatment of war wounds with large tissue defects by the application of free microvascular flaps

  10. Deep sub-wavelength metrology for advanced defect classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, P.; Kramer, E.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Mulckhuyse, W.; Nijsten, L.; Bernal Arango, F. A.; de Jong, A.; van Zeijl, E.; Spruit, H. E. T.; van den Berg, J. H.; Nanda, G.; van Langen-Suurling, A. K.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Pereira, S. F.; Maas, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particle defects are important contributors to yield loss in semi-conductor manufacturing. Particles need to be detected and characterized in order to determine and eliminate their root cause. We have conceived a process flow for advanced defect classification (ADC) that distinguishes three consecutive steps; detection, review and classification. For defect detection, TNO has developed the Rapid Nano (RN3) particle scanner, which illuminates the sample from nine azimuth angles. The RN3 is capable of detecting 42 nm Latex Sphere Equivalent (LSE) particles on XXX-flat Silicon wafers. For each sample, the lower detection limit (LDL) can be verified by an analysis of the speckle signal, which originates from the surface roughness of the substrate. In detection-mode (RN3.1), the signal from all illumination angles is added. In review-mode (RN3.9), the signals from all nine arms are recorded individually and analyzed in order to retrieve additional information on the shape and size of deep sub-wavelength defects. This paper presents experimental and modelling results on the extraction of shape information from the RN3.9 multi-azimuth signal such as aspect ratio, skewness, and orientation of test defects. Both modeling and experimental work confirm that the RN3.9 signal contains detailed defect shape information. After review by RN3.9, defects are coarsely classified, yielding a purified Defect-of-Interest (DoI) list for further analysis on slower metrology tools, such as SEM, AFM or HIM, that provide more detailed review data and further classification. Purifying the DoI list via optical metrology with RN3.9 will make inspection time on slower review tools more efficient.

  11. [Inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect in incomplete cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Ma, Lian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect by observing the cleft extent of palate with complete secondary palate bony cleft in incomplete cleft palate patient. The patients with incomplete cleft palate treated in Hospital of Stomatology Peking University from July 2012 to June 2013 were reviewed, of which 75 cases with complete secondary palate bony cleft were selected in this study. The CT scan and intraoral photograph were taken before operation. The patients were classified as four types according to the extent of soft tissue defect. Type 1: soft tissue defect reached incisive foremen region, Type 2 was hard and soft cleft palate, Type 3 soft cleft palate and Type 4 submucous cleft palate. Type 1 was defined as conformity group (CG). The other three types were defined as inconformity group (ICG) and divided into three subgroups (ICG-I), (ICG-II) and (ICG-III). Fifty-seven patients were in ICG group, and the rate of inconformity was 76% (57/75). The percentage of ICG-I, ICG-II and ICG-III was 47% (27/57), 23% (13/57) and 30% (17/57), respevtively. There are different types of soft tissue deformity with complete secondary palate bony cleft. The inconformity between soft tissue and hard tissue defect exits in 3/4 of isolated cleft palate patients.

  12. Cell based bone tissue engineering in jaw defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Gert J.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Koole, Ron; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    In 6 patients the potency of bone tissue engineering to reconstruct jaw defects was tested. After a bone marrow aspirate was taken, stem cells were cultured, expanded and grown for 7 days on a bone substitute in an osteogenic culture medium to allow formation of a layer of extracellular bone matrix.

  13. Reconstruction of complicated skull base defects utilizing free tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalilian, Hamid R; Gapany, Markus; Levine, Samuel C

    2002-11-01

    We managed five patients with large skull base defects complicated by complex infections with microvascular free tissue transfer. The first patient developed an infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and meningitis after undergoing a translabyrinthine resection of an acoustic neuroma. The second patient had a history of a gunshot wound to the temporal bone, with a large defect and an infected cholesteatoma that caused several episodes of meningitis. The third through the fifth patients had persistent CSF leakage and infection refractory to conventional therapy. In all cases prior attempts of closure with fat grafts or regional flaps had failed. Rectus abdominis myofascial free flap, radial forearm free flap or a gracilis muscle free flap was used after debridement of the infected cavities. The CSF leaks, local infections, and meningitis were controlled within a week. In our experience, microvascular free tissue provides the necessary bulk of viable, well-vascularized tissue, which not only assures a mechanical seal but also helps clear the local infection.

  14. Uso del regenerador dérmico Integra® como material de relleno para el tratamiento de defectos del contorno corporal Use of Integra® dermal regeneration template in deep tissue planes for contour defects treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Gómez Morell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el tratamiento de los defectos de contorno corporal se usan múltiples productos biológicos y/o sintéticos. Cuando el volumen no es grande, los autores plantean el uso del regenerador dérmico Integra® eliminando previamente su capa superficial de silicona frente a los inconvenientes que presenta el uso de otros materiales de relleno en Cirugía Plástica (reabsorción variable, intolerancia, infección, granulomas, calcificación, etc. Dicho producto acaba transformándose en neodermis del propio paciente, bien tolerada. Presentamos dos casos con defectos a nivel frontal (postraumático y en tórax anterior (secuelas de reconstrucción tras mastectomía respectivamente, en los que se colocó Integra® en bolsillos profundos y doblado sobre sí mismo para aumentar su volumen. Los resultados son previsibles, con mínima reabsorción y además son duraderos, con seguimiento a los 6 y 12 meses. Los autores recomiendan el uso del regenerador dérmico en volúmenes moderados y/o pequeños, considerando que en grandes volúmenes es preferible el uso del colgajos autólogos y/o colgajos más prótesis.In the treatment of body contour defects we can use many biological and synthetic products. They have many inconvenient effects as variable reabsortion, intolerance, infection, granulomas, calcification, etc. In moderate defects, the authors propose the use of modificated Integra® dermal regeneration template without the superficial silicone layer. Two patients are reported, one with a traumatic frontal defect and another with a depression in the anterior thorax after postmastectomy breast reconstruction post mastectomy. In both we put Integra® into a subcutaneous pocket and we bent it to increase lamina volume. Results are predictable, permanent, with minimal reabsortion after 6 and 12 months follow up. Integra® will be autologous neodermis. The authors recommend the dermal regeneration template for small or medium defects; in large defects they

  15. Deep-level defects in semiconductors: studies by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerlaan, C.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This work is divided into two parts. In the first one, the following topics are discussed: paramagnetic centers in semiconductors, principles of magnetic resonance, spin-Hamiltonian, g-tensor, hyperfine interaction, magnetic resonance spectrometer. In the second part it is dicussed defects studied by magnetic resonance including vacancy and divacancy in silicon, iron in silicon, nitrogen in diamond and antisite defects in III-V compounds. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. Talbot effect of the defective grating in deep Fresnel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shuyun; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yuwei

    2015-02-01

    Talbot effect of the grating with different defect is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The defects of grating include the loss of the diffraction unit, the dislocation of the diffraction unit and the modulation of the unit separation. The exact diffraction distributions of three kinds of defective gratings are obtained according to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The calculation results show the image of the missing or dislocating unit appears at the Talbot distance (as mentioned in K. Patorski Prog. Opt., 27, 1989, pp.1-108). This is the so-called self-repair ability of grating imaging. In addition, some more phenomena are discovered. The loss or the dislocation of diffraction unit causes the diffraction distortion within a certain radial angle. The regular modulation of unit separation changes the original diffraction, but the new periodicity of the diffraction distribution rebuilds. The self-imaging of grating with smaller random modulation still keeps the partial self-repair ability, and yet this characteristic depends on the modulation degree of defective grating. These diffraction phenomena of the defective gratings are explained by use of the diffraction theory of grating. The practical experiment is also performed and the experimental results confirm the theoretic predictions.

  17. Fabric defect detection based on visual saliency using deep feature and low-rank recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhoufeng; Wang, Baorui; Li, Chunlei; Li, Bicao; Dong, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Fabric defect detection plays an important role in improving the quality of fabric product. In this paper, a novel fabric defect detection method based on visual saliency using deep feature and low-rank recovery was proposed. First, unsupervised training is carried out by the initial network parameters based on MNIST large datasets. The supervised fine-tuning of fabric image library based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) is implemented, and then more accurate deep neural network model is generated. Second, the fabric images are uniformly divided into the image block with the same size, then we extract their multi-layer deep features using the trained deep network. Thereafter, all the extracted features are concentrated into a feature matrix. Third, low-rank matrix recovery is adopted to divide the feature matrix into the low-rank matrix which indicates the background and the sparse matrix which indicates the salient defect. In the end, the iterative optimal threshold segmentation algorithm is utilized to segment the saliency maps generated by the sparse matrix to locate the fabric defect area. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature extracted by CNN is more suitable for characterizing the fabric texture than the traditional LBP, HOG and other hand-crafted features extraction method, and the proposed method can accurately detect the defect regions of various fabric defects, even for the image with complex texture.

  18. Point defects in gallium arsenide characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, R.; Gronsky, R.; Sterne, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a unique technique for detection of vacancy related defects in both as-grown and irradiated materials. The authors present a systematic study of vacancy defects in stoichiometrically controlled p-type Gallium Arsenide grown by the Hot-Wall Czochralski method. Microstructural information based on PALS, was correlated to crystallographic data and electrical measurements. Vacancies were detected and compared to electrical levels detected by deep level transient spectroscopy and stoichiometry based on crystallographic data

  19. Scratching the surface: the processing of pain from deep tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2016-04-01

    Although most pain research focuses on skin, muscles, joints and viscerae are major sources of pain. We discuss the mechanisms of deep pains arising from somatic and visceral structures and how this can lead to widespread manifestations and chronification. We include how both altered peripheral and central sensory neurotransmission lead to deep pain states and comment on key areas such as top-down modulation where little is known. It is vital that the clinical characterization of deep pain in patients is improved to allow for back translation to preclinical models so that the missing links can be ascertained. The contribution of deeper somatic and visceral tissues to various chronic pain syndromes is common but there is much we need to know.

  20. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, John S; Yeh, Alexander J; Neofytou, Evgenios; Kim, Sanghoek; Tanabe, Yuji; Patlolla, Bhagat; Beygui, Ramin E; Poon, Ada S Y

    2014-06-03

    The ability to implant electronic systems in the human body has led to many medical advances. Progress in semiconductor technology paved the way for devices at the scale of a millimeter or less ("microimplants"), but the miniaturization of the power source remains challenging. Although wireless powering has been demonstrated, energy transfer beyond superficial depths in tissue has so far been limited by large coils (at least a centimeter in diameter) unsuitable for a microimplant. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome by a method, termed midfield powering, to create a high-energy density region deep in tissue inside of which the power-harvesting structure can be made extremely small. Unlike conventional near-field (inductively coupled) coils, for which coupling is limited by exponential field decay, a patterned metal plate is used to induce spatially confined and adaptive energy transport through propagating modes in tissue. We use this method to power a microimplant (2 mm, 70 mg) capable of closed-chest wireless control of the heart that is orders of magnitude smaller than conventional pacemakers. With exposure levels below human safety thresholds, milliwatt levels of power can be transferred to a deep-tissue (>5 cm) microimplant for both complex electronic function and physiological stimulation. The approach developed here should enable new generations of implantable systems that can be integrated into the body at minimal cost and risk.

  2. Tetralogy of Fallot with restrictive ventricular septal defect by accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipat Raj Soni; Deepak A. Bohara; Ajay U. Mahajan; Pratap J. Nathani

    2012-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot septal defect is usually large because of malalignment of outlet septum, restrictive defect has been reported rarely. We present a case of tetralogy of Fallot with accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue restricting ventricular septal defect. The report includes echocardiographic and catheter images of this rare presentation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  3. Discriminating a deep defect from shallow acceptors in supercell calculations: gallium antisite in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter

    To make reliable first principles predictions of defect energies in semiconductors, it is crucial to discriminate between effective-mass-like defects--for which existing supercell methods fail--and deep defects--for which density functional theory calculations can yield reliable predictions of defect energy levels. The gallium antisite GaAs is often associated with the 78/203 meV shallow double acceptor in Ga-rich gallium arsenide. Within a framework of level occupation patterns, analyses of structure and spin stabilization can be used within a supercell approach to distinguish localized deep defect states from shallow acceptors such as BAs. This systematic analysis determines that the gallium antisite is inconsistent with a shallow state, and cannot be the 78/203 shallow double acceptor. The properties of the Ga antisite in GaAs are described, predicting that the Ga antisite is a deep double acceptor and has two donor states, one of which might be accidentally shallow. -- Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Tutorial: Junction spectroscopy techniques and deep-level defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaker, A. R.; Markevich, V. P.; Coutinho, J.

    2018-04-01

    The term junction spectroscopy embraces a wide range of techniques used to explore the properties of semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices. In this tutorial review, we describe the most widely used junction spectroscopy approaches for characterizing deep-level defects in semiconductors and present some of the early work on which the principles of today's methodology are based. We outline ab-initio calculations of defect properties and give examples of how density functional theory in conjunction with formation energy and marker methods can be used to guide the interpretation of experimental results. We review recombination, generation, and trapping of charge carriers associated with defects. We consider thermally driven emission and capture and describe the techniques of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), high resolution Laplace DLTS, admittance spectroscopy, and scanning DLTS. For the study of minority carrier related processes and wide gap materials, we consider Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS), Optical DLTS, and deep level optical transient spectroscopy together with some of their many variants. Capacitance, current, and conductance measurements enable carrier exchange processes associated with the defects to be detected. We explain how these methods are used in order to understand the behaviour of point defects and the determination of charge states and negative-U (Hubbard correlation energy) behaviour. We provide, or reference, examples from a wide range of materials including Si, SiGe, GaAs, GaP, GaN, InGaN, InAlN, and ZnO.

  5. Hydrogen effects on deep level defects in proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Seol, M.S.; Kwak, D.W.; Oh, J.S. [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, J.H. [Photo-electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.Y., E-mail: hycho@dongguk.edu [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen effects on deep level defects and a defect generation in proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) based thin films for solar cell were investigated. CIGS films with a thickness of 3 {mu}m were grown on a soda-lime glass substrate by a co-evaporation method, and then were implanted with protons. To study deep level defects in the proton implanted CIGS films, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements on the CIGS-based solar cells were carried out, these measurements found 6 traps (including 3 hole traps and 3 electron traps). In the proton implanted CIGS films, the deep level defects, which are attributed to the recombination centers of the CIGS solar cell, were significantly reduced in intensity, while a deep level defect was generated around 0.28 eV above the valence band maximum. Therefore, we suggest that most deep level defects in CIGS films can be controlled by hydrogen effects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton implanted Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film and solar cell are prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep level defects of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film and solar cell are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogenation using proton implantation and H{sub 2} annealing reduces deep level defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogenation could enhance electrical properties and efficiency of solar cells.

  6. High resolution deep level transient spectroscopy and process-induced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans-Freeman, J.H.; Emiroglu, D.; Vernon-Parry, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    High resolution, or Laplace, deep level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) enables the identification of very closely spaced energetic levels in a semiconductor bandgap. DLTS may resolve peaks with a separation of tens of electron volts, but LDLTS can resolve defect energy separations as low as a few MeV. In this paper, we present results from LDLTS applied to ion implantation-induced defects in silicon, with particular emphasis on characterisation of end-of-range interstitial type defects. Silicon was implanted with a variety of ions from mass 28 to 166. A combination of LDLTS and direct capture cross-section measurements was employed to show that electrically active small extended defects were present in the as-implanted samples. Larger dislocations were then generated in Si by oxygenation to act as a control sample. These stacking faults had typical lengths of microns, and their electrical activity was subsequently characterised by LDLTS. This was to establish the sensitivity of LDLTS to defects whose carrier capture is characterised by a non-exponential filling process and an evolving band structure as carrier capture proceeds. The LDLTS spectra show several components in capacitance transients originating from both the end-of-range defects, and the stacking faults, and also clearly show that the carrier emission rates reduce as these extended defects fill with carriers. The end-of-range defects and the stacking faults are shown to have the same electrical behaviour

  7. The method of diagnosis and classification of the gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Bulbuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For solving the problem of diagnosis and treatment of hard tissue defects the significant role belongs to the choice of tactics for dental treatment of hard tissue defects located in the gingival line of any tooth. This work aims to study the problems of diagnosis and classification of gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues. That will contribute to the objectification of differentiated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the dental treatment of various clinical variants of these defects localization. The objective of the study – is to develop the anatomical-functional classification for differentiated estimation of hard tissue defects in the gingival part, as the basis for the application of differential diagnostic-therapeutic approaches to the dental treatment of hard tissue defects disposed in the gingival part of any tooth. Materials and methods of investigation: There was conducted the examination of 48 patients with hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. To assess the magnitude of gingival line destruction the periodontal probe and X-ray examination were used. Results. The result of the performed research the classification of the gingival line defects of the hard tissues was offered using exponent power. The value of this indicator is equal to an integer number expressed in millimeters of distance from the epithelial attachment to the cavity’s bottom of defect. Conclusions. The proposed classification fills an obvious gap in academic representations about hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. Also it offers the prospects of consensus on differentiated diagnostic-therapeutic approaches in different clinical variants of location.  This classification builds methodological “bridge of continuity” between therapeutic and prosthetic dentistry in the field of treatment of the gingival line defects of dental hard tissues.

  8. Guided tissue regeneration for periodontal infra-bony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, I G; Worthington, H V; Giedrys-Leeper, E; Tucker, R J

    2006-04-19

    Conventional treatment of destructive periodontal (gum) disease arrests the disease but does not usually regain the bone support or connective tissue lost in the disease process. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical procedure that specifically aims to regenerate the periodontal tissues when the disease is advanced and could overcome some of the limitations of conventional therapy. To assess the efficacy of GTR in the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects measured against conventional surgery (open flap debridement (OFD)) and factors affecting outcomes. We conducted an electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2004. Handsearching included Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and bibliographies of all relevant papers and review articles up to April 2004. In addition, we contacted experts/groups/companies involved in surgical research to find other trials or unpublished material or to clarify ambiguous or missing data and posted requests for data on two periodontal electronic discussion groups. Randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 12 months duration comparing guided tissue regeneration (with or without graft materials) with open flap debridement for the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects. Furcation involvements and studies specifically treating aggressive periodontitis were excluded. Screening of possible studies and data extraction was conducted independently. The methodological quality of studies was assessed in duplicate using individual components and agreement determined by Kappa scores. Methodological quality was used in sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the conclusions. The Cochrane Oral Health Group statistical guidelines were followed and the results expressed as mean differences (MD and 95% CI) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR and 95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes calculated using

  9. Treatment of deep hyalin cartilage defects with autologous perichondrial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, J; Steinhagen, J

    2003-07-01

    Perichondrial transplantation was performed in 29 patients suffering from a deep chondral lesion with different etiologies. Only those patients with a cartilage lesion in the knee joint were included. Patients were initially and postoperatively examined using the Lysholm- and HSS-Score. In most of the patients (20/29) trauma and the recurrence of osteochondrosis dissecans (6/29) were the cause of the cartilage lesion. Most often the medial femoral condyle (19/29) and, secondly, the lateral femoral condyle (5/29) were involved. In six patients additional therapeutic measures (ACL-plasty, n = 2; high tibial osteotomy because of varus mal-alignment, n = 4) had to be adopted. Follow-up examination was possible in 26/29 patients after a minimum postoperative period of 12 months. All patients exhibited a distinct and significant increase in both the Lysholm and the HSS-score. A follow-up after a minimum of 24 months was possible in 13/29 patients. Even these patients exhibited a distinct and significant improvement. Multiple follow-up examinations in 9/29 patients demonstrated maintenance of the first postoperative results obtained after one postoperative year for a maximum of 49 months in most of the patients. Only in one female patient, implantation of a semi-constrained total knee replacement was necessary because of osteoarthrosis resulting from crystal arthropathy (chondrocalcinosis). It was possible to obtain biopsies from three patients at the time osteosynthetic material was removed. In all cases hyaline-like cartilage was histologically observed. In the treatment of selected patients suffering from a circumscript cartilaginous lesion resulting from trauma or the recurrence of osteochondritis dissecans with a concomitant cartilage lesion but without major signs of osteoarthritis, perichondrial grafting can achieve acceptable clinical results, after a short follow-up period. In order to achieve satisfying results a good selection of patients and additional

  10. Opto-ultrasound imaging in vivo in deep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Ke; YanXu; Zheng, Yao; Zhu, Xinpei; Gong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    It is of keen importance of deep tissue imaging with high resolution in vivo. Here we present an opto-ultrasound imaging method which utilizes an ultrasound to confine the laser pulse in a very tiny spot as a guide star. The results show that the imaging depth is 2mm with a resolution of 10um. Meanwhile, the excitation power we used is less than 2mW, which indicates that our methods can be applied in vivo without optical toxicity and optical bleaching due to the excitation power. (paper)

  11. Photoionization spectroscopy of deep defects responsible for current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P B; Binari, S C

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with the characterization and identification of the deep centres that cause current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors. Photoionization spectroscopy is an optical technique that has been developed to probe the characteristics of these defects. Measured spectral dependences provide information on trap depth, lattice coupling and on the location of the defects in the device structure. The spectrum of an individual trap may also be regarded as a 'fingerprint' of the defect, allowing the trap to be followed in response to the variation of external parameters. The basis for these measurements is derived through a modelling procedure that accounts quantitatively for the light-induced drain current increase in the collapsed device. Applying the model to fit the measured variation of drain current increase with light illumination provides an estimate of the concentrations and photoionization cross-sections of the deep defects. The results of photoionization studies of GaN metal-semiconductor field effect transistors and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) are presented and the conclusions regarding the nature of the deep traps responsible are discussed. Finally, recent photoionization studies of current collapse induced by short-term (several hours) bias stress in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are described and analysed for devices grown by both MOCVD and molecular beam epitaxy. (topical review)

  12. Characterization of an anion antisite defect as a deep double donor in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Katsui, A.; Jeon, D.Y.; Watkins, G.D.; Gislason, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    A study of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) on the anion antisite defect in electron irradiated InP has been made by monitoring the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), combined with DLTS experiment. Comparison of the ODMR and DLTS results reveals that the intrinsic anion antisite defect acts as a deep double-donor in the gap. The first ionization (D o /D 1+ ) process occurs both in thermal and optical excitation as a mid-gap electron trap, detected by DLTS and DLOS experiment. (author) 12 refs., 6 figs

  13. Effects of deep impurities and structural defects in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galluzzi, F.; Scafe, E.; Beghi, M.; Fossati, S.; Tincani, M.; Pizzini, S.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive experimental study of minority carrier recombination in CZ grown polycrystalline silicon intentionally doped with metallic impurities (Ti, V, Fe, Cr, Zr) is reported. Experimental values of average diffusion lengths have been compared with values calculated by a simple model of carrier recombination, taking into account the effects of impurities, grain boundaries and intragrain crystal defects. The results are fairly consistent and allow the determination of threshold densities for structural defects and deep impurities. The author's analysis gives a simple quantitative description of recombination processes in solar-grade silicon, as far as the average behaviour is concerned

  14. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  15. Irradiation induced defects containing oxygen atoms in germanium crystal as studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Kambe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Matsuda, Koji.

    1984-05-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was applied to the electron trapping levels which are associated with the irradiation induced lattice defects in germanium crystals. The germanium crystals used in the study were doped with oxygen, antimony or arsenic and the defects were formed by electron irradiation of 1.5MeV or 10MeV. The nature of so called ''thermal defect'' formed by heat treatment at about 670K was also studied. The trapping levels at Esub(c)-0.13eV, Esub(c)-0.25eV and Esub(c)-0.29eV were found to be associated with defects containing oxygen atoms. From the experimental results the Esub(c)-0.25eV level was attributed to the germanium A-center (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy pair). Another defect associated with the 715cm -1 infrared absorption band was found to have a trapping level at the same position at Esub(c)-0.25eV. The Esub(c)-0.23eV and Esub(c)-0.1eV levels were revealed to be associated with thermal donors formed by heat treatment at about 670K. Additional two peaks (levels) were observed in the DLTS spectrum. The annealing behavior of the levels suggests that the thermal donors originate from not a single type but several types of defects. (author)

  16. Anomalous behaviors of E1/E2 deep level defects in 6H silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.D.; Ling, C.C.; Gong, M.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

    2005-01-01

    Deep level defects E 1 /E 2 were observed in He-implanted, 0.3 and 1.7 MeV electron-irradiated n-type 6H-SiC. Similar to others' results, the behaviors of E 1 and E 2 (like the peak intensity ratio, the annealing behaviors or the introduction rates) often varied from sample to sample. This anomalous result is not expected of E 1 /E 2 being usually considered arising from the same defect located at the cubic and hexagonal sites respectively. The present study shows that this anomaly is due to another DLTS peak overlapping with the E 1 /E 2 . The activation energy and the capture cross section of this defect are E C -0.31 eV and σ∼8x10 -14 cm 2 , respectively

  17. Optimising Aesthetic Reconstruction of Scalp Soft Tissue by an Algorithm Based on Defect Size and Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Adrian Sh; Kanapathy, Muholan; Ong, Yee Siang; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem

    2015-11-01

    Scalp soft tissue defects are common and result from a variety of causes. Reconstructive methods should maximise cosmetic outcomes by maintaining hair-bearing tissue and aesthetic hairlines. This article outlines an algorithm based on a diverse clinical case series to optimise scalp soft tissue coverage. A retrospective analysis of scalp soft tissue reconstruction cases performed at the Singapore General Hospital between January 2004 and December 2013 was conducted. Forty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of defects aesthetic outcome while minimising complications and repeat procedures.

  18. Current Therapeutic Strategies for Adipose Tissue Defects/Repair Using Engineered Biomaterials and Biomolecule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Mahoney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineered scaffolds for adipose restoration/repair has significantly evolved in recent years. Patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction, caused by defects or pathology, require biomaterials that will restore void volume with new functional tissue. The gold standard of autologous fat grafting (AFG is not a reliable option. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic strategies for the treatment of adipose tissue defects using biomolecule formulations and delivery, and specifically engineered biomaterials. Additionally, the clinical need for reliable off-the-shelf therapies, animal models, and challenges facing current technologies are discussed.

  19. Current Therapeutic Strategies for Adipose Tissue Defects/Repair Using Engineered Biomaterials and Biomolecule Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Christopher M; Imbarlina, Cayla; Yates, Cecelia C; Marra, Kacey G

    2018-01-01

    Tissue engineered scaffolds for adipose restoration/repair has significantly evolved in recent years. Patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction, caused by defects or pathology, require biomaterials that will restore void volume with new functional tissue. The gold standard of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is not a reliable option. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic strategies for the treatment of adipose tissue defects using biomolecule formulations and delivery, and specifically engineered biomaterials. Additionally, the clinical need for reliable off-the-shelf therapies, animal models, and challenges facing current technologies are discussed.

  20. Effect of deep native defects on ultrasound propagation in TlInS{sub 2} layered crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid Avenue, 33, AZ-1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, Rauf A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid Avenue, 33, AZ-1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov Avenue 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus); Kırbaş, Cafer [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK UME), PQ 54 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    We have investigated p-type semiconductor–ferroelectric TlInS{sub 2} by means of Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) technique in the temperature range 77–350 K for the detection of native deep defect levels in TlInS{sub 2}. Five native deep defect levels were detected and their energy levels and capture cross sections were evaluated. Focusing on these data, the influence of these defects on the longitudinal and transverse ultrasound waves propagation as well as the effect of electric field on ultrasound waves were studied at different temperatures. The acoustic properties were investigated by the pulse-echo method. The direct contribution of thermally activated charged defects to the acoustic properties of TlInS{sub 2} was demonstrated. The key role of charged native deep level defects in elastic properties of TlInS{sub 2} was shown.

  1. Extended deep level defects in Ge-condensed SiGe-on-Insulator structures fabricated using proton and helium implantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Oh, J.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Cho, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) structures were created using the Ge condensation method, where an oxidation process is performed on the SiGe/Si structure. This method involves rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition and H + /He + ion-implantations. Deep level defects in these structures were investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) by varying the pulse injection time. According to the DLTS measurements, a deep level defect induced during the Ge condensation process was found at 0.28 eV above the valence band with a capture cross section of 2.67 × 10 −17 cm 2 , two extended deep levels were also found at 0.54 eV and 0.42 eV above the valence band with capture cross sections of 3.17 × 10 −14 cm 2 and 0.96 × 10 −15 cm 2 , respectively. In the SGOI samples with ion-implantation, the densities of the newly generated defects as well as the existing defects were decreased effectively. Furthermore, the Coulomb barrier heights of the extended deep level defects were drastically reduced. Thus, we suggest that the Ge condensation method with H + ion implantation could reduce deep level defects generated from the condensation and control the electrical properties of the condensed SiGe layers. - Highlights: ► We have fabricated low-defective SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) with implantation method. ► H + and He + -ions are used for ion-implantation method. ► We have investigated the deep level defects of SGOI layers. ► Ge condensation method using H + ion implantation could reduce extended defects. ► They could enhance electrical properties.

  2. Behavior of deep level defects on voltage-induced stress of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Cho, S.E. [Department of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, J.H. [Solar Cell Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.Y., E-mail: hycho@dongguk.edu [Department of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    The behavior of deep level defects by a voltage-induced stress for CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells has been investigated. CIGS solar cells were used with standard structures which are Al-doped ZnO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGSe{sub 2}/Mo on soda lime glass, and that resulted in conversion efficiencies as high as 16%. The samples with the same structure were isothermally stressed at 100 °C under the reverse voltages. The voltage-induced stressing in CIGS samples causes a decrease in the carrier density and conversion efficiency. To investigate the behavior of deep level defects in the stressed CIGS cells, photo-induced current transient spectroscopy was utilized, and normally 3 deep level defects (including 2 hole traps and 1 electron trap) were found to be located at 0.18 eV and 0.29 eV above the valence band maximum (and 0.36 eV below the conduction band). In voltage-induced cells, especially, it was found that the decrease of the hole carrier density could be responsible for the increase of the 0.29 eV defect, which is known to be observed in less efficient CIGS solar cells. And the carrier density and the defects are reversible at least to a large extent by resting at room-temperature without the bias voltage. From optical capture kinetics in photo-induced current transient spectroscopy measurement, the types of defects could be distinguished into the isolated point defect and the extended defect. In this work, it is suggested that the increase of the 0.29 eV defect by voltage-induced stress could be due to electrical activation accompanied by a loss of positive ion species and the activated defect gives rise to reduction of the carrier density. - Highlights: • We investigated behavior of deep level defects by voltage-induced stress. • Defect generation could affect the decrease of the conversion efficiency of cells. • Defect generation could be electrically activated by a loss of positive ion species. • Type of defects could be studied with models of point defects

  3. Efficacy of Connective Tissue with and without Periosteum in Regeneration of Intrabony Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Esfahanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Connective tissue grafts with and without periosteum is used in regenerative treatments of bone and has demonstrated successful outcomes in previous investigations. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effec-tiveness of connective tissue graft with and without periosteum in regeneration of intrabony defects. Materials and methods. In this single-blind randomized split-mouth clinical trial, 15 pairs of intrabony defects in 15 pa-tients with moderate to advanced periodontitis were treated by periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (test group or non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM (control group. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, free gingi-val margin position, bone crestal position, crest defect depth and defect depth to stent were measured at baseline and after six months by surgical re-entry. Data was analyzed by Student’s t-test and paired t-tests (α=0.05. Results. Changes in clinical parameters after 6 months in the test and control groups were as follows: mean of PPD reduc-tion: 3.1±0.6 (P<0.0001; 2.5±1.0 mm (P<0.0001, CAL gain: 2.3±0.9 (P<0.0001; 2.2±1.0 mm (P<0.0001, bone fill: 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001; 2.2±0.7 mm (P<0.0001, respectively. No significant differences in the position of free gingival margin were observed during 6 months compared to baseline in both groups. Conclusion. Combinations of periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM and non-periosteal connective tissue graft + ABBM were similarly effective in treating intrabony defects without any favor for any group. Connective tissue and perio-steum can be equally effective in regeneration of intrabony defects.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  5. Bone tissue ultrastructural defects in a mouse model for osteogenesis imperfecta: a Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsoching; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2004-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is genetic defect in which the genes that code for the α1(I) or α2(I) chains of type I collagen are defective. The defects often result in substitution of a bulky amino acid for glycine, causing formation of collagen that can not form the normal triple helix. Depending on the details of the defects, the outcomes range from controllable to lethal. This study focuses on OI type IV, a more common and moderately severe form of the disease. People with the disease have a substantial increase in the risk and rate of fracture. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of these defects, using a mouse model (BRTL) that mimics OI type IV. We compare Raman images from tibial cortical tissue of wild-type mice and BRTL mice with single copy of mutation and show that both mineral to matrix ratios and collagen inter-fibril cross-links are different in wild-type and mutant mice.

  6. Defective Wound-healing in Aging Gingival Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, M; Oyarzun, A; Smith, P C

    2014-07-01

    Aging may negatively affect gingival wound-healing. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The present study examined the cellular responses associated with gingival wound-healing in aging. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were obtained from healthy young and aged donors for the analysis of cell proliferation, cell invasion, myofibroblastic differentiation, and collagen gel remodeling. Serum from young and old rats was used to stimulate cell migration. Gingival repair was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a p value of .05. Fibroblasts from aged donors showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation, migration, Rac activation, and collagen remodeling when compared with young fibroblasts. Serum from young rats induced higher cell migration when compared with serum from old rats. After TGF-beta1 stimulation, both young and old fibroblasts demonstrated increased levels of alpha-SMA. However, alpha-SMA was incorporated into actin stress fibers in young but not in old fibroblasts. After 7 days of repair, a significant delay in gingival wound-healing was observed in old rats. The present study suggests that cell migration, myofibroblastic differentiation, collagen gel remodeling, and proliferation are decreased in aged fibroblasts. In addition, altered cell migration in wound-healing may be attributable not only to cellular defects but also to changes in serum factors associated with the senescence process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  7. Connective tissue graft as a biological barrier for guided tissue regeneration in intrabony defects: a histological study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; da Silva, Vanessa Camila; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio

    2015-06-01

    The use of the autogenous periosteal graft as biological barrier has been proposed for periodontal regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histometric findings of the subepithelial connective tissue graft as barrier in intrabony defects compared to a bioabsorbable membrane. Three-walled intrabony defects were created surgically in the mesial aspect of the right and left maxillary canines in five healthy mongrel dogs. The defects were chronified, and two types of barriers were randomly carried out for guided tissue regeneration in a split-mouth design: the test group with a subepithelial connective tissue graft and the control group with a bioabsorbable membrane. The specimens were processed for histometric analyses of the epithelium (E), connective tissue (CT), newly formed cementum (NC), new bone (NB), and total newly formed tissues (NFT). The test side showed smaller mean of NC (3.6 ± 1.2), NB (2.1 ± 0.7), and NFT (7.7 ± 0.8) than the control group (NC 7.3 ± 0.5; NB 5.3 ± 1.3; NFT 10.1 ± 2.2; P  0.05) and CT (test 2.5 ± 1.1; control 2.0 ± 0.5; P > 0.05) between groups. The bioabsorbable membrane was more effective in maintaining the space for periodontal regeneration than periosteal connective graft when used as barrier. The bioabsorbable membrane showed more favorable regenerative results in intrabony defects in dogs than the subepithelial connective tissue graft as biological barrier.

  8. Strain-time cell death threshold for skeletal muscle in a tissue-engineered model system for deep tissue injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefen, A.; Nierop, van B.J.; Bader, D.L.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe pressure ulcer that results from sustained deformation of muscle tissue overlying bony prominences. In order to understand the etiology of DTI, it is essential to determine the tolerance of muscle cells to large mechanical strains. In this study, a new

  9. Thermoluminescent and dosimetric properties of anion-defective a-Al2O3 single crystals with filled deep traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.S.; Milman, I.I.; Nikiforov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Some new experimental results illustrating the effect of deep traps on luminescent and dosimetric properties of anion-defective single crystals of a-Al 2 O 3 have been described. It was found that deep traps had an electronic origin. They were filled thanks to the photoionisation of F-centres and their filling was accompanied by the conversion of FF+ centres. The experiments revealed an interactive interaction of deep trapping centres. A model taking into account the thermal ionisation of excited states of F-centres was proposed. This model describes the trap filling process and mechanisms of the radio-, photo- and thermoluminescence, TSC and TSEE of the crystals under study. The sensitivity of TLD-500 detectors based on anion-defective a-Al 2 O 3 equalised when deep trapping centres were filled. (author)

  10. Biomimetic coatings for bone tissue engineering of critical-sized defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wu, G.; de Groot, K.

    2010-01-01

    The repair of critical-sized bone defects is still challenging in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. Current therapies such as autografts and allografts are associated with various limitations. Cytokine-based bone tissue engineering has been attracting increasing

  11. Reconstruction for Skull Base Defect Using Fat-Containing Perifascial Areolar Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Young; Sung, Ki Wook; Kim, Young Seok; Hong, Jong Won; Roh, Tai Suk; Lew, Dae Hyun; Chang, Jong Hee; Lee, Kyu Sung

    2017-06-01

    Skull base reconstruction is a challenging task. The method depends on the anatomical complexity and size of the defect. We obtained tissue by harvesting fat-containing perifascial areolar tissue (PAT) for reconstruction of limited skull base defects and volume augmentation. We demonstrated the effective option for reconstruction of limited skull base defects and volume augmentation. From October 2013 to November 2015, 5 patients underwent operations using fat-containing PAT to fill the defect in skull base and/or perform volume replacement in the forehead. Perifascial areolar tissue with 5- to 10-mm fat thickness was harvested from the inguinal region. The fat-containing PAT was grafted to the defect contacting the vascularized wound bed. Patients were followed up in terms of their clinical symptoms and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings. Four patients were treated using fat-containing PAT after tumor resection. One patient was treated for a posttraumatic forehead depression deformity. The fat-containing PAT included 5- to 9-mm fat thickness in all cases. The mean size of grafted PAT was 65.6 cm (28-140 cm). The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months (12-31 months). There was no notable complication. There was no donor site morbidity. We can harvest PAT with fat easily and obtain the sufficient volume to treat the defect. It also could be used with other reconstructive method, such as a free flap or a regional flap to fill the left dead space. Therefore, fat-containing PAT could be additional options to reconstruction of skull base defect.

  12. DEEP LEARNING AND IMAGE PROCESSING FOR AUTOMATED CRACK DETECTION AND DEFECT MEASUREMENT IN UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Panella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the combination of Deep-Learning (DL and image processing to produce an automated cracks recognition and defect measurement tool for civil structures. The authors focus on tunnel civil structures and survey and have developed an end to end tool for asset management of underground structures. In order to maintain the serviceability of tunnels, regular inspection is needed to assess their structural status. The traditional method of carrying out the survey is the visual inspection: simple, but slow and relatively expensive and the quality of the output depends on the ability and experience of the engineer as well as on the total workload (stress and tiredness may influence the ability to observe and record information. As a result of these issues, in the last decade there is the desire to automate the monitoring using new methods of inspection. The present paper has the goal of combining DL with traditional image processing to create a tool able to detect, locate and measure the structural defect.

  13. Porous decellularized tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage as a scaffold for large bone defect healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Gráinne M; Vinardell, Tatiana; Murphy, J Mary; Thompson, Emmet M; Matsiko, Amos; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Clinical translation of tissue engineered therapeutics is hampered by the significant logistical and regulatory challenges associated with such products, prompting increased interest in the use of decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) to enhance endogenous regeneration. Most bones develop and heal by endochondral ossification, the replacement of a hypertrophic cartilaginous intermediary with bone. The hypothesis of this study is that a porous scaffold derived from decellularized tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage will retain the necessary signals to instruct host cells to accelerate endogenous bone regeneration. Cartilage tissue (CT) and hypertrophic cartilage tissue (HT) were engineered using human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, decellularized and the remaining ECM was freeze-dried to generate porous scaffolds. When implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, only the decellularized HT-derived scaffolds were found to induce vascularization and de novo mineral accumulation. Furthermore, when implanted into critically-sized femoral defects, full bridging was observed in half of the defects treated with HT scaffolds, while no evidence of such bridging was found in empty controls. Host cells which had migrated throughout the scaffold were capable of producing new bone tissue, in contrast to fibrous tissue formation within empty controls. These results demonstrate the capacity of decellularized engineered tissues as 'off-the-shelf' implants to promote tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory processing of deep tissue nociception in the rat spinal cord and thalamic ventrobasal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; West, Steven J; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs. Neurons of the thalamic ventrobasal complex (VBC) mediate both cutaneous and deep tissue sensory processing, but in contrast to the lateral spinal nucleus our electrophysiological studies do not suggest the existence of a subgroup of cells that selectively process deep tissue inputs. The sensitization of polymodal and thermospecific VBC neurons to mechanical somatosensory stimulation following acute muscle stimulation with hypertonic saline suggests differential roles of thalamic subpopulations in mediating cutaneous and deep tissue nociception in pathological states. Overall, our studies at both the spinal (lateral spinal nucleus) and supraspinal (thalamic ventrobasal complex) levels suggest a convergence of cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs onto spinothalamic pathways, which are unmasked by activation of muscle nociceptive afferents to produce consequent phenotypic alterations in spinal and thalamic neural coding of somatosensory stimulation. A better understanding of the sensory pathways involved in deep tissue nociception, as well as the degree of labeled line and convergent pathways for cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs, is fundamental to developing targeted analgesic therapies for deep pain syndromes. © 2017 University College London. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals

  15. Referred pain and cutaneous responses from deep tissue electrical pain stimulation in the groin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2015-01-01

    , supporting individual differences in anatomy and sensory processing. Future studies investigating the responses to deep tissue electrical stimulation in persistent postherniotomy pain patients may advance our understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and strategies for treatment...

  16. Use of autologous tissue engineered skin to treat porcine full-thickness skin defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xia; CAO Yi-lin; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; GUAN Wen-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a feasible method to repair full-thickness skin defects utilizing tissue engineered techniques. Methods: The Changfeng hybrid swines were used and the skin specimens were cut from the posterior limb girdle region, from which the keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated and harvested by trypsin, EDTA, and type II collagenase. The cells were seeded in Petri dishes for primary culture. When the cells were in logarithmic growth phase, they were treated with trypsin to separate them from the floor of the tissue culture dishes. A biodegradable material, Pluronic F-127, was prefabricated and mixed with these cells, and then the cell-Pluronic compounds were seeded evenly into a polyglycolic acid (PGA). Then the constructs were replanted to the autologous animals to repair the full-thickness skin defects. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 postoperative weeks. Results: The cell-Pluronic F-127-PGA compounds repaired autologous full-thickness skin defects 1 week after implantation. Histologically, the tissue engineered skin was similar to the normal skin with stratified epidermis overlying a moderately thick collageneous dermis. Three of the structural proteins in the epidermal basement membrane zone, type IV collagen, laminin, and type VII collagen were detected using immunohistochemical methods. Conclusions: By studying the histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue, the bioengineered skin graft holds great promise for improving healing of the skin defects.

  17. Digital design of scaffold for mandibular defect repair based on tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-feng; Zhu, Fu-dong; Dong, Xing-tao; Peng, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mandibular defect occurs more frequently in recent years, and clinical repair operations via bone transplantation are difficult to be further improved due to some intrinsic flaws. Tissue engineering, which is a hot research field of biomedical engineering, provides a new direction for mandibular defect repair. As the basis and key part of tissue engineering, scaffolds have been widely and deeply studied in regards to the basic theory, as well as the principle of biomaterial, structure, design, and fabrication method. However, little research is targeted at tissue regeneration for clinic repair operations. Since mandibular bone has a special structure, rather than uniform and regular structure in existing studies, a methodology based on tissue engineering is proposed for mandibular defect repair in this paper. Key steps regarding scaffold digital design, such as external shape design and internal microstructure design directly based on triangular meshes are discussed in detail. By analyzing the theoretical model and the measured data from the test parts fabricated by rapid prototyping, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are properly verified. More works about mechanical and biological improvements need to be done to promote its clinical application in future.

  18. Digital design of scaffold for mandibular defect repair based on tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng LIU; Fu-dong ZHU; Xing-tao DONG; Wei PENG

    2011-01-01

    Mandibular defect occurs more frequently in recent years,and clinical repair operations via bone transplantation are difficult to be further improved due to some intrinsic flaws.Tissue engineering,which is a hot research field of biomedical engineering,provides a new direction for mandibular defect repair.As the basis and key part of tissue engineering,scaffolds have been widely and deeply studied in regards to the basic theory,as well as the principle of biomaterial,structure,design,and fabrication method.However,little research is targeted at tissue regeneration for clinic repair operations.Since mandibular bone has a special structure,rather than uniform and regular structure in existing studies,a methodology based on tissue engineering is proposed for mandibular defect repair in this paper.Key steps regarding scaffold digital design,such as external shape design and internal microstructure design directly based on triangular meshes are discussed in detail.By analyzing the theoretical model and the measured data from the test parts fabricated by rapid prototyping,the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are properly verified.More works about mechanical and biological improvements need to be done to promote its clinical application in future.

  19. Identities of the deep level defects E1/E2 in 6H silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Chen, X.D.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Lam, T.W.; Lam, C.H.; Gong, M.; Weng, H.M.; Hang, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    E 1 /E 2 (E C -0.36/0.44 eV) are deep level donors generally found in ion-implanted, electron and neutron irradiated n-type 6H-SiC materials. Their configurations are controversial and have been related to a negatively charged carbon vacancy, a divacancy or a V Si -complex. With positron lifetime technique, we have identified V Si and V C V Si in the Lely grown n-type 6H-SiC sample, with V Si annealed out at 650 C. Concentration of V C V Si persists at 1400 C annealing and significantly decreased after the 1600 C annealing. Considering the deep level transient spectroscopic (DLTS) results on the neutron irradiated n-type SiC epi sample that E 1 /E 2 completely disappeared after the 1400 C annealing, E 1 /E 2 is not the V C V Si defect. With positron annihilation techniques, A. A. Rempel et al (2002) have shown the energy dependence of vacancy generated by electron irradiation. With low irradiation energy of 0.3MeV, only V C was generated and at higher energy (0.5MeV), Si vacancy was detected. With focus to find the minimum energy for generating E 1 /E 2 , we have performed DLTS studies on n-type epi 6H-SiC materials irradiated by electrons with varying energies. Our results suggest that E 1 /E 2 have microstructure related to a carbon vacancy or a carbon interstitial. (orig.)

  20. Soft Tissue Reconstruction of Complete Circumferential Defects of the Upper Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang Ng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundUpper extremity soft tissue defects with complete circumferential involvement are not common. Coupled with the unique anatomy of the upper extremity, the underlying etiology of such circumferential soft tissue defects represent additional reconstructive challenges that require treatment to be tailored to both the patient and the wound. The aim of this study is to review the various options for soft tissue reconstruction of complete circumferential defects in the upper extremity.MethodsA literature review of PubMed and MEDLINE up to December 2016 was performed. The current study focuses on forearm and arm defects from the level at or proximal to the wrist and were assessed based on Tajima's classification (J Trauma 1974. Data reviewed for analysis included patient demographics, causality, defect size, reconstructive technique(s employed, and postoperative follow-up and functional outcomes (when available.ResultsIn accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, 14 unique articles were identified for a total of 50 patients (mean=28.1 years. Underlying etiologies varied from extensive thermal or electrical burns to high impact trauma leading to degloving or avulsion, crush injuries, or even occur iatrogenically after tumor extirpation or extensive debridement. Treatment options ranged from the application of negative pressure wound dressings to the opposite end of the spectrum in hand transplantation.ConclusionsWith the evolution of reconstructive techniques over time, the extent of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of these complex upper extremity injuries has also improved. The proposed management algorithm comprehensively addresses the inherent challenges associated with these complex cases.

  1. Influence of growth temperature and temperature ramps on deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A. M.; Kelchner, K.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on bulk m-plane GaN substrates as a function of growth temperature (T g ) and T g ramping method was investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy. Understanding the influence of T g on GaN deep level incorporation is important for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) because GaN quantum barrier (QB) layers are grown much colder than thin film GaN to accommodate InGaN QW growth. Deep level spectra of low T g (800 °C) GaN films grown under QB conditions were compared to deep level spectra of high T g (1150 °C) GaN. Reducing T g , increased the defect density significantly (>50×) through introduction of emergent deep level defects at 2.09 eV and 2.9 eV below the conduction band minimum. However, optimizing growth conditions during the temperature ramp when transitioning from high to low T g substantially reduced the density of these emergent deep levels by approximately 40%. The results suggest that it is important to consider the potential for non-radiative recombination in QBs of LED or LD active regions, and tailoring the transition from high T g GaN growth to active layer growth can mitigate such non-radiative channels

  2. Free temporal fascia flap to cover soft tissue defects of the foot: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe soft tissue defects as a result of lye contamination remain a huge challenge in the interdisciplinary approach of trauma surgeons and plastic surgeons. Free tissue transfer is a suitable surgical option for successful reconstruction of form and function of defects in the distal parts of the lower extremities. We report the successful two-stage reconstruction of a full thickness lye contamination at the dorsum of the foot with a free temporoparietal fascia flap covered with a split-thickness skin graft from the thigh. The described method is a suitable operative alternative to anterolateral thigh flaps or other thin fascia flaps regarding flap harvest and donor site morbidity and should be considered in the portfolio of the plastic surgeon.

  3. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  4. [Repair of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengjing, Zhao; Jianmin, Yao; Xingqun, Zhang; Liang, Ma; Longchun, Zhang; Yibo, Xu; Peng, Wang; Zhen, Zhu

    2015-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap in repairing soft tissue defect in hand or foot. Since March 2012 to September 2014, 6 cases with soft tissue defects in hands or feet were treated by lobulated medial sural artery flaps pedicled with 1st musculo-cutaneous perforator and 2st musculo-cutaneous perforator of the medial sural artery. The size of the flaps ranged from 4.5 cm x 10.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 17.0 cm. 5 cases of lobulated flap survived smoothly, only 1 lobulated flap had venous articulo, but this flap also survived after the articulo was removed by vascular exploration. All flaps had desirable appearance and sensation and the two-point discrimination was 6 mm in mean with 4 to 12 months follow-up (average, 7 months). Linear scar was left in donor sites in 3 cases and skin scar in 3 cases. There was no malfunction in donor sites. Lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap is feasible and ideal method for the treatment of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with satisfactory effect.

  5. Studies on the deep-level defects in CdZnTe crystals grown by travelling heater method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Boru; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Xu, Lingyan; Yang, Fan; Yin, Liying; Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Nan, Ruihua [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an (China)

    2017-05-15

    The variation of deep level defects along the axis of CZT:In ingots grown by Travelling Heater Method was investigated by the means of thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectra. Models for the reaction among different defects In, Te{sub i}, and V{sub Cd} were used to analyze the variation of deep level defects along the growth direction. It was found that the density of In dopant-related defects is lower in the tip, but those of Te antisites and Te interstitials are higher in the tip. The density of cadmium vacancy exhibits an initial increase followed by a decrease from the tip to tail of the ingot. In PL spectra, the intensities of (D{sub 0}, X), (DAP) and D{sub complex} peaks obviously increase from the tip to the tail, due to the increase of the density of In dopant-related defects (IN{sup +}{sub CD}), Cd vacancies, and impurities. The low concentration of net free holes was found by Hall measurements, and high resistivity with p-type conduction was demonstrated from I-V analysis. The mobility for electrons was found to increase significantly from 634 ± 26 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in the tip to 860 ± 10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in the tail, due to the decrease of the deep level defect densities. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Tissue-engineered bone constructed in a bioreactor for repairing critical-sized bone defects in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deqiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Lu, Jianxi; Li, Jianmin

    2014-11-01

    Repair of bone defects, particularly critical-sized bone defects, is a considerable challenge in orthopaedics. Tissue-engineered bones provide an effective approach. However, previous studies mainly focused on the repair of bone defects in small animals. For better clinical application, repairing critical-sized bone defects in large animals must be studied. This study investigated the effect of a tissue-engineered bone for repairing critical-sized bone defect in sheep. A tissue-engineered bone was constructed by culturing bone marrow mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived osteoblast cells seeded in a porous β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic (β-TCP) scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor. A critical-sized bone defect in sheep was repaired with the tissue-engineered bone. At the eighth and 16th week after the implantation of the tissue-engineered bone, X-ray examination and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the defect. The bone defect with only the β-TCP scaffold served as the control. X-ray showed that the bone defect was successfully repaired 16 weeks after implantation of the tissue-engineered bone; histological sections showed that a sufficient volume of new bones formed in β-TCP 16 weeks after implantation. Eight and 16 weeks after implantation, the volume of new bones that formed in the tissue-engineered bone group was more than that in the β-TCP scaffold group (P bone improved osteogenesis in vivo and enhanced the ability to repair critical-sized bone defects in large animals.

  7. The roles of the temperature on the structural and electronic properties of deep-level V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defects in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deming, E-mail: xautmdm@163.com; Chen, Xi; Qiao, Hongbo; Shi, Wei; Li, Enling

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The energy gap of the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} is 0.82 eV. • Proves that the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} belongs to EL2 deep-level defect in GaAs. • Proves that EL2 and EL6 deep-level defects can transform into each other. • Temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of deep-level defects. - Abstract: The roles of temperature on the structural and electronic properties of V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defects in gallium arsenide have been studied by using ab-initio molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Our calculated results show that the relatively stable quaternary complex defect of Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} can be converted from the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex clusters defect between 300 K and 1173 K; however, from 1173 K to 1373 K, the decomposition of the complex defect Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} occurs, turning into a deep-level V{sub As}V{sub Ga} cluster defect and an isolated As{sub Ga} antisite defect, and relevant defect of Ga{sub As} is recovered. The properties of Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defect has been studied by first-principles calculations based on hybrid density functional theory. Our calculated results show that the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} belongs to EL2 deep-level defect in GaAs. Thus, we reveal that the temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of deep-level defects and defect energy level in gallium arsenide that EL2 and EL6 deep-level defects have a certain correlation, which means they could transform into each other. Controlling temperature in the growth process of GaAs could change the microstructure of deep-level defects and defect energy levels in gallium arsenide materials, whereby affects the electron transport properties of materials.

  8. Deep Tissue Wavefront Estimation for Sensorless Aberration Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimovic Emina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple light scattering in biological tissues limits the measurement depth for traditional wavefront sensor. The attenuated ballistic light and the background noise caused by the diffuse light give low signal to noise ratio for wavefront measurement. To overcome this issue, we introduced a wavefront estimation method based on a ray tracing algorithm to overcome this issue. With the knowledge of the refractive index of the medium, the wavefront is estimated by calculating optical path length of rays from the target inside of the samples. This method can provide not only the information of spherical aberration from the refractive-index mismatch between the medium and biological sample but also other aberrations caused by the irregular interface between them. Simulations based on different configurations are demonstrated in this paper.

  9. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  10. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-30

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  11. Engraftment of Prevascularized, Tissue Engineered Constructs in a Novel Rabbit Segmental Bone Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kaempfen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard treatment of large segmental bone defects is autologous bone transfer, which suffers from low availability and additional morbidity. Tissue engineered bone able to engraft orthotopically and a suitable animal model for pre-clinical testing are direly needed. This study aimed to evaluate engraftment of tissue-engineered bone with different prevascularization strategies in a novel segmental defect model in the rabbit humerus. Decellularized bone matrix (Tutobone seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells was used directly orthotopically or combined with a vessel and inserted immediately (1-step or only after six weeks of subcutaneous “incubation” (2-step. After 12 weeks, histological and radiological assessment was performed. Variable callus formation was observed. No bone formation or remodeling of the graft through TRAP positive osteoclasts could be detected. Instead, a variable amount of necrotic tissue formed. Although necrotic area correlated significantly with amount of vessels and the 2-step strategy had significantly more vessels than the 1-step strategy, no significant reduction of necrotic area was found. In conclusion, the animal model developed here represents a highly challenging situation, for which a suitable engineered bone graft with better prevascularization, better resorbability and higher osteogenicity has yet to be developed.

  12. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabran, S R I; Saad, J H; Salama, M M A; Mansour, R R

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the electromagnetic modeling and simulation of an implanted Medtronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The model is developed using Empire XCcel and represents the electrode surrounded with brain tissue assuming homogenous and isotropic medium. The model is created to study the parameters influencing the electric field distribution within the tissue in order to provide reference and benchmarking data for DBS and intra-cortical electrode development.

  13. Hydrogel derived from porcine decellularized nerve tissue as a promising biomaterial for repairing peripheral nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Shihao; Qiu, Shuai; Rao, Zilong; Liu, Jianghui; Zhu, Shuang; Yan, Liwei; Mao, Haiquan; Zhu, Qingtang; Quan, Daping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-06-01

    Decellularized matrix hydrogels derived from tissues or organs have been used for tissue repair due to their biocompatibility, tunability, and tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, the preparation of decellularized peripheral nerve matrix hydrogels and their use to repair nerve defects have not been reported. Here, we developed a hydrogel from porcine decellularized nerve matrix (pDNM-G), which was confirmed to have minimal DNA content and retain collagen and glycosaminoglycans content, thereby allowing gelatinization. The pDNM-G exhibited a nanofibrous structure similar to that of natural ECM, and a ∼280-Pa storage modulus at 10 mg/mL similar to that of native neural tissues. Western blot and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the pDNM-G consisted mostly of ECM proteins and contained primary ECM-related proteins, including fibronectin and collagen I and IV). In vitro experiments showed that pDNM-G supported Schwann cell proliferation and preserved cell morphology. Additionally, in a 15-mm rat sciatic nerve defect model, pDNM-G was combined with electrospun poly(lactic-acid)-co-poly(trimethylene-carbonate)conduits to bridge the defect, which did not elicit an adverse immune response and promoted the activation of M2 macrophages associated with a constructive remodeling response. Morphological analyses and electrophysiological and functional examinations revealed that the regenerative outcomes achieved by pDNM-G were superior to those by empty conduits and closed to those using rat decellularized nerve matrix allograft scaffolds. These findings indicated that pDNM-G, with its preserved ECM composition and nanofibrous structure, represents a promising biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Decellularized nerve allografts have been widely used to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, given their limited availability and lack of bioactive factors, efforts have been made to improve the efficacy

  14. [Pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator to treat leg open fracture with soft tissue defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongchun; Lou, Hua; Jiang, Junwei; Song, Chunlin; Gong, Min; Wang, Yongcai

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the clinical results of treating leg open fracture with soft tissue defect by pedicle flap transfer in combination with external fixator. From May 2004 to June 2007, 12 cases of leg open fracture with soft tissue defect, 9 males and 3 females aged 18-75 years, were treated. Among them, 8 cases were caused by traffic accidents, 2 crush, 1 falling and 1 mechanical accident. According to the Gustilo Classification, there were 2 cases of type II, 5 of type IIIA and 5 of type IIIB. There were 2 cases of upper-tibia fracture, 3 of middle-tibia and 7 of middle-lower. The sizes of soft tissue defect ranged from 5 cm x 3 cm to 22 cm x 10 cm.The sizes of exposed bone ranged from 3 cm x 2 cm to 6 cm x 3 cm. The course of the disease was 1-12 hours. Fracture fixation was reached by external fixators or external fixators and limited internal fixation with Kirschner wire. The wounds with exposed tendons and bones were repaired by ipsilateral local rotation flap, sural neurocutaneous flap and saphenous nerve flap. The size of selected flap ranged from 5 cm x 4 cm to 18 cm x 12 cm. Granulation wounds were repaired by skin grafting or direct suture. All patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years. All patients survived, among whom 2 with the wound edge infection and 1 with the distal necrosis were cured by changing the dressing, 8 with pin hole infection were treated by taking out the external fixator, 1 with nonunion received fracture healing after bone graft in comminuted fracture of lower tibia, 2 suffered delayed union in middle-lower tibia fracture. The ROM of ankle in 3 cases was mildly poor with surpass-joint fixation, with plantar extension of 0-10 degrees and plantar flexion of 10-30 degrees, while the others had plantar extension of 10-20 degrees and plantar flexion of 30-50 degrees. The method of pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator is safe and effective for the leg open fracture with soft tissue defect.

  15. Compression-induced deep tissue injury examined with magnetic resonance imaging and histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, A.; Oomens, C. W. J.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.; Bader, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to deep tissue injury after sustained compressive loading are not well understood. It is hypothesized that initial damage to muscle fibers is induced mechanically by local excessive deformation. Therefore, in this study, an animal model was used to study early

  16. Determination of bone and tissue concentrations of teicoplanin mixed with hydroxyapatite cement to repair cortical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Zeipper, U; Schwendenwein, E; Hadju, S; Kaltenecker, G; Laslo, I; Lang, S; Roschger, P; Vecsei, V; Wintersteiger, R

    2002-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of the major component of teicoplanin in tissue is reported. Comparing fluorescamine and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as derivatizing agents, the derivative formed with the latter exhibits superior fluorescence intensity allowing detection of femtomole quantities. Pretreatment for tissue samples is by solid-phase extraction which uses Bakerbond PolarP C(18) cartridges and gives effective clean up from endogenous by-products. Linearity was given from 0.6 to 100 ng per injection. The coefficient of variation did not exceed 5.8% for both interday and intraday assays. It was found that when bone defects are repaired with a hydroxyapatite-teicoplanin mixture, the antibiotic does not degrade, even when it is in the cement for several months. The stability of teicoplanin in bone cement was determined fluorodensitometrically.

  17. Reconstruction of Extensive Soft-Tissue Defects with Concomitant Bone Defects in the Lower Extremity with the Latissimus Dorsi-Serratus Anterior-Rib Free Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Wei Tee; Xu, Germaine Guiqin; Puhaindran, Mark Edward; Tan, Bien Keem; Cheng, Mathew Hern Wang; Chew, Winston Yoon Chong

    2015-07-01

    The combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior-rib (LD-SA-rib) free flap provides a large soft-tissue flap with a vascularized bone flap through a solitary vascular pedicle in a one-stage reconstruction. Seven LD-SA-rib free flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct concomitant bone and extensive soft-tissue defects in the lower extremity (tibia, five; femur, one; foot, one). The patients were all male, with an average age of 34 years (range, 20-48 years). These defects were secondary to trauma in five patients and posttraumatic osteomyelitis in two patients. All flaps survived and achieved bony union. The average time to bony union was 9.4 months. Bone hypertrophy of at least 20% occurred in all flaps. All patients achieved full weight-bearing ambulation without aid at an average duration of 23.7 months. Two patients developed stress fractures of the rib flap. There was no significant donor site morbidity, except for two patients who had pleural tears during harvesting of the flap. The LD-SA-rib flap provides a large soft-tissue component and a vascularized bone flap for reconstruction of composite large soft-tissue defects with concomitant bone defects of the lower extremity in a one-stage procedure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: true infection, contamination, or commensal of the deep tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Kerwat, Martina; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Loos, Franziska; Gohlke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. Whether the bacterium is a contaminant or commensal of the deep tissue is unclear. We aimed to assess P. acnes in intraoperative samples of different tissue layers in patients undergoing first-time shoulder surgery. In 118 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 75 men, 43 women), intraoperative samples were correlated to preoperative subacromial injection, the type of surgical approach, and gender. One skin, one superficial, one deep tissue, and one test sample were cultured for each patient. The cultures were positive for P. acnes in 36.4% (n = 43) of cases. Subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth rates (P = .88 for P. acnes; P = .20 for bacteria other than P. acnes; P = .85 for the anterolateral approach; P = .92 for the deltopectoral approach; P = .56 for men; P = .51 for women). Skin samples were positive for P. acnes in 8.5% (n = 10), superficial samples were positive in 7.6% (n = 9), deep samples were positive in 13.6% (n = 16), and both samples (superficial and deep) were positive in 15.3% (n = 18) of cases (P shoulder surgery. Preoperative subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth. P. acnes was observed more frequently in the deep tissues than in the superficial tissues. The relative risk for obtaining a positive P. acnes culture was 2-fold greater for the anterolateral approach than for the deltopectoral approach, and the risk was 2.5-fold greater for men. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Confocal multispot microscope for fast and deep imaging in semicleared tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Marie-Pierre; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alfieri, Domenico; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Although perfectly transparent specimens are imaged faster with light-sheet microscopy, less transparent samples are often imaged with two-photon microscopy leveraging its robustness to scattering; however, at the price of increased acquisition times. Clearing methods that are capable of rendering strongly scattering samples such as brain tissue perfectly transparent specimens are often complex, costly, and time intensive, even though for many applications a slightly lower level of tissue transparency is sufficient and easily achieved with simpler and faster methods. Here, we present a microscope type that has been geared toward the imaging of semicleared tissue by combining multispot two-photon excitation with rolling shutter wide-field detection to image deep and fast inside semicleared mouse brain. We present a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the point spread function and contrast as a function of shutter size. Finally, we demonstrate microscope performance in fixed brain slices by imaging dendritic spines up to 400-μm deep.

  1. Automatic Defect Detection of Fasteners on the Catenary Support Device Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, H.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Han, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    The excitation and vibration triggered by the long-term operation of railway vehicles inevitably result in defective states of catenary support devices. With the massive construction of high-speed electrified railways, automatic defect detection of diverse and plentiful fasteners on the catenary

  2. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  3. Quantum dots versus organic fluorophores in fluorescent deep-tissue imaging--merits and demerits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Gadjeva, Veselina

    2008-12-01

    The use of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in last several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecular targets in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With the development of novel bright fluorophores based on nanotechnologies and 3D fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. The fluorescent imaging has also a potential to give a real map of human anatomy and physiology. The current review outlines the advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic dyes in deep-tissue imaging in vivo and defines the major requirements to the "perfect fluorophore". The analysis proceeds from the basic principles of fluorescence and major characteristics of fluorophores, light-tissue interactions, and major limitations of fluorescent deep-tissue imaging. The article is addressed to a broad readership - from specialists in this field to university students.

  4. Generalized deep-tissue hyperalgesia in patients with chronic low-back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Manniche, Claus; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    be demonstrated in a group of patients with chronic low-back pain with intervertebral disc herniation. Twelve patients with MRI confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and 12 age and sex matched controls were included. Subjects were exposed to quantitative nociceptive stimuli to the infraspinatus...... in the anterior tibialis muscle compared to controls. In conclusion, generalized deep-tissue hyperalgesia was demonstrated in chronic low-back pain patients with radiating pain and MRI confirmed intervertebral disc herniation, suggesting that this central sensitization should also be addressed in the pain......Some chronic painful conditions including e.g. fibromyalgia, whiplash associated disorders, endometriosis, and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with generalized musculoskeletal hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether generalized deep-tissue hyperalgesia could...

  5. The effect of keratinocytes on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin using deep dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Mathew; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2014-12-01

    Fibrosis affects most organs, it results in replacement of normal parenchymal tissue with collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which compromises tissue architecture and ultimately causes loss of function of the affected organ. Biochemical pathways that contribute to fibrosis have been extensively studied, but the role of biomechanical signaling in fibrosis is not clearly understood. In this study, we assessed the effect keratinocytes have on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin made with superficial or deep dermal fibroblasts in order to determine any biomaterial-mediated anti-fibrotic influences on tissue engineered skin. Tissue engineered skin with deep dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were found to be less stiff and contracted and had reduced number of myofibroblasts and lower expression of matrix crosslinking factors compared to matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. However, there were no such differences between tissue engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes and matrices with superficial fibroblasts alone. Also, tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes had smaller pores compared to those with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes; pore size of tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes were not different from those matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. A better understanding of biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin may prove beneficial in promoting normal wound healing over pathologic healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Propagation characteristics of laser-induced stress wave in deep tissue for gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Takano, Shinta; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) in tissue and their correlation with properties of gene transfection were investigated for targeted deep-tissue gene therapy. LISWs were generated by irradiating a laser-absorbing material with 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses; a transparent plastic sheet was attached on the absorbing material for plasma confinement. Temporal pressure profiles of LISWs that were propagated through different thickness tissues were measured with a needle-type hydrophone and propagation of LISWs in water was visualized by shadowgraph technique. The measurements showed that at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm 2 with a laser spot diameter of 3 mm, flat wavefront was maintained for up to 5 mm in depth and peak pressure P decreased with increasing tissue thickness d; P was proportional to d -0.54 . Rat dorsal skin was injected with plasmid DNA coding for reporter gene, on which different numbers of excised skin(s) was/were placed, and LISWs were applied from the top of the skins. Efficient gene expression was observed in the skin under the 3 mm thick stacked skins, suggesting that deep-located tissue such as muscle can be transfected by transcutaneous application of LISWs.

  7. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  8. Deep-tissue reporter-gene imaging with fluorescence and optoacoustic tomography: a performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ale, Angelique; Morscher, Stefan; Burton, Neal C; Schaefer, Karin; Radrich, Karin; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-10-01

    A primary enabling feature of near-infrared fluorescent proteins (FPs) and fluorescent probes is the ability to visualize deeper in tissues than in the visible. The purpose of this work is to find which is the optimal visualization method that can exploit the advantages of this novel class of FPs in full-scale pre-clinical molecular imaging studies. Nude mice were stereotactically implanted with near-infrared FP expressing glioma cells to from brain tumors. The feasibility and performance metrics of FPs were compared between planar epi-illumination and trans-illumination fluorescence imaging, as well as to hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) system combined with X-ray CT and Multispectral Optoacoustic (or Photoacoustic) Tomography (MSOT). It is shown that deep-seated glioma brain tumors are possible to visualize both with fluorescence and optoacoustic imaging. Fluorescence imaging is straightforward and has good sensitivity; however, it lacks resolution. FMT-XCT can provide an improved rough resolution of ∼1 mm in deep tissue, while MSOT achieves 0.1 mm resolution in deep tissue and has comparable sensitivity. We show imaging capacity that can shift the visualization paradigm in biological discovery. The results are relevant not only to reporter gene imaging, but stand as cross-platform comparison for all methods imaging near infrared fluorescent contrast agents.

  9. Gene expression in cardiac tissues from infants with idiopathic conotruncal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofland Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is the most commonly observed conotruncal congenital heart defect. Treatment of these patients has evolved dramatically in the last few decades, yet a genetic explanation is lacking for the failure of cardiac development for the majority of children with TOF. Our goal was to perform genome wide analyses and characterize expression patterns in cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with tetralogy of Fallot. Methods We employed genome wide gene expression microarrays to characterize cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with TOF (16 idiopathic and three with 22q11.2 deletions and compared gene expression patterns to normally developing subjects. Results We detected a signal from approximately 26,000 probes reflecting expression from about half of all genes, ranging from 35% to 49% of array probes in the three tissues. More than 1,000 genes had a 2-fold change in expression in the right ventricle (RV of children with TOF as compared to the RV from matched control infants. Most of these genes were involved in compensatory functions (e.g., hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dilation. However, two canonical pathways involved in spatial and temporal cell differentiation (WNT, p = 0.017 and Notch, p = 0.003 appeared to be generally suppressed. Conclusions The suppression of developmental networks may represent a remnant of a broad malfunction of regulatory pathways leading to inaccurate boundary formation and improper structural development in the embryonic heart. We suggest that small tissue specific genomic and/or epigenetic fluctuations could be cumulative, leading to regulatory network disruption and failure of proper cardiac development.

  10. Finite element model to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pardasani, K R

    2016-12-01

    The temperature of body tissues is viewed as an indicator of tissue response in clinical applications since ancient times. The tissue temperature depends on various physical and physiological parameters like blood flow, metabolic heat generation, thermal conductivity of tissues, shape and size of organs etc. In this paper a finite element model has been proposed to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs. The geometry of human limb is taken as elliptical tapered shape. It is assumed that outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment. The appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on physical conditions of the problem. The model has been developed for a three dimensional steady state case. Hexahedral circular sectoral elements are used to discretize the region. The results have been computed to obtain temperature profiles and study the relation of tissue temperature with the parameters like atmospheric temperature, rate of evaporation, thickness of tissues layers and shape of the limb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep defect levels in standard and oxygen enriched silicon detectors before and after **6**0Co-gamma-irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, J; Lindström, G; Pintilie, I

    2003-01-01

    Capacitance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (C-DLTS) measurements have been performed on standard and oxygen-doped silicon detectors manufactured from high-resistivity n-type float zone material with left angle bracket 111 right angle bracket and left angle bracket 100 right angle bracket orientation. Three different oxygen concentrations were achieved by the so-called diffusion oxygenated float zone (DOFZ) process initiated by the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration. Before the irradiation a material characterization has been performed. In contrast to radiation damage by neutrons or high- energy charged hadrons, were the bulk damage is dominated by a mixture of clusters and point defects, the bulk damage caused by **6**0Co-gamma-radiation is only due to the introduction of point defects. The dominant electrically active defects which have been detected after **6**0Co-gamma-irradiation by C-DLTS are the electron traps VO//i, C//iC//s, V//2( = /-), V //2(-/0) and the hole trap C//i O//i. The main difference betwe...

  12. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing for deep-tissue optogenetic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei

    2018-02-01

    The problem of optical scattering was long thought to fundamentally limit the depth at which light could be focused through turbid media such as fog or biological tissue. However, recent work in the field of wavefront shaping has demonstrated that by properly shaping the input light field, light can be noninvasively focused to desired locations deep inside scattering media. This has led to the development of several new techniques which have the potential to enhance the capabilities of existing optical tools in biomedicine. Unfortunately, extending these methods to living tissue has a number of challenges related to the requirements for noninvasive guidestar operation, speed, and focusing fidelity. Of existing wavefront shaping methods, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing is well suited for applications in living tissue since it uses ultrasound as a guidestar which enables noninvasive operation and provides compatibility with optical phase conjugation for high-speed operation. In this paper, we will discuss the results of our recent work to apply TRUE focusing for optogenetic modulation, which enables enhanced optogenetic stimulation deep in tissue with a 4-fold spatial resolution improvement in 800-micron thick acute brain slices compared to conventional focusing, and summarize future directions to further extend the impact of wavefront shaping technologies in biomedicine.

  13. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  14. Growth temperature dependence of Si doping efficiency and compensating deep level defect incorporation in Al0.7Ga0.3N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Moseley, Michael W.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth temperature dependence of Si doping efficiency and deep level defect formation was investigated for n-type Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N. It was observed that dopant compensation was greatly reduced with reduced growth temperature. Deep level optical spectroscopy and lighted capacitance-voltage were used to understand the role of acceptor-like deep level defects on doping efficiency. Deep level defects were observed at 2.34 eV, 3.56 eV, and 4.74 eV below the conduction band minimum. The latter two deep levels were identified as the major compensators because the reduction in their concentrations at reduced growth temperature correlated closely with the concomitant increase in free electron concentration. Possible mechanisms for the strong growth temperature dependence of deep level formation are considered, including thermodynamically driven compensating defect formation that can arise for a semiconductor with very large band gap energy, such as Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N

  15. Early- and late-stage morphea subtypes with deep tissue involvement is treatable with Abatacept (Orencia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeeb, Fahd; Anjum, Shakeel; Hodnett, Philip; Kashif, Ahmad; Brady, Mary; Morrissey, Siobhan; Devlin, Joseph; Fraser, Alexander Duncan

    2017-06-01

    This case series explores the potential efficacy of Abatacept in patients presenting with morphea subtypes and deep tissue involvement. Three patients with established morphea subtypes and deep tissue involvement and with no contraindication to Abatacept were included in this prospective open-label study. The index patient was exceptionally severely affected with a mean Modified Rodnan Skin Score (MRSS) of 38/51. At baseline, whole-body MRI and skin biopsy were performed which confirmed classical deposition of dense fibrous tissue in the appropriate layer of the skin. MRSS was performed independently by three clinicians and VAS scores (10cm) were measured at baseline for Patient Global Disease Activity (PGDA), Patient Global Pain (PGP), Patient Day Pain (PDP), Patient Night Pain (PNP), and Physician Global Disease Activity (PhGDA). Patients 2 and 3 were similarly screened at baseline except for MRI. Patients were commenced on Abatacept as per body weight (10mg/kg) given intravenously with concomitant tapering dose of oral prednisolone. All three were re-assessed at 6 months and the index case was further re-assessed at 18 months. All patients tolerated the Abatacept well and showed dramatic improvement. The index patient's clinical signs and symptoms, whole-body MRI, and mean Modified Rodnan Skin Score improved dramatically from baseline by 37% at 6 months and by 74% at 18 months. There were no clinically significant adverse outcomes noted. We present three cases, one with exceptionally severe disease, which demonstrated excellent clinical response to Abatacept. Abatacept is a promising option for the treatment of severe or resistant morphea, especially in those with deep tissue involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using radionuclide imaging for monitoring repairment of bone defect with tissue-engineered bone graft in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changsuo; Ye Fagang; Zou Yunwen; Ji Shixiang; Wang Dengchun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of tissue-engineered bone grafts in repairing bone defect in rabbits, and assess the value of radionuclide for monitoring the therapeutic effect of this approach. Methods: Bilateral radial defects of 15 mm in length in 24 rabbits were made. The tissue-engineered bone grafts (composite graft) contained bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of rabbits and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were grafted in left side defects, CPC only grafts (artificial bone graft) in right defects. After the operation, radionuclide was used to monitor the therapeutic effects at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results: 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) radionuclide bone imaging indicated that there was more radionuclide accumulation in grafting region of composite than that of CPC. There was significant difference between 99 Tc m -MDP uptake of the region of interest (ROI) and scintillant counts of composite bone and the artificial bone (P<0.01). Conclusion: Tissue-engineered bone grafts is eligible for repairing radial bone defects, and radionuclide imaging may accurately monitor the revascularization and bone regeneration after the bone graft implantation. (authors)

  17. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in band edge and broad deep defect emission ZnSe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othonos, Andreas; Lioudakis, Emmanouil; Philipose, U.; Ruda, Harry E.

    2007-12-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics of ZnSe nanowires grown under different growth conditions have been studied. Transient absorption measurements reveal the dependence of the competing effects of state filling and photoinduced absorption on the probed energy states. The relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occupying defect states in the stoichiometric and Se-rich samples are single exponentials with time constants of 3-4ps. State filling is the main contribution for probe energies below 1.85eV in the Zn-rich grown sample. This ultrafast carrier dynamics study provides an important insight into the role that intrinsic point defects play in the observed photoluminescence from ZnSe nanowires.

  18. Enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(R)) for periodontal tissue regeneration in intrabony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2009-10-07

    Periodontitis is a chronic infective disease of the gums caused by bacteria present in dental plaque. This condition induces the breakdown of the tooth supporting apparatus until teeth are lost. Surgery may be indicated to arrest disease progression and regenerate lost tissues. Several surgical techniques have been developed to regenerate periodontal tissues including guided tissue regeneration (GTR), bone grafting (BG) and the use of enamel matrix derivative (EMD). EMD is an extract of enamel matrix and contains amelogenins of various molecular weights. Amelogenins are involved in the formation of enamel and periodontal attachment formation during tooth development. To test whether EMD is effective, and to compare EMD versus GTR, and various BG procedures for the treatment of intrabony defects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Several journals were handsearched. No language restrictions were applied. Authors of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified, personal contacts and the manufacturer were contacted to identify unpublished trials. Most recent search: February 2009. RCTs on patients affected by periodontitis having intrabony defects of at least 3 mm treated with EMD compared with open flap debridement, GTR and various BG procedures with at least 1 year follow up. The outcome measures considered were: tooth loss, changes in probing attachment levels (PAL), pocket depths (PPD), gingival recessions (REC), bone levels from the bottom of the defects on intraoral radiographs, aesthetics and adverse events. The following time-points were to be evaluated: 1, 5 and 10 years. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two authors. Results were expressed as random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals

  19. Enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) for periodontal tissue regeneration in intrabony defects. A Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infective disease of the gums caused by bacteria present in dental plaque. This condition induces the breakdown of the tooth supporting apparatus until teeth are lost. Surgery may be indicated to arrest disease progression and regenerate lost tissues. Several surgical techniques have been developed to regenerate periodontal tissues including guided tissue regeneration (GTR), bone grafting (BG) and the use of enamel matrix derivative (EMD). EMD is an extract of enamel matrix and contains amelogenins of various molecular weights. Amelogenins are involved in the formation of enamel and periodontal attachment formation during tooth development. To test whether EMD is effective, and to compare EMD versus GTR, and various BG procedures for the treatment of intrabony defects. The Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Several dental journals were hand searched. No language restrictions were applied. Authors of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified, personal contacts and the manufacturer were contacted to identify unpublished trials. The last electronic search was conducted on 4 February 2009. RCTs on patients affected by periodontitis having intrabony defects of at least 3 mm treated with EMD compared with open flap debridement, GTR and various BG procedures with at least 1 year of follow-up. The outcome measures considered were: tooth loss, changes in probing attachment levels (PAL), pocket depths (PPD), gingival recessions (REC), bone levels from the bottom of the defects on intraoral radiographs, aesthetics and adverse events. The following time points were to be evaluated: 1, 5 and 10 years. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by at least two authors. Results were expressed as random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) for

  20. Letter to Editor: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliandro Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Chalidis et al: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. World J Surg Oncol 2007, 5:92.

  1. Autologously generated tissue-engineered bone flaps for reconstruction of large mandibular defects in an ovine model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatara, A.M.; Kretlow, J.D.; Spicer, P.P.; Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Y.; Liu, G.; Jackson, J.D.; Yoo, J.J.; Atala, A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.; Kasper, F.K.; Ho, T.; Demian, N.; Miller, M.J.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large craniofacial defects remains a significant clinical challenge. The complex geometry of facial bone and the lack of suitable donor tissue often hinders successful repair. One strategy to address both of these difficulties is the development of an in vivo bioreactor, where

  2. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Physiology); Folkenborg, O. (Isotope-Pharmcy, Broenshoej (Denmark)); Selmer, J. (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)); Nielsen, N.T. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq {sup 111}In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.).

  3. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B.; Selmer, J.; Nielsen, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq 111 In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.)

  4. Flow-Through Free Fibula Osteocutaneous Flap in Reconstruction of Tibial Bone, Soft Tissue, and Main Artery Segmental Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zonghuan; Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen; Pan, Zhenyu; Ding, Junhui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this report was to present the use of flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap for the repair of complex tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. Five patients with bone, soft tissue, and segmental anterior tibial artery defects were included. The lengths of injured tibial bones ranged from 4 to 7 cm. The sizes of impaired soft tissues were between 9 × 4 and 15 × 6 cm. The lengths of defect of anterior tibial artery segments ranged from 6 to 10 cm. Two patients had distal limb perfusion problems. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was performed for all 5 patients. Patients were followed for 12 to 18 months. All wounds healed after 1-stage operation, and all flow-through flaps survived. The distal perfusion after vascular repair was normal in all patients. Superficial necrosis of flap edge was noted in 1 case. After the local debridement and partial thickness skin graft, the flap healed uneventfully, and the surgical operation did not increase injury to the donor site. Satisfactory bone union was achieved in all patients in 2 to 4 months postoperation. Enlargement of fibula graft was observed during follow-up from 12 to 18 months. The functions of adjacent joints were recovered, and all patients were able to walk normally. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was shown to be an effective and efficient technique for repairing composite tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. This 1-stage operation should be useful in clinical practice for the treatment of complex bone, soft tissue, and vessel defects.

  5. Diode characteristics and residual deep-level defects of p+n abrupt junctions fabricated by rapid thermal annealing of boron implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, A.; Katayama, M.; Wada, T.; Tokuda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    p + n diodes were fabricated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of boron implanted silicon in the annealing temperature range 700-1100 0 C for around 7 s, and the RTA temperature dependence of electrical characteristics of these diodes was studied. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were made to evaluate residual deep-level defects in the n-type bulk. Three electron traps were observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 700 0 C. It was considered that these three traps were residual point defects near the tail of the implantation damage after RTA. Residual defect concentrations increased in the range 700-900 0 C and decreased in the range 1000-1100 0 C. The growth of defects in the bulk was ascribed to the diffusion of defects from the implanted layer during RTA. Concentrations of electron traps observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 1100 0 C were approx. 10 12 cm -3 . It was found that these residual deep-level defects observed by DLTS were inefficient generation-recombination centres since the reverse current was independent of the RTA temperatures. (author)

  6. Energy-Looping Nanoparticles: Harnessing Excited-State Absorption for Deep-Tissue Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Elizabeth S; Tajon, Cheryl A; Bischof, Thomas S; Iafrati, Jillian; Fernandez-Bravo, Angel; Garfield, David J; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Maharbiz, Michel M; Sohal, Vikaas S; Schuck, P James; Cohen, Bruce E; Chan, Emory M

    2016-09-27

    Near infrared (NIR) microscopy enables noninvasive imaging in tissue, particularly in the NIR-II spectral range (1000-1400 nm) where attenuation due to tissue scattering and absorption is minimized. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals are promising deep-tissue imaging probes due to their photostable emission in the visible and NIR, but these materials are not efficiently excited at NIR-II wavelengths due to the dearth of lanthanide ground-state absorption transitions in this window. Here, we develop a class of lanthanide-doped imaging probes that harness an energy-looping mechanism that facilitates excitation at NIR-II wavelengths, such as 1064 nm, that are resonant with excited-state absorption transitions but not ground-state absorption. Using computational methods and combinatorial screening, we have identified Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles as efficient looping systems that emit at 800 nm under continuous-wave excitation at 1064 nm. Using this benign excitation with standard confocal microscopy, energy-looping nanoparticles (ELNPs) are imaged in cultured mammalian cells and through brain tissue without autofluorescence. The 1 mm imaging depths and 2 μm feature sizes are comparable to those demonstrated by state-of-the-art multiphoton techniques, illustrating that ELNPs are a promising class of NIR probes for high-fidelity visualization in cells and tissue.

  7. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  8. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue

  9. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  10. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  11. The role of surface and deep-level defects on the emission of tin oxide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Vijay; Som, S; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Swart, H C; Neethling, J H; Lee, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of surface and deep-level defects on the blue emission of tin oxide quantum dots (SnO 2 QDs) synthesized by the solution-combustion method at different combustion temperatures. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of a single rutile SnO 2 phase with a tetragonal lattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed an increase in the average dot size from 2.2 to 3.6 nm with an increase of the combustion temperature from 350 to 550 °C. A decrease in the band gap value from 3.37 to 2.76 eV was observed with the increase in dot size due to the quantum confinement effect. The photoluminescence emission was measured for excitation at 325 nm and it showed a broad blue emission band for all the combustion temperatures studied. This was due to the creation of various oxygen and tin vacancies/defects as confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. The origin of the blue emission in the SnO 2 QDs is discussed with the help of an energy band diagram. (paper)

  12. In Vivo Deep Tissue Fluorescence and Magnetic Imaging Employing Hybrid Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortgies, Dirk H; de la Cueva, Leonor; Del Rosal, Blanca; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Fernández, Nuria; Iglesias-de la Cruz, M Carmen; Salas, Gorka; Cabrera, David; Teran, Francisco J; Jaque, Daniel; Martín Rodríguez, Emma

    2016-01-20

    Breakthroughs in nanotechnology have made it possible to integrate different nanoparticles in one single hybrid nanostructure (HNS), constituting multifunctional nanosized sensors, carriers, and probes with great potential in the life sciences. In addition, such nanostructures could also offer therapeutic capabilities to achieve a wider variety of multifunctionalities. In this work, the encapsulation of both magnetic and infrared emitting nanoparticles into a polymeric matrix leads to a magnetic-fluorescent HNS with multimodal magnetic-fluorescent imaging abilities. The magnetic-fluorescent HNS are capable of simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and deep tissue infrared fluorescence imaging, overcoming the tissue penetration limits of classical visible-light based optical imaging as reported here in living mice. Additionally, their applicability for magnetic heating in potential hyperthermia treatments is assessed.

  13. Ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator propeller flaps for the reconstruction of lower third leg soft- tissue defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaivirithan Margabandu Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lower third leg soft tissue defects with anatomical and pathological constraints are posing formidable challenges to reconstructive surgeon. Aim: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator-propeller flaps for the reconstruction of small and medium sized soft tissue defects in the lower third leg. Patients and Methods: 22 patients (16 were males and 6 were females were involved in this study between period of January 2012 and December 2016.We followed the protocol of initial non delineating exploratory incision made to find out single best perforator in all patients. All the defects in leg reconstructed with adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps. Results: All 22 flaps survived well. All in an average of 13 months follow up period, had pain free walking, with minimal scarring and acceptable aesthesis at the reconstruction sites with no need for any secondary procedure. Conclusion: With inability of preoperatively dopplering the perforators in the lower third leg region, the exploratory posterior nondelineating incision was used in all cases to secure the single best perforator for the propeller flaps. Thus adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps are dependable, easily adoptable for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower third leg region.

  14. Treatment of open tibial shaft fracture with soft tissue and bone defect caused by aircraft bomb--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Zoran; Vidić, Goran; Trenkić, Srbobran; Vukasinović, Zoran; Lesić, Aleksandar; Stojiljković, Predrag; Stevanović, Goran; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Najman, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft bombs can cause severe orthopaedic injuries. Tibia shaft fractures caused by aircraft bombs are mostly comminuted and followed by bone defects, which makes the healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. The goal of this paper is to present the method of treatment and the end results of treatment of a serious open tibial fracture with soft and bone tissue defects resulting from aircraft bomb shrapnel wounds. A 26-year-old patient presented with a tibial fracture as the result of a cluster bomb shrapnel wound. He was treated applying the method of external bone fixation done two days after wounding, as well as of early coverage of the lower leg soft tissue defects done on the tenth day after the external fixation of the fracture. The external fixator was removed after five months, whereas the treatment was continued by means of functional plaster cast for another two months. The final functional result was good. Radical wound debridement, external bone fixation of the fracture, and early reconstruction of any soft tissue and bone defects are the main elements of the treatment of serious fractures.

  15. Surgical membranes as directional delivery devices to generate tissue: testing in an ovine critical sized defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Knothe Tate

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells residing in the periosteum, a bi-layered membrane enveloping all bones, exhibit a remarkable regenerative capacity to fill in critical sized defects of the ovine femur within two weeks of treatment. Harnessing the regenerative power of the periosteum appears to be limited only by the amount of healthy periosteum available. Here we use a substitute periosteum, a delivery device cum implant, to test the hypothesis that directional delivery of endogenous periosteal factors enhances bone defect healing.Newly adapted surgical protocols were used to create critical sized, middiaphyseal femur defects in four groups of five skeletally mature Swiss alpine sheep. Each group was treated using a periosteum substitute for the controlled addition of periosteal factors including the presence of collagen in the periosteum (Group 1, periosteum derived cells (Group 2, and autogenic periosteal strips (Group 3. Control group animals were treated with an isotropic elastomer membrane alone. We hypothesized that periosteal substitute membranes incorporating the most periosteal factors would show superior defect infilling compared to substitute membranes integrating fewer factors (i.e. Group 3>Group 2>Group 1>Control.Based on micro-computed tomography data, bone defects enveloped by substitute periosteum enabling directional delivery of periosteal factors exhibit superior bony bridging compared to those sheathed with isotropic membrane controls (Group 3>Group 2>Group 1, Control. Quantitative histological analysis shows significantly increased de novo tissue generation with delivery of periosteal factors, compared to the substitute periosteum containing a collagen membrane alone (Group 1 as well as compared to the isotropic control membrane. Greatest tissue generation and maximal defect bridging was observed when autologous periosteal transplant strips were included in the periosteum substitute.Periosteum-derived cells as well as other factors

  16. Automatic tissue image segmentation based on image processing and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhenglun; Luo, Junyi; Xu, Shengpu; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in multimodality imaging, especially in fusion structural images offered by CT, MRI with functional images collected by optical technologies or other novel imaging technologies. Plus, image segmentation also provides detailed structure description for quantitative visualization of treating light distribution in the human body when incorporated with 3D light transport simulation method. Here we used image enhancement, operators, and morphometry methods to extract the accurate contours of different tissues such as skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on 5 fMRI head image datasets. Then we utilized convolutional neural network to realize automatic segmentation of images in a deep learning way. We also introduced parallel computing. Such approaches greatly reduced the processing time compared to manual and semi-automatic segmentation and is of great importance in improving speed and accuracy as more and more samples being learned. Our results can be used as a criteria when diagnosing diseases such as cerebral atrophy, which is caused by pathological changes in gray matter or white matter. We demonstrated the great potential of such image processing and deep leaning combined automatic tissue image segmentation in personalized medicine, especially in monitoring, and treatments.

  17. Segmenting Brain Tissues from Chinese Visible Human Dataset by Deep-Learned Features with Stacked Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryosection brain images in Chinese Visible Human (CVH dataset contain rich anatomical structure information of tissues because of its high resolution (e.g., 0.167 mm per pixel. Fast and accurate segmentation of these images into white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid plays a critical role in analyzing and measuring the anatomical structures of human brain. However, most existing automated segmentation methods are designed for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data, and they may not be applicable for cryosection images due to the imaging difference. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning-based CVH brain tissues segmentation method that uses stacked autoencoder (SAE to automatically learn the deep feature representations. Specifically, our model includes two successive parts where two three-layer SAEs take image patches as input to learn the complex anatomical feature representation, and then these features are sent to Softmax classifier for inferring the labels. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our method and showed that it outperformed four other classical brain tissue detection strategies. Furthermore, we reconstructed three-dimensional surfaces of these tissues, which show their potential in exploring the high-resolution anatomical structures of human brain.

  18. Sensitivity of on-resistance and threshold voltage to buffer-related deep level defects in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M; Allerman, Andrew A; Baca, Albert G; Sanchez, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of deep levels defects located in highly resistive GaN:C buffers on the on-resistance (R ON ) and threshold voltage (V th ) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) power devices was studied by a combined photocapacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (C-DLOS) and photoconductance deep level optical spectroscopy (G-DLOS) methodology as a function of electrical stress. Two carbon-related deep levels at 1.8 and 2.85 eV below the conduction band energy minimum were identified from C-DLOS measurements under the gate electrode. It was found that buffer-related defects under the gate shifted V th positively by approximately 10%, corresponding to a net areal density of occupied defects of 8 × 10 12 cm −2 . The effect of on-state drain stress and off-state gate stress on buffer deep level occupancy and R ON was also investigated via G-DLOS. It was found that the same carbon-related deep levels observed under the gate were also active in the access region. Off-state gate stress produced significantly more trapping and degradation of R ON (∼140%) compared to on-state drain stress (∼75%). Greater sensitivity of R ON to gate stress was explained by a more sharply peaked lateral distribution of occupied deep levels between the gate and drain compared to drain stress. The overall greater sensitivity of R ON compared to V th to buffer defects suggests that electron trapping is significantly greater in the access region compared to under the gate, likely due to the larger electric fields in the latter region. (invited paper)

  19. Tissue specific mutagenic and carcinogenic responses in NER defective mouse models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Hoogervorst, Esther M; Waard, Harm de; Horst, Gijsbertus T J van der; Steeg, Harry van

    2007-01-01

    Several mouse models with defects in genes encoding components of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway have been developed. In NER two different sub-pathways are known, i.e. transcription-coupled repair (TC-NER) and global-genome repair (GG-NER). A defect in one particular NER protein can

  20. Discriminating solitary cysts from soft tissue lesions in mammography using a pretrained deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Thijs; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; den Heeten, Ard

    2017-03-01

    It is estimated that 7% of women in the western world will develop palpable breast cysts in their lifetime. Even though cysts have been correlated with risk of developing breast cancer, many of them are benign and do not require follow-up. We develop a method to discriminate benign solitary cysts from malignant masses in digital mammography. We think a system like this can have merit in the clinic as a decision aid or complementary to specialized modalities. We employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify cyst and mass patches. Deep CNNs have been shown to be powerful classifiers, but need a large amount of training data for which medical problems are often difficult to come by. The key contribution of this paper is that we show good performance can be obtained on a small dataset by pretraining the network on a large dataset of a related task. We subsequently investigate the following: (a) when a mammographic exam is performed, two different views of the same breast are recorded. We investigate the merit of combining the output of the classifier from these two views. (b) We evaluate the importance of the resolution of the patches fed to the network. (c) A method dubbed tissue augmentation is subsequently employed, where we extract normal tissue from normal patches and superimpose this onto the actual samples aiming for a classifier invariant to occluding tissue. (d) We combine the representation extracted using the deep CNN with our previously developed features. We show that using the proposed deep learning method, an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.80 can be obtained on a set of benign solitary cysts and malignant mass findings recalled in screening. We find that it works significantly better than our previously developed approach by comparing the AUC of the ROC using bootstrapping. By combining views, the results can be further improved, though this difference was not found to be significant. We find no significant difference between

  1. Temperature characterization of deep and shallow defect centers of low noise silicon JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaboldi, Claudio; Fascilla, Andrea; Lund, M.W.; Pessina, Gianluigi

    2004-01-01

    We have selected different low noise JFET processes that have shown outstanding dynamic and noise performance at both room temperature and low temperatures. We have studied JFETs made with a process optimized for cryogenic operation, testing several devices of varying capacitance. For most of them, we have been able to detect the presence of shallow individual traps at low temperature which create low frequency (LF) Generation-Recombination (G-R) noise. For one device type no evidence of traps has been observed at the optimum temperature of operation (around 100 K). It had a very small residual LF noise. This device has been cooled down to 14 K. From below 100 K down to 14 K the noise was observed to increase due to G-R noise originating from donor atoms (dopants) inside the channel. A very simple theoretical interpretation confirms the nature of G-R noise from these very shallow trapping centers. We also studied devices from a process optimized for room temperature operation and found noise corresponding to the presence of a single deep level trap. Even for this circumstance the theory was experimentally confirmed. The measurement approach we used allowed us to achieve a very high accuracy in the modeling of the measured G-R noise. The ratio of the density of the atoms responsible for G-R noise above the doping concentration, N T /N d , has been verified with a sensitivity around 10 -7

  2. Deep learning for tissue microarray image-based outcome prediction in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Dmitrii; Turkki, Riku; Haglund, Caj; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in computer vision enable increasingly accurate automated pattern classification. In the current study we evaluate whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be trained to predict disease outcome in patients with colorectal cancer based on images of tumor tissue microarray samples. We compare the prognostic accuracy of CNN features extracted from the whole, unsegmented tissue microarray spot image, with that of CNN features extracted from the epithelial and non-epithelial compartments, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of visually assessed histologic grade is used as a reference. The image data set consists of digitized hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained tissue microarray samples obtained from 180 patients with colorectal cancer. The patient samples represent a variety of histological grades, have data available on a series of clinicopathological variables including long-term outcome and ground truth annotations performed by experts. The CNN features extracted from images of the epithelial tissue compartment significantly predicted outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08; CI95% 1.04-4.16; area under the curve (AUC) 0.66) in a test set of 60 patients, as compared to the CNN features extracted from unsegmented images (HR 1.67; CI95% 0.84-3.31, AUC 0.57) and visually assessed histologic grade (HR 1.96; CI95% 0.99-3.88, AUC 0.61). As a conclusion, a deep-learning classifier can be trained to predict outcome of colorectal cancer based on images of H and E stained tissue microarray samples and the CNN features extracted from the epithelial compartment only resulted in a prognostic discrimination comparable to that of visually determined histologic grade.

  3. Tissue microstructure estimation using a deep network inspired by a dictionary-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang

    2017-12-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) captures the anisotropic pattern of water displacement in the neuronal tissue and allows noninvasive investigation of the complex tissue microstructure. A number of biophysical models have been proposed to relate the tissue organization with the observed diffusion signals, so that the tissue microstructure can be inferred. The Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model has been a popular choice and has been widely used for many neuroscientific studies. It models the diffusion signal with three compartments that are characterized by distinct diffusion properties, and the parameters in the model describe tissue microstructure. In NODDI, these parameters are estimated in a maximum likelihood framework, where the nonlinear model fitting is computationally intensive. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop efficient and accurate algorithms for NODDI microstructure estimation, which is still an open problem. In this work, we propose a deep network based approach that performs end-to-end estimation of NODDI microstructure, which is named Microstructure Estimation using a Deep Network (MEDN). MEDN comprises two cascaded stages and is motivated by the AMICO algorithm, where the NODDI microstructure estimation is formulated in a dictionary-based framework. The first stage computes the coefficients of the dictionary. It resembles the solution to a sparse reconstruction problem, where the iterative process in conventional estimation approaches is unfolded and truncated, and the weights are learned instead of predetermined by the dictionary. In the second stage, microstructure properties are computed from the output of the first stage, which resembles the weighted sum of normalized dictionary coefficients in AMICO, and the weights are also learned. Because spatial consistency of diffusion signals can be used to reduce the effect of noise, we also propose MEDN+, which is an extended version of MEDN. MEDN

  4. [Feasibility of using connective tissue prosthesis for autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentseva, N V; Yushkov, B G; Medvedeva, S Y; Kovalenko, R Y; Uzbekov, O K; Zhuravlev, V N

    2016-12-01

    Experiments on laboratory rats have shown the feasibility of autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects using a connective-tissue capsule formed as the result of an inflammatory response to the presence of a foreign body. The formation of connective tissue prosthesis is characterized by developing fibrous connective tissue, ordering of collagen fibers, reducing the number of cells per unit area with a predominance of more mature cells - fibroblasts. With increasing time of observation, connective tissue prostheses were found to acquire a morphological structure similar to that of the urinary bladder wall. By month 12, the mucosa, the longitudinal and circular muscle layers were formed. The proposed method of partial autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall is promising, has good long-term results, but requires further experimental studies.

  5. Deep phenotyping of 89 xeroderma pigmentosum patients reveals unexpected heterogeneity dependent on the precise molecular defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Hiva; Sethi, Mieran; Fawcett, Heather; Wing, Jonathan; Chandler, Natalie; Mohammed, Shehla; Craythorne, Emma; Morley, Ana M. S.; Lim, Rongxuan; Turner, Sally; Henshaw, Tanya; Garrood, Isabel; Giunti, Paola; Hedderly, Tammy; Abiona, Adesoji; Naik, Harsha; Harrop, Gemma; McGibbon, David; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; Botta, Elena; Nardo, Tiziana; Stefanini, Miria; Young, Antony R.; Sarkany, Robert P. E.; Lehmann, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare DNA repair disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to UV radiation (UVR)-induced skin pigmentation, skin cancers, ocular surface disease, and, in some patients, sunburn and neurological degeneration. Genetically, it is assigned to eight complementation groups (XP-A to -G and variant). For the last 5 y, the UK national multidisciplinary XP service has provided follow-up for 89 XP patients, representing most of the XP patients in the United Kingdom. Causative mutations, DNA repair levels, and more than 60 clinical variables relating to dermatology, ophthalmology, and neurology have been measured, using scoring systems to categorize disease severity. This deep phenotyping has revealed unanticipated heterogeneity of clinical features, between and within complementation groups. Skin cancer is most common in XP-C, XP-E, and XP-V patients, previously considered to be the milder groups based on cellular analyses. These patients have normal sunburn reactions and are therefore diagnosed later and are less likely to adhere to UVR protection. XP-C patients are specifically hypersensitive to ocular damage, and XP-F and XP-G patients appear to be much less susceptible to skin cancer than other XP groups. Within XP groups, different mutations confer susceptibility or resistance to neurological damage. Our findings on this large cohort of XP patients under long-term follow-up reveal that XP is more heterogeneous than has previously been appreciated. Our data now enable provision of personalized prognostic information and management advice for each XP patient, as well as providing new insights into the functions of the XP proteins. PMID:26884178

  6. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  7. Assessment of deep tissue hyperalgesia in the groin – a method comparison of electrical vs. pressure stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep pain complaints are more frequent than cutaneous in post-surgical patients, and a prevalent finding in quantitative sensory testing studies. However, the preferred assessment method - pressure algometry - is indirect and tissue unspecific, hindering advances in treatment and prev......BACKGROUND: Deep pain complaints are more frequent than cutaneous in post-surgical patients, and a prevalent finding in quantitative sensory testing studies. However, the preferred assessment method - pressure algometry - is indirect and tissue unspecific, hindering advances in treatment...... thresholds to pressure algometry, by performing identical test-retest sequences 10 days apart, in deep tissues in the groin region. Electrical stimulation was performed by five up-and-down staircase series of single impulses of 0.04 ms duration, starting from 0 mA in increments of 0.2 mA until a threshold......: The presented tissue-specific direct deep tissue electrical stimulation technique has equal or superior reliability compared with the indirect tissue-unspecific stimulation by pressure algometry. This method may facilitate advances in mechanism based preventive and treatment strategies in acute and chronic post...

  8. Super-nonlinear fluorescence microscopy for high-contrast deep tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Zhu, Xinxin; Chen, Zhixing; Min, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) offers the highest penetration depth with subcellular resolution in light microscopy, due to its unique advantage of nonlinear excitation. However, a fundamental imaging-depth limit, accompanied by a vanishing signal-to-background contrast, still exists for TPFM when imaging deep into scattering samples. Formally, the focusing depth, at which the in-focus signal and the out-of-focus background are equal to each other, is defined as the fundamental imaging-depth limit. To go beyond this imaging-depth limit of TPFM, we report a new class of super-nonlinear fluorescence microscopy for high-contrast deep tissue imaging, including multiphoton activation and imaging (MPAI) harnessing novel photo-activatable fluorophores, stimulated emission reduced fluorescence (SERF) microscopy by adding a weak laser beam for stimulated emission, and two-photon induced focal saturation imaging with preferential depletion of ground-state fluorophores at focus. The resulting image contrasts all exhibit a higher-order (third- or fourth- order) nonlinear signal dependence on laser intensity than that in the standard TPFM. Both the physical principles and the imaging demonstrations will be provided for each super-nonlinear microscopy. In all these techniques, the created super-nonlinearity significantly enhances the imaging contrast and concurrently extends the imaging depth-limit of TPFM. Conceptually different from conventional multiphoton processes mediated by virtual states, our strategy constitutes a new class of fluorescence microscopy where high-order nonlinearity is mediated by real population transfer.

  9. Fiber-based tissue identification for electrode placement in deep brain stimulation neurosurgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Damon T.; Lapointe, Nicolas; Goetz, Laurent; Parent, Martin; Prudhomme, Michel; Cantin, Léo.; Galstian, Tigran; Messaddeq, Younès.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation's effectiveness relies on the ability of the stimulating electrode to be properly placed within a specific target area of the brain. Optical guidance techniques that can increase the accuracy of the procedure, without causing any additional harm, are therefore of great interest. We have designed a cheap optical fiber-based device that is small enough to be placed within commercially available DBS stimulating electrodes' hollow cores and that is capable of sensing biological information from the surrounding tissue, using low power white light. With this probe we have shown the ability to distinguish white and grey matter as well as blood vessels, in vitro, in human brain samples and in vivo, in rats. We have also repeated the in vitro procedure with the probe inserted in a DBS stimulating electrode and found the results were in good agreement. We are currently validating a second fiber optic device, with micro-optical components, that will result in label free, molecular level sensing capabilities, using CARS spectroscopy. The final objective will be to use this data in real time, during deep brain stimulation neurosurgery, to increase the safety and accuracy of the procedure.

  10. Tissue at risk in the deep middle cerebral artery territory is critical to stroke outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Samson, Yves [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Colliot, Olivier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Valabregue, Romain [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Crozier, Sophie [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); Dormont, Didier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lehericy, Stephane [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke patients is explained by the increased rate of recanalization, which limits infarct growth. However, the efficacy could also be explained by the protection of specific sites of the brain. Here, we investigate where is this outcome-related tissue at risk using voxel-based analysis. We included 68 acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on the admission MRI performed within 6 h of symptoms onset (H6) and 16 controls. MCA recanalization was assessed using the magnetic resonance angiography performed at day 1 (D1). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes were analyzed using a voxel-based method between patients vs. controls group at admission (H6) in non-recanalized vs. recanalized and in 3-month poor vs. good outcome patients at D1. Complete or partial MCA recanalization was observed in 52 of 68 patients. Good outcome at 3 months occurred in 40 patients (59%). In non-recanalized patients, ADC was decreased in the deep MCA and watershed arterial territory (the lenticular nucleus, internal capsule, and the overlying periventricular white matter). This decrease was not observed in recanalized patients at D1 or patients at H6. Fiber tracking suggested that the area is crossed by the cortico-spinal, cerebellar, and intra-hemispheric association tracts. Finally, this area almost co-localized with the area associated with poor outcome. A clinically relevant area of tissue at risk may occur in patients with MCA infarcts at the level of deep white matter fiber tracts. These findings suggest that neuroprotection research should be refocused on white matter. (orig.)

  11. Tissue at risk in the deep middle cerebral artery territory is critical to stroke outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Samson, Yves; Colliot, Olivier; Valabregue, Romain; Crozier, Sophie; Dormont, Didier; Lehericy, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke patients is explained by the increased rate of recanalization, which limits infarct growth. However, the efficacy could also be explained by the protection of specific sites of the brain. Here, we investigate where is this outcome-related tissue at risk using voxel-based analysis. We included 68 acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on the admission MRI performed within 6 h of symptoms onset (H6) and 16 controls. MCA recanalization was assessed using the magnetic resonance angiography performed at day 1 (D1). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes were analyzed using a voxel-based method between patients vs. controls group at admission (H6) in non-recanalized vs. recanalized and in 3-month poor vs. good outcome patients at D1. Complete or partial MCA recanalization was observed in 52 of 68 patients. Good outcome at 3 months occurred in 40 patients (59%). In non-recanalized patients, ADC was decreased in the deep MCA and watershed arterial territory (the lenticular nucleus, internal capsule, and the overlying periventricular white matter). This decrease was not observed in recanalized patients at D1 or patients at H6. Fiber tracking suggested that the area is crossed by the cortico-spinal, cerebellar, and intra-hemispheric association tracts. Finally, this area almost co-localized with the area associated with poor outcome. A clinically relevant area of tissue at risk may occur in patients with MCA infarcts at the level of deep white matter fiber tracts. These findings suggest that neuroprotection research should be refocused on white matter. (orig.)

  12. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  13. Histochemical characterization of human osteochondral tissue: comparison between healthy cartilage, arthrotic tissues, and cartilage defect treated with MACI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tessarolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-induced sutologous chondrocytes implantation (MACI is a promising technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions, but long time outcome have to be established. We developed and optimized specific techniques of histochemical staining to characterize healthy and pathologic osteochondral tissue. Seven different staining protocols were applied to assess tissue architecture, cells morphology, proteoglycan content, and collagen fibers distribution. Potentialities of histochemical staining and histomorphology of biopsies from second look arthroscopy will be presented.

  14. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  15. Applications of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in deep-tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Betty; Hsu, Lily L.; Kaplan, Peter D.; Blankschstein, D.; Langer, Robert; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-07-01

    Based on the non-linear excitation of fluorescence molecules, two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a significant new tool for biological imaging. The point-like excitation characteristic of this technique enhances image quality by the virtual elimination of off-focal fluorescence. Furthermore, sample photodamage is greatly reduced because fluorescence excitation is limited to the focal region. For deep tissue imaging, two-photon microscopy has the additional benefit in the greatly improved imaging depth penetration. Since the near- infrared laser sources used in two-photon microscopy scatter less than their UV/glue-green counterparts, in-depth imaging of highly scattering specimen can be greatly improved. In this work, we will present data characterizing both the imaging characteristics (point-spread-functions) and tissue samples (skin) images using this novel technology. In particular, we will demonstrate how blind deconvolution can be used further improve two-photon image quality and how this technique can be used to study mechanisms of chemically-enhanced, transdermal drug delivery.

  16. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Psenner, K.; Hamburger, C.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs

  17. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep venous malformation: A variant of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Wankhade, Vaishali; Singh, Rajesh; Sadhwani, Venus; Kodate, Purnima; Disawal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a cutaneous capillary malformation on a limb in association with soft tissue swelling with or without bony hypertrophy and atypical varicosity. The capillary malformation associated with KTS is port wine stain. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme (ACN) is a congenital variant of angiokeratoma commonly present on the lower limb as a hyperkeratotic plaque. ACN is rarely associated with KTS. We report a case of ACN with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep ven...

  18. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  19. Treatment of soft-tissue loss with nerve defect in the finger using the boomerang nerve flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This study reports simultaneous repair of soft-tissue loss and proper digital nerve defect in the finger using a boomerang nerve flap including nerve graft from the dorsal branch of the proper digital nerve. From July of 2007 to May of 2010, the flap was used in 17 fingers in 17 patients. The injured fingers included five index, seven long, and five ring fingers. The mean soft-tissue loss was 2.5 × 1.9 cm. The mean flap size was 2.8 × 2.1 cm. Proper digital nerve defects were reconstructed using nerve graft harvested from the dorsal branch of the adjacent finger's proper digital nerve. The average nerve graft length was 2.5 cm. The comparison group included 32 patients treated using a cross-finger flap and a secondary free nerve graft. In the study group, 15 flaps survived completely. Partial necrosis at the distal edge of the flap occurred in two cases. At a mean follow-up of 22 months, the average static two-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test results on the pulp of the reconstructed finger were 7.5 mm and 3.86, respectively. In the comparison group, the results were 9.3 mm and 3.91, respectively. The study group presented better discriminatory sensation on the pulp and milder pain and cold intolerance in the reconstructed finger. The boomerang nerve flap is useful and reliable for reconstructing complicated finger damage involving soft-tissue loss and nerve defect, especially in difficult anatomical regions. Therapeutic, II.

  20. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibody-Mediated Osseous Regeneration for Bone Tissue Engineering in Canine Segmental Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khojasteh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many applications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, a unique approach for regenerative medicine has entailed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR. In an effort to identify a clinically relevant model of craniofacial defect, the present study investigated the efficacy of mAb specific for bone morphogenetic protein- (BMP- 2 to repair canine segmental mandibular continuity defect model. Accordingly, a 15 mm unilateral segmental defect was created in mandible and fixated with a titanium plate. Anorganic bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (ABBM-C was functionalized with 25 μg/mL of either chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype-matched mAb (negative control. Recombinant human (rh BMP-2 served as positive control. Morphometric analyses were performed on computed tomography (CT and histologic images. Bone densities within healed defect sites at 12 weeks after surgery were 1360.81 ± 10.52 Hounsfield Unit (HU, 1044.27 ± 141.16 HU, and 839.45 ± 179.41 HU, in sites with implanted anti-BMP-2 mAb, rhBMP-2, and isotype mAb groups, respectively. Osteoid bone formation in anti-BMP-2 mAb (42.99% ± 8.67 and rhBMP-2 (48.97% ± 2.96 groups was not significantly different but was higher (p<0.05 than in sites with isotype control mAb (26.8% ± 5.35. In view of the long-term objective of translational application of AMOR in humans, the results of the present study demonstrated the feasibility of AMOR in a large clinically relevant animal model.

  2. Therapeutic impact of CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of deep tissue abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Nobuhiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Aoshima, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ikuo; Kawamura, Yasutaka

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy of CT-guided percutaneous drainage and antibiotics is the first-line treatment for abscesses. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated. However, the therapeutic impact of this procedure for infection treatment has never been reported. We retrospectively analyzed all 47 patients who received CT-guided percutaneous drainage for infection treatment. Patients' characteristics, pathogens isolated, antibiotics administered, technical and clinical outcomes, complications related to this procedure and therapeutic impacts were investigated. Patients were 26 males and 21 females. The mean age was 63.5 years (±18.7). The diseases targeted were 19 retroperitoneal abscesses, 18 intraabdominal abscesses, three pelvic abscesses, and seven others. As for technical outcomes, all of the 54 procedures (100%) were successful. As for clinical outcomes, 44 (93.6%) were cured and three patients (6.4%) died. No complications related to this procedure were found in this study. A total of 42 patients (88%) had a change in the management of their infection as a result of CT-guided percutaneous drainage, such as selection and discontinuation of antibiotics. In conclusion, CT-guided percutaneous drainage is a safe and favorable procedure in the treatment of deep tissue abscesses. Therapeutic impact of these procedures helped physicians make a rational decision for antibiotics selection. (author)

  3. Effective photodynamic therapy against microbial populations in human deep tissue abscess aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidaris, Constantine G; Foster, Thomas H; Waldman, David L; Mathes, Edward J; McNamara, Joanne; Curran, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The primary therapy for deep tissue abscesses is drainage accompanied by systemic antimicrobial treatment. However, the long antibiotic course required increases the probability of acquired resistance, and the high incidence of polymicrobial infections in abscesses complicates treatment choices. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective against multiple classes of organisms, including those displaying drug resistance, and may serve as a useful adjunct to the standard of care by reduction of abscess microbial burden following drainage. Aspirates were obtained from 32 patients who underwent image-guided percutaneous drainage of the abscess cavity. The majority of the specimens (24/32) were abdominal, with the remainder from liver and lung. Conventional microbiological techniques and nucleotide sequence analysis of rRNA gene fragments were used to characterize microbial populations from abscess aspirates. We evaluated the sensitivity of microorganisms to methylene blue-sensitized PDT in vitro both within the context of an abscess aspirate and as individual isolates. Most isolates were bacterial, with the fungus Candida tropicalis also isolated from two specimens. We examined the sensitivity of these microorganisms to methylene blue-PDT. Complete elimination of culturable microorganisms was achieved in three different aspirates, and significant killing (P abscess treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Therapeutic impact of CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of deep tissue abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Nobuhiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Aoshima, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ikuo; Kawamura, Yasutaka, E-mail: nobuhiro0204@hotmail.com [Kameda Medical Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Combination therapy of CT-guided percutaneous drainage and antibiotics is the first-line treatment for abscesses. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated. However, the therapeutic impact of this procedure for infection treatment has never been reported. We retrospectively analyzed all 47 patients who received CT-guided percutaneous drainage for infection treatment. Patients' characteristics, pathogens isolated, antibiotics administered, technical and clinical outcomes, complications related to this procedure and therapeutic impacts were investigated. Patients were 26 males and 21 females. The mean age was 63.5 years ({+-}18.7). The diseases targeted were 19 retroperitoneal abscesses, 18 intraabdominal abscesses, three pelvic abscesses, and seven others. As for technical outcomes, all of the 54 procedures (100%) were successful. As for clinical outcomes, 44 (93.6%) were cured and three patients (6.4%) died. No complications related to this procedure were found in this study. A total of 42 patients (88%) had a change in the management of their infection as a result of CT-guided percutaneous drainage, such as selection and discontinuation of antibiotics. In conclusion, CT-guided percutaneous drainage is a safe and favorable procedure in the treatment of deep tissue abscesses. Therapeutic impact of these procedures helped physicians make a rational decision for antibiotics selection. (author)

  5. Mutation of p107 exacerbates the consequences of Rb loss in embryonic tissues and causes cardiac and blood vessel defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Seth D; West, Julie C; Danielian, Paul S; Caron, Alicia M; Stone, James R; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2009-09-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein, pRb, is a member of the pocket protein family that includes p107 and p130. These proteins have well-defined roles in regulating entry into and exit from the cell cycle and also have cell cycle-independent roles in facilitating differentiation. Here we investigate the overlap between pocket protein's function during embryonic development by using conditional mutant alleles to generate Rb;p107 double-mutant embryos (DKOs) that develop in the absence of placental defects. These DKOs die between e13.5 and e14.5, much earlier than either the conditional Rb or the germline p107 single mutants, which survive to birth or are largely viable, respectively. Analyses of the e13.5 DKOs shows that p107 mutation exacerbates the phenotypes resulting from pRb loss in the central nervous system and lens, but not in the peripheral nervous system. In addition, these embryos exhibit novel phenotypes, including increased proliferation of blood vessel endothelial cells, and heart defects, including double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). The DORV is caused, at least in part, by a defect in blood vessel endothelial cells and/or heart mesenchymal cells. These findings demonstrate novel, overlapping functions for pRb and p107 in numerous murine tissues.

  6. Implantation of a novel biologic and hybridized tissue engineered bioimplant in large tendon defect: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Parizi, Abdolhamid Meimandi; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Surgical reconstruction of large Achilles tendon defects is technically demanding. There is no standard method, and tissue engineering may be a valuable option. We investigated the effects of 3D collagen and collagen-polydioxanone sheath (PDS) implants on a large tendon defect model in rabbits. Ninety rabbits were divided into three groups: control, collagen, and collagen-PDS. In all groups, 2 cm of the left Achilles tendon were excised and discarded. A modified Kessler suture was applied to all injured tendons to retain the gap length. The control group received no graft, the treated groups were repaired using the collagen only or the collagen-PDS prostheses. The bioelectrical characteristics of the injured areas were measured at weekly intervals. The animals were euthanized at 60 days after the procedure. Gross, histopathological and ultrastructural morphology and biophysical characteristics of the injured and intact tendons were investigated. Another 90 pilot animals were also used to investigate the inflammatory response and mechanism of graft incorporation during tendon healing. The control tendons showed severe hyperemia and peritendinous adhesion, and the gastrocnemius muscle of the control animals showed severe atrophy and fibrosis, with a loose areolar connective tissue filling the injured area. The tendons receiving either collagen or collagen-PDS implants showed lower amounts of peritendinous adhesion, hyperemia and muscle atrophy, and a dense tendon filled the defect area. Compared to the control tendons, application of collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly improved water uptake, water delivery, direct transitional electrical current and tissue resistance to direct transitional electrical current. Compared to the control tendons, both prostheses showed significantly increased diameter, density and alignment of the collagen fibrils and maturity of the tenoblasts at ultrastructure level. Both prostheses influenced favorably tendon healing

  7. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  8. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Alnoor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE to the deep-level emission (DLE peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h, which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  9. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Khan, A.; Takamoto, T.; Agui, T.; Kamimura, K.; Kaneiwa, M.; Imaizumi, M.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H.

    2005-01-01

    Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al 0.08 Ga 0.92 ) 0.52 In 0.48 P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm -1 , which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E ν +0.90±0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations (Δp) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm -1 , of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm -1 , in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm 2 ), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is ΔE=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V p -P i ). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center

  10. Sequential chimeric medial femoral condyle and anterolateral thigh flow-through flaps for one-stage reconstructions of composite bone and soft tissue defects: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Dominic; Abouarab, Mohamed H; Hirche, Christoph; Hernekamp, Jochen F; Schmidt, Volker J; Kneser, Ulrich; Kremer, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Small recalcitrant non-unions with poor perfusion require reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps. Cases with concomitant large soft tissue defects are especially challenging, since vascularized soft tissue transfer is often indicated and distant microvascular anastomoses may be required. We introduce a sequential chimeric free flap composed of a medial femoral condyle corticoperiosteal flap anastomosed to an anterolateral thigh flow-through flap (MFC-ALT flap) and report its use for reconstruction of small non-unions with concomitant large soft tissue defects in three exemplary patients. Two female and one male patients ages 39-58 years suffered from composite bone and soft tissue defects of the lower extremity and clavicle caused by tumor resection and postoperative radiation resp. infected tibial pilon fracture. The sizes of the soft tissue defects ranged from 15-23 × 4.5-6 cm and the sizes of the bone defects ranged from 1.5-4 × 2-4 cm. Defect reconstructions were performed in all cases with sequential chimeric MFC-ALT flaps with sizes ranging from 2-4 × 1.6-4 cm for the MFC and 21-23 × 7-8 cm for the ALT skin paddles. Functional reconstructions were achieved in all cases resulting in stable unions and soft tissue coverage enabling the patients to bear full weight without assistance on 5-months follow-up. Postoperative course was uneventful and complications were restricted to a small skin necrosis at the suture line in one case. MFC-ALT flaps may be a safe, and effective procedure for one-stage reconstructions of small, irregularly shaped bone defects with concomitant large soft tissue loss or surrounding instable scarring, particularly in cases of recalcitrant non-unions after radiation exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low energy electron irradiation induced deep level defects in 6H-SiC: The implication for the microstructure of the deep levels E1/E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.D.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Lui, M.K.; Ling, C.C.; Yang, C.L.; Ge, W.K.; Wang, J.N.; Gong, M.

    2004-01-01

    N-type 6H-SiC samples irradiated with electrons having energies of E e =0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.7 were studied by deep level transient technique. No deep level was detected at below 0.2 MeV irradiation energy while for E e ≥0.3 MeV, deep levels ED1, E 1 /E 2 , and E i appeared. By considering the minimum energy required to displace the C atom or the Si atom in the SiC lattice, it is concluded that generation of the deep levels E 1 /E 2 , as well as ED1 and E i , involves the displacement of the C atom in the SiC lattice

  12. A tissue engineering solution for segmental defect regeneration in load-bearing long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johannes C; Cipitria, Amaia; Epari, Devakara R; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Krishnakanth, Pushpanjali; Berner, Arne; Woodruff, Maria A; Schell, Hanna; Mehta, Manav; Schuetz, Michael A; Duda, Georg N; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2012-07-04

    The reconstruction of large defects (>10 mm) in humans usually relies on bone graft transplantation. Limiting factors include availability of graft material, comorbidity, and insufficient integration into the damaged bone. We compare the gold standard autograft with biodegradable composite scaffolds consisting of medical-grade polycaprolactone and tricalcium phosphate combined with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). Critical-sized defects in sheep--a model closely resembling human bone formation and structure--were treated with autograft, rhBMP-7, or MSCs. Bridging was observed within 3 months for both the autograft and the rhBMP-7 treatment. After 12 months, biomechanical analysis and microcomputed tomography imaging showed significantly greater bone formation and superior strength for the biomaterial scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-7 compared to the autograft. Axial bone distribution was greater at the interfaces. With rhBMP-7, at 3 months, the radial bone distribution within the scaffolds was homogeneous. At 12 months, however, significantly more bone was found in the scaffold architecture, indicating bone remodeling. Scaffolds alone or with MSC inclusion did not induce levels of bone formation comparable to those of the autograft and rhBMP-7 groups. Applied clinically, this approach using rhBMP-7 could overcome autograft-associated limitations.

  13. Vascularization after treatment of gingival recession defects with platelet-rich fibrin or connective tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gülnihal; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan; Sculean, Anton; Atilla, Gül

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the following treatment of bilateral localized gingival recessions with coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Tissue samples were harvested from 14 subjects either 1 or 6 months after the surgeries. The 2-mm punch biopsies were obtained from the mid-portion of the grafted sites. Neutral buffered formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded 5-μm thick tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin and Masson's trichrome in order to analyze the collagen framework, epithelium thickness and rete-peg length. Multiple sequential sections were cut from paraffin-embedded blocks of tissue and immunohistochemically prepared for detection of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31 and CD34, for the assessment of vascularization. Rete peg formation was significantly increased in the sites treated with PRF compared to the SCTG group after 6 months (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the number of vessels was increased in the SCTG group compared to the PRF group after 6 months (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen density. Staining intensity of CD31 increased in submucosal area of PRF group than SCTG group after 1 month. Higher staining intensity of CD34 was observed in the submucosal area of PRF group compared with SCTG group after 6 months. The results of the present study suggest that in histological evaluation because of its biological compounds, PRF results earlier vessel formation and tissue maturation compared to connective tissue graft. PRF regulated the vascular response associated with an earlier wound healing.

  14. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gyte.edu.tr; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan); Kargın, Elif Orhan [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov ave. 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus)

    2015-06-14

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS{sub 2} (TlInS{sub 2}:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS{sub 2}:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS{sub 2}:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS{sub 2}:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS{sub 2}:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles

  15. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS2 layered semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS 2 (TlInS 2 :La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS 2 :La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS 2 :La. Thermal treatments of TlInS 2 :La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10 −14 cm 2 , corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS 2 :La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10 −16 cm 2 were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles, which are originated from the charged B5

  16. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Naoya, E-mail: naoya.iwamoto@smn.uio.no; Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G. [Department of Physics, Center for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, 370-1292 Gunma (Japan); Moe, Anne Marie M. [Washington Mills AS, N-7300 Orkanger (Norway)

    2015-07-28

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3} range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ∼10{sup 14 }cm{sup −3}). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400–1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  17. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  18. Characterization of deep level defects in Tl6I4S single crystals by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J A; Liu, Z; Sebastian, M; Wessels, B W; Im, J; Freeman, A J; Nguyen, S; Kanatzidis, M G

    2015-01-01

    Defect levels in semi-insulating Tl 6 I 4 S single crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman technique have been characterized using photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). These measurements revealed six electron traps located at (0.059  ±  0.007), (0.13  ±  0.012), (0.31  ±  0.074), (0.39  ±  0.019), (0.62  ±  0.110), and (0.597  ±  0.105). These defect levels are attributed to vacancies (V I , V S ) and antisite defects (I S , Tl S , Tl I ) upon comparison to calculations of native defect energy levels using density functional theory and defects recently reported from photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements. (paper)

  19. Intra-uterine tissue engineering of full-thickness skin defects in a fetal sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, Nynke A.; Eggink, Alex J.; Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Bank, Ruud A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Geutjes, Paul J.; Daamen, Willeke F.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Tiemessen, Dorien M.; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Crevels, Jane J.; Blokx, Willeke A. M.; Lotgering, Fred K.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Feitz, Wout F. J.

    In spina bifida the neural tube fails to close during the embryonic period and it is thought that prolonged exposure of the unprotected spinal cord to the amniotic fluid during pregnancy causes additional neural damage. Intra-uterine repair might protect the neural tissue from exposure to amniotic

  20. [CLINICAL APPLICATION AND EXPERIENCE IN RECONSTRUCTION OF SOFT TISSUE DEFECTS FOLLOWING MALIGNANT TUMOR REMOVAL OF LIMBS USING PERFORATOR PROPELLER FLAPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Liu, Yuanbo; Yu, Shengji; Zang, Mengqing; Zhao, Zhenguo; Xu, Libin; Zhang, Xinxin; Chen, Bo; Ding, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility and technical essentials of soft tissue defect reconstruction following malignant tumor removal of limbs using perforator propeller flaps. Between July 2008 and July 2015, 19 patients with malignant limb tumor underwent defect reconstruction following tumor removal using the perforator propeller flaps. There were 13 males and 6 females with an average age of 53.4 years (range, 20-82 years). The disease duration ranged from 1 to 420 months (mean, 82 months). The tumors located at the thigh in 10 cases, at the leg in 2 cases, at the arm in 1 case, at the forearm in 1 case, around the knee in 2 cases, and around the elbow joint in 3 cases. Totally 23 flaps (from 8 cm x 3 cm to 30 cm x 13 cm in size) were used to reconstruct defects (from 4 cm x 4 cm to 24 cm x 16 cm in size). The potential source arteries included the femoral artery (n = 2), profunda femoral artery (n = 3), superficial circumflex iliac artery (n = 1), lateral circumflex femoral artery (n = 6), superior lateral genicular artery (n = 2), peroneal artery (n = 2), anterior tibial artery (n = 1), brachial artery (n = 4), and radial artery (n = 1). The remaining one was a free style perforator flap. Partial distal flap necrosis occurred in 3 cases after surgery with rotation angles of 180, 150, and 100 degrees respectively, which were reconstructed after debridement using a free-style perforator flap in 1 case and using free skin grafting in the other 2 cases. The other 20 flaps survived completely after surgery. Primary healing of incisions was obtained at the donor and recipient sites. There was no severe complication such as infection, hematoma, and total flap failure. All patients were followed up 3 months to 5 years (mean, 19 months). One patient with malignant melanoma around the elbow joint had tumor recurrence, and underwent secondary tumor resection. The appearance, texture, and color of the flaps were similar to those at the recipient site. For patients with malignant

  1. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep venous malformation: A variant of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Wankhade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS is a cutaneous capillary malformation on a limb in association with soft tissue swelling with or without bony hypertrophy and atypical varicosity. The capillary malformation associated with KTS is port wine stain. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme (ACN is a congenital variant of angiokeratoma commonly present on the lower limb as a hyperkeratotic plaque. ACN is rarely associated with KTS. We report a case of ACN with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep venous malformation (possibly a variant of Klippel-Trenaunay in a 4-year-old male child.

  2. Arthroscopic treatment of chondral defects in the hip: AMIC, MACI, microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation (MATT and other options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannelli Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondral lesions are currently considered in the hip as a consequence of trauma, osteonecrosis, dysplasia, labral tears, loose bodies, dislocation, previous slipped capital femoral epiphysis and Femoro-Acetabular-Impingement (FAI. The management of chondral lesions is debated and several techniques are described. The physical examination must be carefully performed, followed by radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies must be considered. Debridement is indicated in patients younger than 50 years with a chondropathy of 1st or 2nd degree. Microfractures are indicated in patients younger than 50 years with a chondropathy of 3rd or 4th degree less than 2 cm2. Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI and Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC procedures are indicated in patients with full-thickness symptomatic 3rd–4th degree chondral defects, extended 2 cm2 or more. The AMIC procedure has the advantage of a one-step procedure and much less expense. Microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation (MATT is indicated for the treatment of delamination and 1st and 2nd degree chondral lesions, regardless of the age of the patient. Chondral defects are effective when the joint space is not compromised. When the Tonnis classification is two or greater, treatment of chondral lesions should be considered ineffective.

  3. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue for fixation of STSG in genitourinary tissue defects due to Fournier gangrene: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrioğlu, Nazan; Irkören, Saime; Ceylan, Ender; Sonel, Ali Murat; Copçu, Eray

    2013-05-01

    In these reported cases, we observed the outcomes of skin take and wound healing using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue, which was used as tissue glue in the reconstruction of complex genital skin loss due to fournier gangrene. Fifteen patients with Fournier's gangrene were treated in this study. After initial surgical debridement, all defects were repaired using STSG. In this method a thin layer of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate was dripped on the recipient site immediately before graft application. All wounds were followed up postoperatively and observed for evidence of graft take, seroma or hematoma formation, drainage, and infection. Patient and physician satisfaction were also determined. Grafts were completely accepted in all fifteen patients. None of the patients had wound infection, seroma, hematoma, or other complications. Use of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue (Glueseal) for STSG fixation in complex genital skin defects after Fournier gangrene may be an acceptable alternative to conventional surgical closure with a good cosmetic outcome. Further studies are needed to confirm our initial success with this approach.

  5. Deep Defect Detection within Thick Multilayer Aircraft Structures Containing Steel Fasteners Using a Giant-Magneto Resistive (GMR) Sensor (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, Ray T; Steffes, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Defect detection within thick multilayer structures containing steel fasteners is a challenging task in eddy current testing due to the magnetic permeability of the fasteners and overall thickness of the structure...

  6. Evidence for two distinct defects contributing to the H4 deep-level transient spectroscopy peak in electron-irradiated InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwich, R.; Massarani, B.; Kaaka, M.; Awad, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study the dominant deep-level H4 produced in InP by electron irradiation. The characteristics of the H4 peak in Zn-doped Inp has been studied as a function of pulse duration (t p ) before and after annealing. The results show that at least two traps contribute to the H4 peak: one is a fast trap (labeled H4 f ) and the other is a show trap (labeled H4 s ). This is show through several results concerning the activation energy, the capture cross section, the full width at half-maximum, and the peak temperature shift. It is shown that both traps are irradiation defects created in P sublattice. (authors)

  7. Role of tissue-engineered artificial tendon in healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of large Achilles tendon defects is technically demanding. Tissue engineering is an option. We constructed a collagen-based artificial tendon, covered it with a polydioxanon (PDS) sheath, and studied the role of this bioimplant on experimental tendon healing in vivo. A 2-cm tendon gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of rabbits (n = 120). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (no implant), treated with tridimensional-collagen, and treated with tridimensional-collagen-bidimensional-PDS implants. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups of 60 and 120 days postinjury (DPI). Another 50 pilot animals were used to study the host-implant interaction. Physical activity of the animals was scored and ultrasonographic and bioelectrical characteristics of the injured tendons were investigated weekly. After euthanasia, macro, micro, and nano morphologies and biophysical and biomechanical characteristics of the healing tendons were studied. Treatment improved function of the animals, time dependently. At 60 and 120 DPI, the treated tendons showed significantly higher maximum load, yield, stiffness, stress, and modulus of elasticity compared with controls. The collagen implant induced inflammation and absorbed the migrating fibroblasts in the defect area. By its unique architecture, it aligned the fibroblasts and guided their proliferation and collagen deposition along the stress line of the tendon and resulted in improved collagen density, micro-amp, micro-ohm, water uptake, and delivery of the regenerated tissue. The PDS-sheath covering amplified these characteristics. The implants were gradually absorbed and replaced by a new tendon. Minimum amounts of peritendinous adhesion, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis were observed in the treated groups. Some remnants of the implants were preserved and accepted as a part of the new tendon. The implants were cytocompatible, biocompatible, biodegradable, and effective in tendon healing and regeneration. This

  8. Direct transplantation of native pericytes from adipose tissue: A new perspective to stimulate healing in critical size bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Matthias A; Canepa, Daisy D; Cadosch, Dieter; Casanova, Elisa; Heinzelmann, Michael; Rittirsch, Daniel; Plecko, Michael; Hemmi, Sonja; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Cinelli, Paolo; Wanner, Guido A

    2016-01-01

    Fractures with a critical size bone defect (e.g., open fracture with segmental bone loss) are associated with high rates of delayed union and non-union. The prevention and treatment of these complications remain a serious issue in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Autologous cancellous bone grafting is a well-established and widely used technique. However, it has drawbacks related to availability, increased morbidity and insufficient efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells can potentially be used to improve fracture healing. In particular, human fat tissue has been identified as a good source of multilineage adipose-derived stem cells, which can be differentiated into osteoblasts. The main issue is that mesenchymal stromal cells are a heterogeneous population of progenitors and lineage-committed cells harboring a broad range of regenerative properties. This heterogeneity is also mirrored in the differentiation potential of these cells. In the present study, we sought to test the possibility to enrich defined subpopulations of stem/progenitor cells for direct therapeutic application without requiring an in vitro expansion. We enriched a CD146+NG2+CD45- population of pericytes from freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction from mouse fat tissue and tested their osteogenic differentiation capacity in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model for critical size bone injury. Our results confirm the ability of enriched CD146+NG2+CD45- cells to efficiently generate osteoblasts in vitro, to colonize cancellous bone scaffolds and to successfully contribute to regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. This study represents proof of principle for the direct use of enriched populations of cells with stem/progenitor identity for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  10. Deletion of Nhlh2 results in a defective torpor response and reduced Beta adrenergic receptor expression in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh D Wankhade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice with a targeted deletion of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Nescient Helix-Loop-Helix 2 (Nhlh2, display adult-onset obesity with significant increases in their fat depots, abnormal responses to cold exposure, and reduced spontaneous physical activity levels. These phenotypes, accompanied by the hypothalamic expression of Nhlh2, make the Nhlh2 knockout (N2KO mouse a useful model to study the role of central nervous system (CNS control on peripheral tissue such as adipose tissue.Differences in body temperature and serum analysis of leptin were performed in fasted and ad lib fed wild-type (WT and N2KO mice. Histological analysis of white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT was performed. Gene and protein level expression of inflammatory and metabolic markers were compared between the two genotypes.We report significant differences in serum leptin levels and body temperature in N2KO mice compared with WT mice exposed to a 24-hour fast, suggestive of a defect in both white (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT function. As compared to WT mice, N2KO mice showed increased serum IL-6 protein and WAT IL-6 mRNA levels. This was accompanied by slight elevations of mRNA for several macrophage markers, including expression of macrophage specific protein F4/80 in adipose, suggestive of macrophage infiltration of WAT in the mutant animals. The mRNAs for beta3-adrenergic receptors (beta3-AR, beta2-AR and uncoupling proteins were significantly reduced in WAT and BAT from N2KO mice compared with WT mice.These studies implicate Nhlh2 in the central control of WAT and BAT function, with lack of Nhlh2 leading to adipose inflammation and altered gene expression, impaired leptin response to fasting, all suggestive of a deficient torpor response in mutant animals.

  11. Histomorphometric Analysis of Periodontal Tissue Regeneration by the Use of High Density Polytetrafluoroethylen Membrane in Grade II Furcation Defects of Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoofi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are limited histomorphometric studies on biologic efficacy of high density tetrafluoroethylen (d-PTFE membrane. Objectives: To investigate the healing of surgically induced grade II furcation defects in dogs following the use of dense polytetrafluoroethylene as the barrier membrane and to compare the results with the contra lateral control teeth without the application of any membrane. Materials andMethods: Mandibular and maxillary 3rd premolar teeth of 18 young adult male mongrel dogs were used for the experiment. The furcation defects were created during the surgery. 5 weeks later, regenerative surgery was performed. The third premolar teeth were assigned randomly to control and test groups. In the test group, after a full thickness flap reflection, the d-PTFE membrane was placed over furcation defects. In the control group, no membrane was placed over the defect. 37 tissue blocks containing the teeth and surrounding hard and soft tissues were obtained three months post-regenerative surgery. The specimens were demineralized, serially sectioned, mounted and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining technique. From each tissue block, 35-45 sections of 10 μm thickness within 60μm interval captured the entire surgically created defect. The histological images were transferred to computer and then the linear measurement ranges of the defects area, interadicular alveolar bone, epithelial attachment and coronal extension of the new cementum were done. Then, the volume and area of aforementioned parameters were calculated considering the thickness and interval of the sections. To compare the parameters between the control and test teeth, we calculated the amount of each one proportionally to the original amount of defects. Results: The mean interradicular root surface areas of original defects covered with new cementum was 74.46% and 29.59% for the membrane and control defects, respectively (p < 0.0001. Corresponding

  12. A histopathologic investigation on the effects of electrical stimulation on periodontal tissue regeneration in experimental bony defects in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Deniz; Meffert, Roland; Günhan, Meral; Günhan, Omer

    2005-12-01

    One endpoint of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the structure lost due to periodontal disease. In the periodontium, gingival epithelium is regenerated by oral epithelium. Underlying connective tissue, periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum are derived from connective tissue. Primitive connective tissue cells may develop into osteoblasts and cementoblasts, which form bone and cementum. Several procedural advances may support these regenerations; however, the regeneration of alveolar bone does not always occur. Therefore, bone stimulating factors are a main topic for periodontal reconstructive research. The present study was designed to examine histopathologically whether the application of an electrical field could demonstrate enhanced alveolar and cementum regeneration and modify tissue factors. Seven beagle dogs were used for this experiment. Mandibular left and right sides served as control and experimental sides, respectively, and 4-walled intrabony defects were created bilaterally between the third and fourth premolars. The experimental side was treated with a capacitively coupled electrical field (CCEF) (sinusoidal wave, 60 kHz, and 5 V peak-to-peak), applied for 14 hours per day. The following measurements were performed on the microphotographs: 1) the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the apical notch (CEJ-AN) and from the crest of newly formed bone (alveolar ridge) to the apical notch (AR-AN); 2) the thickness of new cementum in the apical notch region; and 3) the length of junctional epithelium. The following histopathologic parameters were assessed by a semiquantitative subjective method: 1) inflammatory cell infiltration (ICI); 2) cellular activity of the periodontal ligament; 3) number and morphology of osteoclasts; 4) resorption lacunae; and 5) osteoblastic activity. The results showed that the quantity of new bone fill and the mean value of the thickness of the cementum were significantly higher for the experimental side (P 0

  13. Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Waage, Johannes Eichler; Tian, Geng

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation...... of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. RESULTS: We developed...... importance, the latter events are associated with high intronic conservation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that NMD regulates alternative splicing outcomes through an intricate web of splicing regulators and that its loss leads to the deregulation of a panoply of splicing events, providing novel...

  14. Estimation of sensitivity of island fasciocutaneous neurovascular medial plantar flap in the reconstruction of soft tissue defects in calcaneal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtović Dobrica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft tissue cover in the calcaneal region represents one of the great problems in the reconstructive surgery. The distant skin, muscle and musculocutaneous flaps are subjected to ulcers even with the orthopedic shoes. The island fasciocutaneus mid sole neurocutaneous flap can be a good substitute for the soft tissue cover due to its anatomic structure. The flap has the required dimensions, sticks well to the bone and the movements and mobility of the patient is unrestricted. This paper analyses the sensitivity of the transposed flap and the sole distal to the secondary defect observed in 30 patients. The evaluation was made after tactile tests, two-point discrimination test, the warm-cold test, the electrostatus of medial plantar nerve (MPN, and the ninhydrin test. All the tests, including the electrostatus MPN, done after 3 weeks and 3 months after the surgery, showed successful recovery of sensitivity in the transposed medial plantar flap. The results monitored after three months showed that the speed of the neural conduction recovery was 70% of normal neural reaction speed of the MPN. The modified operative techniques provide safe dissection of the plantar nerve with minimal neuropraxia. The postoperative recovery of sensitivity was more rapid, and without loss of sensitivity on the sole.

  15. Deep-tissue temperature mapping by multi-illumination photoacoustic tomography aided by a diffusion optical model: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Tang, Eric; Luo, Jianwen; Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Temperature mapping during thermotherapy can help precisely control the heating process, both temporally and spatially, to efficiently kill the tumor cells and prevent the healthy tissues from heating damage. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has been used for noninvasive temperature mapping with high sensitivity, based on the linear correlation between the tissue's Grüneisen parameter and temperature. However, limited by the tissue's unknown optical properties and thus the optical fluence at depths beyond the optical diffusion limit, the reported PAT thermometry usually takes a ratiometric measurement at different temperatures and thus cannot provide absolute measurements. Moreover, ratiometric measurement over time at different temperatures has to assume that the tissue's optical properties do not change with temperatures, which is usually not valid due to the temperature-induced hemodynamic changes. We propose an optical-diffusion-model-enhanced PAT temperature mapping that can obtain the absolute temperature distribution in deep tissue, without the need of multiple measurements at different temperatures. Based on the initial acoustic pressure reconstructed from multi-illumination photoacoustic signals, both the local optical fluence and the optical parameters including absorption and scattering coefficients are first estimated by the optical-diffusion model, then the temperature distribution is obtained from the reconstructed Grüneisen parameters. We have developed a mathematic model for the multi-illumination PAT of absolute temperatures, and our two-dimensional numerical simulations have shown the feasibility of this new method. The proposed absolute temperature mapping method may set the technical foundation for better temperature control in deep tissue in thermotherapy.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Christos G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomas of the deep soft tissue are quite uncommon and occur even more rarely in upper extremity. Case presentation A 32-year old manual laborer man presented with a two-year history of numbness, tingling and burning pain in the palmar surface of the left hand and fingers. His medical history was unremarkable and no trauma episode was reported. According to the clinical examination and the result of median nerve conduction study (NCS the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome was established. Operative release of the transverse carpal ligament was subsequently performed but the patient experienced only temporary relief of his symptoms. MRI examination revealed a deep palmary located mass with well-defined margins and ovoid shape. Intraoperatively, the tumor was in continuity with the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of the middle finger causing substantial compression to median nerve. Histopathological findings of the resected mass were consistent with leiomyoma. After two years the patient was pain-free without signs of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Despite the fact that reports on deep soft tissue leiomyoma are exceptional, this tumor had to be considered as differential diagnosis in painful non-traumatic hand syndromes especially in young patients.

  17. Defect properties of Sb- and Bi-doped CuInSe{sub 2}: The effect of the deep lone-pair s states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Sang; Yang, Ji-Hui; Ramanathan, Kannan; Wei, Su-Huai, E-mail: Suhuai.Wei@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Bi or Sb doping has been used to make better material properties of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} as solar cell absorbers, including the experimentally observed improved electrical properties. However, the mechanism is still not clear. Using first-principles method, we investigate the stability and electronic structure of Bi- and Sb-related defects in CuInSe{sub 2} and study their effects on the doping efficiency. Contrary to previous thinking that Bi or Sb substituted on the anion site, we find that under anion-rich conditions, the impurities can substitute on cation sites and are isovalent to In because of the formation of the impurity lone pair s states. When the impurities substitute for Cu, the defects act as shallow double donors and help remove the deep In{sub Cu} level, thus resulting in the improved carrier life time. On the other hand, under anion-poor conditions, impurities at the Se site create amphoteric deep levels that are detrimental to the device performance.

  18. Impacts of Carrier Transport and Deep Level Defects on Delayed Cathodoluminescence in Droop-Mitigating InGaN/GaN LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhibo; Singh, Akshay; Chesin, Jordan; Armitage, Rob; Wildeson, Isaac; Deb, Parijat; Armstrong, Andrew; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric; Gradecak, Silvija

    2017-07-25

    Prevalent droop mitigation strategies in InGaN-based LEDs require structural and/or compositional changes in the active region but are accompanied by a detrimental reduction in external quantum efficiency (EQE) due to increased Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Understanding the optoelectronic impacts of structural modifications in InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW) remains critical for emerging high-power LEDs. In this work, we use a combination of electron microscopy tools along with standard electrical characterization to investigate a wide range of low-droop InGaN/GaN QW designs. We find that chip-scale EQE is uncorrelated with extended well-width fluctuations observed in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Further, we observe delayed cathodoluminescence (CL) response from designs in which calculated band profiles suggest facile carrier escape from individual QWs. Samples with the slowest CL responses also exhibit the lowest EQEs and highest QW defect densities in deep level optical spectroscopy. We propose a model in which the electron beam (i) passivates deep level defect states and (ii) drives charge carrier accumulation and subsequent reduction of the built-in field across the multi-QW active region, resulting in delayed radiative recombination. Finally, we correlate CL rise dynamics with capacitance-voltage measurements and show that certain early-time components of the CL dynamics reflect the open circuit carrier population within one or more QWs.

  19. Optimization of Soft Tissue Management, Spacer Design, and Grafting Strategies for Large Segmental Bone Defects using the Chronic Caprine Tibial Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    for this animal revealed an abscess at the defect site with cultures identifying Staphylococcus aureus infection . Another animal (15G11) developed...foreign body reaction and expose a bleeding vascular surface significantly increased bone formation in the defect site. Adding texture to a smooth...ACHIEVEMENTS: Nothing to report 10. REFERENCES: 1. Johnson, E.N., et al., Infectious complications of open type III tibial fractures among combat

  20. Structural modeling of tissue-specific mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS2 defects predicts differential effects on aminoacylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya eEuro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of mitochondrial protein synthesis is dependent on the coordinated action of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtARSs and the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNAs. The recent advances in whole-exome sequencing have revealed the importance of the mtARS proteins for mitochondrial pathophysiology since nearly every nuclear gene for mtARS (out of 19 is now recognized as a disease gene for mitochondrial disease. Typically, defects in each mtARS have been identified in one tissue-specific disease, most commonly affecting the brain, or in one syndrome. However, mutations in the AARS2 gene for mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mtAlaRS have been reported both in patients with infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and in patients with childhood to adulthood-onset leukoencephalopathy. We present here an investigation of the effects of the described mutations on the structure of the synthetase, in an effort to understand the tissue-specific outcomes of the different mutations.The mtAlaRS differs from the other mtARSs because in addition to the aminoacylation domain, it has a conserved editing domain for deacylating tRNAs that have been mischarged with incorrect amino acids. We show that the cardiomyopathy phenotype results from a single allele, causing an amino acid change p.R592W in the editing domain of AARS2, whereas the leukodystrophy mutations are located in other domains of the synthetase. Nevertheless, our structural analysis predicts that all mutations reduce the aminoacylation activity of the synthetase, because all mtAlaRS domains contribute to tRNA binding for aminoacylation. According to our model, the cardiomyopathy mutations severely compromise aminoacylation whereas partial activity is retained by the mutation combinations found in the leukodystrophy patients. These predictions provide a hypothesis for the molecular basis of the distinct tissue-specific phenotypic outcomes.

  1. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    the replacement of wide bone tissue defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT

  3. Clinical use of fungal PCR from deep tissue samples in the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Houhala, M; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Antikainen, J; Valve, J; Kirveskari, J; Anttila, V-J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defect States in InP/InGaAs/InP Heterostructures by Current-Voltage Characteristics and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Kim Oanh; Lee, Kyoung Su; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2018-09-01

    We studied defect states in In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunctions with interface control by group V atoms during metalorganic chemical vapor (MOCVD) deposition. From deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, two defects with activation energies of 0.28 eV (E1) and 0.15 eV (E2) below the conduction band edge, were observed. The defect density of E1 for In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunctions with an addition of As and P atoms was about 1.5 times higher than that of the heterojunction added P atom only. From the temperature dependence of current- voltage characteristics, the thermal activation energies of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP of heterojunctions were estimated to be 0.27 and 0.25 eV, respectively. It appeared that the reverse light current for In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterojunction added P atom increased only by illumination of a 940 nm-LED light source. These results imply that only the P addition at the interface can enhance the quality of InGaAs/InP heterojunction.

  5. Using deep learning to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue in MRI volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmış, Mehmet Ufuk; Litjens, Geert; Holland, Katharina; Setio, Arnaud; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Gubern-Mérida, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching, or, edge and surface detection, have been applied to solve this task. However, applicability of these methods is usually limited by the characteristics of the images used in the study datasets, while breast MRI varies with respect to the different MRI protocols used, in addition to the variability in breast shapes. All this variability, in addition to various MRI artifacts, makes it a challenging task to develop a robust breast and FGT segmentation method using traditional approaches. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of a deep-learning approach known as "U-net." We used a dataset of 66 breast MRI's randomly selected from our scientific archive, which includes five different MRI acquisition protocols and breasts from four breast density categories in a balanced distribution. To prepare reference segmentations, we manually segmented breast and FGT for all images using an in-house developed workstation. We experimented with the application of U-net in two different ways for breast and FGT segmentation. In the first method, following the same pipeline used in traditional approaches, we trained two consecutive (2C) U-nets: first for segmenting the breast in the whole MRI volume and the second for segmenting FGT inside the segmented breast. In the second method, we used a single 3-class (3C) U-net, which performs both tasks simultaneously by segmenting the volume into three regions: nonbreast, fat inside the breast, and FGT inside the breast. For comparison, we applied two existing and published methods to our dataset: an atlas-based method and a sheetness-based method. We used Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) to measure the performances of the automated methods, with respect to the manual segmentations. Additionally, we computed

  6. Deep level defects in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Esmat; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Speck, James S.; Arehart, Aaron R.; Ringel, Steven A.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level defects were characterized in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and deep level transient (thermal) spectroscopy (DLTS) applied to Ni/β-Ga2O3:Ge (010) Schottky diodes that displayed Schottky barrier heights of 1.50 eV. DLOS revealed states at EC - 2.00 eV, EC - 3.25 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV with concentrations on the order of 1016 cm-3, and a lower concentration level at EC - 1.27 eV. In contrast to these states within the middle and lower parts of the bandgap probed by DLOS, DLTS measurements revealed much lower concentrations of states within the upper bandgap region at EC - 0.1 - 0.2 eV and EC - 0.98 eV. There was no evidence of the commonly observed trap state at ˜EC - 0.82 eV that has been reported to dominate the DLTS spectrum in substrate materials synthesized by melt-based growth methods such as edge defined film fed growth (EFG) and Czochralski methods [Zhang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052105 (2016) and Irmscher et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063720 (2011)]. This strong sensitivity of defect incorporation on crystal growth method and conditions is unsurprising, which for PAMBE-grown β-Ga2O3:Ge manifests as a relatively "clean" upper part of the bandgap. However, the states at ˜EC - 0.98 eV, EC - 2.00 eV, and EC - 4.37 eV are reminiscent of similar findings from these earlier results on EFG-grown materials, suggesting that possible common sources might also be present irrespective of growth method.

  7. Immediate Reconstruction of a Soft-Tissue Defect in a Burn Patient whit a Peroforator-Based Propeller Flap: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Özalp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue reconstruction of the distal lower leg is a challenging issue for plastic surgeons. Immediate coverage of exposed anatomical structures with soft tissue after trauma prevents these structures from being infected, and this is very important for burn patients. Free flaps have recently been accepted as the gold-standard technique for ankle and foot reconstruction; however, this is changing with the increasing popularity of the perforator flaps. Today, perforator flaps are commonly performed for the reconstruction of the soft-tissue defects across the body. In this report, we want to present the reconstruction of a soft-tissue defect case using perforator-based propeller flap in a burn patient for immediate reconstruction. A 45-year-old male patient had a soft-tissue defect over the medial side of the ankle and foot due to a high-voltage electrical burn. The exposed bone tissue was covered with a propeller flap of 15×6 cm size, without any circulation problems during the postoperative period. In conclusion, we want to state that perforator-based propeller flaps are reliable, successful, and effective techniques for the immediate reconstruction of distal leg and foot. These flaps can be easily performed without requiring any microsurgical technique thus, they can be commonly performed by most of the plastic surgeons.

  8. Prediction of Tissue Outcome and Assessment of Treatment Effect in Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Tietze, Anna

    2018-01-01

    of automatically identifying and combining acute imaging features to accurately predict final lesion volume. METHODS: Using acute magnetic resonance imaging, we developed and trained a deep convolutional neural network (CNNdeep) to predict final imaging outcome. A total of 222 patients were included, of which 187...

  9. Deep tissue single cell MSC ablation using a fiber laser source to evaluate therapeutic potential in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Pendleton, Emily G.; Lin, Charles P.; Mortensen, Luke J.

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a currently uncurable disease where a mutation in collagen type I yields brittle bones. One potential therapy is transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but controlling and enhancing transplanted cell survival has proven challenging. Therefore, we use a 2- photon imaging system to study individual transplanted cells in the living bone marrow. We ablated cells deep in the bone marrow and observed minimal collateral damage to surrounding tissue. Future work will evaluate the local impact of transplanted MSCs on bone deposition in vivo.

  10. High-Resolution Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging in Centimeter-Deep Tissue Phantoms with High Signal-To-Noise Ratio and High Sensitivity via Novel Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingbing; Bandi, Venugopal; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; D'Souza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    For many years, investigators have sought after high-resolution fluorescence imaging in centimeter-deep tissue because many interesting in vivo phenomena-such as the presence of immune system cells, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis-may be located deep in tissue. Previously, we developed a new imaging technique to achieve high spatial resolution in sub-centimeter deep tissue phantoms named continuous-wave ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (CW-USF). The principle is to use a focused ultrasound wave to externally and locally switch on and off the fluorophore emission from a small volume (close to ultrasound focal volume). By making improvements in three aspects of this technique: excellent near-infrared USF contrast agents, a sensitive frequency-domain USF imaging system, and an effective signal processing algorithm, for the first time this study has achieved high spatial resolution (~ 900 μm) in 3-centimeter-deep tissue phantoms with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high sensitivity (3.4 picomoles of fluorophore in a volume of 68 nanoliters can be detected). We have achieved these results in both tissue-mimic phantoms and porcine muscle tissues. We have also demonstrated multi-color USF to image and distinguish two fluorophores with different wavelengths, which might be very useful for simultaneously imaging of multiple targets and observing their interactions in the future. This work has opened the door for future studies of high-resolution centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence imaging.

  11. 3D Printer Generated Tissue iMolds for Cleared Tissue Using Single- and Multi-Photon Microscopy for Deep Tissue Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sean J; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Pathological analyses and methodology has recently undergone a dramatic revolution. With the creation of tissue clearing methods such as CLARITY and CUBIC, groups can now achieve complete transparency in tissue samples in nano-porous hydrogels. Cleared tissue is then imagined in a semi-aqueous medium that matches the refractive index of the objective being used. However, one major challenge is the ability to control tissue movement during imaging and to relocate precise locations post sequential clearing and re-staining. Using 3D printers, we designed tissue molds that fit precisely around the specimen being imaged. First, images are taken of the specimen, followed by importing and design of a structural mold, then printed with affordable plastics by a 3D printer. With our novel design, we have innovated tissue molds called innovative molds (iMolds) that can be generated in any laboratory and are customized for any organ, tissue, or bone matter being imaged. Furthermore, the inexpensive and reusable tissue molds are made compatible for any microscope such as single and multi-photon confocal with varying stage dimensions. Excitingly, iMolds can also be generated to hold multiple organs in one mold, making reconstruction and imaging much easier. Taken together, with iMolds it is now possible to image cleared tissue in clearing medium while limiting movement and being able to relocate precise anatomical and cellular locations on sequential imaging events in any basic laboratory. This system provides great potential for screening widespread effects of therapeutics and disease across entire organ systems.

  12. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  13. A local environment approach for deep-level defects in semiconductors: Application to the vacancy in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongliang; Lindefelt, U.

    1987-04-01

    A local environment approach for calculation of the electronic structure of localized defects in semiconductors is described. The method starts out from a description of localized orbitals or tight-binding model for semiconductors and is based on the recursion method of Haydock. A repeated symmetrical supercell containing 686 atoms plus defects is formed, both the translational and point-group symmetry of the crystal are fully exploited. In this paper, we report an application of this approach to an undistorted isolated vacancy by using a self-consistent Hamiltonian. A bound state of T 2 symmetry at 0.87 eV above the valence-band edge and a number of band resonances within the valence-band were extracted using Lanczos algorithm and a continued-fraction representation of the local density of states. It was found that the T 2 symmetry gap state is mainly p-like and most of the wavefunction for one of the A 1 symmetry resonances is concentrated on the vacant site and another concentrated on the first neighbors of the vacancy. From the small shifts of the band edges of silicon with a vacancy, we can conclude that the supercell is big enough and the interaction between the defects of different supercells is negligible. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs

  14. Periodontal tissue reaction to customized nano-hydroxyapatite block scaffold in one-wall intrabony defect: a histologic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Weon-Yeong; Cha, Jae-Kook; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated histologically the tissue responses to and the effects of a customized nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) block bone graft on periodontal regeneration in a one-wall periodontal-defect model. A customized block bone for filling in the standardized periodontal defect was fabricated from prefabricated n-HA powders and a polymeric sponge. Bilateral 4×4×5 mm (buccolingual width×mesiodistal width×depth), one-wall, critical-size intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth premolars of five Beagle dogs. In each dog, one defect was filled with block-type HA and the other served as a sham-surgery control. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for clinical and histological evaluations. Although the sites that received an n-HA block showed minimal bone formation, the n-HA block was maintained within the defect with its original hexahedral shape. In addition, only a limited inflammatory reaction was observed at sites that received an n-HA block, which might have been due to the high stability of the customized block bone. In the limitation of this study, customized n-HA block could provide a space for periodontal tissue engineering, with minimal inflammation.

  15. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) imaging of protein–protein interactions within deep tissues of living subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Chan, Carmel T.; Massoud, Tarik F.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is essential for understanding various disease mechanisms and developing new therapeutic approaches. Current methods for assaying cellular intermolecular interactions are mainly used for cells in culture and have limited use for the noninvasive assessment of small animal disease models. Here, we describe red light-emitting reporter systems based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allow for assaying PPIs both in cell culture and deep tissues of small animals. These BRET systems consist of the recently developed Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc) variants RLuc8 and RLuc8.6, used as BRET donors, combined with two red fluorescent proteins, TagRFP and TurboFP635, as BRET acceptors. In addition to the native coelenterazine luciferase substrate, we used the synthetic derivative coelenterazine-v, which further red-shifts the emission maxima of Renilla luciferases by 35 nm. We show the use of these BRET systems for ratiometric imaging of both cells in culture and deep-tissue small animal tumor models and validate their applicability for studying PPIs in mice in the context of rapamycin-induced FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12)-FKBP12 rapamycin binding domain (FRB) association. These red light-emitting BRET systems have great potential for investigating PPIs in the context of drug screening and target validation applications. PMID:21730157

  16. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guezennec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair.

  17. Unusual Glycosaminoglycans from a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, Karim; Gueniche, Farida; Changotade, Sylvie; Septier, Dominique; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Lutomski, Didier; Godeau, Gaston; Guezennec, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers produced by marine organisms can offer useful tools for regenerative medicine. Particularly, HE800 exopolysaccharide (HE800 EPS) secreted by a deep-sea hydrothermal bacterium displays an interesting glycosaminoglycan-like feature resembling hyaluronan. Previous studies demonstrated its effectiveness to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and to support osteoblastic cell metabolism in culture. Thus, in order to assess the usefulness of this high-molecular weight polymer in tissue engineering and tissue repair, in vitro reconstructed connective tissues containing HE800 EPS were performed. We showed that this polysaccharide promotes both collagen structuring and extracellular matrix settle by dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, from the native HE800 EPS, a low-molecular weight sulfated derivative (HE800 DROS) displaying chemical analogy with heparan-sulfate, was designed. Thus, it was demonstrated that HE800 DROS mimics some properties of heparan-sulfate, such as promotion of fibroblast proliferation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion. Therefore, we suggest that the HE800EPS family can be considered as an innovative biotechnological source of glycosaminoglycan-like compounds useful to design biomaterials and drugs for tissue engineering and repair. PMID:23612369

  18. The Compression Intensity Index: a practical anatomical estimate of the biomechanical risk for a deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Pressure-related deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer that initiates in compressed muscle tissues under bony prominences, and progresses superficially towards the skin. Patients with impaired motosensory capacities are at high risk of developing DTI. There is a critical medical need for developing risk assessment tools for DTI. A new anatomical index, the Compression Intensity Index: CII=(BW/Rt);[1/2], which depends on the body weight (BW), radius of curvature of the ischial tuberosities (R) and thickness of the underlying gluteus muscles (t), is suggested for approximating the loading intensity in muscle tissue during sitting in permanent wheelchair users, as part of a clinically-oriented risk assessment for DTI. Preliminary CII data were calculated for 6 healthy and 4 paraplegic subjects following MRI scans, and data were compared between the groups and with respect to a gold standard, being a previously developed subject-specific MRI-finite-element (MRI-FE) method of calculating muscle tissue stresses (Linder-Ganz et al., J. Biomech. 2007). Marked differences between the R and t parameters of the two groups caused the CII values of the paraplegics to be approximately 1.6-fold higher than for the healthy (pbedridden patients. Hence, CII measurements can be integrated into DTI-risk-assessment tools, the need of which is now being discussed intensively in the American and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel meetings.

  19. Repairing the Osteochondral Defect in Goat with the Tissue-Engineered Osteochondral Graft Preconstructed in a Double-Chamber Stirring Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the reparative efficacy of tissue-engineered osteochondral (TEO graft for repairing the osteochondral defect in goat, we designed a double-chamber stirring bioreactor to construct the bone and cartilage composites simultaneously in one β-TCP scaffold and observed the reparative effect in vivo. The osteochondral defects were created in goats and all the animals were divided into 3 groups randomly. In groups A, the defect was treated with the TEO which was cultured with mechanical stimulation of stir; in group B, the defect was treated with TEO which was cultured without mechanical stimulation of stir; in groups C, the defect was treated without TEO. At 12 weeks and 24 weeks after operation, the reparative effects in different groups were assessed and compared. The results indicated that the reparative effect of the TEO cultured in the bioreactor was better than the control group, and mechanical stimulation of stir could further improve the reparative effect. We provided a feasible and effective method to construct the TEO for treatment of osteochondral defect using autologous BMSCs and the double-chamber bioreactor.

  20. Peroneal perforator-based peroneus longus tendon and sural neurofasciocutaneous composite flap transfer for a large soft-tissue defect of the forearm: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Saijo, Hiroto; Fujioka, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction. The flap, which included the peroneus longus tendon, was elevated on the subfascial plane. After the flap was transferred to the recipient site, the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the radial artery in a flow-through manner. The vascularized tendon graft with 15 cm in length was used to reconstruct the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon defect using an interlacing suture technique. As the skin paddle of the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and the vascularized peroneus longus tendon graft were linked by the perforator and minimal fascial tissue, the skin paddle was able to rotate and slide with comparative ease. The flap survived completely without any complications. The length of follow-up was 12 months and was uneventful. Range of motion of his left wrist joint was slightly limited to 75 degrees. This novel composite flap may be useful for reconstructing long tendon defects associated with extensive forearm soft tissue defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Observation on changes of oxygen partial pressure in the deep tissues along the large intestine meridian during acupuncture in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Xiang-long; Wu, Zu-xing

    2010-06-01

    To observe changes of the partial oxygen pressure in the deep tissues along the Large Intestine Meridian (LIM) during acupuncture stimulation, so as to reveal the characteristics of energy metabolism in the tissues along the LIM. Thirty-one healthy volunteer subjects were enlisted in the present study. Partial oxygen pressure (POP) in the tissues (at a depth of about 1.5 cm) of acupoints Binao (LI 14), Shouwuli (LI 13), Shousanli (LI 10), 2 non-acupoints [the midpoints between Quchi (LI 11) and LI 14, and between Yangxi (LI 5) and LI 11) of the LIM, and 10 non-meridian points, 1.5-2.0 cm lateral and medial to each of the tested points of the LIM was detected before, during and after electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Hegu (LI 4) by using a tissue oxygen tension needle-like sensor. In normal condition, the POP values in the deep tissues along the LIM were significantly higher than those of the non-meridian control points on its bilateral sides. During and after EA of Hegu (LI 4), the POP levels decreased significantly in the deep tissues along the LIM in comparison with pre-EA (P 0.05). POP is significantly higher in the deep tissues along the LIM of healthy subjects under normal conditions, which can be downregulated by EA of Hegu (LI 4), suggesting an increase of both the utilization rate of oxygen and energy metabolism after EA.

  2. Effects of low temperature periodic annealing on the deep-level defects in 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. S.; Chiu, T. T.; Loo, R. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The GaAs solar cell has shown good potential for space applications. However, degradation in performance occurred when the cells were irradiated by high energy electrons and protons in the space environment. The considered investigation is concerned with the effect of periodic thermal annealing on the deep-level defects induced by the 200 keV protons in the AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells. Protons at a fluence of 10 to the 11th P/sq cm were used in the irradiation cycle, while annealing temperatures of 200 C (for 24 hours), 300 C (six hours), and 400 C (six hours) were employed. The most likely candidate for the E(c) -0.71 eV electron trap observed in the 200 keV proton irradiated samples may be due to GaAs antisite, while the observed E(v) +0.18 eV hole trap has been attributed to the gallium vacancy related defect. The obtained results show that periodic annealing in the considered case does not offer any advantages over the one time annealing process.

  3. Using deep learning to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue in MRI volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmis, M.U.; Litjens, G.J.; Holland, K.; Setio, A.A.A.; Mann, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Gubern Merida, A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching, or, edge and surface detection, have been applied to solve this task.

  4. Investigation of deep level defects in epitaxial semiconducting zinc sulpho-selenide. Progress report, 15 June 1979-14 June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to understand the defect structure of the ternary II-VI compound zinc sulpho-selenide, the binary compound zinc selenide was investigated. Thin single crystalline films of zinc selenide were heteroepitaxially grown on (100) GaAs. Epitaxial layers from 5 to 50 microns thick could be readily grown using a chemical vapor transport technique. The layers had an excellent morphology with few stacking faults and hillocks. Detailed epitaxial growth kinetics were examined as a function of temperature and reactant concentration. It was found that hydrogen flow rate, source and substrate temperature affect the growth rate of the epitaxial films. Au - ZnSe Schottky barrier diodes and ZnSe - GaAs n-p heterojunctions were prepared from the epitaxial layers. Current-voltage characteristics were measured on both types of diodes. From capacitance-voltage measurements the residual doping density of the epitaxial layers were found to be of the order of 10 14 - 10 15 cm -3 . Finally, we have begun to measure the deep level spectrum of both the Schottky barrier diodes and the heterojunctions. Deep level transient spectroscopy appears to be well suited for determining trapping states in ZnSe provided the material has a low enough resistivity

  5. [Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for cartilage defects of the knee: a guideline by the working group "Tissue Regeneration" of the German Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology (DGOU)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, P; Andereya, S; Angele, P; Ateschrang, A; Aurich, M; Baumann, M; Behrens, P; Bosch, U; Erggelet, C; Fickert, S; Fritz, J; Gebhard, H; Gelse, K; Günther, D; Hoburg, A; Kasten, P; Kolombe, T; Madry, H; Marlovits, S; Meenen, N M; Müller, P E; Nöth, U; Petersen, J P; Pietschmann, M; Richter, W; Rolauffs, B; Rhunau, K; Schewe, B; Steinert, A; Steinwachs, M R; Welsch, G H; Zinser, W; Albrecht, D

    2013-02-01

    Autologous chondrocyte transplantation/implantation (ACT/ACI) is an established and recognised procedure for the treatment of localised full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee. The present review of the working group "Clinical Tissue Regeneration" of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) describes the biology and function of healthy articular cartilage, the present state of knowledge concerning potential consequences of primary cartilage lesions and the suitable indication for ACI. Based on current evidence, an indication for ACI is given for symptomatic cartilage defects starting from defect sizes of more than 3-4 cm2; in the case of young and active sports patients at 2.5 cm2. Advanced degenerative joint disease is the single most important contraindication. The review gives a concise overview on important scientific background, the results of clinical studies and discusses advantages and disadvantages of ACI. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Effects of thermal annealing on elimination of deep defects in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haochun; Ide, Keisuke [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Hidenori [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ohashi, Naoki [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kumomi, Hideya [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio, E-mail: tkamiya@msl.titech.ac.jp [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of thermal annealing for high-density subgap states in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) films by focusing on low-quality defective films deposited without O{sub 2} supply (LQ films). It was found that most of the subgap states were thermally unstable and decreased dramatically by annealing at ≤ 400 °C in O{sub 2}. These defects (but with different shapes) were further reduced by 600 °C annealing, whose subgap states appeared similar to that of a-IGZO films deposited at an optimum condition (high quality, HQ films) and annealed at 300 °C. However, electron Hall mobilities and field-effect mobilities of their thin-film transistors (TFTs) were low for the LQ films/TFTs even annealed at 600 °C compared to those for the HQ films/TFTs. It implies that not only the subgap states but also heavier structural disorder deteriorated the electron transport in the LQ films. The present results also suggest that although a-IGZO deposition without O{sub 2} supply is sometimes employed in particular for DC sputtering, supplying some O{sub 2} gas would be better to produce good TFTs at lower temperatures. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal annealing on subgap states in a-In–Ga–Zn–O films were studied. • Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed. • Low-quality films require annealing at 600 °C to make an operating transistor. • This temperature is much higher than those for high-quality films (300–400 °C). • The high temperature is required because some subgap states are very stable.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of deep and shallow tissue layers' contribution to fNIRS signal using multi-distance optodes and independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Katura, Takusige; Obata, Akiko N; Sato, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Yukari; Okada, Eiji; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2014-01-15

    To quantify the effect of absorption changes in the deep tissue (cerebral) and shallow tissue (scalp, skin) layers on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals, a method using multi-distance (MD) optodes and independent component analysis (ICA), referred to as the MD-ICA method, is proposed. In previous studies, when the signal from the shallow tissue layer (shallow signal) needs to be eliminated, it was often assumed that the shallow signal had no correlation with the signal from the deep tissue layer (deep signal). In this study, no relationship between the waveforms of deep and shallow signals is assumed, and instead, it is assumed that both signals are linear combinations of multiple signal sources, which allows the inclusion of a "shared component" (such as systemic signals) that is contained in both layers. The method also assumes that the partial optical path length of the shallow layer does not change, whereas that of the deep layer linearly increases along with the increase of the source-detector (S-D) distance. Deep- and shallow-layer contribution ratios of each independent component (IC) are calculated using the dependence of the weight of each IC on the S-D distance. Reconstruction of deep- and shallow-layer signals are performed by the sum of ICs weighted by the deep and shallow contribution ratio. Experimental validation of the principle of this technique was conducted using a dynamic phantom with two absorbing layers. Results showed that our method is effective for evaluating deep-layer contributions even if there are high correlations between deep and shallow signals. Next, we applied the method to fNIRS signals obtained on a human head with 5-, 15-, and 30-mm S-D distances during a verbal fluency task, a verbal working memory task (prefrontal area), a finger tapping task (motor area), and a tetrametric visual checker-board task (occipital area) and then estimated the deep-layer contribution ratio. To evaluate the signal separation

  8. Causes of defects and accuracy of structure reproduction in deep-etch X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, J.; Ehrfeld, W.; Muenchmeyer, D.

    1988-07-01

    Under the LIGA process plastic microstructures with extraordinarily high aspect ratios are produced by means of deep-etch synchrotron radiation lithography. These microstructures are used as templates for the fabrication by electroforming of metallic microstructures. The several hundred micrometer thick resist layers required in the process are polymerized directly on a metal base plate using a methacrylate based resin. This provides sufficient stability during the production process and also a reliable plating base for the electrodeposition of the metal. Perfect adhesion of micron-sized microstructures on a smooth surface can be achieved if the polished metal surface is sputtered with titanium and chemically oxidized afterwards. Alternatively it is also possible to add an internal adhesion promoter like methacryl oxypropyl trimethoxy silane to the resin. By means of this adhesion promoter chemical bonding between the metal surface and the polymer is achieved. (orig.)

  9. Improvement in the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs by a mixture of adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzheng; Niu, Zhanguo; Xue, Yan; Yuan, Fukang; Fu, Yanjie; Bai, Nan

    2014-10-01

    To find out if adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), alone or combined, had any effect on the repair of maxillofacial soft tissue defects in irradiated minipigs, ASC were isolated, characterised, and expanded. Twenty female minipigs, the right parotid glands of which had been irradiated, were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 each: those in the first group were injected with both ASC and PRF (combined group), the second group was injected with ASC alone (ASC group), the third group with PRF alone (PRF group), and the fourth group with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (control group). Six months after the last injection, the size and depth of each defect were assessed, and subcutaneous tissues were harvested, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and examined immunohistologically and for apoptosis. Expanded cells were successfully isolated and identified. Six months after injection the defects in the 3 treated groups were significantly smaller (p<0.001) and shallower (p<0.001) than those in the control group. Those in the combined group were the smallest and shallowest. Haematoxylin and eosin showed that the 3 treated groups contained more subcutaneous adipose tissue than the control group, and also had significantly greater vascular density (p<0.001) and fewer apoptotic cells (p<0.001). Both ASC and PRF facilitate the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs, and their combined use is more effective than their use as single agents. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  11. Deep convolutional neural network and 3D deformable approach for tissue segmentation in musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhou, Zhaoye; Jang, Hyungseok; Samsonov, Alexey; Zhao, Gengyan; Kijowski, Richard

    2018-04-01

    To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification. The 3D simplex deformable modeling refined the output from SegNet to preserve the overall shape and maintain a desirable smooth surface for musculoskeletal structure. The fully automated segmentation method was tested using a publicly available knee image data set to compare with currently used state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The fully automated method was also evaluated on two different data sets, which include morphological and quantitative MR images with different tissue contrasts. The proposed fully automated segmentation method provided good segmentation performance with segmentation accuracy superior to most of state-of-the-art methods in the publicly available knee image data set. The method also demonstrated versatile segmentation performance on both morphological and quantitative musculoskeletal MR images with different tissue contrasts and spatial resolutions. The study demonstrates that the combined CNN and 3D deformable modeling approach is useful for performing rapid and accurate cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. The CNN has promising potential applications in musculoskeletal imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:2379-2391, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. [The application of microvascular anastomotic coupler in vascular anastomosis of free tissue flap for reconstruction of defect after head and neck cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wang, Z H; Li, C H; Chen, J

    2017-09-07

    Objective: To investigate the application and operation skills in vein anastomosis by microvascular anastomotic coupler (MAC) in reconstruction of defects after head and neck cancer resection. Methods: From August 2015 to July 2016, in Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sichuan Cancer Hosipital, 17 cases underwent the reconstruction of defects after head and neck cancer resection with free tissue flaps, including forearm flaps in 11 casess, anterolateral flaps in 4 casess and fibula flaps in 2 casess. Totally 17 MAC were used, including 14 MAC for end-to-end anastomosis and 3 MAC for end-to-side anastomosis. SPSS 22.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: Venous anastomoses in 17 free tissue flaps were successfully completed, with no anastomotic errhysis. All flaps survived well. The time required for vascular anastomoses with MAC varied 2-9 min, with average time of (4.2±2.3) min, which was significantly shorter than that with manually anastomosis (17.4 ± 2.7) min ( t =15.1, P anastomosis in free tissue flap for reconstruction of defect after head and neck cancer resection, which requires for less operation time and shows good results.

  13. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  14. Deep two-photon microscopic imaging through brain tissue using the second singlet state from fluorescent agent chlorophyll α in spinach leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Nguyen, Thien An; Alfano, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon (2P) excitation of the second singlet (S₂) state was studied to achieve deep optical microscopic imaging in brain tissue when both the excitation (800 nm) and emission (685 nm) wavelengths lie in the "tissue optical window" (650 to 950 nm). S₂ state technique was used to investigate chlorophyll α (Chl α) fluorescence inside a spinach leaf under a thick layer of freshly sliced rat brain tissue in combination with 2P microscopic imaging. Strong emission at the peak wavelength of 685 nm under the 2P S₂ state of Chl α enabled the imaging depth up to 450 μm through rat brain tissue.

  15. Prevention of dental anomalies in children by prosthetics defects hard tooth tissues and dentitions: the need to possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of restore the function and anatomy of the tooth and replacement of defects of dentition by prosthesis in children under the removable bite as a method of prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies. Identified the need for prosthetic treatment of children and the willingness of dentists as primary health care professional to address the problems identified. A clinical analysis of complex treatment of defects in the teeth with fixed restorations

  16. Impedance Biosensors and Deep Crater Salivary Gland Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Robert A.

    The salivary gland is a complex, branching organ whose primary biological function is the production of the fluid critical to alimentary function and the lubrication and maintenance of the oral cavity, saliva. The most frequent disruption of the salivary organ system is one in which the rate of supply of saliva into the oral cavity is diminished, and this may vary from a minor reduction, to near cessation. Regenerative medicine is a field which seeks to find ways to overcome the symptoms of organ malfunction or damage by inducing regrowth, repair and replacement of partial or whole organ function. Historically, the only methods available to medical experts were certain chemical drugs and transplantation, each of which suffers from significant risks and drawbacks. Tissue Engineering arose in the past few decades thanks to the seminal work of Robert Langer with the charter mission of finding new biomaterials and techniques to achieve these ends. The original concept of tissue engineering was the cell or tissue scaffold, which is supports the regrowth of cells by making intimate contact with adherent cells, and induces improved regrowth in vitro or in vivo by providing mechanical or chemical signaling cues. Epithelial cell types such as salivary glands have structural functional polarity at the cellular level, an apical side which faces a void, and a basal side which faces the support substrate. While 3D scaffolds such as hydrogels maximize interaction area between cells and substrate, they struggle to develop cohesive tissues beyond the scale of small cellular clusters . 2D scaffolds enforce a defined polarity by allowing cell interaction at only one side of the cell. Langer pioneered the use of polymer nanofibers as the premier synthetic 2D scaffold biomaterial, due to their exceptionally high nano-scale surface area, and collagen-imitating structure. Prior work has established PLGA nanofibers, which allow salivary cells to attach, proliferate, and generate a

  17. Automatical and accurate segmentation of cerebral tissues in fMRI dataset with combination of image processing and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhenglun; Luo, Junyi; Xu, Shengpu; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in medical science. One application is multimodality imaging, especially the fusion of structural imaging with functional imaging, which includes CT, MRI and new types of imaging technology such as optical imaging to obtain functional images. The fusion process require precisely extracted structural information, in order to register the image to it. Here we used image enhancement, morphometry methods to extract the accurate contours of different tissues such as skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on 5 fMRI head image datasets. Then we utilized convolutional neural network to realize automatic segmentation of images in deep learning way. Such approach greatly reduced the processing time compared to manual and semi-automatic segmentation and is of great importance in improving speed and accuracy as more and more samples being learned. The contours of the borders of different tissues on all images were accurately extracted and 3D visualized. This can be used in low-level light therapy and optical simulation software such as MCVM. We obtained a precise three-dimensional distribution of brain, which offered doctors and researchers quantitative volume data and detailed morphological characterization for personal precise medicine of Cerebral atrophy/expansion. We hope this technique can bring convenience to visualization medical and personalized medicine.

  18. Deep-Dive Targeted Quantification for Ultrasensitive Analysis of Proteins in Nondepleted Human Blood Plasma/Serum and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division; Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division; Schepmoes, Athena A. [Biological Sciences Division; Brewer, Heather [Biological Sciences Division; Gao, Yuqian [Biological Sciences Division; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division; Wang, Hui [Biological Sciences Division; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division

    2017-08-11

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics (e.g., selected reaction monitoring, SRM) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification. Recently we have made significant progress in SRM sensitivity for enabling quantification of low ng/mL to sub-ng/mL level proteins in nondepleted human blood plasma/serum without affinity enrichment. However, precise quantification of extremely low abundant but biologically important proteins (e.g., ≤100 pg/mL in blood plasma/serum) using targeted proteomics approaches still remains challenging. To address this need, we have developed an antibody-independent Deep-Dive SRM (DD-SRM) approach that capitalizes on multidimensional high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separation for target peptide enrichment combined with precise selection of target peptide fractions of interest, significantly improving SRM sensitivity by ~5 orders of magnitude when compared to conventional LC-SRM. Application of DD-SRM to human serum and tissue has been demonstrated to enable precise quantification of endogenous proteins at ~10 pg/mL level in nondepleted serum and at <10 copies per cell level in tissue. Thus, DD-SRM holds great promise for precisely measuring extremely low abundance proteins or protein modifications, especially when high-quality antibody is not available.

  19. Optimization of Soft Tissue Management, Spacer Design, and Grafting Strategies for Large Segmental Bone Defects using the Chronic Caprine Tibial Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    regeneration. The effect of surgical management of the IM demonstrated a significant benefit of scraping to remove the inner layer of the IM (p=0.041). In... Euthanasia is performed 12 weeks after Treatment surgery at which time tibias are harvested and fixed in 10% formalin. Micro CT and histologic analyses of...after euthanasia (after soft tissues are removed) 12 weeks after the grafting procedure. The resulting images are ranked from 1 (greatest bone healing

  20. The healing of bony defects by cell-free collagen-based scaffolds compared to stem cell-seeded tissue engineered constructs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Frank G

    2010-12-01

    One of the key challenges in tissue engineering is to understand the host response to scaffolds and engineered constructs. We present a study in which two collagen-based scaffolds developed for bone repair: a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) and biomimetic collagen-calcium phosphate (CCP) scaffold, are evaluated in rat cranial defects, both cell-free and when cultured with MSCs prior to implantation. The results demonstrate that both cell-free scaffolds showed excellent healing relative to the empty defect controls and somewhat surprisingly, to the tissue engineered (MSC-seeded) constructs. Immunological analysis of the healing response showed higher M1 macrophage activity in the cell-seeded scaffolds. However, when the M2 macrophage response was analysed, both groups (MSC-seeded and non-seeded scaffolds) showed significant activity of these cells which are associated with an immunomodulatory and tissue remodelling response. Interestingly, the location of this response was confined to the construct periphery, where a capsule had formed, in the MSC-seeded groups as opposed to areas of new bone formation in the non-seeded groups. This suggests that matrix deposited by MSCs during in vitro culture may adversely affect healing by acting as a barrier to macrophage-led remodelling when implanted in vivo. This study thus improves our understanding of host response in bone tissue engineering.

  1. Root cementum modulates periodontal regeneration in Class III furcation defects treated by the guided tissue regeneration technique: a histometric study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Patricia F; Gurgel, Bruno C V; Pimentel, Suzana P; Sallum, Enilson A; Sallum, Antonio W; Casati, Márcio Z; Nociti, Francisco H

    2006-06-01

    Because the possibility of root cementum preservation as an alternative approach for the treatment of periodontal disease has been demonstrated, this study aimed to histometrically evaluate the effect of root cementum on periodontal regeneration. Bilateral Class III furcation defects were created in dogs, and each dog was randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: control (group A): scaling and root planing with the removal of root cementum; or test (group B): removal of soft microbial deposits by polishing the root surface with rubber cups and polishing paste, aiming at maximum cementum preservation. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) was applied to both groups. Four months after treatment, a superior length of new cementum (3.59 +/- 1.67 mm versus 6.20 +/- 2.26 mm; P = 0.008) and new bone (1.86 +/- 1.76 mm versus 4.62 +/- 3.01 mm; P = 0.002) and less soft tissue along the root surface (2.77 +/- 0.79 mm versus 1.10 +/- 1.48 mm; P = 0.020) was observed for group B. Additionally, group B presented a larger area of new bone (P = 0.004) and a smaller area of soft tissue (P = 0.008). Within the limits of this study, root cementum may modulate the healing pattern obtained by guided tissue regeneration in Class III furcation defects.

  2. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Haghanifar, Sina; Ehsani, Hodis; Zahedi, Ehsan; Haghpanah, Masumeh

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of furcation area defects remained as a challenging issue in periodontal treatments. Regeneration treatment of furcation defects is the most discussed periodontal treatment. Although not completely hopeless in prognosis, the presence of the furcation involvement significantly increases the chance of tooth loss. The current research was conductedeto compare theeadditive effect of combined guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) on the treatment of furcation bony defects. A randomized, triple-blinded, split-mouth study was designed. It included patients with a moderate to severe chronic periodontitis with bilateral Grade II furcation involvement of first or second mandibular molars. Each side of mouth was randomly allocated for the treatment with either Bio-Gide American Society of Anesthesiologists GTR or a PRGF or PRGF by itself. Plaque index, gingival index, vertical clinical attachment level, vertical probing depth, recession depth (REC), horizontal probing depth, fornix to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), furcation vertical component and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were recorded. The current research was conducted to compare the additive effect of combined GTR and PRGF on treatment of furcation bony defects. Altman's nomogram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test, general linear model, repeated measures, and paired t -test were used as statistical analysis in this research. P PRGF group ( P = 0.02). A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  3. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  4. Long-Term Results Comparing Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Autogenous Connective Tissue Grafts With Coronally Advanced Flaps for Treatment of Dehiscence-Type Recession Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd

    2016-03-01

    Although connective tissue grafts with coronally advanced flaps (CTG + CAF) have been deemed the gold standard for recession defect treatment, to provide adequate recession coverage, the periodontal profession continues to pursue lower-morbidity, patient-preferred substitutes that are more convenient and of unlimited supply. Using a randomized, controlled, and masked contralateral comparison of matched-pair, within-patient recession defects, collagen matrix (CMX) + CAF therapy was compared with CTG + CAF at 6 months and 5 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of root coverage (RC). Secondary efficacy parameters included width of keratinized tissue (KTw), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinician rating of color and texture compared with surrounding tissues, and patient esthetic satisfaction. Seventeen patients were available for the 5-year recall. Mean RC between 6 months and 5 years changed from 89.5% to 77.6% for CMX + CAF test sites and 97.5% to 95.5% for CTG + CAF control sites. KTw averaged >3 mm for both test and control sites at 5 years. PD was equivalent at all time points. The 6-month to 5-year changes for RC, KTw, and PD were not significantly different between therapies. CAL change from 6 months to 5 years was greater for CTG + CAF (0.26 mm) than CMX + CAF (-0.21 mm). Tissue color match to surrounding tissues remained similar for both therapies throughout the study. There was a difference in tissue texture at both 6 months and 5 years, with CMX + CAF sites tending to be "equally firm" and CTG + CAF sites "more firm." Patient satisfaction was high, with no statistical difference in satisfaction between therapies at any time point. When balanced with patient-reported satisfaction, clinical rankings of esthetics, and control and historical RC results reported by other investigators, CMX + CAF appears to present a viable and long-term alternative to traditional CTG + CAF therapy.

  5. Effect of deep levels of radiation-induced defects in silicon γ-irradiated Al-V-n-Si structures characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzaneva, E.V.; Vdovichenko, A.D.; Kuznetsov, G.V.; Muntyan, Yu.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of high energy γ-quanta irradiation on the mechanism of current transmission in Al-V-N-Si structures employed in Schottky barrier instruments has been investigated. Before irradiation the structures have been annealed in the nitrogen atmosphere at T=500 deg C. The samples have been γ-irradiated on the side of the metall film at T=20 deg C. The irradiation spectrum is continuous, maximum γ-quanta energy 50 MeV, medium one is 20 MeV. The integral flux of γ-quanta, PHIsub(γ) varied from 10 7 to 10 13 quantum/cm -2 . The volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics have been measred. It is shown that variation of the main electrophysical characteristics of the Al-V-nSi structures upon γ-irradiation is due to deep levels of radiation defects arising in silicon with the energetic position Esub(c)-E=0.38-0.4 eV and Esub(v)+Esub(2)=0.23-0.25 → β, where Esub(c), Esub(v) are energies for the conduction band bottom and the valence band ceiling. In the 77-293 K temperature range the determining range the determining effect on current mission mechanism in irradiated structures is exerted by resonance electron tunnelling with participation of a level with the Esub(c)-Esub(1)=0.38-0.4 eV

  6. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ningappa Gurav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periradicular (PR bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect.

  7. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit Ningappa; Shete, Abhijeet Rajendra; Naiktari, Ritam

    2015-01-01

    Periradicular (PR) bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect. PMID:26941526

  8. Pressure Combined with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induces Deep Tissue Injury via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Pressure Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer is a complex and significant health problem in long-term bedridden patients, and there is currently no effective treatment or efficient prevention method. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis contributing to the deep injury of pressure ulcers are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and Akt/GSK3β signaling in pressure ulcers. A model of pressure-induced deep tissue injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was established. Rats were treated with 2-h compression and subsequent 0.5-h release for various cycles. After recovery, the tissue in the compressed regions was collected for further analysis. The compressed muscle tissues showed clear cellular degenerative features. First, the expression levels of ER stress proteins GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 were generally increased compared to those in the control. Phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β were upregulated in the beginning of muscle compression, and immediately significantly decreased at the initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in compressed muscles tissue. These data show that ER stress may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of cell degeneration after pressure ulcers and that the Akt/GSK3β signal pathway may play an important role in deep tissue injury induced by pressure and ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. Evolution of the Deep-space Galactic Cosmic Ray Lineal Energy Transfer Spectrum through Tissue Equivalent Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Spence, H. E.; Golightly, M. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Looper, M. D.; Townsend, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation is an energetic particle telescope that resides on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, currently in a 50 km circular lunar polar orbit. The telescope consists of 6 silicon semi-conductor detectors placed in pairs that surround two pieces of Tissue Equivalent Plastic (TEP), which serve to absorb energy from particles as they transit through the instrument. Particles with energies greater than 12 MeV/nucleon can penetrate the outermost shield and be measured by the instrument. The primary measurement made by the instrument is of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of energetic particles as they transit through the telescope. CRaTER measures the LET spectrum with unprecedented energy resolution and has done so during a period of historically low solar activity that led to record high intensities of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). These LET spectra are used to study changes in the properties of the incoming particles, and to make detailed measurements of the radiation doses human explorers will experience in deep space on missions to the moon, to asteroids, or to Mars. We present LET spectra accumulated during 2009 and 2010. We show how the LET spectrum evolves through the instrument as the GCR interact with the TEP. Due to the importance of these measurements for human effects, our extensive absolute calibration procedures are presented. Of particular note is a significant reduction in the flux of particles with LET greater than 10 keV/um for detectors that lie deeper within the telescope stack, due to the attenuation of high LET particles within the TEP. By measuring this attenuation we can estimate the depth in human tissue where the highest LET particles that are most likely to cause genetic damage pose the greatest threat to humans in space.

  10. Usefulness of pulse-wave doppler tissue sampling and dobutamine stress echocardiography for identification of false positive inferior wall defects in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinmakas, S.; Dagdeviren, B.; Turkmen, M.; Gursurer, M.; Say, B.; Tezel, T.; Ersek, B.

    2000-01-01

    False positive inferior wall perfusion defects restrict the accuracy of SPECT in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pulse-Wave Tissue Doppler (PWTD) has been recently proposed to assess regional wall motion velocities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of CAD by using PWTD during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an inferior perfusion defect detected by SPECT and compare PWTD parameters of normal cases with patients who had inferior perfusion defect and CAD. Sixty-five patients (mean age 58±8 years, 30 men) with a normal LV systolic function at rest according to echocardiographic evaluation with an inferior ischemia determined by SPECT and a control group (CG) of 34 normal cases (mean age 56±7 years, 16 men) were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard DSE (up to 40 μg/kg/min with additional atropine during sub-maximum heart rate responses). Pulse-wave Doppler tissue sampling of inferior wall was performed in the apical 2-chamber view at rest and stress. The coronary angiography was performed within 24 hours. The results were evaluated for the prediction of significant right coronary artery (RCA) and/or left circumflex coronary artery (CX) with narrowing (≥50% diameter stenosis, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography). It was observed that the peak stress mean E/A ratio was lower in patients with CAD when compared to patients without CAD (0.78±0.2 versus 1.29±0.11 p<0.0001). Also the peak stress E/A ratio of normal cases was significantly higher than patients who had CAD (1.19±0.3 versus 0.78±0.2 p<0.0001). When the cut off point for the E/A ratio was determined as 1, the sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine stress PWTD E/A were 89% and 86%, respectively. The peak stress E/A ratio was higher than 1 in all patients with a false positive perfusion defect. Systolic S velocity increase during DSE was significantly lower in patients with CAD (54%±17 versus 99%±24 p=0

  11. Skin pre-ablation and laser assisted microjet injection for deep tissue penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hun-Jae; Yeo, Seonggu; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    For conventional needless injection, there still remain many unresolved issues such as the potential for cross-contamination, poor reliability of targeted delivery dose, and significantly painstaking procedures. As an alternative, the use of microjets generated with Er:YAG laser for delivering small doses with controlled penetration depths has been reported. In this study, a new system with two stages is evaluated for effective transdermal drug delivery. First, the skin is pre-ablated to eliminate the hard outer layer and second, laser-driven microjet penetrates the relatively weaker and freshly exposed epidermis. Each stage of operation shares a single Er:YAG laser that is suitable for skin ablation as well as for the generation of a microjet. In this study, pig skin is selected for quantification of the injection depth based on the two-stage procedure, namely pre-ablation and microjet injection. The three types of pre-ablation devised here consists of bulk ablation, fractional ablation, and fractional-rotational ablation. The number of laser pulses are 12, 18, and 24 for each ablation type. For fractional-rotational ablation, the fractional beams are rotated by 11.25° at each pulse. The drug permeation in the skin is evaluated using tissue marking dyes. The depth of penetration is quantified by a cross sectional view of the single spot injections. Multi-spot injections are also carried out to control the dose and spread of the drug. The benefits of a pre-ablation procedure prior to the actual microjet injection to the penetration is verified. The four possible combinations of injection are (a) microjet only; (b) bulk ablation and microjet injection; (c) fractional ablation and microjet injection; and (d) fractional-rotational ablation and microjet injection. Accordingly, the total depth increases with injection time for all cases. In particular, the total depth of penetration attained via fractional pre-ablation increased by 8 ∼ 11% and that of fractional

  12. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  13. Tissue-engineered rhesus monkey nerve grafts for the repair of long ulnar nerve defects: similar outcomes to autologous nerve grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qing Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular nerve allografts can help preserve normal nerve structure and extracellular matrix composition. These allografts have low immunogenicity and are more readily available than autologous nerves for the repair of long-segment peripheral nerve defects. In this study, we repaired a 40-mm ulnar nerve defect in rhesus monkeys with tissue-engineered peripheral nerve, and compared the outcome with that of autograft. The graft was prepared using a chemical extract from adult rhesus monkeys and seeded with allogeneic Schwann cells. Pathomorphology, electromyogram and immunohistochemistry findings revealed the absence of palmar erosion or ulcers, and that the morphology and elasticity of the hypothenar eminence were normal 5 months postoperatively. There were no significant differences in the mean peak compound muscle action potential, the mean nerve conduction velocity, or the number of neurofilaments between the experimental and control groups. However, outcome was significantly better in the experimental group than in the blank group. These findings suggest that chemically extracted allogeneic nerve seeded with autologous Schwann cells can repair 40-mm ulnar nerve defects in the rhesus monkey. The outcomes are similar to those obtained with autologous nerve graft.

  14. Utility of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy in Preventing Early Cardiac Perfusion Defects: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Timothy M., E-mail: zagar@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kaidar-Person, Orit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tang, Xiaoli [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, New York (United States); Jones, Ellen E.; Matney, Jason; Das, Shiva K.; Green, Rebecca L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheikh, Arif [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Khandani, Amir H.; McCartney, William H.; Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Wong, Terence Z. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early cardiac single photon computed tomography (SPECT) findings after left breast/chest wall postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective single-institution single-arm study of patients who were planned for tangential RT with DIBH to the left breast/chest wall (± internal mammary nodes). The DIBH was done by use of a controlled surface monitoring technique (AlignRT, Vision RT Ltd, London, UK). The RT was given with tangential fields and a heart block. Radiation-induced cardiac perfusion and wall motion changes were assessed by pre-RT and 6-month post-RT SPECT scans. A cumulative SPECT summed-rest score was used to quantify perfusion in predefined left ventricle segments. The incidence of wall motion abnormalities was assessed in each of these same segments. Results: A total of 20 patients with normal pre-RT scans were studied; their median age was 56 years (range, 39-72 years). Seven (35%) patients also received irradiation to the left internal mammary chain, and 5 (25%) received an additional RT field to supraclavicular nodes. The median heart dose was 94 cGy (range, 56-200 cGy), and the median V25{sub Gy} was zero (range, 0-0.1). None of the patients had post-RT perfusion or wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DIBH and conformal cardiac blocking for patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer is an effective means to avoid early RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects.

  15. A comparative clinico-radiographic study of guided tissue regeneration with bioresorbable membrane and a composite synthetic bone graft for the treatment of periodontal osseous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the bonefill in periodontal osseous defects with the help of guided tissue regeneration, bioresorbable membrane (PerioCol + bone graft (Grabio Glascera in combination and with bonegraft (Grabio Glascera alone. Materials and Methods: The study involved total 30 sites in systemically healthy 19 patients. The parameters for evaluation includes plaque index sulcus bleeding index with one or more periodontal osseous defects having (i probing depth (PD of ≥ 5 mm (ii clinical attachment loss (CAL of ≥ 5 mm and (iii ≥3 mm of radiographic periodontal osseous defect (iv bonefill (v crestal bone loss (vi defect resolution. The study involved the three wall and two wall defects which should be either located interproximally or involving the furcation area. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, the Wilcoxon signed rank statistic W + for Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The net gain in PD and CAL after 6 months for Group I ([PerioCol] + [Grabio Glascera] and Group II (Grabio Glascera was 3.94 ± 1.81 mm, 3.57 ± 2.21 mm and 3.94 ± 1.81, 3.57 ± 2.21 mm, respectively. The results of the study for Group I and Group II with regards to mean net bonefill, was 3.25 ± 2.32 (58% mm and 5.14 ± 3.84 (40.26 ± 19.14% mm, crestal bone loss − 0.25 ± 0.68 mm and − 0.79 ± 1.19 mm. Defect resolution 3.50 ± 2.34 mm and 5.93 ± 4.01 mm, respectively. Conclusion: On comparing both the groups together after 6 months of therapy, the results were equally effective for combination of graft and membrane versus bone graft alone since no statistical significant difference was seen between above parameters for both the groups. Thus, both the treatment modalities are comparable and equally effective.

  16. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  17. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deqing; Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Guodong; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis. We aimed to examine the relationship between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of NTDs. From 2010 to 2012, 60 NTD cases and 60 healthy controls were recruited from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in five counties of Shanxi Province in Northern China, where the emission of PAHs remains one of the highest in the country and PAHs exposure is highly prevalent. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 15 NTD cases and 15 control infants, and in cord tissue of 60 NTD cases and 60 control infants were measured using the (32)P-postlabeling method. PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood tend to be higher in the NTD group (28.5 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared with controls (19.7 per 10(8) nucleotides), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.377). PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue were significantly higher in the NTD group (24.6 per 10(6) nucleotides) than in the control group (15.3 per 10(6) nucleotides), P=0.010. A positive dose-response relationship was found between levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue and the risk of NTDs (P=0.009). When the lowest tertile was used as the referent and potential confounding factors were adjusted for, a 1.03-fold (95% CI, 0.37-2.89) and 2.96-fold (95% CI, 1.16-7.58) increase in the risk of NTDs was observed for fetuses whose cord tissue PAH-DNA adduct levels were in the second and highest tertile, respectively. High levels of PAH-DNA adducts in fetal tissues were associated with increased risks of

  18. Predictive validity of granulation tissue color measured by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Kaitani, Toshiko; Sugama, Junko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Naito, Ayumi; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Konya, Chizuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter prospective cohort study examined the predictive validity of granulation tissue color evaluated by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing. Ninety-one patients with deep pressure ulcers were followed for 3 weeks. From a wound photograph taken at baseline, an image representing the granulation red index (GRI) was processed in which a redder color represented higher values. We calculated the average GRI over granulation tissue and the proportion of pixels exceeding the threshold intensity of 80 for the granulation tissue surface (%GRI80) and wound surface (%wound red index 80). In the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, most GRI parameters had adequate discriminative values for both improvement of the DESIGN-R total score and wound closure. Ulcers were categorized by the obtained cutoff points of the average GRI (≤80, >80), %GRI80 (≤55, >55-80, >80%), and %wound red index 80 (≤25, >25-50, >50%). In the linear mixed model, higher classes for all GRI parameters showed significantly greater relative improvement in overall wound severity during the 3 weeks after adjustment for patient characteristics and wound locations. Assessment of granulation tissue color by digital image analysis will be useful as an objective monitoring tool for granulation tissue quality or surrogate outcomes of pressure ulcer healing. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children - what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  20. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  1. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  2. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kovářová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to a research article entitled “Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects” [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1−/− and control (SURF1+/+ mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX, to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1−/− mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  3. Correction of bone defects by tissue Engineering Corrección de defectos óseos en el área de Ingeniería tisular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Yobanny Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, bone defects cases represent a major impact on health due to how often they oc­cur because of trauma, fractures, congenital or degenerative diseases. Now, bone implants to large volume are severely restricted because of the diffusion limitations in the interaction with the environment of the host for nutrients, gas exchange and waste disposal. That is why the correction of bone defects has become very important in the field of tissue engi­neering looking to improve clinical strategies for treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration, showing the progress made in the in vitro and in vivo in recent decadesHoy en día, los defectos óseos representan uno de los casos de mayor impacto en la salud debido a la frecuencia con que éstos ocurren a causa de traumatismos, fracturas, enferme­dades congénitas o degenerativas. En la actualidad, los implantes de tejido óseo de gran volumen se encuentran severamente restringidos a causa de las limitaciones de difusión en la interacción con el ambiente del huésped para los nutrientes, intercambio gaseoso y eliminación de desechos. Es por ello que la corrección de los defectos óseos ha cobrado gran importancia en el área de Ingeniería tisular buscando mejorar las estrategias clínicas para su tratamiento. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un panorama general del desarrollo de andamios para la regeneración de tejido óseo, mostrando los avances logrados en los ensayos in vitro e in vivo en la última década.

  4. Histopathologic analysis of atrial tissue in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison between patients with atrial septal defect and patients with mitral valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae Gun; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Oh, Sam Se; Lee, Sang Yun; Ham, Eui Keun; Kim, Woong-Han; Kim, Soo-Jin; Bae, Eun Jung; Lim, Cheoung; Lee, Chang-Ha; Lee, Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in adult patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) accompanies an enlarged right atrium (RA) with a less enlarged left atrium (LA), which is the opposite situation in patients with AF and mitral valvular disease. This study was to compare the histopathological change in the atrium of patients with AF of two different etiologies: ASD and mitral disease. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Group 1 included patients with ASD (8), Group 2 included patients with ASD with AF (6), and Group 3 included patients with mitral disease with AF (10). Preoperative atrial volumes were measured. Atrial tissues were obtained during surgical procedures and stained with periodic acid-Schiff, smooth muscle actin, Sirius red, and Masson's trichrome to detect histopathologic changes compatible with AF. The severity of histopathological changes was represented with "positivity" and "strong positivity" after analyzing digitalized images of the staining. We investigated the relationship between the degree of atrial dilatation and severity of histopathological changes according to the groups and tissues. Group 2 and Group 3 patients showed a tendency toward an enlarged RA volume and enlarged LA volume, respectively, compared with each others. However, in the histopathologic analysis, "positivity" and "strong positivity" showed no significant positive correlations with the degree of atrial volume in special staining. A similar degree of histopathologic changes was observed in both atria in patients with AF (Group 2 and 3) regardless of the degree of dilatation of atrial volume and disease entities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    KAUST Repository

    Blackburn, Patrick R.; Xu, Zhi; Tumelty, Kathleen E.; Zhao, Rose W.; Monis, William J.; Harris, Kimberly G.; Gass, Jennifer M.; Cousin, Margot A.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Mitkov, Mario V.; Cappel, Mark A.; Francomano, Clair A.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Klee, Eric W.; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Layne, Matthew D.; McDonnell, Nazli B.; Atwal, Paldeep S.

    2018-01-01

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that biallelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype.

  6. The long-term behavior of lightweight and heavyweight meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects is determined by the host tissue repair process provoked by the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Gemma; Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Rodríguez, Marta; Sotomayor, Sandra; Peña, Estefania; Calvo, Begoña; Bellón, Juan M

    2012-11-01

    Although heavyweight (HW) or lightweight (LW) polypropylene (PP) meshes are widely used for hernia repair, other alternatives have recently appeared. They have the same large-pore structure yet are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This study compares the long-term (3 and 6 months) behavior of meshes of different pore size (HW compared with LW) and composition (PP compared with PTFE). Partial defects were created in the lateral wall of the abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits and then repaired by the use of a HW or LW PP mesh or a new monofilament, large-pore PTFE mesh (Infinit). At 90 and 180 days after implantation, tissue incorporation, gene and protein expression of neocollagens (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (immunohistochemistry), and biomechanical strength were determined. Shrinkage was measured at 90 days. All three meshes induced good host tissue ingrowth, yet the macrophage response was significantly greater in the PTFE implants (P .05). Host collagen deposition is mesh pore size dependent whereas the macrophage response induced is composition dependent with a greater response shown by PTFE. In the long term, macroporous meshes show comparable biomechanical behavior regardless of their pore size or composition. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    KAUST Repository

    Blackburn, Patrick R.

    2018-03-29

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that biallelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype.

  8. Brain tissue aspiration neural tube defect Aspiração de tecido cerebral em casos de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out how frequent is brain tissue aspiration and if brain tissue heterotopia could be found in the lung of human neural tube defect cases. Histological sections of each lobe of both lungs of 22 fetuses and newborn with neural tube defect were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were 15 (68.2% females and 7 (31.8% males. Age ranged from 18 to 40 weeks of gestation (mean= 31.8. Ten (45.5% were stillborn, the same newborn, and 2 (9.1% were abortuses. Diagnosis were: craniorrhachischisis (9 cases, 40.9%, anencephaly (8 cases, 36,4%, ruptured occipital encephalocele and rachischisis (2 cases, 9.1% each, and early amniotic band disruption sequence (1 case, 4.5%. Only one case (4.5% exhibited GFAP positive cells inside bronchioles and alveoli admixed to epithelial amniotic squames. No heterotopic tissue was observed in the lung interstitium. We concluded that aspiration of brain tissue from the amniotic fluid in neural tube defect cases may happen but it is infrequent and heterotopia was not observed.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar qual a freqüência de aspiração de tecido cerebral e a existência de heterotopia nos pulmões de casos humanos de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural através da reação imuno-histoquímica para proteína fibrilar glial ácida (GFAP em cortes histológicos de todos os lobos de ambos os pulmões de 22 casos de fetos e neonatos com defeito de fechamento do tubo neural. Havia 15 casos femininos (68,2% e 7 masculinos (31,8%, com idade gestacional variando de 18 a 40 semanas (média= 31,8, sendo natimortos e neomortos 10 (45,5% cada e 2 (9,1% abortos. Os diagnósticos foram: Craniorraquisquise (9 casos, 40,9%, anencefalia (8 casos, 36,4%, encefalocele occipital rota e raquisquise (2 casos, 9,1% e 1 (4,5%caso de seqüência de disruptura amniótica precoce. Somente 1 caso (4,5% apresentou células positivas dentro de bronquíolos e alvéolos em meio a células epiteliais

  9. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a ro...

  10. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P; Goodwin, Mark B; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C

    2014-01-22

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 > +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues.

  11. Quality of Newly Formed Cartilaginous Tissue in Defects of Articular Surface after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Composite Scaffold Based on Collagen I with Chitosan Micro- and Nanofibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, A.; Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Crha, M.; Hlučilová, Jana; Klíma, Jiří; Starý, L.; Křen, L.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.; Gál, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 605-614 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Cartilaginous Tissue * Defects of Articular Surface * Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  12. Deep tissue injury in development of pressure ulcers: a decrease of inflammasome activation and changes in human skin morphology in response to aging and mechanical load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojadinovic

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms leading to pressure ulcer development are scarce in spite of high mortality of patients. Development of pressure ulcers that is initially observed as deep tissue injury is multifactorial. We postulate that biomechanical forces and inflammasome activation, together with ischemia and aging, may play a role in pressure ulcer development. To test this we used a newly-developed bio-mechanical model in which ischemic young and aged human skin was subjected to a constant physiological compressive stress (load of 300 kPa (determined by pressure plate analyses of a person in a reclining position for 0.5-4 hours. Collagen orientation was assessed using polarized light, whereas inflammasome proteins were quantified by immunoblotting. Loaded skin showed marked changes in morphology and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression. Sub-epidermal separations and altered orientation of collagen fibers were observed in aged skin at earlier time points. Aged skin showed significant decreases in the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins. Loading did not alter NLRP3 inflammasome proteins expression in aged skin, whereas it significantly increased their levels in young skin. We conclude that aging contributes to rapid morphological changes and decrease in inflammasome proteins in response to tissue damage, suggesting that a decline in the innate inflammatory response in elderly skin could contribute to pressure ulcer pathogenesis. Observed morphological changes suggest that tissue damage upon loading may not be entirely preventable. Furthermore, newly developed model described here may be very useful in understanding the mechanisms of deep tissue injury that may lead towards development of pressure ulcers.

  13. High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Paula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel found in association with large faunal communities living in chemosynthetic environments at the bottom of the sea floor near the Azores Islands. Investigation of the exceptional physiological reactions that vent mussels have adopted in their habitat, including responses to environmental microbes, remains a difficult challenge for deep-sea biologists. In an attempt to reveal genes potentially involved in the deep-sea mussel innate immunity we carried out a high-throughput sequence analysis of freshly collected B. azoricus transcriptome using gills tissues as the primary source of immune transcripts given its strategic role in filtering the surrounding waterborne potentially infectious microorganisms. Additionally, a substantial EST data set was produced and from which a comprehensive collection of genes coding for putative proteins was organized in a dedicated database, "DeepSeaVent" the first deep-sea vent animal transcriptome database based on the 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results A normalized cDNA library from gills tissue was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 778,996 sequencing reads. Assembly of the high quality reads resulted in 75,407 contigs of which 3,071 were singletons. A total of 39,425 transcripts were conceptually translated into amino-sequences of which 22,023 matched known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 15,839 revealed conserved protein domains through InterPro functional classification and 9,584 were assigned with Gene Ontology terms. Queries conducted within the database enabled the identification of genes putatively involved in immune and inflammatory reactions which had not been previously evidenced in the vent mussel. Their physical counterpart was confirmed by semi-quantitative quantitative Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR and their RNA transcription level by quantitative PCR (q

  14. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  15. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Patrick R; Xu, Zhi; Tumelty, Kathleen E; Zhao, Rose W; Monis, William J; Harris, Kimberly G; Gass, Jennifer M; Cousin, Margot A; Boczek, Nicole J; Mitkov, Mario V; Cappel, Mark A; Francomano, Clair A; Parisi, Joseph E; Klee, Eric W; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Layne, Matthew D; McDonnell, Nazli B; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2018-04-05

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 -/- mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581 ∗ ]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs ∗ 3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep feature representation with stacked sparse auto-encoder and convolutional neural network for hyperspectral imaging-based detection of cucumber defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is challenging to achieve rapid and accurate processing of large amounts of hyperspectral image data. This research was aimed to develop a novel classification method by employing deep feature representation with the stacked sparse auto-encoder (SSAE) and the SSAE combined with convolutional neur...

  17. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  18. Defect identification using positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2001-01-01

    The current use of the lifetime and Doppler broadening techniques in defect identification is demonstrated with two studies, the first being the identification of carbon vacancy in n-6H SiC through lifetime spectroscopy, and the second the production of de-hydrogenated voids in α-Si:H through light soaking. Some less conventional ideas are presented for more specific defect identification, namely (i) the amalgamation of lifetime and Doppler techniques with conventional deep level transient spectroscopy in what may be called ''positron-deep level transient spectroscopy'', and (ii) the extraction of more spatial information on vacancy defects by means of what may be called ''Fourier transform Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation spectroscopy'' (orig.)

  19. Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG; however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG, and to examine its tissue distribution. To this end, we employed polymerase chain reaction cloning with degenerate primers and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length ChqIAG cDNA sequence (1555 nt includes a 366 nt 5′ untranslated region a 453 nt open reading frame encoding 151 amino acids, and a relatively long 3′ UTR of 733 nt. The ORF consists of a 19 aa signal peptide, 32 aa B chain, 56 aa C chain, and 44 aa A chain. The putative ChqIAG amino acid sequence is most similar to those found in other crab species, including C. sapidus and S. paramamosain, which are clustered together phylogenetically.

  20. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  1. EXPERIMENTAL REPAIR OF DEEP CORNEAL DEFECTS USING A BIO-CONSTRUCT COMPRISING A COLLAGEN TYPE I MATRIX LOADED WITH BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Egorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  research  objective was  to study the  reparative effects of  the  collagen  type  I bio-construct loaded  with buccal epithelial cells, on the rabbit cornea after experimental keratectomy at various stages of treatment (on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 3 0th days.Material  and methods.  The  experiments were  conducted on 20 rabbits  of  the  Chinchilla breed that  were  operated on cornea of both eyes aiming to inflict epithelial and stromal cornea defects. The collagen-based bio-construct bearing buccal epithelial cells was placed  over the cornea of the experimental eyes. The  cornea of the control  eyes was covered with smooth contact lens. After the surgery, a temporal blepharorrhaphy was performed and kept for 3 days. We studied macroand microscopic pattern of corneal regeneration at 3, 7, 14, and 30 days of experiment.Results. When  using the collaged-based bio-construct containing buccal epithelial cells, the complete epithelialization of the corneal defect occurred at mean 7 days earlier compared to that in the control eyes. Thus, the offered bio-construct stimulated the cell migration and proliferation at early stages of treatment (3–7 days reducing the inflammation activity.Conclusion. The bio-construct comprising a collagen type  I matrix loaded with buccal epithelial cells can provide an effective treatment option for corneal defects.

  2. Evolution of Defect Structures and Deep Subgap States during Annealing of Amorphous In-Ga-Zn Oxide for Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junjun; Suko, Ayaka; Shigesato, Yuzo; Okajima, Toshihiro; Inoue, Keiko; Hosomi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the evolution behavior of defect structures and the subgap states in In-Ga-Zn oxide (IGZO) films with increasing postannealing temperature by means of extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, aiming to understand the relationship between defect structures and subgap states. EXAFS measurements reveal the varied oxygen coordination numbers around cations during postannealing and confirm two types of point defects, namely, excess oxygen around Ga atoms and oxygen deficiency around In and/or Zn atoms. PALS suggests the existence of cation-vacancy (VM )-related clusters with neutral or negative charge in both amorphous and polycrystalline IGZO films. CL spectra show a main emission band at approximately 1.85 eV for IGZO films, and a distinct shoulder located at about 2.15 eV for IGZO films postannealed above 600 °C . These two emission bands are assigned to a recombination between the electrons in the conduction band and/or in the shallow donor levels near the conduction band and the acceptors trapped above the valence-band maximum. The shallow donors are attributed to the oxygen deficiency, and the acceptors are thought to possibly arise from the excess oxygen or the VM-related clusters. These results open up an alternative route for understanding the device instability of amorphous IGZO-based thin-film transistors, especially the presence of the neutral or negatively charged VM-related clusters in amorphous IGZO films.

  3. Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers Including Suspected Deep Tissue Injury in Nursing Home Facility Residents: Analysis of National Minimum Data Set 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyochol; Cowan, Linda; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra; Stechmiller, Joyce

    2016-04-01

    To provide information on risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home residents in the United States. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Examine the literature related to risk factors for the development of PrUs.2. Compare risk factors associated with the prevalence of PrUs and sDTI from the revised Minimum Data Set 3.0 2012 using a modified Defloor's conceptual model of PrUs as a theoretical framework. This study aims to characterize and compare risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Secondary analysis of the 2012 Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0). Medicare- or Medicaid-certified NHs in the United States. Nursing home residents (n = 2,936,146) 18 years or older with complete PrU data, who received comprehensive assessments from January to December 2012. Pressure ulcer by stage was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables (age, gender, race and ethnicity, body mass index, skin integrity, system failure, disease, infection, mobility, and cognition) from the MDS 3.0 were aligned with the 4 elements of Defloor's conceptual model: compressive forces, shearing forces, tissue tolerance for pressure, and tissue tolerance for oxygen. Of 2,936,146 NH residents who had complete data for PrU, 89.9% had no PrU; 8.4% had a Stage 2, 3, or 4 or unstagable PrU; and 1.7% had an sDTI. The MDS variables corresponding to the 4 elements of Defloor's model were significantly predictive of both PrU and sDTI. Black residents had the highest risk of any-stage PrU, and Hispanic residents had the highest risk of sDTI. Skin integrity, system failure, infection, and disease risk factors had larger effect sizes for sDTI than for other PrU stages

  4. Atelocollagen sponge and recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor combination therapy for resistant wounds with deep cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Asako; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-ichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in bioengineering have introduced materials that enhance wound healing. Even with such new tools, some deep ulcers surrounded by avascular tissues, including bone, tendon, and fascia, are resistant to various therapies and easily form deep cavities with loss of subcutaneous tissue. Atelocollagen sponges have been used as an artificial dermis to cover full-thickness skin defects. Topical recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor has been introduced as a growth factor to induce fibroblast proliferation in skin ulcers. We applied these materials in combination in two patients with deep resistant wounds: one with a cavity reaching the mediastinum through a divided sternum and one with deep necrotic wounds caused by electric burns. These wounds did not respond to the topical basic fibroblast growth factor alone. In contrast, the combination therapy closed the wounds rapidly without further surgical treatment. This combination therapy is a potent treatment for resistant wounds with deep cavities.

  5. Investigation of electrically active defects in InGaAs quantum wire intermediate-band solar cells using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique

    OpenAIRE

    Al Saqri, Noor alhuda; Felix, Jorlandio F.; Aziz, Mohsin; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Jameel, Dler Adil; Taylor, David; Henini, M.; Abd El-sadek, Mahmmoud S.; Furrow, Colin; Ware, Morgan E.; Benamara, Mourad; Mortazavi, Mansour; Salamo, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    InGaAs quantum wire (QWr) intermediate-band solar cell based nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electrical and interface properties of these solar cell devices, as determined by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C-V) techniques, were found to change with temperature over a wide range of 20–340 K. The electron and hole traps present in these devices have been investigated using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS results showed that the ...

  6. Real-time deep-tissue thermal sensing with sub-degree resolution by thermally improved Nd{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} multifunctional nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Uéslen, E-mail: ueslen.silva@fis.ufal.br [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Jacinto, Carlos; Kumar, Kagola Upendra [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); López, Fernando J.; Bravo, David; Solé, José García [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Jaque, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jaque@uam.es [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034 (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Nd{sup 3+} ion doped LaF{sub 3} dielectric nanoparticles have recently emerged as very attractive multifunctional nanoparticles capable of simultaneous sub-tissue heating and thermal sensing. Although they have been already used for selective photothermal treatment of cancer tumors in animal models, their real application as self-monitored photothermal agents require further optimization and development. Dynamic adjustment of the therapy parameters is mandatory for non-selective damage minimization. It would require real-time (sub-second) thermal sensing with a sub-degree thermal resolution. In this work we demonstrate that meeting this challenge is, indeed, possible by performing controlled thermal treatment on as-synthesized Nd{sup 3+} doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles. Temperature induced lattice ordering and defect re-combination have been concluded to induce, simultaneously, a line fluorescence narrowing, fluorescence brightness enhancement and a remarkable increment in thermal sensitivity. Ex-vivo experiments have demonstrated that, thanks to this multi-parameter optimization, Neodymium doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles are capable of real time sub-tissue thermal reading with a temperature resolution as low as 0.7 °C.

  7. Long-term outcome of combined modality therapy in retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma: analysis of prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Emad; Fontanesi, James; Mott, Michael; Kraut, Michael; Lucas, David; Mekhael, Hany; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma, and to identify the prognostic factors for local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and December 1998, 60 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma were treated at Wayne State University using combined surgery and RT. The location was retroperitoneal in 38 patients (63%) and deep trunk in 22 (27%). Forty-six patients (76%) were treated for primary disease and 14 (24%) for recurrent disease. The resection margins were negative in 24 patients (40%), close in 3 (5%), and positive in 33 (55%; 18 microscopic and 15 macroscopic). The median tumor size was 8.6 cm (range 2-55). External beam RT (EBRT; median dose 5220 cGy) was given to 44 patients (73%) and combined EBRT (median dose 4200 cGy) and brachytherapy (median dose 1600 cGy) to 16 patients (27%). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify the possible associations between patient age, race, gender, tumor site, histologic features, grade, size, stage, surgical margin, RT dose, modality (EBRT vs. EBRT plus brachytherapy), and presentation (primary vs. recurrent) and disease control. Results: The actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free survival rate was 53% and 44%, respectively. Disease-free survival was significantly associated with female gender on univariate analysis (67% for female patients and 37% for male patients at 5 years, p=0.05). On multivariate analysis, both gender and surgical margin had borderline significance (p=0.06). The actuarial local control rate was 71% and 54% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The median time to local relapse was 10.2 months, with 75% of all failures occurring within 29 months. The surgical margin status was significantly associated with local control (78% for patients with negative or close margins vs

  8. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgett, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  9. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENABIAN, Niloofar; HAGHANIFAR, Sina; MABOUDI, Avideh; BIJANI, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. Material and Methods In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group) or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group). The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later): vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), horizontal probing depth (HPD), vertical probing depth (VPD), gingival recession (GR), furcation vertical component (FVC), furcation to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. Conclusion The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone material

  10. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group. The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later: vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, horizontal probing depth (HPD, vertical probing depth (VPD, gingival recession (GR, furcation vertical component (FVC, furcation to alveolar crest (FAC, fornix to base of defect (FBD, and furcation horizontal component (FHC were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone

  11. Numerical simulation of fluid field and in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones in a rotating bioreactor and in vivo implantation for repairing segmental bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Bowen; Lim, Mayasari; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Tianqing

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional flow field simulation was conducted to determine shear stresses and velocity profiles for bone tissue engineering in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB). In addition, in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones was carried out in optimized bioreactor conditions, and in vivo implantation using fabricated bones was performed for segmental bone defects of Zelanian rabbits. The distribution of dynamic pressure, total pressure, shear stress, and velocity within the culture chamber was calculated for different scaffold locations. According to the simulation results, the dynamic pressure, velocity, and shear stress around the surface of cell-scaffold construction periodically changed at different locations of the RWVB, which could result in periodical stress stimulation for fabricated tissue constructs. However, overall shear stresses were relatively low, and the fluid velocities were uniform in the bioreactor. Our in vitro experiments showed that the number of cells cultured in the RWVB was five times higher than those cultured in a T-flask. The tissue-engineered bones grew very well in the RWVB. This study demonstrates that stress stimulation in an RWVB can be beneficial for cell/bio-derived bone constructs fabricated in an RWVB, with an application for repairing segmental bone defects.

  12. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deept Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms.

  13. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Traps of energy levels E c -0.26 and E c -0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  14. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert attenuates early EEG components associated with defective sensory gating in patients with Alzheimer disease - a two-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Reichert, Christoph; Kuhn, Jens; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2017-10-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep brain stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for patients with AD by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory-relevant circuits. However, whether DBS could improve sensory memory functions in patients with AD is not clear. Here, in a passive auditory oddball paradigm, patients with AD (N = 2) listened to repetitive background tones (standard tones) randomly interrupted by frequency deviants in two blocks with NBM-DBS OFF and then NBM-DBS ON, while age-matched healthy controls (N = 6) repeated the experiment twice. The mismatch negativity in NBM-DBS OFF significantly differed from controls in both blocks, but not under NBM-DBS, which was likely due to a pronounced P50 increase overlapping with the N1 in NBM-DBS OFF. This early complex of EEG components recovered under stimulation to a normal level as defined by responses in controls. In this temporal interval, we found in patients with NBM-DBS ON (but not with NBM-DBS OFF) and in controls a strong repetition suppression effect to standard tones - with more attenuated responses to frequently repeated standard tones. This highlights the role of NBM-DBS for sensory gating of familiar auditory information into sensory memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Therapy of deep radiation ulcer after the mammacarcinoma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, Kengo; Imai, Susumu; Makino, Koreo; Koike, Makoto; Hayata, Yoshiharu.

    1976-01-01

    Eight cases of deep radiation ulcer after mammacarcinoma operations were treated in our clinic in the past 10 years. Four of them were treated by the large thoracic-abdominal flap after bony chest wall resection. Referring to these experiences we considered that the following four points were important. 1. Ulcers should be repaired in one stage if possible. 2. Necrotic mass and injured tissues should be resected completely. 3. The large tissue defect after the debridement can be covered directly with the opposite large thoracic-abdominal flap. 4. The I. II. III perforating branches of the internal mammary arteries should be kept intract in constructing the thoracic-abdominal flap. (auth.)

  16. Analyses of Tissue Culture Adaptation of Human Herpesvirus-6A by Whole Genome Deep Sequencing Redefines the Reference Sequence and Identifies Virus Entry Complex Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedy, Joshua G; Escriva, Eric; Topf, Maya; Gompels, Ursula A

    2017-12-31

    Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus. Using whole genome next-generation deep-sequencing Illumina-based methods, we compared the original isolate to tissue-culture passaged and the BACmid-cloned virus. This re-defined the reference genome showing 32 corrections and 5 polymorphisms. Furthermore, minor variant analyses of passaged and BACmid virus identified emerging populations of a further 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 loci, half non-synonymous indicating cell-culture selection. Analyses of the BAC-virus genome showed deletion of the BAC cassette via loxP recombination removing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based selection. As shown for HCMV culture effects, select HHV-6A SNPs mapped to genes encoding mediators of virus cellular entry, including virus envelope glycoprotein genes gB and the gH/gL complex. Comparative models suggest stabilisation of the post-fusion conformation. These SNPs are essential to consider in vaccine-design, antimicrobial-resistance, and pathogenesis.

  17. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  18. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  19. Priority of surgical treatment techniques of full cartilage defects of knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Вікторович Літовченко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Surgical treatment of chondromalacia of knee joint cartilage is an actual problem of the modern orthopedics because the means of conservative therapy can be realized at an initial stage only and almost exhausted at the further ones. Imperfections of palliative surgical techniques are the short-term clinical effect and pathogenetic baselessness because surgical procedure is not directed on reparation of cartilaginous tissue. For today there are a lot of transplantation techniques that are used for biological renewal of articular surface with formation of hyaline or at least hyaline-like cartilage. The deep forage of cartilage defect bottom to the medullary canal is a perspective and priority technique.Methods. The results of treatment of 61 patients with chondromalacia of knee joint of 3-4 degree according to R. Outerbridge are the base of the work. 20 patients of every group underwent microfracturization of cartilage defect bottom and subchondral forage of defect zone. 21 patients underwent the deep forage of defect zone of knee joint according to an offered technique.Result. The results of treatment with microfracturization, subchondral forage and deep forage of defect zone indicate the more strong clinical effect especially in the last clinical group where good and satisfactory results ratios in the term of observation 18 and 24 month remain stable.Conclusions. Deep forage of cartilage defects zone is the most adequate reparative technique of the surgical treatment of local knee joint cartilage defects. Owing to this procedure the number of cells of reparative chondrogenesis predecessors is realized

  20. An evaluation of Admedus' tissue engineering process-treated (ADAPT) bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) for the repair of cardiac and vascular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Geoff; Brizard, Christian; Karl, Tom R; Neethling, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Tissue engineers have been seeking the 'Holy Grail' solution to calcification and cytotoxicity of implanted tissue for decades. Tissues with all of the desired qualities for surgical repair of congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking. An anti-calcification tissue engineering process (ADAPT TEP) has been developed and applied to bovine pericardium (BP) tissue (CardioCel, AdmedusRegen Pty Ltd, Perth, WA, Australia) to eliminate cytotoxicity, improve resistance to acute and chronic inflammation, reduce calcification and facilitate controlled tissue remodeling. Clinical data in pediatric patients, and additional pre-market authorized prescriber data demonstrate that CardioCel performs extremely well in the short term and is safe and effective for a range of congenital heart deformations. These data are supported by animal studies which have shown no more than normal physiologic levels of calcification, with good durability, biocompatibility and controlled healing.

  1. Influence of a deep-level-defect band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Chen Ping; Zhu Jian-Jun; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Le Ling-Cong; Liu Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The influence of a deep-level-defect (DLD) band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the performance of Ni/Au contact to p-GaN is investigated. The thin heavily Mg-doped GaN (p ++ -GaN) contact layer with DLD band can effectively improve the performance of Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-GaN. The temperature-dependent I–V measurement shows that the variable-range hopping (VRH) transportation through the DLD band plays a dominant role in the ohmic contact. The thickness and Mg/Ga flow ratio of p ++ -GaN contact layer have a significant effect on ohmic contact by controlling the Mg impurity doping and the formation of a proper DLD band. When the thickness of the p ++ -GaN contact layer is 25 nm thick and the Mg/Ga flow rate ratio is 10.29%, an ohmic contact with low specific contact resistivity of 6.97× 10 −4 Ω·cm 2 is achieved. (paper)

  2. Guided tissue regeneration and platelet rich growth factor for the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2017-01-01

    Results: Eight patients were finally enrolled for this study. Overly, general and specific clinical and furcation parameters were improved except REC that was deteriorated insignificantly and FAC improved not significantly. Intergroup comparison revealed better improvement of FHC in GTR/PRGF group (P = 0.02. Conclusion: A significant improvement in the Grade II furcation defects treated with either GTR or PRGF/GTR was noticed. Further large-scale trials are needed to reveal differences of mentioned treatment in more details.

  3. Excessive peptidergic sensory innervation of cutaneous arteriole-venule shunts (AVS) in the palmar glabrous skin of fibromyalgia patients: implications for widespread deep tissue pain and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Phillip J; Hou, Quanzhi; Argoff, Charles E; Storey, James R; Wymer, James P; Rice, Frank L

    2013-06-01

    To determine if peripheral neuropathology exists among the innervation of cutaneous arterioles and arteriole-venule shunts (AVS) in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Cutaneous arterioles and AVS receive a convergence of vasoconstrictive sympathetic innervation, and vasodilatory small-fiber sensory innervation. Given our previous findings of peripheral pathologies in chronic pain conditions, we hypothesized that this vascular location may be a potential site of pathology and/or serotonergic and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) drug action. Twenty-four female FM patients and nine female healthy control subjects were enrolled for study, with 14 additional female control subjects included from previous studies. AVS were identified in hypothenar skin biopsies from 18/24 FM patient and 14/23 control subjects. Multimolecular immunocytochemistry to assess different types of cutaneous innervation in 3 mm skin biopsies from glabrous hypothenar and trapezius regions. AVS had significantly increased innervation among FM patients. The excessive innervation consisted of a greater proportion of vasodilatory sensory fibers, compared with vasoconstrictive sympathetic fibers. In contrast, sensory and sympathetic innervation to arterioles remained normal. Importantly, the sensory fibers express α2C receptors, indicating that the sympathetic innervation exerts an inhibitory modulation of sensory activity. The excessive sensory innervation to the glabrous skin AVS is a likely source of severe pain and tenderness in the hands of FM patients. Importantly, glabrous AVS regulate blood flow to the skin in humans for thermoregulation and to other tissues such as skeletal muscle during periods of increased metabolic demand. Therefore, blood flow dysregulation as a result of excessive innervation to AVS would likely contribute to the widespread deep pain and fatigue of FM. SNRI compounds may provide partial therapeutic benefit by enhancing the impact of sympathetically mediated inhibitory

  4. Ultrasonic determination of the size of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterwall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents results from a study of ultrasonic testing of materials. The main topic has been the determination of the size, length and deep, of cracks or defects in stainless steel plates. (K.A.E)

  5. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  6. Changing the Paradigm in Medial Canthal Reconstruction: The Bridge Principle and the Croissant-Like Keystone Island Perforator Flap as An Alternative for Medium Size Soft Tissue Defects in Internal Canthus Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Epameinondas; Agiannidis, Christos; Konofaos, Petros; Kotsakis, Ioannis; Hatzigianni, Panagiota; Georgopoulos, Gerasimos; Papadatou, Zoe; Konstantinidou, Chara; Champsas, Gregorios; Papadopoulos, Othon; Casoli, Vincent

    2018-03-08

    Medial canthus is a common area of skin cancer prevalence. Defects in this region represent a challenging reconstructive task. The nasal version of keystone perforator island flap (KPIF) has proven its versatility. The aim of the present study was to expand its utilization in the neighbor medial canthus area. A modified croissant-like KPIF (CKPIF) was used resolving inner convexity-related problems. The presence of procerus in the glabella area, bridging a surface from nasalis up to the frontalis, changed the traditional dissecting flap technique. Thus, the authors introduce the bridge principle, which consists of the indirect transfer of the flap to the defect site through a muscular "bridge" (the procerus). The authors report their experience in medial canthal reconstruction combining a modified KPIF with a new dissecting "principle." From November 2016 to July 2017, a series of patients presenting soft tissue defects of various dimensions in the medial canthus, secondary to tumor extirpation, sustained reconstruction with a CKPIF dissected with the bridge principle. A total of 15 patients were treated with this new technique. Their mean age was 75.3 years. The mean size of the defect was 2.08 cm (length) × 1.5 cm (width). All flaps survived without any sign of venous congestion. A transient epiphora presented in 4 patients (4/15 or 26.6%), which was subsided 2 months later. A new approach following a novel paradigm was introduced to resolve an old problem. Initial outcomes are encouraging. However, longer series are needed to extract definitive and safer conclusion.

  7. Tendon tissue engineering and its role on healing of the experimentally induced large tendon defect model in rabbits: a comprehensive in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS) sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI). The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (Ptendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in clinical practice.

  8. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; de Leeuw, P. A. J.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2008-01-01

    This review article provides a current concepts overview of osteochondral defects of the talus, with special emphasis on treatment options, their indications and future developments. Osteochondral defects of the talar dome are mostly caused by a traumatic event. They may lead to deep ankle pain on

  9. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  10. Thermophysical spectroscopy of defect states in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamberdyev, Kh.T.; Mamadalimov, A.T.; Khabibullaev, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The present work deals with analyzing the possibilities of using the non-traditional thermophysical methods to study a defect structure in silicon. For this purpose, the temperature dependences of thermophysical properties of defect silicon are investigated. A number of new, earlier unknown physical phenomena in silicon are obtained, and their interpretation has enabled one to establish the main physical mechanisms of formation of deep defect states in silicon

  11. Iatrogenic Urethral Defect Repairment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Fidan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available    Iatrogenic urethral defect is a complication that occurs after vaginal surgical procedures. Many surgical methods according to place of defect are described in case of injury of urethra. In this article, we reported the repairment of distal urethral defect with the help of greft taken from labia minor. This defect is made by the excision of the granulation tissue that occurred after chronic paraurethral  gland infection.

  12. Additive Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors With Guided Tissue Regeneration in Treatment of Intrabony Defects in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis: A Split-Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sheethalan; Malaiappan, Sankari; Varghese, Sheeja; Jayakumar, Nadathur D; Prakasam, Gopinath

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal regeneration can be defined as complete restoration of lost periodontal tissues to their original architecture and function. A variety of treatment modalities have been proposed to achieve it. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is a concentrated suspension of growth factors that promotes restoration of lost periodontal tissues. The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of PRGF associated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) versus GTR only in the treatment of intrabony defects (IBDs) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Patients with CP (n = 14) with 42 contralateral 2- and 3-walled defects were randomly assigned to test (PRGF+GTR) and control (GTR alone) treatment groups. Clinical and radiographic assessments performed at baseline and after 6 months were: 1) gingival index (GI), 2) probing depth (PD), 3) clinical attachment level (CAL), 4) radiologic defect depth, and 5) bone fill. Comparison of parameters measured at baseline and after 6 months showed mean PD reduction of 3.37 ± 1.62 mm in the control group (P <0.001) and 4.13 ± 1.59 mm in the test group (P <0.001). There was a significant difference in mean change in CAL (P <0.001) in the control group (5.42 ± 1.99) and the test group (5.99 ± 1.77). Mean change in GI was 1.89 ± 0.32 and 1.68 ± 0.58 in the control group and test group, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.001). When compared between groups, clinical parameters did not show any statistically significant variations. Mean radiographic bone fill was 1.06 ± 0.81 and 1.0 ± 0.97 in the control group and test group, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. PRGF with GTR, as well as GTR alone, was effective in improving clinical and radiographic parameters of patients with CP at the 6-month follow-up. There was no additive effect of PRGF when used along with GTR in the treatment of IBDs in patients with CP in terms of both clinical and

  13. Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Osteogenic and Endothelial Cells on Bone Allograft Osteogenesis and Vascularization in Critical-Sized Calvarial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    1% peni - cillin/streptomycin, and 50 ng/mL recombinant rat VEGF-C (Promocell, Heidelberg, Germany). The media were changed every other day for 8...various animal models that have demonstrated an enhanced osteogenic effect after treating bone allografts with adipose tissue or bone marrow-derived... enhanced 1560 CORNEJO ET AL. performance of bone allografts using osteogenic differentiated adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials 32, 8880

  14. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SINGLE FLAP APPROACH WITH CONNECTIVE TISSUE WALL FOR PERIODONTAL REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The destructive periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent in the human population. In some cases, bony defects are formed during the disease progression, thus sustaining deep periodontal pockets. The reconstruction of these defects is usually done with the classical techniques of bone substitutes placement and guided tissue regeneration. The clinical and histological data from the recent years, however, demonstrate the relatively low regenerative potential of these techniques. The contemporary approaches for periodontal regeneration rely on minimally invasive surgical protocols, aimed at complete tissue preservation in order to achieve and maintain primary closure and at stimulating the natural regenerative potential of the periodontal tissues. AIM: This presentation demonstrates the application of a new, minimally invasive, single flap surgical technique for periodontal regeneration in a clinical case with periodontitis and a residual deep intrabony defect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 37 years old patient presented with chronic generalised periodontitis. The initial therapy led to good control of the periodontal infection with a single residual deep periodontal pocket medially at 11 due to a deep intrabony defect. A single flap approach with an enamel matrix derivate application and a connective tissue wall technique were performed. The proper primary closure was obtained. RESULT: One month after surgery an initial mineralisation process in the defect was detected. At the third month, a complete clinical healing was observed. The radiographic control showed finished bone mineralisation and periodontal space recreation. CONCLUSION: In the limitation of the presented case, the minimally invasive surgical approach led to complete clinical healing and new bone formation, which could be proof for periodontal regeneration.

  15. Defect-Tolerant Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Kuhar, Korina

    2016-01-01

    Localized electronic states formed inside the band gap of a semiconductor due to crystal defects can be detrimental to the material's optoelectronic properties. Semiconductors with a lower tendency to form defect induced deep gap states are termed defect-tolerant. Here we provide a systematic first...... the gap. These ideas are made quantitative by introducing a descriptor that measures the degree of similarity of the conduction and valence band manifolds. Finally, the study is generalized to nonpolar nanoribbons of the TMDs where we find that only the defect sensitive materials form edge states within......-principles investigation of defect tolerance in 29 monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) of interest for nanoscale optoelectronics. We find that the TMDs based on group VI and X metals form deep gap states upon creation of a chalcogen (S, Se, Te) vacancy, while the TMDs based on group IV metals form only...

  16. Kappa-splints application for the treatment of pathological dental hard tissues abrasion in combination with dentition defects and dentition deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Petrishin

    2017-03-01

    2. After studying the movements of conventional hinge axis in articulate heads of TMJ with the help of condylograph «Cadiax Compact» and eliminating the symptoms of stress in masticatory muscles of the patients with occlusive disorders at pathological dental hard tissues abrasion, it is the gradual application of a kappa-splints set, made of hard transparent plates of Ercodent Ercodur material (Germany with a thickness of 1.0 to 5.0 mm, which allows prevention of further tooth wear, normalization of occlusive correlations of the jaws, separating a bite with optimum thickness throughout the dentition, thus the lower jaw takes a position at which the state of functional equilibrium of the entire dentition is restored.

  17. Tissue and size-related changes in the fatty acid and stable isotope signatures of the deep sea grenadier fish Coryphaenoides armatus from the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sharples, Caroline J.; Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pamela; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Cousins, Nicola J.

    2013-12-01

    Coryphaenoides armatus is a cosmopolitan deep-sea fish that plays a major role in the ecology of abyssal ecosystems. We investigated the trophic ecology and physiology of this species by determining the δ13C, δ15N and fatty acid signatures of muscle, liver and ovary tissues of individuals collected from ∼2700 m to the north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, NE Atlantic. Fatty acid and δ13C data both suggested that C. armatus shows an ontogenetic dietary shift, with the relative contributions of benthic and pelagic prey decreasing and increasing respectively as the animals grow. They also indicated that dietary overlap between animals living to the north and south of the CGFZ increases as they grow, suggesting that larger animals forage over greater distances and are not hindered by the presence of the CGFZ. Comparison of tissue-specific fatty acid signatures with previously published data suggests compositional homeostasis of the fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) in the muscle, and 18:1(n-9) in the liver tissues. We ascribe this primarily to strict physiological requirements for these compounds, rather than simply to their abundance in the diet. We pose several speculative mechanisms to explain the observed trends in tissue-specific δ13C and δ15N values, illustrating some of the numerous processes that can influence the isotopic signatures of bulk tissues.

  18. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  19. Defect spectroscopy of single ZnO microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, M.; Ferreyra, J. M.; Zapata, C.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Iikawa, F.; Esquinazi, P.; Heluani, S. P.; de Lima, M. M.; Cantarero, A.

    2014-04-01

    The point defects of single ZnO microwires grown by carbothermal reduction were studied by microphotoluminescence, photoresistance excitation spectra, and resistance as a function of the temperature. We found the deep level defect density profile along the microwire showing that the concentration of defects decreases from the base to the tip of the microwires and this effect correlates with a band gap narrowing. The results show a characteristic deep defect levels inside the gap at 0.88 eV from the top of the VB. The resistance as a function of the temperature shows defect levels next to the bottom of the CB at 110 meV and a mean defect concentration of 4 × 1018 cm-3. This combination of techniques allows us to study the band gap values and defects states inside the gap in single ZnO microwires and opens the possibility to be used as a defect spectroscopy method.

  20. A deep-learning classifier identifies patients with clinical heart failure using whole-slide images of H&E tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Nirschl

    Full Text Available Over 26 million people worldwide suffer from heart failure annually. When the cause of heart failure cannot be identified, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB represents the gold-standard for the evaluation of disease. However, manual EMB interpretation has high inter-rater variability. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs have been successfully applied to detect cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and dermatologic lesions from images. In this study, we develop a CNN classifier to detect clinical heart failure from H&E stained whole-slide images from a total of 209 patients, 104 patients were used for training and the remaining 105 patients for independent testing. The CNN was able to identify patients with heart failure or severe pathology with a 99% sensitivity and 94% specificity on the test set, outperforming conventional feature-engineering approaches. Importantly, the CNN outperformed two expert pathologists by nearly 20%. Our results suggest that deep learning analytics of EMB can be used to predict cardiac outcome.

  1. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  2. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  3. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  4. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair; Gorocs, Zoltan; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably

  5. Chimeric superficial temporal artery based skin and temporal fascia flap plus temporalis muscle flap - An alternative to free flap for suprastructure maxillectomy with external skin defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Jaiswal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaps from temporal region have been used for mid face, orbital and peri-orbital reconstruction. The knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the region helps to dissect and harvest the muscle/fascia/skin/combined tissue flaps from that region depending upon the requirement. Suprastructure maxillectomy defects are usually covered with free flaps to fill the cavity. Here we report an innovative idea in which a patient with a supra structure maxillectomy with external skin defect was covered with chimeric flap based on the parietal and frontal branches of superficial temporal artery and the temporalis muscle flap based on deep temporal artery.

  6. Deep tissue imaging of microfracture and non-displaced fracture of bone using the second and third near-infrared therapeutic windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Pu, Yang; Sordillo, P. P.; Budansky, Yury; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light in the wavelengths of 700 nm to 2,000 nm has three NIR optical, or therapeutic, windows, which allow for deeper depth penetration in scattering tissue media. Microfractures secondary to repetitive stress, particularly in the lower extremities, are an important problem for military recruits and athletes. They also frequently occur in the elderly, or in patients taking bisphosphonates or denosumab. Microfractures can be early predictors of a major bone fracture. Using the second and third NIR therapeutic windows, we investigated the results from images of chicken bone and human tibial bone with microfractures and non-displaced fractures with and without overlying tissues of various thicknesses. Images of bone with microfractures and non-displaced fractures with tissue show scattering photons in the third NIR window with wavelengths between 1,650 nm and 1,870 nm are diminished and absorption is increased slightly from and second NIR windows. Results from images of fractured bones show the attenuation length of light through tissue in the third optical window to be larger than in the second therapeutic window. Use of these windows may aid in the detection of bone microfractures, and thus reduce the incidence of major bone fracture in susceptible groups.

  7. Use of autologous platelet - Rich plasma in the treatment of intrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath K Shetty

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of intrabony defects by autologous PRP gel alone caused significant soft tissue clinical improvement as well as hard tissue defect fill as evidenced by SSD view in spiral computed tomography.

  8. From DNA lesions to tissue malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    After large doses of radiation, tissues fail to function when the proliferating cells lose their clonogenic ability. This results from unrepaired or misrepaired double strand breaks in the DNA. The lesions are inflicted immediately but there is a variable latent period before tissue damage is expressed. This ranges from a few days in intestine, to weeks in skin, and to months or years in deep visceral tissues, e.g. heart, lung, kidney, spinal cord. The latency relates to the proliferation kinetics of each tissue component. Doses of 10-30 Gy do not cause serious functional defects in differentiated cells, but they prevent successful mitosis in proliferating cells. Thus each tissue continues to function until its differentiated cells are lost by normal wear and tear processes. After a time which relates to the natural lifespan of the differentiated cells, failure to provide replacement cells from the proliferating compartment becomes important and the tissue shows atrophy and eventually a functional deficit. If the radiation exposure is divided into a series of smaller exposures or is given at a low dose-rate, the biochemical repair of DNA is more effective and less damage is observed. After high LET ionizing radiation, e.g. neutrons or α particles, the response is almost linear and is not affected by doserate or fractionation. (author)

  9. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  10. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  11. Evaluation of a deep learning approach for the segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kuijf, Hugo J; Mendrik, Adriënne M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Pluim, Josien P W; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) in MRI of older patients is widely described in the literature. Although brain abnormalities and motion artefacts are common in this age group, most segmentation methods are not evaluated in a setting that includes these items. In the present study, our tissue segmentation method for brain MRI was extended and evaluated for additional WMH segmentation. Furthermore, our method was evaluated in two large cohorts with a realistic variation in brain abnormalities and motion artefacts. The method uses a multi-scale convolutional neural network with a T 1 -weighted image, a T 2 -weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image and a T 1 -weighted inversion recovery (IR) image as input. The method automatically segments white matter (WM), cortical grey matter (cGM), basal ganglia and thalami (BGT), cerebellum (CB), brain stem (BS), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (lvCSF), peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (pCSF), and WMH. Our method was evaluated quantitatively with images publicly available from the MRBrainS13 challenge ( n  = 20), quantitatively and qualitatively in relatively healthy older subjects ( n  = 96), and qualitatively in patients from a memory clinic ( n  = 110). The method can accurately segment WMH (Overall Dice coefficient in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.67) without compromising performance for tissue segmentations (Overall Dice coefficients in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.87 for WM, 0.85 for cGM, 0.82 for BGT, 0.93 for CB, 0.92 for BS, 0.93 for lvCSF, 0.76 for pCSF). Furthermore, the automatic WMH volumes showed a high correlation with manual WMH volumes (Spearman's ρ  = 0.83 for relatively healthy older subjects). In both cohorts, our method produced reliable segmentations (as determined by a human observer) in most images (relatively healthy/memory clinic: tissues 88%/77% reliable, WMH 85%/84% reliable) despite various degrees of

  12. Interdisciplinary Management of an Isolated Intrabony Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Ghivari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of intrabony defects is a real challenge in molar teeth as it is chronic, slowly progressing disease which needs timely intervention. Periodontal inflammation associated with intrabony defect is not a separate entity as it secondarily affects the pulp causing retrograde pulpitis. However, treatment of these lesions will be complicated due to extensive bone loss. The tooth was endodontically treated followed by periodontal surgery to eliminate the deep periodontal pocket and promote bone fill in osseous defect. PepGen P-15 composited with platelet rich plasma was utilized for enhancing bone formation. The combination of these graft materials provides synergistic effect on bone regeneration.

  13. Pedicled Descending Branch Latissimus Dorsi Mini-flap for Repairing Partial Mastectomy Defect: A New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhao Cai, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM, especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The descending branches of thoracodorsal vessels and nerve are carefully identified and isolated. The transverse branches are protected to maintain muscle innervation and function. The LD muscle is then undermined posteriorly and inferiorly to create a submuscular pocket and a subcutaneous pocket between LD muscle and superficial fascia. Once the submuscular plane is created, the muscle is divided along the muscle fibers from the deep surface including a layer of fat above the muscle. Finally, the LD mini-flap is transferred to the breast defect. Given the limited length and mobility of the LD mini-flap, this approach is best utilized for lateral breast defects. However, for medial defects, the lateral breast tissue is rearranged to reconstruct the medial breast defect, and an LD mini-flap is then used to reconstruct the lateral breast donor site. This technique can therefore be employed to reconstruct all quadrants of the breast and can provide aesthetic outcomes without scars on the back, with minimal dysfunction of LD muscle.

  14. Repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee with autologous iliac crest cartilage in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lizhong; Zhang, Jiying; Leng, Huijie; Guo, Qinwei; Hu, Yuelin

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate that iliac crest cartilage may be used to repair articular cartilage defects in the knees of rabbits. Full-thickness cartilage defects were created in the medial femoral condyle on both knees of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The 72 defects were randomly assigned to be repaired with ipsilateral iliac crest cartilage (Group I), osteochondral tissues removed at defect creation (Group II), or no treatment (negative control, Group III). Animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively. The repaired tissues were harvested for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological studies (haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining), and mechanical testing. At 6 weeks, the iliac crest cartilage graft was not yet well integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage, but at 12 weeks, the graft deep zone had partial ossification. By 24 weeks, the hyaline cartilage-like tissue was completely integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage. Osteochondral autografts showed more rapid healing than Group I at 6 weeks and complete healing at 12 weeks. Untreated defects were concave or partly filled with fibrous tissue throughout the study. MRI showed that Group I had slower integration with surrounding normal cartilage compared with Group II. The mechanical properties of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II at 12 weeks, but this difference was not significant at 24 weeks. Iliac crest cartilage autografts were able to repair knee cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage and showed comparable results with osteochondral autografts in the rabbit model.

  15. Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Masashi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Nobuto; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2011-02-22

    Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN) gel at the bottom of the defect. Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I), 2.5-mm depth (in Group II), or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III) was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle.

  16. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of guided tissue regeneration and connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in the management of gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gingival recession progression in clinical practice as an ethiological factor of periodontal diseases, and symptoms of the disease have caused the development of various surgical procedures and techniques of the reconstruction of periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to verify efficacy of surgical procedures that include connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum and guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of gingival recession. Methods. The study included 20 teet with gingival recession, Müller class II and III. Ten teeth with gingival recession were treated with resorptive membrane and coronary guided surgical flap (GTR group. On the contralateral side 10 teeth with gingival recession were treated with connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in combination with coronary guided surgical flap (TVT group. We measured the degree of epithelial attachment (DEA, width of subgingival curettage (WGC and vertical deepness of recession (VDR. For statistical significance we used Student's ttest. Results. The study revealed statistical significance in reducing VDR by both used treatments. Root deepness in GTR and TVT group was 63.5%, and 90%, respectively. With both surgical techniques we achieved coronary dislocation of the epithelial attachment, larger zone of gingival curettage, and better oral hygiene. Conclusion. Current surgical techniques are effective in the regeneration of deep periodontal spaces and the treatment of gingival recession. Significantly better results were achieved with the used coronary guided surgical flap than with guided tissue regeneration.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of the cancer, adjacent non-tumor and distant normal tissues from a colorectal cancer patient by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan'an Wu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the world. A genome-wide screening of transcriptome dysregulation between cancer and normal tissue would provide insight into the molecular basis of CRC initiation and progression. Compared with microarray technology, which is commonly used to identify transcriptional changes, the recently developed RNA-seq technique has the ability to detect other abnormal regulations in the cancer transcriptome, such as alternative splicing, novel transcripts or gene fusion. In this study, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing at ~50× coverage on CRC, adjacent non-tumor and distant normal tissue. The results revealed cancer-specific, differentially expressed genes and differential alternative splicing, suggesting that the extracellular matrix and metabolic pathways are activated and the genes related to cell homeostasis are suppressed in CRC. In addition, one tumor-restricted gene fusion, PRTEN-NOTCH2, was also detected and experimentally confirmed. This study reveals some common features in tumor invasion and provides a comprehensive survey of the CRC transcriptome, which provides better insight into the complexity of regulatory changes during tumorigenesis.

  19. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  20. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  1. A contribution for the detection of deep defects in semi-insulating GaAs by means of PICTS; Ein Beitrag zum Nachweis tiefer Stoerstellen in halbisolierendem GaAs mittels PICTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowitz, G.

    2006-02-03

    The PICTS procedure is one of the most frequently applied methods for the characterization of semi-insulating semiconductors. The methodical progresses in the determination of defect parameters by this proceudure are presented in this thesis. as practicable method for the detection of a temperature-dependent change of the occupation ratio of a trap the normation of the PICTS spectra on the emission rate of the electrons is introduced. It is shown that peaks, in which this normation fails, must not applied for the determination of the defect parameters. The studies prove that for the complete charge-alteration of the defects a suitable excitation intensity must be applied. By PICTS measurements on copper-doped samples a systematic dependence of the peak heights of copper-correlated peaks on the copper content of the samples is detected. By the studies it is proved that copper can be detected by means of PICTS up to a minimal AES copper concentration of [Cu{sub min}]approx5.10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}.

  2. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  3. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  4. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  5. The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs intramuscular injection in the development and severity of deep soft tissue infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Zeynep; Demiraslan, Hayati; Kontas, Olgun; Alp, Emine; Doganay, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) injection on the severity of local infection and the effect on the progression of soft tissue infection (STI).The mouse model of STI with Group A streptococcus (GAS) was developed and treated with diclofenac sodium (DS) intramuscularly. Mice were divided into five groups: administered DS for 48 h before GAS (Group 1), GAS-DS and maintained DS for 48 h (Group 2), DS for 48 h (Group 3), GAS on zero time (Group 4), and control (Group 5). In vitro, a high concentration (40 mg/L) of DS inhibited GAS growth, whereas a lower concentration (0.4 mg/L) was not effective. Sepsis was observed in animals with DS and GAS inoculation (group 1 and 2). Group 4 had statistically significant higher bacterial load than groups 1 and 2. All groups had a higher inflammation rate than the control group. The median of TNF-alpha and mean IL-6 in the groups 1, 2, and 4 was significantly higher than those in the control group. Even if the animals that were treated with DS injection prior to the GAS inoculation had similar inflammation score, similar cytokine levels and low bacterial load in the tissue, they had a rather high rate of sepsis. In conclusion, DS injection prior to bacterial inoculation might predispose to bacteremia and sepsis. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Electrically active sodium-related defect centres in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen; Madsbøll, J.; Søiland, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrically active defect centres related to sodium in silicon have been examined with deep level transient spectroscopy, and their recombination potential analysed with the microwave photoconductive decay technique. In order to investigate the entire silicon band gap for defect centres, both p-...

  7. Magnetoencephalography signals are influenced by skull defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S; Flemming, L; Haueisen, J

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals had previously been hypothesized to have negligible sensitivity to skull defects. The objective is to experimentally investigate the influence of conducting skull defects on MEG and EEG signals. A miniaturized electric dipole was implanted in vivo into rabbit brains. Simultaneous recording using 64-channel EEG and 16-channel MEG was conducted, first above the intact skull and then above a skull defect. Skull defects were filled with agar gels, which had been formulated to have tissue-like homogeneous conductivities. The dipole was moved beneath the skull defects, and measurements were taken at regularly spaced points. The EEG signal amplitude increased 2-10 times, whereas the MEG signal amplitude reduced by as much as 20%. The EEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was under the edge of the defect, whereas the MEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was central under the defect. The change in MEG field-map topography (relative difference measure, RDM(∗)=0.15) was geometrically related to the skull defect edge. MEG and EEG signals can be substantially affected by skull defects. MEG source modeling requires realistic volume conductor head models that incorporate skull defects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep sequencing of small RNAs identifies canonical and non-canonical miRNA and endogenous siRNAs in mammalian somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Leandro; Stebbing, Justin

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. They are characterized by specific maturation processes defined by canonical and non-canonical biogenic pathways. Analysis of ∼0.5 billion sequences from mouse data sets derived from different tissues, developmental stages and cell types, partly characterized by either ablation or mutation of the main proteins belonging to miRNA processor complexes, reveals 66 high-confidence new genomic loci coding for miRNAs that could be processed in a canonical or non-canonical manner. A proportion of the newly discovered miRNAs comprises mirtrons, for which we define a new sub-class. Notably, some of these newly discovered miRNAs are generated from untranslated and open reading frames of coding genes, and we experimentally validate these. We also show that many annotated miRNAs do not present miRNA-like features, as they are neither processed by known processing complexes nor loaded on AGO2; this indicates that the current miRNA miRBase database list should be refined and re-defined. Accordingly, a group of them map on ribosomal RNA molecules, whereas others cannot undergo genuine miRNA biogenesis. Notably, a group of annotated miRNAs are Dgcr8 independent and DICER dependent endogenous small interfering RNAs that derive from a unique hairpin formed from a short interspersed nuclear element.

  9. Deep Coverage Proteomics Identifies More Low-Abundance Missing Proteins in Human Testis Tissue with Q-Exactive HF Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Luo, Weijia; Wu, Feilin; Peng, Xuehui; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Manli; Zhao, Yan; Su, Na; Qi, YingZi; Chen, Lingsheng; Zhang, Yangjun; Wen, Bo; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping

    2016-11-04

    Since 2012, missing proteins (MPs) investigation has been one of the critical missions of Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) through various biochemical strategies. On the basis of our previous testis MPs study, faster scanning and higher resolution mass-spectrometry-based proteomics might be conducive to MPs exploration, especially for low-abundance proteins. In this study, Q-Exactive HF (HF) was used to survey proteins from the same testis tissues separated by two separating methods (tricine- and glycine-SDS-PAGE), as previously described. A total of 8526 proteins were identified, of which more low-abundance proteins were uniquely detected in HF data but not in our previous LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Velos) reanalysis data. Further transcriptomics analysis showed that these uniquely identified proteins by HF also had lower expression at the mRNA level. Of the 81 total identified MPs, 74 and 39 proteins were listed as MPs in HF and Velos data sets, respectively. Among the above MPs, 47 proteins (43 neXtProt PE2 and 4 PE3) were ranked as confirmed MPs after verifying with the stringent spectra match and isobaric and single amino acid variants filtering. Functional investigation of these 47 MPs revealed that 11 MPs were testis-specific proteins and 7 MPs were involved in spermatogenesis process. Therefore, we concluded that higher scanning speed and resolution of HF might be factors for improving the low-abundance MP identification in future C-HPP studies. All mass-spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004092.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF POST ELECTRIC BURN DEFECTS OF UPPER LIMB WITH DIFFERENT FLAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: P ost electric burn defects are difficult to manage due to deep injury involving all the structures up to bony level. A good vascularized flap is required to resurface the defect for preventing the complication and for reconstruction of involved structures. AIM: Resurfacing the post electric burn defect with different flaps according to need of the defect. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All patients of electric burn hand and fore arm defect admitted to burn, p lastic and reconstructi ve department of SCB Medical College &hospital, Cuttack between January 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. During this period the patients were followed up at weekly interval for first 2 month, then at 1 monthly interv al for next 6 - 8 month. OBSERVATION: Out of 40 cases of post electric burn forearm and hand reconstruction, 10 cases underwent groin flap cover, 6 cases underwent abdominal flap cover, 5 cases underwent cross finger flap cover 5 cases underwent free antero lateral thigh flap cover, 4 cases underwent free latissimus dorsi flap cover, 5 cases underwent first dorsal metacarpal artery flap cover, 5 cases reverse radial forearm flap cover. All the defects were resurfaced successfully with flaps. Four had marginal necrosis and six had wound infection. Eventually all flaps settled well without further intervention. Due to involvement of all important tendons & nerves, functional outcome is guarded. DISCUSSION: Hand and forearm are most commonly and most severely aff ected in electric burn injury because they are mostly first part of body to come in contact with electric circuit. Even though at initial part the injury appears to be superficial, deepe r structures like bone, tendon and neurovascular bundles are affected requiring flap cover for future reconstruction of these structures to get functional and sensate hand. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of post electric burn defect of distal forearm and hand represents great challenge due to

  11. Ionization-induced rearrangement of defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.; Manojlo, M.A.; Matvijchuk, A.S.; Strikha, V.I.; Kholodar', G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing factor effect on defect rearrangement in silicon including centers with deep local electron levels in the p-n-transition region is considered. Deep center parameters were determined using non-steady-state capacity spectroscopy of deep levels (NCDLS) method. NCDLS spectrum measurement was performed using source p + -n - diodes and after their irradiation with 15 keV energy electrons or laser pulses. It is ascertained that in silicon samples containing point defect clusters defect rearrangement under ionizing factor effect takes place, i.e. deep level spectra are changed. This mechanism is efficient in case of silicon irradiation with subthreshold energy photons and electrons and can cause degradation of silicon semiconducting structures

  12. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  13. Ipsilateral fasciocutaneous flaps for leg and foot defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It was a revolutionary enhancement for lower limb reconstruction when fasciocutaneous flaps were first described and used in clinical practice in 1981. Subsequently persistent studies were made to emphasize and confirm the rich vascular network associated with deep fascia. Thereafter studies were directed to identify the various types of perforators supplying the deep fascia and the overlying subcutaneous tissue and skin. Accordingly the scientists classified these flaps keeping in mind their clinical applications. The authors of this article have also performed extensive research on various aspects. This has led to better understanding about the finer details of vascularity. Based on this various modifications have been made for safe application of reconstruction for defects extending from knee to sole. To avoid complications the clinician should be able to select the proper procedure as regards the donor site and the possible preoperative and postoperative technical faults. A well-designed and meticulously executed flap usually has smooth recovery. Both Colour Doppler and Audio Doppler are useful tools in planning a safe flap. Now these flaps have proved to be standard technique without requiring a special set up extensive training.

  14. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons [lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)]. Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure

  15. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  16. Analysis of enamel microhardness at various hard tissue states and depth of the microfissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Yarova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice are often diagnosed precervical lesions: wedge-shaped defects and cracks. Long phases of the confrontation of the body as a damaging influence in the formation of thicker tissue sections of higher salinity, density and sustainability occur prior to the integrity of the enamel. Micro-hardness is one of the important characteristics of the micro-mechanical strength of the tooth-related physical and chemical changes that occur in the enamel as a result of external and internal influences. The purpose of the study was to identify possible differences in the micro-hardness of enamel, depending on the depth of fissures and pathology of hard tissues of the teeth. We investigated the longitudinal sections of 27 teeth (18 - intact, 5 - with wedge-shaped defect, 4 - with cervical caries of both jaws removed for clinical indications in patients aged 25-54 years, who were diagnosed three types of fractures (SB Ivanov, 1984. Hardness was determined in the outer, middle, inner layers of enamel in three topographical locations: in the cusp tip (cutting edge of the tooth equator and neck as in previously described technique (S. Remizov, 1965. The obtained results showed decrease in strength with micro-cracks enamel, compared with apparently intact ones, on the average 10% more in the incisal areas (tuber, less - in the equatorial zone. In intact teeth with micro-cracks and having a wedge-shaped defect the indices differed significantly depending on the depth of the defects of the cutting edge (tuber and the equator: they were the smallest in the deep type III micro-cracks (p <0.05. The opposite picture was observed in samples with cervical caries. Thus, the statistically significant difference in terms of the micro-hardness of the enamel, depending on the depth of defects has been identified only in the area of cutting edge (tuber: in samples with deep micro-cracks of enamel type III they were the highest (P = 0.017. The greatest values of

  17. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  18. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause reduced platelet function. Most of the time, people with these disorders have ...

  19. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  1. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschl, P.; Hajek, P.C.; Pechmann, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with fibrous metaphyseal defects were examined with both plain radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Depending on the age of the fibrous metaphyseal defects, characteristic radiomorphologic changes were found which correlated well with MR images. Following intravenous Gadolinium-DTPA injection, fibrous metaphyseal defects invariably exhibited a hyperintense border and signal enhancement. (orig./GDG)

  2. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...

  3. Dirichlet topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.M.; Trodden, M.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a class of field theories featuring solitonic solutions in which topological defects can end when they intersect other defects of equal or higher dimensionality. Such configurations may be termed open-quotes Dirichlet topological defects,close quotes in analogy with the D-branes of string theory. Our discussion focuses on defects in scalar field theories with either gauge or global symmetries, in 3+1 dimensions; the types of defects considered include walls ending on walls, strings on walls, and strings on strings. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  5. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  6. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  7. On the connective tissue regulator Follistatin-like 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, M.

    2014-01-01

    Even though for many years the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac development have been studied, the majority of cardiac defects remain unexplained. Defects in the cardiac connective tissue component result in a large proportion of heart defects such as valve and septal defects. Previous

  8. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  9. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  10. Characterization of lacunar defects by positrons annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, M.F.; Corbel, C.; Blondiaux, G.

    2003-01-01

    Among the nondestructive methods for the study of matter, the positrons annihilation method allows to sound the electronic structure of materials by measuring the annihilation characteristics. These characteristics depend on the electronic density as seen by the positon, and on the electron momentums distribution which annihilate with the positon. The positon is sensible to the coulombian potential variations inside a material and sounds preferentially the regions away from nuclei which represent potential wells. The lacunar-type defects (lack of nuclei) represent deep potential wells which can trap the positon up to temperatures close to the melting. This article describes the principles of this method and its application to the characterization of lacunar defects: 1 - positrons: matter probes (annihilation of electron-positon pairs, annihilation characteristics, positrons sources); 2 - positrons interactions in solids (implantation profiles, annihilation states, diffusion and trapping, positon lifetime spectrum: evolution with the concentration of defects); 3 - measurement of annihilation characteristics with two gamma photons (lifetime spectroscopy with the β + 22 Na isotope, spectroscopy of Doppler enlargement of the annihilation line); 4 - determination of the free volume of defects inside or at the surface of materials (annihilation signature in lacunar defects, lacuna, lacunar clusters and cavities, acceptors nature in semiconductors: ionic or lacunar, interface defects, precipitates in alloys); 5 - conclusions. (J.S.)

  11. Investigation of UFO defect on DUV CAR and BARC process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yet, Siew Ing; Ko, Bong Sang; Lee, Soo Man; May, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Photo process defect reduction is one of the most important factors to improve the process stability and yield in sub-0.18um DUV process. In this paper, a new approach to minimize the Deep-UV (DUV) Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) and Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) induced defect known as UFO (UnidentiFied Object) defect will be introduced. These defects have mild surface topography difference on BARC; it only exists on the wide exposed area where there is no photoresist pattern. In this test, Nikon KrF Stepper & Scanner and TEL Clean track were used. Investigation was carried out on the defect formulation on both Acetal and ESCAP type of photoresist while elemental analysis was done by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) & Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Result indicated that both BARC and photoresist induce this UFO defect; total defect quantity is related with Post Exposure Bake (PEB) condition. Based on the elemental analysis and process-split test, we can conclude that this defect is caused by lack of acid amount and low diffusivity which is related to PAG (Photo Acid Generator) and TAG (Thermal Acid Generator) in KrF photoresist and BARC material. By optimizing photoresist bake condition, this UFO defect as well as other related defect such as Satellite defect could be eliminated.

  12. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  13. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  14. Current issue of tissue banking in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    The Bangkok Biomaterial Center processes bone and tissue allografts and services for clinical use as following; orthopaedic surgery, neurosurgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, ophthalmological surgery, ENT surgery and maxillo-facial surgery. A total of 1,575 patients were surgically treated, most of them (1,118 cases) were cases in orthopaedic surgery. There were 330 cases of massive bone allografts for bone loss, benign bone tumor and bone malignancy. 755 cases of freeze dried bone allograft for bone defect filling, bone loss. Twenty eight cases of freeze dried soft tissue allograft, 3 cases of fresh soft tissue and 2 cases of bone substitute. Innovation of deep frozen trachea allograft was initiated in the center in 1997. The tracheas were harvested from cadavers under aseptic condition, irradiated at dose of 25 kGy and stored at -70 degree C. These tracheas allografts were used in ENT surgery for subglottic-tracheal stenosis patients. In 1998 the center started a new project by autoclave the positive test of HIV, HCV and HBV and keep at -70 degree C for clinical use

  15. The calculation of deep levels in semiconductors by using a recursion method for super-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Yongliang.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the theory of deep levels in semiconductors, the super-cell approach to the theory of deep level impurities, the calculation of band structure by using the tight-binding method and the recursion method used to study the defects in the presence of lattice relaxation and extended defect complexes. 47 refs

  16. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    The critical-size defect is important as an experimental model to test bone repair materials. Guided tissue regeneration is an established method for tissue regeneration within periodontal surgery. Bony defects covered by a membrane are allowed to be filled by bony tissue. Healing of 8-mm...

  17. Platelet rich fibrin in jaw defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Diana; Ianes, Emilia; Pricop, Marius

    2016-03-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a tissue product of autologous origin abundant in growth factors, widely used in regenerative procedures. Aim of the study: Evaluation of the regenerative effect of PRF added in the bony defects (after tooth removal or after cystectomy) Material and methods: The comparative nonrandomized study included 22 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group (the test group) included 10 patients where the bony defects were treated without any harvesting material. The second group included 12 patients where the bony defects were filled with PRF. The bony defect design was not critical, with one to two walls missing. After the surgeries, a close clinically monitoring was carried out. The selected cases were investigated using both cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) and radiographic techniques after 10 weeks postoperatively. Results: Faster bone regeneration was observed in the bony defects filled with PRF comparing with the not grafted bony defects. Conclusions: PRF added in the bony defects accelerates the bone regeneration. This simplifies the surgical procedures and decreases the economic costs.

  18. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  19. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB , the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB , the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and ...

  20. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB , the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB , the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and ...

  1. Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred

    2013-12-01

    Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other.

  2. Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treberspurg, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.treberspurg@oeaw.ac.at; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred

    2013-12-21

    Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other.

  3. Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other

  4. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  5. Management of superficial and deep-seated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in sub-Saharan Africa: a post hoc analysis of the StaphNet cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Abraham; Kazimoto, Theckla; Lebughe, Marthe; Vubil, Delfino; Phaku, Patrick; Mandomando, Inacio; Kern, Winfried V; Abdulla, Salim; Mellmann, Alexander; Peitzmann, Lena; Bischoff, Markus; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, Mathias; Grobusch, Martin P; Schaumburg, Frieder; Rieg, Siegbert

    2018-04-17

    The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) is high in sub-Saharan Africa. This is fueled by a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which can be associated with necrotizing disease. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and the treatment of SSTI in the African setting and to identify challenges in the management. Patients (n = 319) were recruited in DR Congo (n = 56, 17.6%), Gabon (n = 89, 27.9%), Mozambique (n = 79, 24.8%) and Tanzania (n = 95, 29.8%) during the prospective observational StaphNet cohort study (2010-2015). A physician recorded the clinical management in standardized questionnaires and stratified the entity of SSTI into superficial (sSSTI) or deep-seated (dSSTI). Selected virulence factors (PVL, β hemolysin) and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were extracted from whole genome sequencing data. There were 220/319 (69%) sSSTI and 99/319 (31%) dSSTI. Compared to sSSTI, patients with dSSTI were more often hospitalized (13.2 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.03), HIV-positive (7.6 vs. 15.9%, p = 0.11), and required more often incision and drainage (I&D, 45.5 vs. 76.5%, p = 0.04). The proportion of an adequate antimicrobial therapy increased marginally from day 1 (empirical therapy) to day 3 (definite therapy), for sSSTI (70.7 to 72.4%) and dSSTI (55.4 to 58.9%). PVL was a risk factor for I&D (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02) and associated with MLST clonal complex CC121 (OR = 2.7, p < 0.001). Appropriate antimicrobial agents and surgical services to perform I&D were available for the majority of patients. Results from susceptibility testing should be considered more efficiently in the selection of antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Role of tissue engineered collagen based tridimensional implant on the healing response of the experimentally induced large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits: a long term study with high clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-05-14

    Tendon injury is one of the orthopedic conditions poses with a significant clinical challenge to both the surgeons and patients. The major limitations to manage these injuries are poor healing response and development of peritendinous adhesions in the injured area. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel collagen implant on tendon healing in rabbits. Seventy five mature White New-Zealand rabbits were divided into treated (n = 55) and control (n = 20) groups. The left Achilles tendon was completely transected and 2 cm excised. The defects of the treated animals were filled with collagen implants and repaired with sutures, but in control rabbits the defects were sutured similarly but the gap was left untreated. Changes in the injured and normal contralateral tendons were assessed weekly by measuring the diameter, temperature and bioelectrical characteristics of the injured area. Clinical examination was done and scored. Among the treated animals, small pilot groups were euthanized at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 (n = 5 at each time interval) and the remainder (n = 20) and the control animals at 120 days post injury (DPI). The lesions of all animals were examined at macroscopic and microscopic levels and the dry matter content, water delivery and water uptake characteristics of the lesions and normal contralateral tendons of both groups were analyzed at 120 DPI. This novel collagen implant was biodegradable, biocompatible and possibly could be considered as a substitute for auto and allografts in clinical practice in near future.

  7. Interaction of alpha radiation with thermally-induced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Akbar; Majid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of radiation-induced defects created by energetic alpha particles and thermally-induced defects in silicon has been studied using a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. Two thermally-induced defects at energy positions E c -0.48 eV and E c -0.25 eV and three radiation-induced defects E2, E3 and E5 have been observed. The concentration of both of the thermally-induced defects has been observed to increase on irradiation. It has been noted that production rates of the radiation-induced defects are suppressed in the presence of thermally-induced defects. A significant difference in annealing characteristics of thermally-induced defects in the presence of radiation-induced defects has been observed compared to the characteristics measured in pre-irradiated samples

  8. Metallography of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, E.A.; Bochvar, G.A.; Brun, M.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Different types of defects of metallurgical, technological and exploitation origin in intermediate and final products of titanium alloys, are considered. The examples of metallic and nonmetallic inclusions, chemical homogeneity, different grains, bands, cracks, places of searing, porosity are given; methods of detecting the above defects are described. The methods of metallography, X-ray spectral analysis, measuring microhardness are used

  9. Beating Birth Defects

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.

  10. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  11. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  12. EPR of defects in semiconductors: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Important physical concepts learned from early EPR studies of defects in silicon are reviewed. Highlighted are the studies of shallow effective-mass-liked donors and acceptors of deep transition element impurities, and of vacancies and interstitials. It is shown that the concepts learned in silicon translate remarkable well to the corresponding defects in the other elemental and compound semiconductors. The introduction of sensitive optical and electrical detection methods and the recent progress in single defects detection insure the continued vital role of EPR in the future

  13. Defect phase diagram for doping of Ga2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Lany

    2018-01-01

    For the case of n-type doping of β-Ga2O3 by group 14 dopants (C, Si, Ge, Sn), a defect phase diagram is constructed from defect equilibria calculated over a range of temperatures (T), O partial pressures (pO2), and dopant concentrations. The underlying defect levels and formation energies are determined from first-principles supercell calculations with GW bandgap corrections. Only Si is found to be a truly shallow donor, C is a deep DX-like (lattice relaxed donor) center, and Ge and Sn have d...

  14. Bone density of defects treated with lyophilized amniotic membrane versus colagen membrane: a tomographic and histomorfogenic study in a rabbi´s femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the bone density of bone defects treated with lyophilizated amniotic membrane (LAM and collagen Membrane (CM, at 3 and 5 weeks. Two bone defects of 4mm in diameter and 6mm deep were created in left distal femoral diaphysis of New Zealand rabbits (n=12. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. One of the defects was covered with lyophilized amniotic membrane (Rosa Chambergo Tissue Bank/National Institute of Child Health-IPEN, Lima, Peru or collagen Membrane (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea. The second was left uncovered (NC. The rabbits were killed after 3 and 5 weeks (3 rabbits/period. The results showed a high bone density and repair of the defect by new bone. The tomographic study revealed that the bone density of the defects treated with LAM at 3 weeks was equivalent to the density obtained with CM and higher density compared with NC (p0.05. The results show that lyophilizated amniotic membrane provides bone density equal or higher to the collagen membrane.

  15. Defects in low temperature electron irradiated InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, J.; Bourgoin, J.

    1984-01-01

    n and p-InP has been irradiated at 25K with 1MeV electrons and the created defects were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) in the range 25K-400K. In n-InP, four traps are directly observed, with low introduction rates except for one. They anneal in three stages, and four new centers of still lower concentration appear after 70 0 C heat treatment. In p-InP, two dominant traps stable up to approx.= 400K with introduction rates close to the theoretical ones, which might be primary defects are found, while another one is clearly a secondary defect likely associated to Zn dopant. At least two of the low concentration irradiation induced electron traps, created between 25K and 100K are also secondary defects, which implies a mobility of some primary defects down to 100K at least. (author)

  16. Formation of topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaspati, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects occur. These arguments are substantiated by numerical results in the case of strings and for monopoles in two dimensions. We find that the network of strings at formation undergoes a transition at a certain critical density below which there are no infinite strings and the closed-string (loop) distribution is exponentially suppressed at large lengths. The results are contrasted with the results of statistical arguments applied to a box of strings in dynamical equilibrium. We argue that if point defects were to form with smaller probability, the distance between monopoles and antimonopoles would decrease while the monopole-to-monopole distance would increase. We find that monopoles are always paired with antimonopoles but the pairing becomes clean only when the number density of defects is small. A similar reasoning would also apply to other defects

  17. Study of irradiation defects in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loualiche, S.

    1982-11-01

    Characterization techniques: C(V) differential capacity, DLTS deep level transient spectroscopy, DDLTS double deep level transient spectroscopy and DLOS deep level optical spectroscopy are studied and theoretical and experimental fundamentals are re-examined. In particular the centres created by ionic or electronic bombardment of p-type GaAs. New quantitative theoretical bases for the C(V) method are obtained. Study of the optical properties of traps due to irradiation using DLOS. The nature of irradiation defects are discussed [fr

  18. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivron, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an

  19. Polymers in cartilage defect repair of the knee : Current status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, R.M.; Roth, A.K.; Peters, R.; van Donkelaar, C.C.; Thies, J.; van Rhijn, L.; Emans, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage defects in the knee are often seen in young and active patients. There is a need for effective joint preserving treatments in patients suffering from cartilage defects, as untreated defects often lead to osteoarthritis. Within the last two decades, tissue engineering based techniques using

  20. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique to the study of deep level transients in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, A. H.; Shan, Y. Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    2002-03-01

    Unlike its conventional applications in lattice defect characterization, positron annihilation lifetime technique was applied to study temperature-dependent deep level transients in semiconductors. Defect levels in the band gap can be determined as they are determined by conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) studies. The promising advantage of this application of positron annihilation over the conventional DLTS is that it could further extract extra microstructure information of deep-level defects, such as whether a deep level defect is vacancy related or not. A demonstration of EL2 defect level transient study in GaAs was shown and the EL2 level of 0.82±0.02 eV was obtained by a standard Arrhenius analysis, similar to that in conventional DLTS studies.

  1. Treatment of intrabony defects with resorbable materials, non-resorbable materials and flap debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybutz, M D; Laurell, L; Rapoport, D A; Persson, G R

    2000-03-01

    Different types of barriers are used in guided tissue regenerative procedures. This prospective study compared resorbable citric acid ester softened polylactic acid membranes (RM) and non-resorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) barriers (NRM) in GTR treatment of intrabony defects. 29 subjects were randomly assigned to the RM group or NRM group. Each patient received one GTR procedure. An open flap debridement (FD) was performed at another site 2 weeks later to evaluate healing potential. Clinical treatment outcomes were finally evaluated 12 months after surgery for changes of pocket depth PD, probing attachment level PAL, and probing bone level PBL, and radiographically for bone change using standardised radiographs. No differences in healing patters after surgery were found between patients in the 2 study groups as evaluated from the FD surgical procedures. NRM treated sites showed less signs of post-surgical inflammation during the 1st 4 weeks of healing than did RM treated sites (p<0.05). GTR-treated defects in the RM group, initially 7.0+/-2.2 mm deep, showed PD reduction of 3.3+/-2.2 mm, PAL gain of 2.4+/-1.8 mm, PBL gain of 2.4+/-3.7 mm (28%) and a radiographic bone fill of 2.3+/-2.4 mm. Defects treated with the NRM exhibited PD reduction of 3.1+/-2.1 mm, PAL gain of 2.4+/-0.8 mm, PBL gain of 2.2+/-1.7 mm (25%) and a radiographic bone fill of 3.3+/-2.2 mm. All improvements were statistically significant (p<0.01) but there was no difference between RM and NRM treatments for any of the efficacy variables. The results of this study indicated that there was no clinically significant difference in treatment outcomes following GTR treatment of intrabony defects with citric acid ester softened polylactic acid membranes as compared to ePTFE barriers. The overall mean inter-proximal vertical bone defect fill at 12 months as assessed from intra-oral radiographs was 44% of the original mean defect depth. Thus, no clinically significant difference in

  2. Carrier removal and defect behavior in p-type InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Drevinsky, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    A simple expression, obtained from the rate equation for defect production, was used to relate carrier removal to defect production and hole trapping rates in p-type InP after irradiation by 1-MeV electrons. Specific contributions to carrier removal from defect levels H3, H4, and H5 were determined from combined deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and measured carrier concentrations. An additional contribution was attributed to one or more defects not observed by the present DLTS measurements. The high trapping rate observed for H5 suggests that this defect, if present in relatively high concentration, could be dominant in p-type InP.

  3. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call your doctor if your baby or child: Tires easily when eating or playing Is not gaining ... heart procedures. Risk factors Ventricular septal defects may run in families and sometimes may occur with other ...

  4. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  5. Endocardial cushion defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 426. Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK, eds. Kirklin/Barratt- ...

  6. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  7. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  8. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  9. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...... be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mathematical expressions as directed graphs. The latest version is available at http...

  10. Transplantation of an LGR6+ Epithelial Stem Cell-Enriched Scaffold for Repair of Full-Thickness Soft-Tissue Defects: The In Vitro Development of Polarized Hair-Bearing Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Denver M; Wetter, Nathan; Madsen, Christopher; Reichensperger, Joel; Cosenza, Nicole; Cox, Lisa; Harrison, Carrie; Neumeister, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Recent literature has shown that full-thickness wounds, devoid of the stem cell niche, can subsequently be reconstructed with functional skin elements following migration of the LGR6 epithelial stem cell into the wound bed. In this study, the authors use a variety of LGR6 epithelial stem cell-seeded scaffolds to determine therapeutic utility and regenerative potential in the immediate reconstruction of full-thickness wounds. Isolated LGR6 epithelial stem cells were seeded onto a spectrum of acellular matrices and monitored in both in vitro and in vivo settings to determine their relative capacity to regenerate tissues and heal wounds. Wound beds containing LGR6 stem cell-seeded scaffolds showed significantly augmented rates of healing, epithelialization, and hair growth compared with controls. Gene and proteomic expression studies indicate that LGR6 stem cell-seeded constructs up-regulate WNT, epidermal growth factor, and angiogenesis pathways. Finally, the addition of stromal vascular fraction to LGR6 stem cell-seeded constructs induces polarized tissue formation, nascent hair growth, and angiogenesis within wounds. LGR6 stem cells are able to undergo proliferation, differentiation, and migration following seeding onto a variety of collagen-based scaffolding. In addition, deployment of these constructs induces epithelialization, hair growth, and angiogenesis within wound beds. The addition of stromal vascular fraction to LGR6 stem cell-containing scaffolds initiated an early form of tissue polarization, providing for the first time a clinically applicable stem cell-based construct that is capable of the repair of full-thickness wounds and hair regeneration. Therapeutic, V.

  11. High Defect Tolerance in Lead Halide Perovskite CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-01-19

    The formation energies and charge-transition levels of intrinsic point defects in lead halide perovskite CsPbBr 3 are studied from first-principles calculations. It is shown that the formation energy of dominant defect under Br-rich growth condition is much lower than that under moderate or Br-poor conditions. Thus avoiding the Br-rich condition can help to reduce the defect concentration. Interestingly, CsPbBr 3 is found to be highly defect-tolerant in terms of its electronic structure. Most of the intrinsic defects induce shallow transition levels. Only a few defects with high formation energies can create deep transition levels. Therefore, CsPbBr 3 can maintain its good electronic quality despite the presence of defects. Such defect tolerance feature can be attributed to the lacking of bonding-antibonding interaction between the conduction bands and valence bands.

  12. Characterization of lacunar defects by positrons annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, M F; Blondiaux, G

    2003-01-01

    Among the nondestructive methods for the study of matter, the positrons annihilation method allows to sound the electronic structure of materials by measuring the annihilation characteristics. These characteristics depend on the electronic density as seen by the positon, and on the electron momentums distribution which annihilate with the positon. The positon is sensible to the coulombian potential variations inside a material and sounds preferentially the regions away from nuclei which represent potential wells. The lacunar-type defects (lack of nuclei) represent deep potential wells which can trap the positon up to temperatures close to the melting. This article describes the principles of this method and its application to the characterization of lacunar defects: 1 - positrons: matter probes (annihilation of electron-positon pairs, annihilation characteristics, positrons sources); 2 - positrons interactions in solids (implantation profiles, annihilation states, diffusion and trapping, positon lifetime spec...

  13. Bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, J.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate

  14. A study of the electrical properties of defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    This work contains the most comprehensive qualitative and quantitative electron beam induced current (EBIC) study of recombination at contaminated defects in silicon. It is also a rigorous quantitative investigation of the effect of hydrogen on individual transition metal contaminated defects. In addition, the recombination behaviour exhibited by point and extended defects has been investigated using EBIC and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). As a result of these measurements, techniques for the preparation of transition metal contaminated specimens have been refined. Successful hydrogen passivation of copper, nickel and iron contaminated silicon specimens containing oxidation-induced stacking faults has been achieved in two experimental systems. It is found that hydrogen passivates those states that are deepest in the semiconductor band gap in preference to those that are shallow. Furthermore, it has been concluded that during hydrogen passivation treatment, even at low temperatures, unwanted metallic impurities can be introduced. Three types of recombination behaviour have been identified from the defects-studied in this work and they are discussed with relevance to present recombination models. An investigation of the recombination behaviour of defects that lie in the depletion region and in the specimen bulk has concluded that the recombination type observed is independent of the depth of the defect. Evidence for the presence of compound defects showing mixed recombination behaviour type is presented. In conclusion, it is postulated that the transition metal impurities introduce a 'band of states' with a range of energies rather than a single energy state. This proposal is provided as an explanation for the recombination types found in this work and the effect of the hydrogen passivation. This work is placed in context of previous investigations into the behaviour of dislocations in silicon in the presence of transition metals, and the ability of

  15. Cartilage Regeneration in Full-Thickness Patellar Chondral Defects Treated with Particulated Juvenile Articular Allograft Cartilage: An MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Burge, Alissa; Nguyen, Joseph; Strickland, Sabrina; Warren, Russell; Rodeo, Scott; Shubin Stein, Beth

    2017-10-01

    Background Full-thickness cartilage lesions of the patella represent a common source of pain and dysfunction. Previously reported surgical treatment options include marrow stimulation, cell-based treatments, and osteochondral transfer. Minced juvenile allograft cartilage is a novel treatment option that allows for a single stage approach for these lesions. Hypothesis Particulated juvenile allograft cartilage (PJAC) for the treatment of chondral defects of the patella would offer acceptable lesion fill rates, mature over time, and not be associated with any negative biologic effects on the surrounding tissue. Methods A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected data was conducted to identify consecutive patients who were treated with PJAC for a full thickness symptomatic cartilage lesion. Qualitative (fast spin echo) and quantitative (T2 mapping) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative mark. Numerous patient, lesion, and graft specific factors were assessed against MRI scores and percent defect fill of the graft. Graft maturation over time was also assessed. Results Forty-five patients total were included in the study. Average age at the time of surgery was 26.5 years (range 13-45 years), average lesion size was 208 mm 2 (range 4-500 mm 2 ), and average donor age was 49.5 months (range 3-120 months). Sixty percent of the patients were female, while 93% of all patients underwent a concomitant procedure at the time of the index operation. Six-month MRI findings revealed that no patient-, graft-, or donor-specific factors correlated with MR scores, and 82% of the knees demonstrated good to excellent fill. Twelve-month MRI findings revealed that T2 relaxation times of deep graft demonstrated negative correlation with patient age ( P = 0.049) and donor age ( P = 0.006), the integration zone showed a negative correlation with donor age ( P = 0.026). In all, 85% of patients at 12 months displayed good to

  16. Entropy-driven metastable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Peaker, A.R.; Pantelides, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The known metastable defects are usually describable by a configuration coordinate diagram in which two energy minima are separated by a barrier. This diagram does not change with temperature and each configuration is stable over some temperature range. Here we report the observation of a novel metastability: A configuration change occurs spontaneously and abruptly at a critical temperature, giving rise to a discontinuous DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) spectrum. We propose that this phenomenon is a manifestation of entropy variations in the configurational space. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs

  17. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  18. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  19. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E; Crisp, Ryan W; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-10-23

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We utilized atomically thin semiconductor nanoplatelets as a convenient platform for studying, both microscopically and spectroscopically, the development of defects during ligand exchange with the conductive ligands Na 4 SnS 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 Sn 2 S 6 . These defects can be repaired via mild chemical or thermal routes, through the addition of L-type ligands or wet annealing, respectively. This results in a higher-quality, conductive, colloidally stable nanomaterial that may be used as the active film in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. How to operate safely steam generators with multiple tube through-wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernalsteen, P.

    1993-01-01

    For a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type, the Steam Generator (SG) tube bundle represents the major but also the thinnest part of the primary pressure boundary. To the extent that no tube material has yet been identified to be immune to corrosion, defects may initiate in service and easily propagate through wall. While not a desirable feature, a Through Wall Deep (TWD) defect does not necessarily pose a threat to either the structural integrity or leaktightness and this paper shows how SG can (and indeed, do) operate safely and reliably while having many tubes affected by deep and even TWD defects

  1. Study and microscopic characterization of the cadmium telluride deep levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, B.

    1989-05-01

    The spectroscopic methods PICTS, QTS and CTS were developed and perfected to investigate deep level analysis of high resistivity CdTe crystals which were either undoped, or doped with chlorine and copper. Crystals which were grown in space were also investigated. The main characterization of defect levels was determined and different correlations were established between the material's resistivity, chemical residues, dopant concentration and the nuclear radiation detector parameters. Using PICTS and CTS techniques, the generation of defects, under strong gamma-ray irradiation and particle bombardment was also studied. The influence of hydrogen on the main electrical characteristics of CdTe, in particular its ability to passivate the electrical activity of many deep defect and impurity states have been demonstrated. The compensation effects of Cl, Cu and H + are interpreted using the qualitative models based on different possibilities of pairing or triplet formation between the ions of these dopants and those of defects [fr

  2. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  3. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Reconstrucción de canto interno y pared lateral nasal con colgajo zigomático de mejilla Reconstructing soft tissue defects at the medial canthus and sidewalls of the nose with cheek zygomatic flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Abullarade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En la reconstrucción del canto interno palpebral y de la pared lateral nasal es importante la continuidad del color, de la textura y del grosor del tejido que vamos a reemplazar. El colgajo zigomático de mejilla es un colgajo de patrón axial que, cuando se diseña adecuadamente, puede seguir los contornos naturales de la cara, como el pliegue nasolabial y el borde del párpado inferior, logrando un reemplazo casi exacto de la calidad de la piel existente y con una reparación realizada en un solo tiempo quirúrgico.In it's important to keep the continuity of colour, texture and thickness of the tissue in a reconstructed nose. The zigomatic cheek flap is an axial pattern flap that, when is properly designed, can follow the natural existing contour lines such as the nasolabial fold and the lower eyelid border. It gets an almost exactly replacement of matching skin quality, in one surgical stage.

  5. Abnormal photothermal effect of laser radiation on highly defect oxide bronze nanoparticles under the sub-threshold excitation of absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, P.; Kotvanova, M.; Omelchenko, A.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism of abnormal photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on nanoparticles of oxide bronzes has been proposed in this paper. The basic features of the observed effect are: a) sub-threshold absorption of laser radiation by the excitation of donor-like levels formed in the energy gap due to superficial defects of the oxide bronze nano-crystals; b) an interband radiationless transition of energy of excitation on deep triplet levels and c) consequent recombination occurring at the plasmon absorption. K or Na atoms thermally intercalated to the octahedral crystal structure of TiO2 in the wave SHS combustion generate acceptor levels in the gap. The prepared oxide bronzes of the non-stoichiometric composition NaxTiO2 and KxTiO2 were examined by high resolution TEM, and then grinded in a planetary mill with powerful dispersion energy density up to 4000 J/g. This made it possible to obtain nanoparticles about 50 nm with high surface defect density (1017-1019 cm-2 at a depth of 10 nm). High photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on the defect nanocrystals observed after its impregnation into cartilaginous tissue exceeds 7 times in comparison with the intact ones.

  6. Scanning tip measurement for identification of point defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raineri Vito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled iron-silicide nanostructures were prepared by reactive deposition epitaxy of Fe onto silicon. Capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS were used to measure the electrical properties of Au/silicon Schottky junctions. Spreading resistance and scanning probe capacitance microscopy (SCM were applied to measure local electrical properties. Using a preamplifier the sensitivity of DLTS was increased satisfactorily to measure transients of the scanning tip semiconductor junction. In the Fe-deposited area, Fe-related defects dominate the surface layer in about 0.5 μm depth. These defects deteriorated the Schottky junction characteristic. Outside the Fe-deposited area, Fe-related defect concentration was identified in a thin layer near the surface. The defect transients in this area were measured both in macroscopic Schottky junctions and by scanning tip DLTS and were detected by bias modulation frequency dependence in SCM.

  7. Tissue vascularization with endothelial-like mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portalska, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Although most tissues in the human body have self-renewal capabilities, there are defects, e.g. caused by trauma or disease, which are beyond regenerative potential. Tissue engineering offers a possibility to heal such defects without the necessity of finding a suitable graft donor. While a number

  8. Investigation of deep levels in GaInNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfotuh, F.; Balcioglu, A.; Friedman, D.; Geisz, J.; Kurtz, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first Deep-Level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data obtained from measurements carried out on both Schottky barriers and homojunction devices of GaInNAs. The effect of N and In doping on the electrical properties of the GaNInAs devices, which results in structural defects and interface states, has been investigated. Moreover, the location and densities of deep levels related to the presence of N, In, and N+In are identified and correlated with the device performance. The data confirmed that the presence of N alone creates a high density of shallow hole traps related to the N atom and structural defects in the device. Doping by In, if present alone, also creates low-density deep traps (related to the In atom and structural defects) and extremely deep interface states. On the other hand, the co-presence of In and N eliminates both the interface states and levels related to structural defects. However, the device still has a high density of the shallow and deep traps that are responsible for the photocurrent loss in the GaNInAs device, together with the possible short diffusion length. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Investigation of Deep Levels in GaInNas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcioglu, A.; Friedman, D.; Abulfotuh, F.; Geisz, J.; Kurtz, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first Deep-Level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data obtained from measurements carried out on both Schottky barriers and homojunction devices of GaInNAs. The effect of N and In doping on the electrical properties of the GaNInAs devices, which results in structural defects and interface states, has been investigated. Moreover, the location and densities of deep levels related to the presence of N, In, and N+In are identified and correlated with the device performance. The data confirmed that the presence of N alone creates a high density of shallow hole traps related to the N atom and structural defects in the device. Doping by In, if present alone, also creates low-density deep traps (related to the In atom and structural defects) and extremely deep interface states. On the other hand, the co-presence of In and N eliminates both the interface states and levels related to structural defects. However, the device still has a high density of the shallow and deep traps that are responsible for the photocurrent loss in the GaNInAs device, together with the possible short diffusion length

  10. Defect detection module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, R.; Westermann, G.

    1986-01-01

    The ''defect detector'' module is aimed at exceptional event or state recording. Foreseen for voltage presence monitoring on high supply voltage module of drift chambers, its characteristics can also show up the vanishing of supply voltage and take in account transitory fast signals [fr

  11. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Defects in Gulf War Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    alanine. Additional abnormalities included a small fiber neuropathy in 35% (7/20) and cerebral folate defects. Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is...CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit (SUCLA2), Thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial ( TK2 ), Thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP) may harbor mutations or that...syndrome patients have tissue deficiencies in CoQ10. This abnormality is observed in GWS patients. This defect can be treated with high levels of coenzyme

  12. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  13. Admittance spectroscopy or deep level transient spectroscopy: A contrasting juxtaposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Joachim; Venter, Andre

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of defects in semiconductors remains of primary importance. In this paper the effectiveness of two of the most commonly used semiconductor defect spectroscopy techniques, viz. deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) are reviewed. The analysis of defects present in commercially available SiC diodes shows that admittance spectroscopy allows the identification of deep traps with reduced measurement effort compared to deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Besides the N-donor, well-studied intrinsic defects were detected in these diodes. Determination of their activation energy and defect density, using the two techniques, confirm that the sensitivity of AS is comparable to that of DLTS while, due to its well defined peak shape, the spectroscopic resolution is superior. Additionally, admittance spectroscopy can analyze faster emission processes which make the study of shallow defects more practical and even that of shallow dopant levels, possible. A comparative summary for the relevant spectroscopic features of the two capacitance methods are presented.

  14. Density Functional Theory Study on Defect Feature of AsGaGaAs in Gallium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the defect feature of AsGaGaAs defect in gallium arsenide clusters in detail by using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT. Our calculations reveal that the lowest donor level of AsGaGaAs defect on the gallium arsenide crystal surface is 0.85 eV below the conduction band minimum, while the lowest donor level of the AsGaGaAs defect inside the gallium arsenide bulk is 0.83 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, consistent with gallium arsenide EL2 defect level of experimental value (Ec-0.82 eV. This suggests that AsGaGaAs defect is one of the possible gallium arsenide EL2 deep-level defects. Moreover, our results also indicate that the formation energies of internal AsGaGaAs and surface AsGaGaAs defects are predicted to be around 2.36 eV and 5.54 eV, respectively. This implies that formation of AsGaGaAs defect within the crystal is easier than that of surface. Our results offer assistance in discussing the structure of gallium arsenide deep-level defect and its effect on the material.

  15. Electrical Characterisation of electron beam exposure induced Defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danga, Helga T., E-mail: helga.danga@up.ac.za; Auret, Francois D.; Coelho, Sergio M.M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2016-01-01

    The defects introduced in epitaxially grown p-type silicon (Si) during electron beam exposure were electrically characterised using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high resolution Laplace-DLTS. In this process, Si samples were first exposed to the conditions of electron beam deposition (EBD) without metal deposition. This is called electron beam exposure (EBE) herein. After 50 minutes of EBE, nickel (Ni) Schottky contacts were fabricated using the resistive deposition method. The defect level observed using the Ni contacts had an activation energy of H(0.55). This defect has an activation energy similar to that of the I-defect. The defect level is similar to that of the HB4, a boron related defect. DLTS depth profiling revealed that H(0.55) could be detected up to a depth of 0.8 μm below the junction. We found that exposing the samples to EBD conditions without metal deposition introduced a defect which was not introduced by the EBD method. We also observed that the damage caused by EBE extended deeper into the material compared to that caused by EBD.

  16. Reconstruction of soft tissue after complicated calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, E Antti; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M; Koskinen, Seppo K; Tukiainen, Erkki J

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 flap reconstructions were done to cover exposed calcaneal bones in 31 patients. All patients had calcaneal fractures, 19 of which were primarily open. Soft tissue reconstruction for the closed fractures was indicated by a postoperative wound complication. A microvascular flap was used for reconstruction in 21 operations (gracilis, n = 11; anterolateral thigh, n = 5; rectus abdominis, n = 3; and latissimus dorsi, n = 2). A suralis neurocutaneous flap was used in eight, local muscle flaps in three, and local skin flaps in three cases. The mean follow-up time was 14 months (range 3 months-4 years). One suralis flap failed and was replaced by a latissimus dorsi flap. Necrosis of the edges that required revision affected three flaps. Deep infection developed in two patients and delayed wound healing in another four. During the follow-up the soft tissues healed in all patients and there were no signs of calcaneal osteitis. Flaps were considered too bulky in five patients. Soft tissues heal most rapidly with microvascular flaps. In the long term, gracilis muscle covered with free skin grafts gives a good contour to the foot. The suralis flap is reliable and gives a good final aesthetic outcome. Local muscles can be transposed for reconstruction in small defects.

  17. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  18. Fatigue Strength of Titanium Risers - Defect Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalola, Olusegun Tunde

    2001-07-01

    This study is centred on assessment of the fatigue strength of titanium fusion welds for deep-water riser's applications. Deep-water risers are subjected to significant fatigue loading. Relevant fatigue data for titanium fusion welds are very scarce. Hence there is a need for fatigue data and life prediction models for such weldments. The study has covered three topics: Fatigue testing, Fractography and defect assessment, and Fracture Mechanics modelling of fatigue crack growth. Two series of welded grade of titanium consisting of 14 specimens in each series were fatigue tested under constant amplitude loading. Prior to fatigue testing, strain gauge measurements of some specimens was conducted to enable the definition of stress range in the fatigue assessment procedure. The results were compared with finite solid element analysis and related to fatigue stresses in a riser pipe wall. Distribution and geometry of internal and surface defects both in the as-welded and in the post-weld machined conditions were assessed using fractography. This served as a tool to determine the fatigue initiation point in the welds. Fracture mechanics was applied to model fatigue strength of titanium welds with initiation from weld defects. Two different stress intensity factor formulations for embedded eccentrically placed cracks were used for analysis of elliptical cracks with the major axis parallel and close to one of the free surfaces. The methods were combined to give a satisfactory model for crack growth analysis. The model analyses crack growth of elliptical and semi-elliptical cracks in two directions, with updating of the crack geometry. Fatigue strength assessment was conducted using two crack growth models, the Paris-Erdogan relation with no threshold and the Donahue et al. relation with an implied threshold. The model was validated against experimental data, with a discussion on the choice of crack growth model. (author)

  19. Adaptation of a MR imaging protocol into a real-time clinical biometric ultrasound protocol for persons with spinal cord injury at risk for deep tissue injury: A reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Jillian M; Moe, Andrew; Breidahl, William; Bader, Daniel L; Oomens, Cees W J; Lester, Leanne; O'Loughlin, Edmond; Santamaria, Nick; Stacey, Michael C

    2018-02-01

    High strain in soft tissues that overly bony prominences are considered a risk factor for pressure ulcers (PUs) following spinal cord impairment (SCI) and have been computed using Finite Element methods (FEM). The aim of this study was to translate a MRI protocol into ultrasound (US) and determine between-operator reliability of expert sonographers measuring diameter of the inferior curvature of the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the thickness of the overlying soft tissue layers on able-bodied (AB) and SCI using real-time ultrasound. Part 1: Fourteen AB participants with a mean age of 36.7 ± 12.09 years with 7 males and 7 females had their 3 soft tissue layers in loaded and unloaded sitting measured independently by 2 sonographers: tendon/muscle, skin/fat and total soft tissue and the diameter of the IT in its short and long axis. Part 2: Nineteen participants with SCI were screened, three were excluded due to abnormal skin signs, and eight participants (42%) were excluded for abnormal US signs with normal skin. Eight SCI participants with a mean age of 31.6 ± 13.6 years and all male with 4 paraplegics and 4 tetraplegics were measured by the same sonographers for skin, fat, tendon, muscle and total. Skin/fat and tendon/muscle were computed. AB between-operator reliability was good (ICC = 0.81-0.90) for 3 soft tissues layers in unloaded and loaded sitting and poor for both IT short and long axis (ICC = -0.028 and -0.01). SCI between-operator reliability was good in unloaded and loaded for total, muscle, fat, skin/fat, tendon/muscle (ICC = 0.75-0.97) and poor for tendon (ICC = 0.26 unloaded and ICC = -0.71 loaded) and skin (ICC = 0.37 unloaded and ICC = 0.10). A MRI protocol was successfully adapted for a reliable 3 soft tissue layer model and could be used in a 2-D FEM model designed to estimate soft tissue strain as a novel risk factor for the development of a PU. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  1. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be associated with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome . But the cause of most congenital heart defects isn't known. While they can't be prevented, many treatments are available for the defects and related health ...

  2. Antigravity from a spacetime defect

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Queiruga, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We argue that there may exist spacetime defects embedded in Minkowski spacetime, which have negative active gravitational mass. One such spacetime defect then repels a test particle, corresponding to what may be called "antigravity."

  3. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  4. Alternatives to Autograft Evaluated in a Rabbit Segmental Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    mesenchymal stem cells for off-the-shelf bone tissue engineering application. Biomaterials 33(9):2656–2672. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.12.025 14...segmental bone defects in the rabbit with vascularized tissue engineered bone . Biomaterials 31(6):1171– 1179. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.10.043 International Orthopaedics (SICOT) ...ORIGINAL PAPER Alternatives to autograft evaluated in a rabbit segmental bone defect Jennifer S. McDaniel1 & Marcello Pilia1 & Vivek Raut2 & Jeffrey

  5. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...... the trapped state iri the defect. The annihilation characteristics (e.g., the lifetime of the positron) can be measured and provide information about the nature of the defect (e.g., size, density, morphology). The technique is sensitive to both defect size (in the range from monovacancies up to cavities...

  6. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Congenital heart defects and ... in congenital heart defects. You have a family history of congenital heart ... syndrome or VCF. After birth Your baby may be tested for CCHD as ...

  7. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  8. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  9. Immobile defects in ferroelastic walls: Wall nucleation at defect sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Salje, E. K. H.; Ding, X.; Sun, J.

    2018-02-01

    Randomly distributed, static defects are enriched in ferroelastic domain walls. The relative concentration of defects in walls, Nd, follows a power law distribution as a function of the total defect concentration C: N d ˜ C α with α = 0.4 . The enrichment Nd/C ranges from ˜50 times when C = 10 ppm to ˜3 times when C = 1000 ppm. The resulting enrichment is due to nucleation at defect sites as observed in large scale MD simulations. The dynamics of domain nucleation and switching is dependent on the defect concentration. Their energy distribution follows the power law with exponents during yield between ɛ ˜ 1.82 and 2.0 when the defect concentration increases. The power law exponent is ɛ ≈ 2.7 in the plastic regime, independent of the defect concentration.

  10. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  11. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  12. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  13. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  14. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  15. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  16. Surface defects and chiral algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Shao, Shu-Heng [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-26

    We investigate superconformal surface defects in four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theories. Each such defect gives rise to a module of the associated chiral algebra and the surface defect Schur index is the character of this module. Various natural chiral algebra operations such as Drinfeld-Sokolov reduction and spectral flow can be interpreted as constructions involving four-dimensional surface defects. We compute the index of these defects in the free hypermultiplet theory and Argyres-Douglas theories, using both infrared techniques involving BPS states, as well as renormalization group flows onto Higgs branches. In each case we find perfect agreement with the predicted characters.

  17. Investigation of hot cracking in deep penetration electron beam welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorvaldson, W.G.

    1978-06-10

    A defect in a deep penetration electron beam weld of 304L stainless steel to 21-6-9 stainless steel has been identified as a centerline hot crack. The study discussed in this report was made to define and to eliminate the cause of cracking.

  18. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  19. International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (16th) Held in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania on 22-26 July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-30

    defects in crystalline silicon B.G. Svensson and M.O. Aboelfotoh PL .0 Interaction of a copper-induced defect with shallow acceptors and deep centers in...Electronics P.O. Box 1298, S-164 28 Kista-Stockholm, Sweden M.O. Aboelfotoh IBM Research Division, TJ. Watson Research Center P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights

  20. Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeper, Mark J.; Hages, Charles J.; Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2017-10-02

    Admittance spectroscopy is a useful tool used to study defects in semiconductor materials. However, metastable defect responses in non-ideal semiconductors can greatly impact the measurement and therefore the interpretation of results. Here, admittance spectroscopy was performed on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 where metastable defect response is illustrated due to the trapping of injected carriers into a deep defect state. To investigate the metastable response, admittance measurements were performed under electrically and optically relaxed conditions in comparison to a device following a low level carrier-injection pretreatment. The relaxed measurement demonstrates a single capacitance signature while two capacitance signatures are observed for the device measured following carrier-injection. The deeper level signature, typically reported for kesterites, is activated by charge trapping following carrier injection. Both signatures are attributed to bulk level defects. The significant metastable response observed on kesterites due to charge trapping obscures accurate interpretation of defect levels from admittance spectroscopy and indicates that great care must be taken when performing and interpreting this measurement on non-ideal devices.

  1. Defect phase diagram for doping of Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    For the case of n-type doping of β-Ga2O3 by group 14 dopants (C, Si, Ge, Sn), a defect phase diagram is constructed from defect equilibria calculated over a range of temperatures (T), O partial pressures (pO2), and dopant concentrations. The underlying defect levels and formation energies are determined from first-principles supercell calculations with GW bandgap corrections. Only Si is found to be a truly shallow donor, C is a deep DX-like (lattice relaxed donor) center, and Ge and Sn have defect levels close to the conduction band minimum. The thermodynamic modeling includes the effect of association of dopant-defect pairs and complexes, which causes the net doping to decline when exceeding a certain optimal dopant concentration. The optimal doping levels are surprisingly low, between about 0.01% and 1% of cation substitution, depending on the (T, pO2) conditions. Considering further the stability constraints due to sublimation of molecular Ga2O, specific predictions of optimized pO2 and Si dopant concentrations are given. The incomplete passivation of dopant-defect complexes in β-Ga2O3 suggests a design rule for metastable doping above the solubility limit.

  2. Defect phase diagram for doping of Ga2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lany

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For the case of n-type doping of β-Ga2O3 by group 14 dopants (C, Si, Ge, Sn, a defect phase diagram is constructed from defect equilibria calculated over a range of temperatures (T, O partial pressures (pO2, and dopant concentrations. The underlying defect levels and formation energies are determined from first-principles supercell calculations with GW bandgap corrections. Only Si is found to be a truly shallow donor, C is a deep DX-like (lattice relaxed donor center, and Ge and Sn have defect levels close to the conduction band minimum. The thermodynamic modeling includes the effect of association of dopant-defect pairs and complexes, which causes the net doping to decline when exceeding a certain optimal dopant concentration. The optimal doping levels are surprisingly low, between about 0.01% and 1% of cation substitution, depending on the (T, pO2 conditions. Considering further the stability constraints due to sublimation of molecular Ga2O, specific predictions of optimized pO2 and Si dopant concentrations are given. The incomplete passivation of dopant-defect complexes in β-Ga2O3 suggests a design rule for metastable doping above the solubility limit.

  3. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  4. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  5. microRNA expression profiling in fetal single ventricle malformation identified by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Bin; Han, Shu-Ping; Bai, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Chun; Pan, Ya; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many biological processes, particularly cardiac growth and development, although the specific miRNA expression profile associated with this process remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to characterize the cellular microRNA profile involved in the development of congenital heart malformation, through the investigation of single ventricle (SV) defects. Comprehensive miRNA profiling in human fetal SV cardiac tissue was performed by deep sequencing. Differential expression of 48 miRNAs was revealed by sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD) analysis. Of these, 38 were down-regulated and 10 were up-regulated in differentiated SV cardiac tissue, compared to control cardiac tissue. This was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Predicted target genes of the 48 differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed by gene ontology and categorized according to cellular process, regulation of biological process and metabolic process. Pathway-Express analysis identified the WNT and mTOR signaling pathways as the most significant processes putatively affected by the differential expression of these miRNAs. The candidate genes involved in cardiac development were identified as potential targets for these differentially expressed microRNAs and the collaborative network of microRNAs and cardiac development related-mRNAs was constructed. These data provide the basis for future investigation of the mechanism of the occurrence and development of fetal SV malformations.

  6. Software for roof defects recognition on aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, D.; Naumov, A.; Dolzhenko, A.; Patrakova, E.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents information on software for roof defects recognition on aerial photographs, made with air drones. An areal image segmentation mechanism is described. It allows detecting roof defects – unsmoothness that causes water stagnation after rain. It is shown that HSV-transformation approach allows quick detection of stagnation areas, their size and perimeters, but is sensitive to shadows and changes of the roofing-types. Deep Fully Convolutional Network software solution eliminates this drawback. The tested data set consists of the roofing photos with defects and binary masks for them. FCN approach gave acceptable results of image segmentation in Dice metric average value. This software can be used in inspection automation of roof conditions in the production sector and housing and utilities infrastructure.

  7. Hydrogen interaction with radiation defects in p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Feklisova, O V; Yakimov, E B; Weber, J

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen interaction with radiation defects in p-type silicon has been investigated by deep-level non-stationary spectroscopy. Hydrogen is introduced into the high-energy electron-irradiated crystals under chemical etching in acid solutions at room temperature followed by the reverse-bias annealing at 380 K. It is observed that passivation of the irradiation-induced defects is accompanied by formation of novel electrically active defects with hydrogen-related profiles. Effect of hydrogen on the electrical activity of the C sub s C sub i complexes is shown for the first time. Based on the spatial distribution and passivation kinetics, possible nature of the novel complexes is analyzed. The radii for hydrogen capture by vacancies, K-centers, C sub s C sub i centers and the novel complexes are determined

  8. Diffusive, Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Defects in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Wagner, F E

    2002-01-01

    Electronic properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to defects and impurities that have localized electronic states with energy levels in the band gap of the semiconductor. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), or Hall effect, that are able to detect and characterize band gap states do not reveal direct information about their microscopic origin. To overcome this chemical "blindness", the present approach is to use radioactive isotopes as a tracer. Moreover, the recoil energies involved in $\\beta$ and $\\gamma$-decays can be used to create intrinsic isolated point defects (interstitials, vacancies) in a controlled way. A microscopic insight into the structure and the thermodynamic properties of complexes formed by interacting defects can be gained by detecting the hyperfine interaction between the nuclear moments of radioactive dopants and the electromagnetic fields present at the site of the radioactive nucleus. The understanding and the co...

  9. Defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Ibrahim Ahmad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 kWatt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with ThermofitTMPro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔΤ m ax and the time of its appearance, τ m ax (ΔΤ). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔΤ m ax), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defects are at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (Author)

  10. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  11. [Study of collagen and elastic fibers of connective tissue in patients with and without primary inguinal hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórquez, Pablo; Garrido, Luis; Manterola, Carlos; Peña, Patricio; Schlageter, Carol; Orellana, Juan José; Ulloa, Hugo; Peña, Juan Luis

    2003-11-01

    There are few studies looking for collagen matrix defects in patients with inguinal bernia. To study the skin connective tissue in patients with and without inguinal bernia. Skin from the surgical wound was obtained from 23 patients with and 23 patients without inguinal bernia. The samples were processed for conventional light microscopy. Collagen fibers were stained with Van Giesson and elastic fibers with Weigert stain. Patients without hernia had compact collagen tracts homogeneously distributed towards the deep dermis. In contrast, patients with hernia had zones in the dermis with thinner and disaggregated collagen tracts. Connective tissue had a lax aspect in these patients. Collagen fiber density was 52% lower in patients with hernia, compared to subjects without hernia. No differences in elastic fiber density or distribution was observed between groups. Patients with inguinal bernia have alterations in skin collagen fiber quality and density.

  12. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  13. Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP): a surgical treatment option for severe hidradenitis suppurativa Hurley stage II/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, J L; Spoo, J R; Leeman, F W J; Jonkman, M F; Horváth, B

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is the only curative treatment for removal of the persistent sinus tracts in the skin that are characteristic of severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Complete resection of the affected tissue by wide excision is currently regarded as the preferred surgical technique in these cases. However, relatively large amounts of healthy tissue are removed with this method and suitable skin-tissue-saving techniques aiming at creating less-extensive surgical defects are therefore needed in severe HS. We describe a skin-tissue-saving surgical technique for HS Hurley stage II-III disease: the Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP) procedure. In contrast to wide excisions that generally reach into the deep subcutaneous fat, the fat is maximally spared with the STEEP procedure by performing successive tangential excisions of lesional tissue until the epithelialized bottom of the sinus tracts has been reached. From here, secondary intention healing can occur. In addition, fibrotic tissue is completely removed in the same manner as this also serves as a source of recurrence. This tissue-sparing technique results in low recurrence rates, high patient satisfaction with relatively short healing times and favourable cosmetic outcomes without contractures. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  15. Diagnostic assessment of deep learning algorithms for detection of lymph node metastases in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul Johannes; Van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; Litjens, Geert; van der Laak, Jeroen A.W.M.; Hermsen, Meyke; Manson, Quirine F.; Balkenhol, Maschenka; Geessink, Oscar; Stathonikos, Nikolaos; Van Dijk, Marcory C.R.F.; Bult, Peter; Beca, Francisco; Beck, Andrew H.; Wang, Dayong; Khosla, Aditya; Gargeya, Rishab; Irshad, Humayun; Zhong, Aoxiao; Dou, Qi; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Hao; Lin, Huang Jing; Heng, Pheng Ann; Haß, Christian; Bruni, Elia; Wong, Quincy; Halici, Ugur; Öner, Mustafa Ümit; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Berseth, Matt; Khvatkov, Vitali; Vylegzhanin, Alexei; Kraus, Oren; Shaban, Muhammad; Rajpoot, Nasir; Awan, Ruqayya; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Qaiser, Talha; Tsang, Yee Wah; Tellez, David; Annuscheit, Jonas; Hufnagl, Peter; Valkonen, Mira; Kartasalo, Kimmo; Latonen, Leena; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Liimatainen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology imagescan potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph

  16. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bon...

  17. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haiping; Liu, Yi; Guo, Jing; Wu, Huiling; Wang, Jingxiao; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allogra...

  18. Optical coherence tomography use in the diagnosis of enamel defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Khalifa; Melita, Lucia N.; Strange, Adam P.; Festy, Frederic; Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Cook, Richard; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects the permanent incisors and molars, whose undermineralized matrix is evidenced by lesions ranging from white to yellow/brown opacities to crumbling enamel lesions incapable of withstanding normal occlusal forces and function. Diagnosing the condition involves clinical and radiographic examination of these teeth, with known limitations in determining the depth extent of the enamel defects in particular. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging hard and soft tissue imaging technique, which was investigated as a new potential diagnostic method in dentistry. A comparison between the diagnostic potential of the conventional methods and OCT was conducted. Compared to conventional imaging methods, OCT gave more information on the structure of the enamel defects as well as the depth extent of the defects into the enamel structure. Different types of enamel defects were compared, each type presenting a unique identifiable pattern when imaged using OCT. Additionally, advanced methods of OCT image analysis including backscattered light intensity profile analysis and enface reconstruction were performed. Both methods confirmed the potential of OCT in enamel defects diagnosis. In conclusion, OCT imaging enabled the identification of the type of enamel defect and the determination of the extent of the enamel defects in MIH with the advantage of being a radiation free diagnostic technique.

  19. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  1. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  2. Computer simulation of defect cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-04-01

    In order to elucidate individual element process of various defects and defect clusters of used materials under irradiation environments, interatomic potential with reliability was investigated. And for comparison with experimental results, it is often required to adopt the temperature effect and to investigate in details mechanism of one dimensional motion of micro conversion loop and so forth using the molecular dynamic (MD) method. Furthermore, temperature effect is also supposed for stable structure of defects and defect clusters, and many problems relating to alloy element are also remained. And, simulation on photon life at the defects and defect clusters thought to be important under comparison with equipment can also be supposed an improvement of effectiveness due to relation to theses products. In this paper, some topics in such flow was extracted to explain them. In particular, future important problems will be potential preparation of alloy, structure, dynamic behavior and limited temperature of intralattice atomic cluster. (G.K.)

  3. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  4. Tissue-Engineered Solutions in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Himdani, Sarah; Jessop, Zita M; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Combellack, Emman; Ibrahim, Amel; Doak, Shareen H; Hart, Andrew M; Archer, Charles W; Thornton, Catherine A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind. The Medical Research Council states that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering "holds the promise of revolutionizing patient care in the twenty-first century." The UK government highlighted regenerative medicine as one of the key eight great technologies in their industrial strategy worthy of significant investment. The long-term aim of successful biomanufacture to repair composite defects depends on interdisciplinary collaboration between cell biologists, material scientists, engineers, and associated medical specialties; however currently, there is a current lack of coordination in the field as a whole. Barriers to translation are deep rooted at the basic science level, manifested by a lack of consensus on the ideal cell source, scaffold, molecular cues, and environment and manufacturing strategy. There is also insufficient understanding of the long-term safety and durability of tissue-engineered constructs. This review aims to highlight that individualized approaches to the field are not adequate, and research collaboratives will be essential to bring together differing areas of expertise to expedite future clinical translation. The use of tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery would result in a paradigm shift but it is important to maintain realistic expectations. It is generally accepted that it takes 20-30 years from the start of basic science research to clinical utility

  5. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  6. Defects in new protective aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Upon careful examination, several defects have been detected in new protective aprons. The nature of the defects is identified and described. Although the occurrence of such defects has not exceeded 5%, they are significant enough to warrant return of the lead apron to the supplier. It is recommended that the integrity of all new protective aprons be verified upon receipt as well as at yearly intervals

  7. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  8. Obturator with soft liner in the management of hard palate defect: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maxillary defects are created following surgical treatment of patients with congenital defects, trauma, or neoplasm. Oral cancer is one of the more common malignanciesif detected lately massive tissues will be excised surgically and correction will be challenging. One of the treatment strategies is obturator, the retention of ...

  9. Temporalis myofascial repair of traumatic defects of the anterior fossa. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, R P; Shagets, F W; de los Reyes, R A

    1986-06-01

    Bilateral temporalis myofascial flaps in continuity with frontal periosteum can be used in repairing extensive dural and bone defects of the anterior cranial fossa floor. The technique of preserving and using this flap is described and offers an alternative to the use of frontal pericranial tissue for repair of anterior dural defects.

  10. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  11. Biomaterials with antibacterial and osteoinductive properties to repair infected bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Liu, Y.; Guo, J.; Wu, H.; Wang, J.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity.

  12. Glabrous skin reconstruction of palmar/plantar defects: a case for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR LEGBO

    Methods: A prospective descriptive study of consecutive patients with benign soft tissue palmar/plantar defects .... cannot be closed by direct suturing. In the authors' view ... splintage ) did not lead to joint stiffness since majority were children ...

  13. Phenylalanine kinetics in human adipose tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Coppack, S W; Persson, M; Miles, J M

    1996-01-01

    Very little is known about the regulation of protein metabolism in adipose tissue. In this study systemic, adipose tissue, and forearm phenylalanine kinetics were determined in healthy postabsorptive volunteers before and during a 2-h glucose infusion (7 mg.kg-1.min-1). [3H]Phenylalanine was infused and blood was sampled from a radial artery, a subcutaneous abdominal vein, and a deep forearm vein. Adipose tissue and forearm blood flow were measured with 133Xe and plethysmography, respectively...

  14. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  15. Defect Characterization of Pyroelectric Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeble, David

    2002-01-01

    Two methods for identify point defects applicable to the study of technologically relevant pyroelectric oxide materials have been investigated, namely Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS...

  16. Who named the quantum defect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.P.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments

  17. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, P.C.; Ritschi, P.; Kramer, J.; Imhof, H.; Karnel, F.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-two patients (107 fibrous metaphyseal defects [FMDs]) were investigated with standard radiography and MR imaging (N = 15). Twenty-two of these were followed up sequentially up to 10 years (mean, 7.3 years). Histologic studies proved that FMDs originate at the site of insertion of a tendon in the perichondrium of the epiphyseal cartilage. After normal bone growth is regained, all FMDs were found to move diaphysically, following a straight line parallel to the long axis of the FMDs. This line pointed to the insertion of the tendon originally involved, a fact that was proved with MR imaging. Four characteristic stages were found to define a typical radiomorphologic course of an FMD

  18. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect

  19. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10 35 cm -2 s -1 . In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to Φ eq =10 16 cm -2 . The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E C -0.460 eV and E205a at E C -0.395 eV where E C is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V 3 ) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V 3 defect exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen

  20. Skull Defects in Finite Element Head Models for Source Reconstruction from Magnetoencephalography Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Güllmar, Daniel; Flemming, Lars; Grayden, David B.; Cook, Mark J.; Wolters, Carsten H.; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals are influenced by skull defects. However, there is a lack of evidence of this influence during source reconstruction. Our objectives are to characterize errors in source reconstruction from MEG signals due to ignoring skull defects and to assess the ability of an exact finite element head model to eliminate such errors. A detailed finite element model of the head of a rabbit used in a physical experiment was constructed from magnetic resonance and co-registered computer tomography imaging that differentiated nine tissue types. Sources of the MEG measurements above intact skull and above skull defects respectively were reconstructed using a finite element model with the intact skull and one incorporating the skull defects. The forward simulation of the MEG signals reproduced the experimentally observed characteristic magnitude and topography changes due to skull defects. Sources reconstructed from measured MEG signals above intact skull matched the known physical locations and orientations. Ignoring skull defects in the head model during reconstruction displaced sources under a skull defect away from that defect. Sources next to a defect were reoriented. When skull defects, with their physical conductivity, were incorporated in the head model, the location and orientation errors were mostly eliminated. The conductivity of the skull defect material non-uniformly modulated the influence on MEG signals. We propose concrete guidelines for taking into account conducting skull defects during MEG coil placement and modeling. Exact finite element head models can improve localization of brain function, specifically after surgery. PMID:27092044

  1. Endoscopic Approach for Tissue Expansion for Different Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: The use of tissue expanders in plastic and reconstruction surgery is now well established for large defects in adults & children. Tissue expansion is one of the reconstructive surgeon's alternatives in providing optimal tissue replacement when skin shortage is a major problem. Predesigned plan about ...

  2. Fracture assessment of a main reactor coolant pump in a BWR with encountered defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B [Swedish Plant Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents a case-study fracture assessment in BWR type reactor components. A cast stainless steel presenting defects due to thermal is studied. The stress analysis performed by aid of a finite element technique shows that a Leak Before Break situation could be expected. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the cross section of the pump where the defect area was located can withstand very deep cracks before the risk of failure becomes unacceptable. (TEC).

  3. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm 3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    Deep Vein Thrombosis: Risk Factors and Prevention in Surgical Patients. Deep Vein ... preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. ... the elderly.3,4 It is very rare before the age ... depends on the risk level; therefore an .... but also in the post-operative period. ... is continuing uncertainty regarding.

  5. Chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implants improve hyaline cartilage repair in ovine microfracture defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Hurtig, Mark; Rossomacha, Evgeny; Sun, Jun; Chevrier, Anik; Shive, Matthew S; Buschmann, Michael D

    2005-12-01

    one hour postoperatively, chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clots showed increased adhesion to the walls of the defects as compared with the blood clots in the untreated microfracture defects. After histological processing, all blood clots in the control microfracture defects had been lost, whereas chitosanglycerol phosphate/blood clot adhered to and was partly retained on the surfaces of the defect. At six months, defects that had been treated with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood were filled with significantly more hyaline repair tissue (p cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone by increasing the amount of tissue and improving its biochemical composition and cellular organization.

  6. Point defect states in Sb-doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu; Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Defect states in n-type Sb-doped germanium were investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Cobalt-60 gamma rays were used to generate isolated vacancies and interstitials which diffuse and react with impurities in the material to form four defect states (E{sub 37}, E{sub 30}, E{sub 22}, and E{sub 21}) in the upper half of the bandgap. Irradiations at 77 K and 300 K as well as isothermal anneals were performed to characterize the relationships between the four observable defects. E{sub 37} is assigned to the Sb donor-vacancy associate (E-center) and is the only vacancy containing defect giving an estimate of 2 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} Mrad{sup −1} for the uncorrelated vacancy-interstitial pair introduction rate. The remaining three defect states are interstitial associates and transform among one another. Conversion ratios between E{sub 22}, E{sub 21}, and E{sub 30} indicate that E{sub 22} likely contains two interstitials.

  7. Recombination via point defects and their complexes in solar silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaker, A.R.; Markevich, V.P.; Hamilton, B. [Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Parada, G.; Dudas, A.; Pap, A. [Semilab, 2 Prielle Kornelia Str, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Don, E. [Semimetrics, PO Box 36, Kings Langley, Herts WD4 9WB (United Kingdom); Lim, B.; Schmidt, J. [Institute for Solar Energy Research (ISFH) Hamlen, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Yu, L.; Yoon, Y.; Rozgonyi, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Electronic grade Czochralski and float zone silicon in the as grown state have a very low concentration of recombination generation centers (typically <10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}). Consequently, in integrated circuit technologies using such material, electrically active inadvertent impurities and structural defects are rarely detectable. The quest for cheap photovoltaic cells has led to the use of less pure silicon, multi-crystalline material, and low cost processing for solar applications. Cells made in this way have significant extrinsic recombination mechanisms. In this paper we review recombination involving defects and impurities in single crystal and in multi-crystalline solar silicon. Our main techniques for this work are recombination lifetime mapping measurements using microwave detected photoconductivity decay and variants of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In particular, we use Laplace DLTS to distinguish between isolated point defects, small precipitate complexes and decorated extended defects. We compare the behavior of some common metallic contaminants in solar silicon in relation to their effect on carrier lifetime and cell efficiency. Finally, we consider the role of hydrogen passivation in relation to transition metal contaminants, grain boundaries and dislocations. We conclude that recombination via point defects can be significant but in most multi-crystalline material the dominant recombination path is via decorated dislocation clusters within grains with little contribution to the overall recombination from grain boundaries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Deep Echo State Network (DeepESN): A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The study of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and, in particular, of deep Reservoir Computing (RC) is gaining an increasing research attention in the neural networks community. The recently introduced deep Echo State Network (deepESN) model opened the way to an extremely efficient approach for designing deep neural networks for temporal data. At the same time, the study of deepESNs allowed to shed light on the intrinsic properties of state dynamics developed by hierarchical compositions ...

  9. Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong; Suk, Heung-Il

    2017-06-21

    This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications. We introduce the fundamentals of deep learning methods and review their successes in image registration, detection of anatomical and cellular structures, tissue segmentation, computer-aided disease diagnosis and prognosis, and so on. We conclude by discussing research issues and suggesting future directions for further improvement.

  10. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  11. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  12. Neutron diffraction and lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    1974-01-01

    Study on lattice defects by neutron diffraction technique is described. Wave length of neutron wave is longer than that of X-ray, and absorption cross-section is small. Number of defects observed by ESR is up to several defects, and the number studied with electron microscopes is more than 100. Information obtained by neutron diffraction concerns the number of defects between these two ranges. For practical analysis, several probable models are selected from the data of ESR or electron microscopes, and most probable one is determined by calculation. Then, defect concentration is obtained from scattering cross section. It is possible to measure elastic scattering exclusively by neutron diffraction. Minimum detectable concentration estimated is about 0.5% and 10 20 - 10 21 defects per unit volume. A chopper and a time of flight system are used as a measuring system. Cold neutrons are obtained from the neutron sources inserted into reactors. Examples of measurements by using similar equipments to PTNS-I system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. Interstitial concentration in the graphite irradiated by fast neutrons is shown. Defects in irradiated MgO were also investigated by measuring scattering cross section. Study of defects in Ge was made by measuring total cross section, and model analysis was performed in comparison with various models. (Kato, T.)

  13. Lectures on cosmic topological defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachaspati, T [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Colaba, Mumbai (India) and Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures review certain topological defects and aspects of their cosmology. Unconventional material includes brief descriptions of electroweak defects, the structure of domain walls in non-Abelian theories, and the spectrum of magnetic monopoles in SU(5) Grand Unified theory. (author)

  14. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  15. Toward Intelligent Software Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2011-01-01

    Source code level software defect detection has gone from state of the art to a software engineering best practice. Automated code analysis tools streamline many of the aspects of formal code inspections but have the drawback of being difficult to construct and either prone to false positives or severely limited in the set of defects that can be detected. Machine learning technology provides the promise of learning software defects by example, easing construction of detectors and broadening the range of defects that can be found. Pinpointing software defects with the same level of granularity as prominent source code analysis tools distinguishes this research from past efforts, which focused on analyzing software engineering metrics data with granularity limited to that of a particular function rather than a line of code.

  16. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  17. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the path integrals can be introduced without any reference to the material behavior. The method is based on the definition in a continuous medium of a set of vectors and couples having the dimension of a force or a moment. More precisely, definitions are given of volume defect forces, surface defect forces, volume defect couples, and surface defect couples. This is done with the help of the stress working variation of a particule moving through the solid. The most important result is: the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume V is the J integral on the surface surrounding V and the moment resultant is the L integral. So these integrals are defined without any assumption on the material constitutive equation. Another result is the material form of the virtual work principle - defect forces are acting like conventional forces in the conventional principles of virtual work. This lead to the introduction of the energy momentum tensor and of the associated couple stress. Application of this method is made to fracture mechanics in studying the defect forces distribution around a crack [fr

  18. Photoluminescence as a tool for characterizing point defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most powerful tools used to study optically-active point defects in semiconductors, especially in wide-bandgap materials. Gallium nitride (GaN) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have attracted considerable attention in the last two decades due to their prospects in optoelectronics applications, including blue and ultraviolet light-emitting devices. However, in spite of many years of extensive studies and a great number of publications on photoluminescence from GaN and ZnO, only a few defect-related luminescence bands are reliably identified. Among them are the Zn-related blue band in GaN, Cu-related green band and Li-related orange band in ZnO. Numerous suggestions for the identification of other luminescence bands, such as the yellow band in GaN, or green and yellow bands in ZnO, do not stand up under scrutiny. In these conditions, it is important to classify the defect-related luminescence bands and find their unique characteristics. In this presentation, we will review the origin of the major luminescence bands in GaN and ZnO. Through simulations of the temperature and excitation intensity dependences of photoluminescence and by employing phenomenological models we are able to obtain important characteristics of point defects such as carrier capture cross-sections for defects, concentrations of defects, and their charge states. These models are also used to find the absolute internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence and obtain information about nonradiative defects. Results from photoluminescence measurements will be compared with results of the first-principle calculations, as well as with the experimental data obtained by other techniques such as positron annihilation spectroscopy, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  19. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We belie